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Bullding and Bushwork for

Selectors, Squatters, and Others.





TOOLS.-The various tools, used in sawing consist of a breaking-down saw, rip saw (with tillers and saw boxes), axe, dogs, plumb-bob, rule and com passes, files, saw-set, driving1 stick, levers, hang ing and other wedges, all of which are necessary before you begin sawing, and, of oourse, it is desirable to have them of the best description and in good order.

JFig. 1 ÍB n pit saw, and every sawyer knows how much the labour, comfort, time, and quality of the work dopend on having a good one. In buying ,a new saw the best plan is to take a file with you, and try the temper bf the saw. It should not be too hard or too soft. If too hard it will take half a doien files to got her properly sharpened, and it will be difficult to got tho sot on her; if too soft the saw will not keep the cut, and will require constant sharpen ing. By giving the saw a tap with your knuckles yon can tell by the ringing sound whether it is hard or soft, the ring being sharper in proportion to the hardness. A saw should bo stiff but not thick, and thinner on the back than tho front. Seven feet for a breaking down, and six feet for a rip saw, are good sizes. Directions for filing and setting saw teeth are given in

various handbooks.

A saw requires sharpening about every 100 feet in hardwood, and should be gulleted at each sharpening. In breaking down a log, if the saw draws it is no good trying to hold it to tho line, as she will only round in tho cut and get jambed. The saw should at onco be taken out and


Tho tiller is about 20ia long for ripping, and 24in for breaking down. They are best made with two fangs to fit in the handle, instead of a socket, as the handlo can be moro easily set truly and secure. The end that fixes to the saw is more likely to get out of order, and should bo made particularly strong.

Fig. 1 Bhows the best form for a tiller, and tho manner of fixing it. Tho tiller is attached to tho saw by means of a bolt passed through each jaw and the saw hole, and secured with a key firmly driven home. The handle of tho tiller should bo in a lino with tho face of tho saw, ond set per fectly true.

Fig. 2 is tho saw box. It is simply a squarO I block of wood, with a saw cut through tho centre, ' running to within an inch of tho end, and a amooth

round handle ns shown. The tail of the Baw is slipped through tho saw kerf, and tho box secured by means of tho screw, which has a handlo fixed

to tho nut.

Fig. 3 is another plan. This is a cylindrical pieco of wood, with a saw cut, and rings at each end. Tho tail of tho saw being passed through tho out, is fixod by means of a pog, Fig. , driven alongsido it, through the holo ns shown. It should pass right through tho hole, so that it can bo driven out when required.

Fig. 2 is tho best plan, nnd it is loss likely tq

oripple the Baw, and requires no driving stick The other tools require no diagrams or long dt s criptions. Thc plumb bob is made by pourin¡ melted lead into an eggshell, flattening tho bot tom so that it can be stood anywhere withou rolling, and the Btring passed through a hoi bored through, the cenlro.

The dog is a bar of iron 18in or 2ft long, witl tho ends turned nt right- angles, and pointed ; use< for fixing tho tail end of tho log.

Wedges aro made various sizes and shapes, foi keepiner open the saw cut; and tho driving-stiel is used for driving them and other purposes.

A lino will be required for marking out th< work, and should bo very elastic. It is best mad< from strong worsted. Twist up four strandi about 40ft long, very tight, then double it. Tak< the bight, or centre, and twist it tho reverse waj till it is all laid up. This is best done by tying a dog to tho end, and spinning it round. Singi it in a candle to burn off loose hairs, or you wil' not get a clear line.

Chalk is sometimes used, but blacking is besi and mo3t usual in the bush for lining. Take some dry grass or straw, burn it, and collect the aßhei ia an old pot, pour water on it, rouse it »p,"anc dip your line in.

Take tho plumb-line and see where a perpendi cular lino would clear tho pipe, or heart. Make a mark top and bottom with the compasses, and strike the top line tho full length of the log, sc that it will also clear tho heart at the small end, Be careful to lift tho lino Btraight up in striking; and seo that no wind is blowing to catch the line,

or cause it to be curved.

