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1 correction by peter-macinnis - Show corrections



Under this heading subscribers who write complaining that their question have not been answered will be told when and where replies to their queries were published.

Corby (Somerton) : Your question w replied to among the "Miscellaneoi answers on page ll of our issue dat

July 27.

Tasmanian Fruitgrower - Mid« .Ridge : Mr. E.W. - G. Shoobridge, V ley Field, New Norfoik, Tasmania.

"The Bonnie Hills of Scotland' W. H. (Dalby, Q.): "The Bonnie Hi of Scotland" was composed by Linli

The Language of Diplomacy-W. (Sydney) : It -would be quite cbrrc to"speak of French as the language


Construction of Fowlbouses

"Chooks" (Forbes) : An article on this subject will appear in an early issue next week, if possible.

Propagation of Gum Trees-Bucka- How: Gum trees are easily propagate from seed, and the seed can be ob tai ed from the seedsmen advertising

this journal.

Is a Scotchman a Foreigner-Allst (Balmain): I was born in Scotland < Scottish parents,and have been livii in this country for 12 years. Am I foreigner ?-Certainly not.

Ñarrabri-Moree Railway - G euri What was the contract price of tl Narrabri to Moree railway?-A co¡ tract has been let for a portion of th line for. the sum of £36,452 3s 8d.

Hair Falling Out-T. T. (Temora The cause of the child's hair f alling oi ls pi'obably weakness of the systeii The. best course you can adopt is 1 consult a duly qualified medical mai

Painting on China-J. J. P. (Sprin Dale): We have published an article o this subject, and you can procure

copy of the paper containing it b sending stamps to the value of ls 1

to this office.

- Billiard Table Cushions - Billiar (Narrandera) : What are billiard tabl cushions stuffed with?-The cushion are: pf elastic india-rubber. Som tables, we believe, are fitted with ai cushions,' after the style of the pneu ?matic tyres of bicycles.

Life Assurance - Subscriber (B Springs): It is impossible to ams we your question from such scanty infor mali on as you have afforded. In an; case, the manager of the society ii which you are assured is the best per son to apply to for the particulars re quired.

Armidale to Mildura-W. C. (Anni chile): Tlie nearest route from Anni ?dale to Mildura would be via Sydnej and Hay, thence by coach to Went worth arid Mildura. The railway fares from Armidale to Hay are £G 13s 3c and £4 7s; fare by coach from Hay tc Wentworth, £0. -

"Fisher's Ghost"-Believer (Sydney) The story of "Fisher's Ghost," and an account of the trial of the murderer bi Fisher, wa¡s given at length in the "Journal'' two or three years ago. You can procure a copy of the issue con taining the matter by sending ls ld in stomps to this office.

" Cutting a wire Fence-Subscriber (Wilcáiinia) : Can a Government official engaged in repairing a telegraph line legally cut a boundary wire fence on a homestead lease, there being , a gate on the public road within a quarter of a. mile from the telegraph line?-Yes; ibut'the-Gov^itoent^must' repair any damage. "' "

Saving Fine Gold-C. J. B. (Grong Grong): We do not think dry crush ing the ore, and then putting it through a puddling machine, would be a very successful method of saving the fine gold. You had better adopt one "or other of the systems recommended in reply to "Miner" "(Muswellbrook) on page ll of our issue dated July 20.

Gu tta-Percha Cernen t-Hilldrop : We should. recommend you to use gutta percha cement. This cement can also .be employed in repairing metal, glass, porcelain, and ivory, or bone articles. It is made by melting together in an iron pan two parts of common pitch and one part of gutta-percha, stirring them well together till thoroughly in corporated, and then pouring the liquid into cold water. When cold it Ms .black, solid, and elastic. It can- bo Bot tened with heat, and used as a liquid pr soft paste, according to the nature of the materials to be joined. '

Widow Holding Property-Admin .traitor""(Narromine): Beluga widow, n having had probate of my late lr band's will granted, can I hold p perty acquired by my own indus! since his death, independent of the. testate estate, or could my. hus ban creditors claim it?-Yes; you can h< it. 2. Tilie head office is ait 261 Geor¡ street, Sydney. .

