HISTORY OF THE KELLY GANG.
The gang consisted of Edward Kelly, a native of a place named Beveridge, in Victoria, aged 28; Daniel Kelly, native of Victoria, aged 20; Stephen Hart, native of the Fish River, N.S.W., aged 21; and Joseph Byrne, a native of Victoria, aged 22. The history of the Kelly gang is one of a long series of crimes. About 20 years ago two families, the Kellys and the Quinns, even then notorious for their wild and lawless disposition, settled in the mountainous region of the King River, Victoria. The rugged and thinly inhabited country was spe- cially suited for the vocation carried on by these people, who were noted for their skill in cattle-stealing. Amid surroundings thus tainted with crime, the outlaws were reared, and were rendered familiar from their earliest years with outrages against the law and defiance of the con- stituted authorities. The Kelly family con- sisted of the parents and six children, three boys and three girls. The elder Kelly died some years ago, but the mother is still living, The boys were—Edward, aged 28; Daniel, aged 20, the two outlaws; and James, aged 22 (now following a respectable occupation in Sydney) who did not form one of the gang, being confined in the Berrima Gaol, in New South Wales, under sentence for horse-stealing, when the murder of the police at Mansfield took place. Of the three girls one is dead, another is married to one William Skillian, and the third, Kate Kelly, is the unmarried sister whose attempts to render aid to her brothers during their outlawed career have made her name familiar. Associated with the Kellys, and connected with them more or less closely by blood or marriage, were a number of other families resident in and around Greta, and who formed a very strong band of sympa- thisers ready to shield as far as any within their power the outlaws from the consequences of their crimes. Besides the attention devoted by them to cattle-stealing, which a peculiarly inti-
mate knowledge of the country enabled them to carry on almost unchecked, the Kellys, and es- pecially Ned, are believed to have been to some extent associated with Morgan and Power, who several years ago had also haunted this district. Ned Kelly, indeed, it is said, was instrumental in betraying Power to the police, but he was ar- rested for being an accomplice of Power in October, 1870. The commencement of the career of the Kelly gang, however, dates from April, 1878, when the outrage committed on con- stable Fitzpatrick led to the two Kellys, Edward and Daniel, taking to the bush to avoid arrest. Fitzpatrick went to the house of Mrs. Kelly, at Greta, armed with a warrant to ar- rest Dan Kelly on a charge of horse-stealing. The Kellys resisted the constable, and Ned Kelly fired a revolver at Fitzpatrick, and wounded him in the wrist. He was then allowed to escape. Warrants were immediately obtained against the family. Mrs. Kelly was sent to gaol for the assault, and is now doing a sentence in Melbourne gaol for the crime; but the sons Ned and Dan absconded. A reward of £100 was offered for their apprehen- sion. For months, however, they evaded capture, and nothing definite of them could be learned. In October, 1878, information was furnished to the police which resulted in a party, consisting of sergeant Kennedy, constables Lonergan, Scan- lan, and M'Intyre, being despatched from Mans- field to Stringy Bark Creek in search of the Kellys, who were reported to be hiding in the neighbourhood. Then followed the Mansfield tragedy, which made the name of the outlaws in- famous throughout Australia. The police fell into a trap. Unaware of the proximity of those for whom they were in search, and whom they regarded as mere ordinary criminals who would not venture to offer an armed resist- ance to authority, they halted on the banks of the creek. Dividing their small force, Kennedy and Scanlan went out to scour the bush, leaving Lonergan and M'Intyre in camp. So thoroughly unexpected was what followed that no special watch was maintained. Suddenly, about 5 o'clock in the evening, M'Intyre, who was engaged pre- paring tea, heard a voice cry out, "Bail up! Hold your hands up!" The constables dis- covered that they were covered by the rifles of four men, two of whom were Daniel and Edward Kelly. The other men, it was sub- sequently ascertained, were Steve Hart and Byrne, both of whom were mere youths, and asso- ciates of the Kellys. M'Intyre, who was unarmed, saw that his position was hopeless, and threw up his hands, but Lonergan attempted to draw
his revolver and seek shelter behind a tree three or four yards off. Before he could reach cover he was shot dead by Ned Kelly, crying out, "Oh! Christ, I'm shot." Ned Kelly searched the tent for firearms, and took from Lonergan's body his revolver and ammunition. When Edward Kelly looked upon the corpse of Lonergan he said, "Dear, dear, what a pity that man tried to get away." Daniel Kelly wanted to handcuff M'Intyre, but Edward Kelly said, "No, there is something better than hand- cuffs here," touching his rifle, "Don't attempt to get away, for if you do I will track you to Mansfield and shoot you at the police station." M'Intyre was then asked about his mates, and when they were expected back in the camp. He said, "Surely you don't intend to shoot them down in cold blood, because I would rather be shot a thousand times than give infor- mation of them, one being the father of a large family." Edward Kelly replied, "No; what should I shoot you for? I could have done that half an hour ago. If you had been constable Flood, I would have roasted you on that fire." The gang then concealed themselves, Edward Kelly telling M'Intyre that he had better get his mates upon their return to surrender. If he did so, the gang promised to allow the police to retire in the morning, but without their horses, as they were wanted by the outlaws. After a short lapse of time, Sergeant Kennedy and con- stable Scanlan came in sight. Edward Kelly said, "Hush lads, here they come. You (to M'Intyre) sit down upon that log or I'll put a hole through you." Kennedy came up in ad- vance, and as he approached was ordered to bail up, M'Intyre at the same time calling out to his comrades that they were surrounded, and ad- vising them to surrender. His advice was not taken. Kennedy grasped his revolver, and the
