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(By "Junius." )

(Copyright Pending.)

According to any worth-while encyclopaedia, the hydro- graphic surveyor " determines by means of observations and soundings the outline of coasts and shores, the configuration of river beds, lake-basins, and the sea bottom adjacent to coasts, ascertains the position and extent of shoals and rocks and islands, investigates the nature and velocity of currents, the local tidal phenomena, the changes taking place in river mouths, and the alterations effected in coastlines by the action of the sea."

Great Britain has been termed the chart-maker of the world, and there is little doubt but that she has borne the brunt of charting the watery wastes of the planet. Yet the hydrographic de- partment, which is a branch of the Royal Navy, did not come into existence until the year 1795, when Earl Spencer — who was First Lord of the Admiralty under the Pitt administration (1794- 1801) appointed a hydrographer, one assistant and a draughtsman. The name of that hydrographer was Alexander Dalrymple, who held a similar post in the East India Company. Hence emerges the important fact of there being a pri- vate hydrographic office before one was established by an eminently maritime nation. It is of further importance to Australia that Dalrymple was a serious opponent to Cook, when the appointment was being made to send an expedition to observe the transit of Venus at Tahiti. From that small beginning has emerged the Hydrographic Office which is now the main source of the supply   of hydrographical information to the   whole of the maritime world. Our charts represent the aggregate dis- coveries and examinations of a long- gone procession of seamen on a pageant of ships of every conceivable class and rig, and of every grade of maritime social distinction. Often discovery of a rock or shoal meant the loss of a ship and also of her crew, and very many names on Australian charts turned the rock or shoal they describe into a monu- ment to the tragedy of their discovery. Cryptic, mysterious symbols, with which every chart is dotted, denote depths and nature of the bottom, the authority for every wind that blows and current that flows, while the experience which led to the austere " route recomended " being offered to seamen is the story of many strange voyages, and hairbreadts escapes. Charts of the Australian coast represent in fact three centuries of sea adventure, which began with the wan- dering explorations of Spanish and Portuguese ships, and ended with the highly scientific survey ships of the Royal Australian Navy. THE SAILING DIRECTIONS. Writing of the Sailing Directions, which are handmaidens of written in- formation which appears on the charts, W. H. Fitchett said: " Every bump of a whaler on some hitherto unknown reef, every sea cur- rent which perplexed some honest sea-     man's calculations, every islet and strait off which or through which, with slanting decks and strange sea- going paths, these ancient sea-doge marked their way, may be said to have left its signature on these quaint pages." Nor were the data on which the modern charts were compiled always the children of cold, analytical experience. Superstition was not always confined to the forecastle of those early ships, and impassioned prayer often took the place of sober look-out, while navigation was as often as not the net effect of haphazard application of very clumsy rules of thumb. Hence sources of in- formation had to be checked and due allowance made for nerves, for ignorance and for motives, which might range from the desire of a mutinous crew reaching port in the long boat to explain the total disappearance of their ship and shipmates, or the desire of an incompetent master to prove the rock or shoal on which he came to grief to be anywhere but in its actual posi- tion. But every report, every scrap and particular of information was received eagerly, ploted on the relevant chart and given its proper significance. Even while taking every opportunity to place seamen at their ease, however, car- tographers were cautions folk, and un- til a danger was confirmed in its posi- tion it was marked " P.D." in a circle, meaning " position doubtful." If fur- ther examination failed to reveal the danger, it was left on the chart with the legend also in a circle, " ED." (ex- istence doubtful) until a hydrographic survey ship proved the rights or wrongs of the case. On the principle that it was better to incite greater vigilance than to confirm mariners in a false security, a danger once placed on a chart was expunged only after the most exacting investigation. Existence and correct charting of these dangers are now taken as a mat- ter of course, for patient exploration and meticulous hydrographic surveying have disposed of the ever-present danger