Tank and Other Calculations-P.

. (Nerrigundah) : A cubic foot .of pi oast gold weighs 12031b, and a cul foot of gold coin 11021b avoirdupo -X.L.C.R. (Warialda): 2172 cul yards.-:C. Brothers (Inverell): T contents of the tank, as per sleet sent, we calculate at 573 .cubic yar< No charge whatever is niade by us í auwering questions through this page 1 Stock IDrespaisisLng-Store Creek:

lease a piece of land from the Crov annually. Another man owns three four acres situated in the centre

my lease. I have fenced my lan thereby enclosing this man's purchase land. Can he compel me to keep n stock off his unfenced block in my pa dock-?-Yes; if fie holds it under, grant; but if the block is Crown lani he cannot do so.

The Duke of Edinburgh-Tru I (Gippsland, V.): In connection with tl > shooting of the Duke, of Èdinburg ¿the operation of removing the ball ws performed at Government House, Sy ney, on March 14, 1808, by Dr. Jam* Young (H.M.S. Galatea), Dr. A. Wa son (H.M.S. Challenger), and Mr. W j liam L. Powell. .It is probable tin

their services, were recognised in son way. ,

Public Executions-Argument (S Leonards): The last public execi i tion in England took place on May 2 ! 1868, when Michael Barrett, the fenian I was hanged. By a slip of the pen tl

i date was made to read 1860 in lan week's paper. The first private execi ' tion took place on August 13, 186; j when Thomas Wells waa hanged fe

the murder of Mr. Walsh, stationmai ! ter at Dover.

Mile Square and Square Mile-Cor stant Reader (Broadwater): There i no difference whatever betweeu a mil square and a square mile. But two c more square miles are not the sam as two or more miles square. Tw square miles means au area of tha amount; while two miles square mean a square each side of which measure two miles,- and therefore contain four square miles.

, Mineral Examinations-rJ. W. (Dele gate) : The sample of stone you sen for examination was a piece of pyrit 'ons quartz which, on being assayed yielded neither gold nor silver.-J. E (Wagga Wagga): No.! 1 was a pieci of pyritous quartz which yielded 17dw 9gr of silver per ton; but no gold. No .2 consisted of grey quartz somewhat cellular arid pyritous.. It yielded nei th er gold nor silver.

Ownership bf Land-Subscriber (Syd ney): I am the owner.of an allotmenl of land which my husband purcHased from the Crown. . A man built a shed on this land 22 years ago, and lia« been living on it ever since. He now claims the propery. Can I eject him, and how should I-go about it?-If he has had possession without acknow< ledging, your title, you cannot now eject him. You should consult a soli

citor. .

Australian Topaz-Prospector (Bro ken Hill): The Australian topaz is not of sufficient commercial value to war rant any person spending time or labor in collecting the stone. Whatever value is in the stone is according to hardness, cleanness, and lustre after cutting and polishing. This can only be proved by the lapidary's test. At the present time there Is no demand for topaz-either Oriental or Austra


" Cast- Steel,. &c-P. K. (Nerrigun dah): Cast steel is mucli harder("and much less malleable and ductile than shear ór'"r-;bÜsteréd.."Steel,--:-:but-' may be wrought at a certain: temperature. Great care must therefore be exercised lu observing the particular, degree of .heat -required for tho- dorking of it. 2. This will be answered under ano ther heading in this or à future issue. 3. See "Tank and. Other Calcula


The Legislative Council-A. J. C. (Goulburn) : In a dispatch from the Colonial Office, dated October 30, 1856, the Governor of New South Wales was informed that her Majesty had signi fied her pleasure that all the members of the Legislative Council and the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly should be entitled to the titular desig nation of "The Honorable," and "sihould be so described in the severn! aots and instruments" issued under the Governor's authority. The Gover nor (Sir William Denison) had a short time previously (in May, 1856) upon his own authority, and pending her Majes ty's. pleasure oh the subject directed the issue of a notification in the "Ga zette" conferring the designation upon

the President of the Council and the ! Speaker of the Assembly. -

Marriage Certificate - Subscribe] .(Auckland, N.Z.) :. If your questiou re lates to New South Wales, the bes! way, to obtain a copy of the marriage certificate is by writing to the Regis trar-Genëral, Sydney. If you can sup ply the date of the marriage and othei particulars the cost of a copy woulc probably not exceed 2s Gd.

