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CALIFORNIA.

The following; article, in consequence of its length, and the late hour at which we re- ceived our files, we were obliged to omit from.our last number. We doubt not it will be read with deep interest by those who are on the qui vive for the golden region :

THE CAMFOBNIAN GOLD FINDEHS_Tho ac- counts continue to increase in interest. Tljo New York Herald introduces a highly interesting letter from a correspondent at Monterey. Califor- nia, with tho following mysterious paragraph :_ " We havo also received a privato and confiden- tial lotterwhich contains intolligencoso astounding concerning the gold regions that w o forb« ar gi ving it to tho public at this time lest they should not credit it, und might only laugh at us, for our pains, and accuse us of attempting to hoax and deceive the public." The Herald then goes on to declaro that there wrro strong reasons for be- lieving that Governor Mason and all his officers, men, mules, and waggons, were engaged digging on the banks of tho Sacramento river. Colonel Stevenson had also disbanded his regiment, and gone on tho like errand. This officer is said to have collected upwards of 1,000,009 dollars north

of gold dust. Captain Marcy. son of tin-United States' Secretary of War, was engaged in the samo pursuit. The correspondent's lettor, which is dated Monterey, Nov. 10, is highly interesting : we therefore give it catiro :-" Wo can now call oursolvcs citizens of tho United States. We have now only to go by law, as wo formorly went by custom, that is, when Congress gives us a govern- ment and code. Tho old ibrign residents of Cali- fornia havo done very well ten or twenty yeors without law, and oare but very little whither Congress pays early or lato attention to the sub- ject. Those who have immigrated from tho At- lantic States within the last three or four years dcom the subject an important one ; I only call it difficult. The carrying out a codo of laws, under existing circumstances, is far from being an easy task. The general Government may appoint governors, secretaries, and nttior publio func- tionaries: and judges, marshnls, collectors, &c, may accept offices with salaries of 3000 dollars, or <I000 dollars per annum ; but how they are to obtain their petty officers, at half those sums, re- main to to be seen. The pay of a member of Congress will be accepted hero by those alono who do not know enough to better themselves. Me chanies can now get 10 dollars to 10 dollars per day; labourers on the wharfs or elsewhere, 5 dollars to 10 dollars; clerks and storekeepers, 1000 to 3000 dollars per annum ; some engage to koop store during their pleasure at 8 dollars per day, or lib. or I-Hb. of gold per month ; cooks and stewards, 00 dollars to 100 dollars per month In faot, labour of every description commands ex- orbitant prices. My previous information to you 1 merely forwarded to your offico to opon the way to tho tuture belief of your many readers I had not much expectation of being believed. The idea of mountains of quicksilver only wanting the ingenuity of man to make them pour forth as a stream-of rivers, whoso bottoms and banks are of gold, is rather too much to play upon tho credulity of New Yorkers or Yankees. I suppose .my story passed as an enlarged edition of tho Atablan AVo/iís, improved and adapted to Cali- fornia. " Whether you or your readors took the talc for fiction or truth I know not. _ Your last paper that has reached us is of April. This I know ; the Sandwich Island*, Oregon, and Lower California aro fast parting with tlipir inhabitants, all bound for this coast, and thence to the great 'placer' of the Sacramento valley, where the digging and washing of one man that does not produce 100 troy ounces of gold, from the size of a half spangle to one pound in a month, set the digger to 'prospecting,' that is looking for better grounds. Your ' Paisano' can point out many aman «ho has, from 15 to 20 days in succession, bagged up five to ton ounces of gold a day. Our placer, or gold region, now extends over 300 or 400 miles of country, embracing the creeks and branches on the east side of tho river Sacramento and one side ot tho San Joaquín. In my travels I have, when resting under a tree, and ¡crazing my horse, seen pieces of pure gold taken ironi the crevices of tho rocks or slate where wo were stopping. On one occasion, nooning or refreshing on tho side of a stream entirely unknown to diggers or 'prospec- tors,' or rather, if known, not attended to, one of my companions, in rolling in the sand, said, ' Uivo me a tin pan ; why should we not bo cooking in gold sands?' He took a pan, filled it with sand-washed it out, and produced in five minutes two or three dollars' worth of gold, merely saying, as he threw both pan and gold on the sand, ' I thought so.' Perhaps it is fair that your readers should learn, thathowover plenty tho Sacramento valley may afford gold, the obtaining ot it has its disadvantages. From tho 1st of July to tho 1st of October, more or less, ono half of the pooplo will havo fever nnd ague, or intermittent tevor. In the winter, it is too cold to work in the water. Somo work in thu sand by washing from the sur-