in sea travel of finding on some dark night an unknown reef spouting ominously under the bows. Australia has a coast line of 11,310 miles, of which less than one half faces directly the ocean. Lying off portion of the coast proper of New South Wales, and off practically the whole coast of Queensland, of North Australia, and of Western Australia, are islands, reefs, and shoals innumerable, as though the land and sea has no definite understand- ing respecting where one begins and the other ends. DUTCH PATHFINDERS. The Dutch East India Company with headquarters in Java included in its operations exploration of the little known lands which lay in the beckon- ing east. Hence it was from Bantam that the first Europeans sailed to look on Australia. That was in March, 1606, or a few short months before Torres, coming from Peru via Santa Cruz, saw the new continent without realising the importance of his discovery. From the Dutch exploration we have the following names which have sur-   vived on modern charts : Duyfhen point, York peninsula (2759a). Keerweer cape and reef, Cape York Peninsula (2759a). The only perpetuation of the name Torres is in the reef-studded strait be- tween New Guinea and the coast of Queensland. The next points of the sleeping con- tinent were named in 1616, when the Dutch ship Eendracht under Dirk Hartog entered Shark Bay on October 25. From this visit we got : Dirk Hartog island, Western Aus- tralia (518). Inscription point, on Dirk Hartog island, so named because Hartog set up a post with a pewter plate on which was inscribed the fact of his visit (518). Frederick Houtman of the Dordrecht carried further the scrappy knowledge of the many dangers on the west Aus- tralian coast when he discovered the rocks which now bear his name on July 29, 1619. These obstructions extend about 50 miles parallel with the coast off Geraldton (1723). Another point was added in 1622, when the Dutch ship Leeuwin rounded the south-west corner of the continent in March, and left her name on Cape Leuwin to commemorate the event. The next to blaze new paths were also Dutch, when the ship Arnhem and Pera made the western coast of Cape York Peninsula on April 12, 1623, and the fol- lowing names were added to the then   existing knowledge of Australia : Arnhem bay, cape and land. Gulf of Carpenter (from Carpentier), governor of Dutch East Indies). Coen river. Pera head. Van de Linn cape and island. Van Dieman, cape (on Mornington island). All of these names are on the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria, chart num- ber 2759a. An important visitor gave a hand at exploration in 1627. He was Pieter Nuyts who became later Holland's am- bassador at Japan and Governor at Formosa, and he was in the vicinity of Cape Leeuwin on board the Dutch 'ship Gulden Zeepard in January of 1627. They explored the coast from Leuwin to Nuyts archipalego, near the town ot Ceduna, in South Australia. The new sign-posts set up as a result of this voyage were : Nuyts point, to the east of Cape Leeuwin (1034). Nuyts cape and reef, at the head of the Great Australian Bight (1061). Nuyts archipalego, at eastern end of Great Australian bight (1061). St Francis isles, in Nuyts archipalego (1061). St Peter island, which divided Denial and Smoky bays, near Ceduna (1061). The two last names were from the Christian names of the skipper of the Zeepard and Nuyts respectively. The next event cannot be termed a new discovery, for it happened on the already-discovered Houtman rocks, when the Dutch ship Batavia was wrecked there on June 4, 1629. But it left a few more names on the imperfect charts of the day : Batavia road, off Geraldton, W.A. (1723). Pelsart bank, group, isle and lagoon, also off Geraldton (1033).