Bird Lime-L. B. (Illawarra): Bird lime is made by boiling linseed oil ir an iron ladle in the open air, till tilt oil becomes thick and tenacious enougl for the purpose. It is then poured inte tins or pots, and stored away in a cool place. If too thick, the bird lime cai: be thinned by adding Stockholm tar tc it. ? _

Tho Law of Patente-Original (Lis more): A ha.ndy and reliable work or this subject can be obtained from thc Government Printer, Sydney. . It ii entitled the "Law and Practice of Now South Wales Letters Patent," and would cost about 3s, including postage 2. If the invention is a machine, yo in best plan is to write to the machinery merchants w..ho advertise in this paper, They would, no doubt, take up the in vention. 3. Your other question in volves a point of law, and- will bo re plied to in a future issue.

- Crust in Kettles, &c-W. B. (Wel lington) : 1. How can the crust which forms in kettles through using hard water be removed?-If the crust is very thick it can be removed by boil ing bran or potatoes in the kettle, and by scraping the inside of the vessel. A good way to prevent crustatiori is to keep ahelean oyster-shell in the kettle. By attracting the stony particles to itself, the shell prevents or lessens thc formation of the scale. 2. A recipe foi tanning skins appeared in last week's


Defacing Coin-Epsilon (Port Doug las).: Is it not unlawful to deface a coin? Is a person who melts a gold coin to obtain gold solution for electro gilding purposes liable to a penalty? It is unlawful to impair, diminish, or lighten the coin, with intent that the coin so dealt with should nevertheless pass for Queen's coin, or to deface coin by stamping thereon any name or word. The act you mention is not an offence. 2. Yes; he can sell it under au execution after obtaining a judg ment for tho amount owing.

To Color Whitewash-J. G. (Bung wall Flat): Y'ellow ochre mixed with a small quantity of blue-black and added to whitewash will make it a stone-co lor. If the blue-black is omitted the ochre will produce a buff or straw co lor., Warmer tints may be produced by using indigo or blue-black, or Vene ttoin, or orange-red. Vermilion in vari ous quantities will give different shades of pink. Red lead, a nd chrome can be used for au orange , tint; Indian . red or purple-brown for red; ultramarine or indigo for a blue color.

Painters' Charges, &c-J. G. (Bung wall Flat): 1. What are the usual rates charged per yard by Sydney painters for one, two; and three coats on wood and brick?-One coat, 3%d per square yard; two coats, Gel per square yard; three coats, Od per square yard. 2. Is there any general rule followed for measuriug windows, verandahs, and other openings?-Windows are mea sured as walls; verandahs double tho width and height. . 3. A recipe for a wash that forms a good substitute for paint was given in last week's paper. 4. Prepared stains can be obtained from any dealer in painters' mate


Softening Tanned Skins-Hilldrop: I have tanned a number of skins, which came out of the tan liquor so hard as to be of little use. How should I treat them to soften them? Skins or hides are always dry and hard as they come from the tanner. To soften such skins it is usual to soak them in water or sprinkle them with it, and then lay them aside till they become" sufficiently moist, /fhey should then bo spread out on a smooth,. level table, and well rubbed with a piece of pumice stone. After this litis - been done, the skins should be .worked "well between the Viands, or eläe drawn- backwrad and forward through a smooth wooden-ring.