Mark the plumb-line or the face of the, log (fig. 4), and by the first rule given under the hoad of geometry, strike another at right ang'es to the firsr. This second line will form the plumb lino when you come to set up the half log, and is very important to insure all the stuff being


Having got your top line marked, you want one exactly plumb it on tho under side of tho log, for tho pitman to work by. This is called taking out.

Some judgment is required to know how to get most stuff out of the log with the least work. Wo will Bupposo it is done as follows : - Stick the axe in sho*ninfigura4,andfasten yourplumb line to the handle. Take the rule and measure tho exact distance from the top lino to the plumb line, and mark on the under side of the log, exactly the same distance. The pitman stands ready to mark the place with the point of the compasses, making one or two scratches from the point to^find the place again easily. The same is done at the tailing out end.

S A black line is now struck from these marks, as far as the heading in transom. This portion of tho cut must be run before the .rest oï the line can be marked ; as, after heading

in the log, the transom is. shifted, and the line held from the cut to the mark at the tail. In heading in be sareful to face the saw fair for the mark at tho transom; and, it is a good>plan to ' stick an old file in the mark for a guide to the pitman, especially if a learner. In a log 3ft or 4ft through, this is very important. Should the saw incline to draw off tho line, either on top or bottom, alter her at once, as by trying to hold her to the line the cut will get in a round, and the work bocome very laborious. Looking down the cut, it should always bo straight and clear. A topman, by carrying the tiller to one side, can Bhoot the saw to the other, and thus ODposo any tendency to draw; but if a saw is not 'true nothing will keep her to the line. Having ruu tho eut back to tho first mark, shift the heading by lifting tho end of tho log as before, and bring the transom back enough to leave room for the saw to work. , Both sawyers now go in tho pit and mark tho rest of tho line, the box is knocked ;off, the Baw put in the cut behind tho transom, and the log tailed out. You must now put in your constables again, and by knocking out the dogs let the two halves fall apart. Put the ono half baek on the rolling up skids while you cut up the other. The half log is set up, and secured with the dogs, or as shown in Fig. 5. Now. consider what stuff you want to cut, and how to line your half log to the best advantage. We will suppose your log is 30in diameter at the big end. A Gin flitch in tho centre will just clear the pipe, leaving timber enough for another Gin and 4in flitch on each Bide. Probably the log will only be 2ft at the small end, in which case one of your 4in flitches will not run the full length ; this does not matter, as it will cub shorter lengths for some other purpose. Having lined the half log on top, you take out each separate line under , neath, exactly the same as described in breaking

down, and run these cuts, which, is called flitoh . ng» See fig. 5.

Tho half log being flttcbed, you will perhaps have room on the pit for two of your six-inch flitchos, which you will leave on, and roll the others on tho outrigger, out of your way, in the meantime. When heading in the half log, you can cub a flitch of wedges out of the two outside edgings. This is done by entering the saw to allow "the required thickness of wedge, and run ning it into tho other cut, ata point corresponding with tho required longth of the wedge. The piece drops out, and can be split into wodgeB about 2in wide. Tho edgings are thrown in a heap on the Bide of the pit and aro always tho perquisites of tho sawyers.

Tho next and last operation is ripping, say the Gin flitches aro for boards. Sot tho compasses lin wide and prick off at each end as many boards as tho flitch will run, measuring from the edge if tho face is good, or starting clear of the heart (if the centre flitch), in which case tho starting point must bo plumbed. Turn the flitch over, nnd mark the other side tho same, striking the line tho full longth, or in tho case of boards, if tho log bo crookod, you can put a break in ; that is, line Btraight at the bond, and then follow the direction of the log. With tho rip saw thoso cuts aro headed in, heading shifted, and tailed out as before described. Tho boards aro thou taken off and stacked

on sloepors laid to receive thom ; and if tho weather bo very hot^they should

Fia. 1. . ? : ' r y t Pia. 2.