gang immediately fired. Scanlan, having dis- mounted, endeavoured to seek cover, trying to unsling his repeating revolver, but he fell mor- tally wounded before he could do so. Kennedy also dismounted, and M'Intyre, fearing a general massacre, rushed for the sergeant's horse and galloped off, leaving Kennedy exchanging shots with the bushrangers. Eventually he succeeded in making his way into Mansfield, and gave the alarm. Search parties were sent out, and brought in the bodies of Lonergan and Scanlan, but for two days the fate of Kennedy was unknown. Then his body was found about half a mile from the camp. He had evidently kept up a running fight with his murderers, but was at last disabled by a bullet. While lying helpless on the ground the gang surrounded him, watching his sufferings. After talking to him for some time Ned Kelly, notwithstanding his prayer to be left on the chance of recovery, placed the muzzle of his rifle to Kennedy's breast and shot him mortally through the body.
Profound excitement was occasioned by this awful tragedy. The police for weeks afterwards showed the utmost activity in searching for the murderers, but without success. A large reward was offered for their apprehension, and the members of the gang were declared outlaws by special act of Parliament. Though it was reported that the Kellys had been seen at various places subsequent to the murders, they committed no fresh outrages until De- cember 9, 1878, when they stuck up Mr. Young- husband's station, at Faithful's Creek, and sub- sequently robbed the National Bank at Euroa.
The gang arrived at the station about noon on December 9. Ned Kelly introduced himself to the person in charge (Mrs. Fitzgerald) of the homestead, by saying, "Don't be afraid, I am Ned Nelly; we won't do you
any harm. You must give us refreshments, and food for our horses." The bushrangers were served with dinner and forced all the hands on the station into room.
A hawker, named Gloster, who happened to arrive at the station during the afternoon, was also made a prisoner, and his waggon ransacked. Each of the outlaws arrayed himself in a new rig- out, from head to foot, and even such luxuries as soaps and perfumery were not despised, the bush- rangers pouring bottles of the latter over themselves, and pocketing the soap for future use. After securing all they required from the hawker's treasures, Ned and Dan Kelly composed themselves for the night, while Byrne and Hart kept watch. On the following morning the out- laws broke down the telegraph wires, and leaving Byrne in charge of the captives at the station,
proceeded to the township of Euroa in two spring carts. At about 4 in the after- noon they knocked at the door of the bank office, and on its being partly opened by W. Bradley, one of the clerks, Edward Kelly said he wanted a cheque of Mr. Macauley's cashed. (Mr. Macauley is the manager of Mr. Younghusband's station.) The clerk said it was too late, and
Kelly said he wanted the money, and asked to see the manager (Mr. Scott). Thereupon Kelly pushed the door open, and announced who he was. He and Steve Hart rushed in and covered the clerks with their revolvers, and drove them before them into the manager's room. A revolver was placed to the head of one of the clerks who held possession of the keys of the bank safe. These were given up and the outlaws helped themselves to whatever money they could find, amounting in all to £1942. All the bills and securities were left untouched. The bank officials were allowed to put their books away in the strongroom, and then the manager, his wife, children, two servants, and the bank clerks were taken out the back way. The premises were locked up, and the whole party driven through the town- ship of Euroa to Mr. Younghusband's station. Ned Kelly drove one of the spring carts and his brother the other. Mr. Scott was allowed to drive his own buggy. On again arriving at the station Byrne was found pacing up and down in front of the storeroom with a rifle in each hand, and all the people who had been shut up in the room, numbering about 30, were allowed to come outside. Ned Kelly took the money from the cart, and strapped the bag on to the front of his saddle. After having tea served in the kitchen, the bushrangers stopped about the premises until nearly 9 o'clock, when they rode away. The first intimation of the robbery waa given upon the return of the captives to Euroa. There was only one constable stationed in the township. He was not aware of the robbery before the return of the bank manager. The police authorities at Benalla were communicated with, and on the same night a special train left Benalla for Euroa. Great excitement was occa- sioned by this audacious robbery, and a feeling of insecurity was generally experienced throughout the entire district. The Government, which had previously offered £500 reward for the capture of