The Victoria Cross-Zulu (Mooka wara): 1. Was the Victoria Cross awarded to any British soldier or offi cer who took part in the Zulu war?-1 Yes. 2. Sir Redvers* Henry Buller

received the Victoria Cross "for his gallant conduct at the retreat at Inhlo bana on March 28, .1879, in having as sisted, while hotly pursued by Zulus, in rescuing ^Captain D'Arcy (who was retiring on foot), and carrying him "on Iiis horse until he overtook the rear guard.- Also for having on the same date, and under the same circum stances, conveyed Lieutenant Evcritt, whose horse had been killed tinder him,' to a place of safety. Later on, Colonel Buller, in the same manner, saved a trooper wbose horse was com pletely exhausted, and who otherwise would have been killed by the Zulus, who were within eighty yards of

him. .

Toi nu us in Cattle-D. D. (Pout Dar win): Tetanus (locked jaw) presents it self in two. forms-the idiopathic and the sympathetic. Tho first is due to an unassignable cause, the second bo an injury affecting the nerves. As very foAV cases result in recovery, lt is indispensable that a veterinary surgeon bo consulted as ea-rly as possible. It ls, however, always safe to administer a strong purgative, to be followed by


Landlord and Tenant-Old Subscrib er (Moss Vale): If a person leases a place for a certain time, and the land lord does not give up. all the premises mentioned in the lease but uses part of them for his own use (without ask ing permission) does the lease hold good? Can he compel the tenant to stay the time agreed? Can the ten ant compel the landlord to pay rent for the premises he has occupied?-No. But the tenant- may, by going into possession of part and acquiescing, haye estopped himself from defend ing a claim for rent. He should sub mit the lease and state the facts to à solicitor.

Salting of Butter-J. B. (Surry I-Iills) : 1. Does salt really exercise a great preserving influence over butter? 2. Are there not points in churning, &c,

which (if neglected) render salt praeti-. cally useless os a preservative of but ter?-1. Yes; salt is absolutely neces sary for the object, as it exorcises a great influence. In fact without us

ing salt it would be impossible to pro

duce a marketable arbicle. 2. If the butter be churned too long, the salt cannot penetrate it so well tvs when added while in the granulated state. Salt is necessary at all stages and must be thoroughly and evenly mixed through the butter.

Strawberries and Tomatoes, &c-Old Subscriber (Mount Brisbane): 1. Straw berries should be packed in shallow baskets or boxes about 2in deep for sending to market. They should in no way be crushed, or their sale will be spoiled. 2. Tomatoes may be staked or trellised like grape vines. A couple of wires run on stakes at each side of the bush is sometimes very effective. The trellising of tomatoes has been il lustrated and described in this journal more than once. 3. A C or 8 h.p. Tangyc engine and pump would about suit your requirements. 4. You can get such a lamp by writing to any Sydney hardware merchant and stating ex actly what you need. 5. Your question re fowls will be answered under ano ther heading.

Points of Law--Siren North: 1. John. 2. 'Iii New South Wales they would share alike.---A. B. C.: A. certainly : docs not appear, to have such a right. ;.-Inquirer (Ardglen): 1. Yes; you can

fence subject to the rightful'owner preventing you. 2.. No; you cannot bring it under Torrens's title.. 3. You are liable for'rates, it rated. 4. You can be made liable for the term you are rated. 5. No; the owners cannot compel you to pay.-Subscriber (Orange): The single case of absence is not sufficient to entitle you to dis charge him. You should have laid au information against him at once. Hav ing refused to take him back, you can not do so now. Consult the local C.P.S., who will show you the act.

German Sausage-Country Reader (Queensland):. Take Sib each of lean beef and lean pork, which put into hot water, and simmer gently for 30 min utes; chop finely, eaoh meat separate ly, and mix with the whole about l%lb of finely-chopped beef suet. When well mixed add seasoning of pepper, thyme, and ground mace, and pound the mix ture to a smooth paste. Fill the skins with it, putting long thin strips of bacon fat in among the meat. Fill the skins in 8in or lOin lengths, and then soak in brine for about 10 days. Then take them out, dry them, and smoke in the usual way. Some people prefer them unsmoked. " Ox skins are general ly employed to hold the meat. 2. You will find -it cheaper to buy treacle . or golden syrup than to attempt to make it from sugar and lollies.