face in a wooden bowl, or tin pan ; some gougo it ' out from the rocks, or slate ; the more lazy ones j roll about and pick up the large pieces, leaving

i the small gold for the next emigration. 'J ho ox- j

tent of tho gold region on the San Joaquín and Sacramento rivers extends a distance of SOO milos in length by 100 in width. It embraces not only gold but quantitiesof quicksilver in almost general

abundance. It is estimated that a small popula- | tion actively engaged in mining operations in that region could export 100,000,000 dollars in gold every year, and that an increased population might increase that amount to 300,000.000 dol- lar» annually. You may believe mo w hen I say thai tor Some timo lu oo.no CnlM'<"-nia nlll n«pprt yearly nearly or quite 500,000 ounces of gold, 22 to 24 carats fine ; some pieces of that will weigh 16lb, very many 17lb. Many men who began last June to dig gold with a capital of 50 dollars, can now show 5000 dollars to 15,000 dollars. I saw a man to day making purchases of dry goods, &c, for his family, lay on the counter a bag made of rawhide, well sewed up, containing 100 ounces. I observed, that is a good way to pack gold   dust.' He innocently replied, 'all the bags I brought down are that way ; I like the size ! Five such bags in New York would bring nearly 10,000 dollars. This man left his family last August. Three months' digging and washing, producing four or five bags, of 100 ounces each, is better than being mate of a vessel at 40 dollars per month, as the man formerly was. His companion,   a Mexican, who camped and worked with him, only had two or three cowhide bags of gold. In this tough, but true, golden tale, you must not   imagine that all men are equally successful. There aro some who have dono better ; even to 40t)0dollarsin a month; many 1000 dollars during the summer ; and othcia, who refused to join a company of gold washeis who had a cheap made machine, and receive one ounce por day, that re- turned to the settlements with not a vest pocket- ful of gold. Some left with only sufficient to purchase a horso and saddle, and pay tho physician bi\ ounces ol' gold for one ounce ot quinine, calo- mel andj.ilapin propoition. An ounce of gold for advice given, six ounces a visit, brings the (ever and ague to bo rallier an expeusivo compa- nion. A ' well' mun has his pi oporlionate heavy expenses also, to reduce his piles of bugs of gold; Dry beef in tho settlements at 4 cents per lb., of, tho Placer, f dollar to 2 dollars per lb. ; salt beef and pork, 50 dollars to K'O dollars per barrel; flour, 30 dollars to 75 dollars per barrel ; coffee, sugar, and rico,'50 cents to 1 dollar per lb. As washing is 50 cents to I dollar a garment, many prefer throwing away their used up'clnthes to i paying the washerwoman; that is, ii they intend , returning to tho settlements soon, whero they can purchaso more. As to shaving, have never seen a man at the Placer who had time to perform that operation. They do not work on Sundays, only bl ush up tho tent, blow out the emery or fine black isand from the week's work. Horses that can ti a vol only one day, and from that to a week, aro from 100 to 300 dollars. Freight, by launch owners for threo days' run, 5 dollars per barrel. Waggoners charge 50 to I (JO dollars per load 20 to 30 miles on good road. Corn, barley, peas, and beans, 10 dollars a bushel. Common pistols any price ¡' powder and lend very dear. I know a physician who, in San Francisco, purchased a common made gold washer at 20 dollars or 30 dollars, mado of 70 or 80 feet of boards. Ata great expenso ho boated it up to the first landing on the Sacramento, and thero mot a waggoner bound to ono of tho diggings with an empty wag- gon, distant about 50 miles. The waggoner would not take up tho machine under 100 dollars. The doctor had to consent, and hided his time. Juno was over, rich in gold ; all on that orcek, did wonders, when the waggoner fell 'sick, called'on his friend tho doctor, whose tent was in sight ; the doctor came, but would not administer the first dose undor the old sum of 100 dollars, which was agreed to, under a proviso that the following doses should bo furnished more moderato. When a man's timo is worth 100 dollars a day to uso a spade and tin pan neither doctors nor waggoners can think much of a pound of gold, and jou may suppose merchants, traders, and pedlars aro not slow to make thoir fortunes in theso golden times In San Francisco there is more merchandise sold now monthly than before in a year. Vessels after vessels arrive, land their cargoes, dispose of them, and bag up tho dust and lay no the vessel, as tho crow are soon among tho missing. _ Tho cleanest clear out is where tho captain follows tho crew. Thero oro many vessels in San Francisco that aaiinot weigh an- chor, even with the assistance of threo or four neighbouring vessels. Supercargoes must land cargo on arriving, or havo no crew to do it for them. Somo vessels continue to go' to gua with smalt ci ows at fifty dollars per month for green hands. Old hands aro too wiso for them, and