The Gulf of Carpentaria was the venue for the next discoveries and sign posts, when the yachts Amsterdam and Wesel explored that gulf in 1636. The only name left on the chart was that given to Wesel cape and island, on the western shores of the Gulf of Carpen- taria (1014). Tasmania started to accumulate Dutch names in 1642, on December 1 of which year Abel Tasman anchored the Heemskirk and Zeehaan in Frederik Hendrik bay, Tasmania, which name was bestowed by him in honour of a Stadtholder of Holland. It must not be confused with Prince Henry bay, which was discovered by D'Entrecasteaux. Little surveying was done, but Tasman left the following names to perpetuate his visit : Frederik Hendrik bay, cape and Port (1079). Heemskirk mountain and point (1079). Maatsuyker isles (1079). Maria island, mount and point (named in honour of the wife of van Dieman (1079). Mt Zeehaan (1079). AN ENGLISH INTERLUDE. The first English maker or marker of ocean paths now appeared in the person of the semi-pirate, William Dampier, who commanded the Cygnet. He and his choice associates reached what is now King sound and anchored in Cygnet bay on January 5, 1688, where they re- mained until March 12. Being less of a seaman than a naturalist, Dampier left us more information of the flora and fauna than of the coast, but his visit added the following names to the pre- dominantly Dutch list of which Aus- tralia, was then possessed : Buccaneer group, off the mouth of King sound (1043), and B. rock in Roe- buch bay (858). Cygnet bay and hill in King sound (3759). Dampier archipalego (1055); D. creek, on which Broome now stands (858); and D. reef, in Shark bay (518). The next road-finder was again Dutch, who sought not so much to increase the world's knowledge of Australia's ocean ways as to find some trace of the dutch ship Ridderschap, or of any sur- vivors who may have, escaped from her. He was William de Vlamingh on the Geelvinck, and if he failed in his quest he discovered and named Swan river on December 29, 1696. He named Rottnest island from the large rats which lived there, and then sailed north, leaving the following names to perpetuate his visit : Geelvink channel, between Houtman rocks and mainland (1723). Rottnest island, off Fremantle (431). Cape Vlamingh, on Rottnest island (1058). Vlamingh head, near North-west cape (3187). Then came Dampier's second visit when, in command of H.M.S. Roebuck, when he passed north of Houtman's     Abrolhos and entered round Dirk Hartog island and entered — and named — Shark bay on August 6, 1699, where he re- mained until September 5. The follow- ing names ocommemorate the visit : Roebuck bay, after his ship (858). Shark bay, from the number of sharks caught (518). The Dutch ship Zeewyk was wrecked on one of the Pelsart group in 1727, her crew escaping to Batavia by boat. To commemorate this event we have : Zeewyk channel, which separated the Easter and Pelsart groups of islands (1723). JAMES COOK. Although neither his name nor that of his ship appear on the panels of any charts of Australian waters, there is little doubt but that Cook was the forerunner of all our hydrographic sur- veyors — even though as we have seen there was in existence no hydrographic department. Cook passed up the east coast of Australia from Cape Everard to Booby Island in 1770 — a distance by steamer track of 2006 miles — and had associated with him on board the En- deavour the following officers : Banks, Joseph, scientist ; Buchanan, draughtsman ; Clerke, Chas, mate ; Evans, Samuel, boatswain ; Forward, S., gunner ; Gathray, John, boatswain ; Gore, John, master ; Green, Chas, as- tronomer ; Hicks, Zachary, first lieu- tenant : Molineaux, R., mate ; Monk- house, W. B., surgeon ; Nowell, G., car- penter ; Orton, R., clerk ; Parkinson, draughtsman : Perry, Wm, surgeon ; Pickersgill, R., master ; Slattery, J., carpenter ; and Dr Solander, botanist. It is of interest to note to what ex- tent these names have been perpetuated on modern charts, the chart numbers being shown in parentheses. Banks Strait, which separates Furneaux Group from Tasmania (1706); Cape Banks at Botany Bay (2179) ; Banks Channel, Island and Peak (2375) north of Cape York. Clerke Island, off Cape Grenville (3088). Cook's Pigeon-house, N.S.W. (1018); Cook Island, north of Cape Byron (1028); Cook Harbour, Cooktown. Mt Cook (13S01 ; Cook Passage, near Lizard Island (2923) ; and Cook Reef, near Booby Island (2354). Endeavour Reef, on which Cook's ship struck, off the Bloomfield River (2924); Endeavour River. Cooktown (1350); and Endeavour Strait, south of Thursday Island (437). Evans Head and Reefs, south of Richmond River (1027) ; Evans Bock, near Lloyd Bay, N.Q. (2921) ; Evans Bay and Point, near Cape York (1937).