The Best Fowls-Old Subscriber (Mount Brisbane) : Is a pure breed of fowls or a cross the .best for market? I have been recommended the Wyan dottes asa better fowl'than the Leg horn for eggs. Is it?-Much will de pend on the breed chosen. Langshams,. Orpingtons, Wyandottes, and Ply mouth Rocks are good all-round breeds; but excellent results, may be obtained from judicious first crosses, though these should riot be bred from again. Spanish, Andalusians, Minorcas, or Leghorns crossed with either of the above breeds or Brahmas will'prove very useful, producing first-class lay ing"pullets, and quickly-maturing table cockerels of good size and fair quality. Substitute any variety of Game for the Mediterraneans upon either of the above heavy breeds, or especially Dor kings, and the best of table birds will be produced. Leghorns are superior as layers to Wyandottes, though some strains are not so good layers as others. This-occurs "with every breed. The Wyandotte is an excellent table bird.

Acetic Acid-Subscriber' in the Far. West: Vinegar- produced by diluting acetic acid Avith water naturally, does not possess the same flavor- as the ar ticle, made by the -usual method of fer

mentation... The production of a good,. saleable vinegar is not a very difficult matter. , We have often' published re cipes in this paper, and one this issue. A simpler,:method was de scribed some weeks ago. Send ls id in stamps to this office for a copy of tho paper. . ? ? " .

Malt Vinegar-Ignorant (Burringar) : Malt, vinegar ls made in the following manlier: A bushel of good barley malt, properly . ground, is mashed with 6 2-3 gallons cf wate'r at'lGOdeg. Fabr.; this ina'sh .'is 1^ permitted -'to reposo ; tili, .the solid iiiatter " settles downj when the solutionis drawn ?-pff.v-'','.T!lie;résidiie is" well. Agitated for a short time with 6 2-3: gallons ot water at l'SOdeg, al lowed to settle, and the liquor si phoned oft! as. before. In order to take ul) all the soluble mat ter the malt may ' be. washed a third time with boiling water. On the whole, not more th, au 16 2-3 gallons of wash is to be used in extracting the soluble mat ters.- When the solution has cooled to about 75deg. it is. :welläagitated with - 2 2-3 quarts of1 yeast. Af ter a lapse of thirty-six or forty hours . the liquor is racked off into, casks, which are placed in a room or cellar whose temperature should range from 70deg. to 77dcg. Fahr. The casks should be placed on their sides,, the bungholes opened, and a circulation of air kept up in each cask by means of an orifice bored at each end near the upper edge; of the barrel.. Here the casks remain til] the process of acetiiication is complete, when the vinegar is drawn off. clarified, and stored away for. use. 2. The operation of con verting barley into malt is^ a process that calls for skill on the part of tho operator, and special appliances. . ?'. 'The best way to procure, a supply of malt is to purchase it from a brewery, if there is. one near you.

Tristan d'Adinna-J.-B. (Montagu Island)': Tristan d-Acunba- is a group of three small volcanic islands"situated

in the South AtlahtiCy nearly midway' ' between the Cape of Good Hope and tho coast, of South America. ' Tho largest island is the only one inhabit ed; It is nearly circular in form, about seven miles tn diameter, with a volcanic cone in the centre 7640ft in height' ' The islands, when first dis--, covered in 1506, were " uninhabited. There is no.harbor for shipping. The islands are a British possession. Great: Bri tain .took possession of them in 1S16,

and a guard of marines from the Capo, of Good Hope was station Tristan' d'Acunha to prevent any attempt be ing made, there to organise an expe dition to rescue Napoleon, who was then at St. Helena. The following year ; the. guard was withdrawn, but1 Corporal William. Glass,.his wife, and family were allowed to.-remain.- This< small colony received additions from time to-time from whaling vessels and shipwrecks and from the Cape of Good Hope.. "We are, unable,: at present, to say ; when Mr. Green landed on the island. This information will bo given, if possible, in a future issue. An Jllustrated article on Tristan d'Acunha appeared in the '"Journal" dated Juno 13, 1891. You can pro cure, a copy of that paper by sending ls''in stamps, to this office.. 2. There are 601b to the bushel of wheat. A bushel of maize weighs 561b; oats, 401b; barley (Cape), 501b; English bar ley,- 521b. ' Next week We shall endea vor to' tell you the weights of tho other articles." " , ? . , "