prefer digging an ounce or two a-day, and drink- ing hook and champagne at half an ounce a bottle and eating bad sea bl ead at one dollar per pound. I havo seVn a captain of a vessel, who by his old contract in the port whence ho sailed was getting sixty dollars por month, paying his cook seventy five dollars, and offering ono hundred dollars per month for a steward; his formor crow,toven to his males, having gonn a ' prospecting.' Uncle Sam's ship3 suffer a little tho samo way, although (boy offer from 200 to 500 dollars for the appre- hension of a deserter. The Ohio, however, laid in the port of Monterey about a month, and lost only about twenty or thirty men. Colonel Ste- venson's regiment is disbanded ; ninety-nine out of one hundred of whom have also gone ' prospect ng,' including the colonel, «ho arrived in Mon- terey last month from his last post, and was met by his mon at the edgo of the town to escort and cheor him into tho town. The captains, &o , havo brought up country carts and oxen, turned drivers and gone to the placer. Our worthy Governor, Colonel of 1st Dragoons, Sea., having plenty of carts, waggons, horses, and mules, with a few regulars left, has also gone, but under bettor ad- vantages, for the second or third time, to seo tho placer and tho country, and have justice done to his countrymen or himself. Commodoro Jones, lately arrived in Monterey, supposed it to bo tho capital, head-quarters, &o , but found not even I ho Governor left. Where head-quarters is, may he uncertain, whether in Monterey, Sutter's Fort, or in a four-mule waggon, travelling over the gold region. Now, whether head-quarters are freighted with munitions of war, &c, or whether tho cargo ronsist8 of blankets, shirts, &c , to clothe tho suffering Indians, for the paltry consideration of gold, no one caros or knows. But the principio should be, that if privates can or will bo off, making thoir thousands, those who aro better able should not go goldless." The Walkington Union contains a letter fi om Lieutenant Larkin, dated Monterey, Nov. 16, received at the State Depart- ment, containing further confirmation of the pre- vious despatches, public and private, and far out- stripping all other news in its exciting character. Tho gold was increasing in sizo mid quality daily. Lumps were found weighing from lib, to 21bs. Several had been heard of weighing as high us IGlbs., and one 251b,s. Many men who were poor in Juno were Woi th 30,000 dollars bj digging and trading with the Indians, 100 doilars a-day is the average amount realized daily from July to October. Half the diggers were sick with fevers, though not many deaths had occurred among them. The Indians would readily give an ounce of gold for a common calico shirt-others were selling for 10 dollars each in specie. The gold regions extend over a tract of 300 miles, and it was not known that it did not extend 1000. A letter from Commodoro Jones states that many of tho potty officers and men had deserted, and gone in souri h of gold. Ho adds, tho Indians were felling gold at 30c. tho ounce. Many vessels wcro descried by captains, cook, and seamen. The ship haue Walton offered discharged soldiers 50 dollars a month to go to Callao, which was re- fused. She was supplied hy Government sailors. All the naval vessels on tho coast were short of hands. Nearly the whole of the 3rd Artillery had deserted. Provisions wcro scarco and high ; board, 4 dollars a day ; washing, G dollars a dozen. Merchants' clerks get from 2000 to 3000 dollars a year.

CALIFORNIA_In a number of the Californian published at San Francisco, there is an advertise- ment strongly indicative of tho lawless state of tho community, and the necessity which the Govern- ment aro under of taking measures which havo been obsolete in civilised communities. A Mr. Von Pfistor having bcon murdered, a reward of ¿ODO dollars is offered for tho apprehension of oro Vetcr Raymond, his murderer, and the advertise- ment contains the significant announcement that the same sum will ho paid for the delivery of his head at the office of the Alcade of San Francisco. Thora is no doubt that tho delivery of the head would prevent any doubts as to the legality of or competency of the tribunals to a try a murdorer, and would rather baulk tho exertions ofthophi i lanthropical advocates of the abolition of capital I punishments. Wo notice in the same paper that . the American Commodore offers a reward of

40.000 dollars for the apprehension and delivery I of deserters from tho squadron ; the sum of 500 j dollurs being given for e«di of tho first four ap

firchended, and 200 dollars for any one appre

lended afterwards_Sydney Morning Herald.