be covered with sawdust or bark. The other flitches are lined, and ran out the same way. For quartering they would be lined 2in, 2£in, or 3in ns required. Feather-edged weatherboards are lined Hin thick. . The;se cuts are run a certain distance, tho flitch is .then canted, so that tho cut will bo plumb, and ench piece again divided, leaving a thin and thick edge on top, and the re verse below. Battons aro cut out of 2&in or 3in flitches, and aro "only lined one side. The other details of sawing oome so naturally that it would be superfluous to describe them. There are various blows in sawing, that is, the manner of working tho saw. For instance, tho close blow, round blow; or; half round. In the one case, as in breaking down a big log (perhaps

5 feet through), the length of the stroke would be only about ' a foot, and this .would be done with a close

blow. In ripping (say boards for instance) an open blow-would bo used; that is, the pitman would move his hands something in tho manner of turning n grind stone, and dropping the saw on the wood near theheel,the impetus carries her through

FIG. 3.

with less labour. AsawBhould travel from $ to an inoh each blow in a six inch out. In breaking down she may only travel'¿ or l-16th or lees.

We now come to tho measurement of timber. Two Gin boards usually go. to the foot and three battens. For the rest everything ÍB reduced to the superficial foot. Suppose a piece 12ft long, 4x2 would be 8in measurement per running foot, or 8ft in the piece; 4x3 would be 12in per foot, or 12ft in the piece; 6x3 would be 18in, or measurement and a half, equal to 18ft in the piece ; 6 x 4 would bb double ; so would 8 x 3 or 12 x 2; G x 6, 9 x 4, or 12 x 3, would be three mea surements, or 3Gft in tho piece.

Boards aro worth more to cut than quartering, on account of the extra sawing ; but in sawing what is termed the run of a building, in the bush,

Pia. 4

the proportions of boards, quartering, joists, battens, «fee, give a variety, which, is less tedious to tho sawyers.

Tho following is the usual form of agreement for sawyers:-"Mern, of agreement made this day of 18-, between John Brown, farmer, of the one

I part, and William Smith and Thomas Jonep, of

the other part. The said W. S. and T. J. hereby agree to saw at---: all the timber required in the erection of a six>roomed weatherboard house j to fell their own timber, find their own tools, and supply the samo at the rate of 1000 Buperfioial feet per week., To deliver the sawn timber at the pit as required; the whole to be sound, free from wane or heart, and cut full to the dimensions given. consider ation of the above agrees to haul the logs to tho pit as required, to pay 15s per 100 superficial feet, in progressive

1 Fia. 6

P ayments, at the rate of 50 per cent. ; and to d°iiver rations at the following schedule of prices." To be signed in duplicate by all parties, and at


Where a very large quantity of sawn timber ÍB required, a travelling circular saw-bench would bo very useful, worked by an eight or 10-horso portable engiuo. These can be procured at moderate prices and in great variety, at David Munro and Co.'fl ma chinery establishment, M^bourne, They ajeo

supply all saw-mill requisites-saws, jankers, trollies, bogies, trucks, tram rails, &c. When not used for Eawing, those portable engines can be used for many other purposes. They are easily moved about, the weight being only about four

or five tons.

AGREEMENT FOR FENCING.-A correspondent, writing upon the subject of fencing agreement, says :-" I notico a paragraph in your last week's Í88U0 about fencing-'Agreement with Fencers' -but all tho agreeing is on tho master's sido, and very little on the fencers'. I have written a specification at foot, which, when carried out, makes a very fair fence, and when tho timber is good ought to last for 80 or 40 years :-?

Specification of Fence.-Posts to bo 7fr, loner, Oin broad, and 3in thioH ; mortised in two or three holoa : topholes 0 x 3i, mioldlo 8 x 31, bottom 7 x 3J. Kaile 9ft lons, rind split brond enough and thick enough to fill up tho mortise holes in tho posts, and to havo a shoulder. Pence to bo erected in tho foliowmpmanner ;-Post» to bo 2ft in tho ground. Rails to fill up tho mortiso holes in tho Íiosts without bindiup;, und each rail to bo cut nway to not

ORS than l$in in tho morliso hole, to bo shouldered against tho post, and-to have a top of say ¿Jin (two inches) through tho post, and not to bo driven in tight. Cornor post to bo 3Ct in tho ground. Two panels to go to tho rod.