Blackberry Wine-Subscriber: The general proportions of ingredients for the preparation of household wines from ripe saccharine fruits are as fol IOAV: : From 41b to 61b of the ripe fruit, lga.1 of clear, soft water, ? from 31b to 51b. of sugar, l%.oz of cream of taitar dissolved in boiling water, and about 2 per cent, of brandy, although the spirit is not absolutely necessary. A beautiful flavor is given to the wine by substituting iy2\h of raisins for each pound of sugar. The. fruit should be gathered in Jine weather, when mature, but not ?? over-ripe. Unripe fruit pro duces a harsh, unwholesome wine. When gathered the fruit is carefully picked, stalks and unripe or damaged berries being removed.,' The fruit, is then, well bruised in a tub, and the jiiiçe strained ¿ff through a coarse sieve into a clean, sweet tub or., vat: The water is now added, and the liquor allowed to stand for 30 or 40 hours, . as the weather is hot or Cold. During this time the liquor, should be frequent ly stirred-with: a bit of wood.- The liqiiid portion.', is hext drawn off, and the residuary pulp placed in hair bags, and pressed for the- juice in it.. : 'The sugar or raisins and the cream of' tar tar are well stirred into -the liquor at this stage, and. frequently rummaged up afteirward.' Fermentation soon be-.' gins, and the liquor is skimmed (if ne cessary), and well "roused;up." After three or four days of this : treatment the liquor is run off into a clean cask, leaving the bung open, and filling the

cask right tip to the bunghole. ' Feu mentation will,begin again, and there will be a.throwing ott* of 'refuse.. The cask must be kept quite full by adding the, surplus juice from time to time. When the: hissing, sound of fermenta tion can no longer be heard, till np the cask and knock- in the bung. ; Make ; ct small hole near the bung with a gim let. Through this hole there will be an escape ol' gas: for perhaps a month or longer. When this gas becomes too fee ble to extinguish a lighted match stop /the hole up with a peg,'but occasionally ' open it to permit of the escape bf any gas which .may have accumulated. After this fine the wine with white : of egg, and in a few weeks it will be fit for USC ? '; -'.,:' - -'?? A~- ":- -\:

Miscellaneous-E. '.' M. v.!'(Nymagee): You should address thél superintendent of the Mercantile Marine, Adelaide; --^Subscriber (Tempe) : -You will find an ians wer to your question in a reply to another correspondent.: in this is sue.---F. W. Xi.. (Nowley "Station) : See "Answers to Correspondents" in the sporting pages.-A. ? H. B. (Forbes) : This will he dealt with among the an swers in' our sporting columns. H.'È. (Maitland): Yes; it can be mas

tered without the aid of a tutor; but tho progress of . the learner is, of course, . much more rapid, under the guidance of a competent teacher. S. O. W. (Pymble): !.. By serving au apprenticeship. to the profession.. 2. These could probably be obtained from any bookseller advertising in this pa per. 3. Not to a. very great extent. 4. If your idea is to get the full bene fit of the sun's rays, let the longest

sides of the. house-, face the east and west.--Egbert (North Grafton):. The weight should not exceed 21b or 31b at most. The miodern system is lighter weights, and a corresponding increase in the duration of the work.--Man from Armagh: Your best course is to consult. the ..local c.p.s. We cannot' . spare space to publish the.act, which,

in-any case, is not of sufficient public interest to warrant its insertion in our

pages.--Native' (Gulleridar Point): We cannot reply to your question this woek, as'they are queries which need' to he carefully considered. You should have forwarded thein earlier. All questions are answered in the or der of receipt, and as soon as possible after they arrive at this office.