the gang, increased the amount to £1000. A con- tingent of the Defence Corps was sent to the
Mansfield district, and detachments were left at various towns which, it was feared, might be visited by the outlaws. Nothing was heard of the gang during the next few weeks, excepting a number of wild rumours. On the 11th February, 1879, the public was once more startled by the announcement that the Kelly gang had escaped into New South Wales, and made a raid on the branch of the Bank of New South Wales at Jeril- derie. The gang appeared to have thoroughly reconnoitred the strategical position of the town- ship before making their raid upon it, and to have executed their scheme by means of a succession of surprises. The police were startled out of their beds. The bank manager was surprised in his bath, and the whole population was taken un- awares. Jerilderie is a town with a population of about 400 persons, and the buildings are scat- tered. The town was protected by two policemen. Near midnight on February 10 the constables were awakened by the cries of "Police, police." Both men got up immediately, and in front of the station they saw a mounted man, who sud- denly raised two revolvers, and presenting one at each of the constables (Devine and Richards) said, "Hands up; I'm Kelly." The other members of the gang were in the rear, and the constables, seeing that they were outwitted, allowed themselves to be made prisoners. All firearms on the premises were first secured by the outlaws, and then they spent the remainder of the night in the police station, of course keeping a close watch over their captives. In the morning, mass was to be said in the local courthouse, about 150 yards distant, and it was the duty of Mrs. Devine, wife of one of the constable, to get the courthouse ready. Ned Kelly, dressed in police uniform, accompanied her to the courthouse, and remained there until she had performed the task, when he took her back again to the barracks. Ned said to Con- stable Devine that one object of his visit was to shoot him (Devine), because he was like a black tracker, and Richards. It appeared as if he was going to carry out his threat, but Mrs. Devine begged for her husband's life. Ned Kelly looked at the woman, and evidently at once abandoned the murderous intent. The outlaws remained all day at the barracks, and at night Byrne visited an hotel in the township. Next morning the first place in the township which the gang made a halt at was the Royal Hotel. All the inmates were ordered to sit in the bar parlour, which was guarded by Dan and Hart. Then the bank was stuck up. Byrne entered the back door, and one of the clerks said to him, "What do you mean by coming in at the back door like this?" He walked over to him, and about four feet off Byrne suddenly levelled a revolver, and breathing hard said, "I am Kelly." The clerk replied, "You be blowed; you are humbugging me." Byrne then demanded all firearms on the premises, and then conducted two clerks to the Royal Hotel. Ned Kelly afterwards returned to the bank, with one of the clerks to look for the manager who was found having a bath. Dan Kelly
was left in charge of the people at the hotel,
and the other outlaws proceeded to search for the money. They obtained about £2100 alto-
gether, which was put into a bag. After this they returned to the hotel, when Ned Kelly sud- denly returned to the bank to burn the books. After staying some time longer the outlaws took their departure. Byrne had left about an hour before his mates. The inhabitants were cautioned not to stir out of the town for the re- mainder of the day; but soon after the gang had taken their departure, information of the outrage was communicated to different stations. The New South Wales Government, after the committal of this robbery, offered £4000 for the capture of the gang, and the Victo- rian Government increased their reward to a like sum. The outlaws, however, had so many sta[u]nch sympathisers that they were able to baffle all pursuits. So quiet have the Kellys kept them-
selves during the last four months that many persons believed they had succeeded in making good their escape from the colony. Various rumours were circulated about the gang having been seen in the interior, but until their last cold- blooded and most brutal outrage, committed at Beechworth on Saturday night, the outlaws have
not been seen in any public manner.
LIST OF VICTIMS KILLED OR WOUNDED.
Constable Fitzpatrick, wounded, April, 1878.
Sergeant Michael Kennedy, shot dead, October
Constable Scanlan, shot dead, October 26, 1878. Constable Lonergan, shot dead, October 26,
Aaron Sherritt, shot dead, June 26,1880. Martin Sherry, shot dead, June 28, 1880.
John Jones, 11 years shot (died), June 29, 1880. C. C. Rawlins, wounded, June 28, 1880.
Superintendent Hare, wounded, June 28, 1880.
Martha Jones, 14 years, wounded, June 28, 1880.
Total—six shot dead, four wounded.
LIST OF BUSHRANGERS KILLED OR WOUNDED.
Daniel Kelly, shot dead, June 28, 1880.
Stephen Hart, shot dead, June 28, 1880, Joseph Byrne, shot dead, June 28, 1880.
Edward Kelly, wounded, June 28, 1880.
The series of engravings published in this issue
are from sketches taken on the spot by a gentle- man connected with the SKETCHER, Melbourne,
Mr. Thomas Carrington, and who was the only artist present during the encounter. Apart from the well-known skill of the gentleman named, the drawings being made on the spot, and under such conditions, are necessarily the most graphic, and,
in every way, the most reliable.