I Nnw YORK, DECEMBER 12-The California I gold fever is raging hero with terrible violence. No less than 24 ships havo sailed, or aro about sailing, in the short space of three weeks. One house yesterday refused 700 passengers. Me- chanics nre all leaving their trades, farmers their farms ; in fact, every body is " Keigho for Cali- fornia 1" The great difficulty, however, is the n ant of means to pay the passage, the price being 250 dollars, and by sea it takes five months ; over the Isthmus of Panama not more than two month», but tho pi ice is 500 dollars. A gentleman of my acquaintance, who sont a venturo of J2 dozen of spades, which were here dull of sale, being old fashioned, and which cost him 70 dollars net, has received an account of the sale of the same amount- ing to a little over 4000 dollars 1 and the remit- tance is actually on the way in gold. This ship- ment, however, was made before news of the dis- covery of gold was known in Now York. The gold is 20J carats (pure gold being 24 carats). The President intends sending a special message to Congress on the subject of the land.«, which aro public property, mid belong to the Government ; but what can they do? An army would desert en ¡nasse. The'gold .region covtrs a surface, it is supposed, of 500 square miles. I would go out, but 1 think tho business will be overdone, as there have been goods enough sent out for five years' consumption, and I am not strong enough'to work, If you havo any relations, strong, able bodied men, advise them to go at once ; and if they can command somo 2000 dollars in bright American half-dollars, they can double their capi- tal six lime's in twelve months-go at once. You may think me enthusiastic, but I refer you to the official report of Governor Mason, Secretary at War. If is supposed that gold to tho amount of 20 000,000 of dollars will bo sent to the States within twelve months.-Private Letter.

ANNEXATION OF UPPF.R CALIFORNIA. - A communication has been received by the Commis- sioners of Customs from Mr. Parker, one of tho secretaries to'tho Lords Commissioners of her

Majesty's Treasury, stating that, with reference 'to the request contained in thoir report, on an ap applicntioii]Of,an eminent firm for a retnm of exportvdnty paid on a cargo of coals exported from Cardiff, in an American vessel, to California, ho (Air. Parker) had been commanded by the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, to transmit for their information a copy of a letter received by their Lordships from the Foreign Office on tbo 7th instant, intimating that Upper California is to bo deemed n part of »lui United States of Ame- rica. The follow ing is a copy of the communi- cation from the Foreign Office to'the Lords of Hie Treasury alluded to:-" Foreign Office, Deo 7, 1848_Sir,-In answer to your letter of tho 30th ultimo, I am directed by Viscount Palmer- ston to state to you, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of her Majesty's Treasury, that the province of Upper California, in which the Bay of San Francisco is situated, was coded by Mexico to tho United States, in conformity with thu 5th nítido of the treaty concluded be- tween those two States on the 2nd of February last ; and that as the British Government does not dispute that cession, Upper California is to ho deemed a part of the United States. I am, &c, (signed) KDUISDUHY, To Sir Charles Trc velyan, K C.B., &c." In pursuance of this oom I munication from the Treasury, the Commissioners I of Customs havo caused copies thereof, together

with copies of the letter from the Foreign Office therein referred to, to bo transmitted to the prin cipal officers of the revonuo at the several depart- ments thioughout the kingdom, for their infor- mation and government.

CALIFORNIA_Tho rage for digging gold in California has extended ¡to England,and the Con- tinent of Europe. Not less than eighteen vessels arc advertised to sail from London for San Fran- cisco, and a still greater number are equipping at Liverpool. Several havo already quitted England for tho El Dorado, filled with passengers afflicted with the min sacra fames.. Books upon tho sub- ject, intended as guides to tho adveuturcrs, mul- tiply hourly.

CALIFORNIA.-By letters recently arrived from

Rio, we learn that an American Government steamer had nrrived there, on her wnyjto San Francisco, for the purpose of laying an embargo on tho gold brought from the interior, until, the arrangements for the establishment of a mint, when a duty of four per cont.. it is stated, will bo fixed prior to exportation.-South Australian Re- gister.- ' '

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