Healesville will on Tuesday next have life domestication. Forwood Reef, in Blackwood Channel, Torres Strait (2920). Gore Island, one of the Home Group near Cape Grenville (3088). Green Cape, N.S.W. (1017) ; Green Hill, Broadsound (807); Green Islet, off Cairns (2350) ; Islet, in Banks Channel, Torres Strait (2375). Point Hicks Hill, near Cape Everard (3169) ; Hicks Island, off Cape Gren- ville (3088). Monkhouse Point, south of Cooktown (2923). Orton Island, off Cape Grenville (2920). Pickersgill Reef, off Port Douglas (2924). Slattery Shoal, Guardfish Cluster, Broadsound (346). Cape Solander, Botany Bay (2179). On March 4, 1772 Captain Marion de Fresne anchored the Mascarin in Fred- erik Hendrik bay where he spent six days. Marion bay (1079) is the only name which perepetuates his visit. The next milestones were set up by Captain Tobias Furneaux, who com- manded H.M.S. Adventure on Cook's ex- pedition. Becoming separated from Cook on February 7, 1773 when down near the Antarctic, a heavy gale drove Furneaux towards Tasmania and he was glad to run for Frederik Henry bay, near to which the Adventure arrived on March 10. He remained at anchor here for five days, and then rejoined Cook at the Queen Charlotte sound rendezvous, New Zealand. The names from this visit are: Adventure bay, near Hobart (960). Furneaux group in Bass Strait (1695a). According to high French authorities Captain de St Alouarn anchored the ship Gros Ventre near Cape Leeuwin during 1772, and St Alouarn islets per- petuate the visit (1034). Cook's only visit to Tasmania was made on the third of his South sea voy- ages, arriving there with H.H. ships Resolution and Discovery on January 26, 1777. The only name added to the list as a result of this visit was: Cooktown, a small coaling village on Adventure bay (960) THE DAWN OF SETTLEMENT. Now occurred the event that was to besprinkle plentifully the hitherto un- explored lands of Australia with Eng- lish country names and names of Britain's aristocracy. The first fleet ar- rived in Port Jackson on January 26, 1788, and Governor Phillip applied him- self to the superhuman tack of estab- lishing stable settlement in a new land with the greater portion of his company convicts. From this came the name : Sydney, on Port Jackson, so named in honour of Viscount Sydney. It was Captain Bligh, of H.M.S Bounty, who established the next sign- posts, when he arrived at Adventure bay, Tasmania, on August 21, 1788. He was then on his way to Tahiti and the scene of his being set adrift. The names resulting from this visit were : Bligh point, on Flinders island, Bass strait (1695a). Bligh point, on Bruny island, near Hobart (960). On May 28, 1789, Captain Bligh passed through the channel in the Barrier reef, after his epic voyage by open boat from Tofoa, and from there he made his way to Timor. The following names sprang up in the wake of his boat : Bligh boat entrance, off Cape Direc- tion (2920.). Booby island, west from Thursday island (437). Brothers Hills or Gabbs island, Tor- res strait (2422). Cape Direction, opposite Bligh boat entrance (2920-1). Direction islands, north and south (2923). Fair cape, north from Cape Wey- mouth (2920). Pudding Pan hill, behind Cape Offord- ness (2929). The Paps, a name given by Bligh to hills hereabouts, has not been retained. Restoration island, near Cape Direc- tion, so named from the anniversary of the retoration of Charles II, on May 29, 1660 (3088). Simpson bay, on Dayman island, Tor- res strait (437). Sunday island, north of Cape Gren- ville (3088).   Turtle islet, probably known now as Tuesday island, lie off Horn island, near Thursday island (437). In 1789 the brig Mercury, Captain J. H. Cox, visited the south coast of Tasmania. The only momento of the visit is: Cox bight, near South-west cape (1079). On August 18, 1791, the convict transport Atlantic entered Port Jervis. now Jervis bay, from which fact the following names have been perpetuated: Bowen isle, in Jervis bay, so named after Lieut. Richard Bowen who was naval agent on board the Atlantic. Jervis bay, so named by Bowen after Sir John Jervis who became Viscount St Vincent and First Lord of the Admiralty. On May 8, 1791 H.M. Frigate Pan- dora, despatched to avenge the Bounty   mutiny, sailed from Tahiti for England

via Torres strait, with 14 of the multi- neers, and on August 29 she struck on the Barrier reef and became a total wreck. She took with her 35 lives, and the survivors made their way by boat to Timor, setting up ocean sign posts as they went. From this circumstance we get : Hammond island, Torres strait (691). Hawksbury island and reefs, in Prince of Wales channel, Torres strait (2375). Packer island, Endeavour strait (437). Paudora entrance, north from Raine island, where H.M.S. Pandora was wrecked (2354) Several names given by this company of castaways were not retained by later surveyors. VANCOUVER. The first hydrographic surveying, the data of which were incorporated in pres ent-day charts, was that of Captain George Vancouver on board H.M.S. Dis covery in 1791, and the names of both are on the panel of chart No. 1034, Cape Naturalist to King George Sound. Vancouver was on his way to what is now British Columbia to take over from the Spanish territory at Nootka Sound, on Vancouver island, and had with him Lieutenant Broughton, who commanded H.M.S. Chatham. It was their exploration erf the coast of south western Australia which led to the dis covery on September 28, 1791, of King George Sound on which Albany now stands. Chatham island, Mt Gardiner, Hood point, and Vancouver cape and rock, King George sound, perpetuate a visit that has little else by which to remember it. After leaving King George sound Vancouver called at Dusky sound, and discovered the Snares group of danjrerous rocks on November 22 and Chatham group of islands that stand to the eastward of New Zealand. D'ENTRECASTEAUX. Admiral Bruni D'Entrecasteaux,, and and with him Captain Huon de Ker madec arrived in the vicinity of what is now Hobart on April 12, 1792, on board the French ships Recherche and Esperance respectively. Their mission was to ascertain what had been the fate of the la Perou6e expedition, in which they were signally unsuccessful. But they did leave a number of French place names in Tasmania, and a few m Western Australia, some of which have survived to the present day. Tha following are from modern charts : Bruny island and mountain. Tasmania (960). D'Entrecasteaux channel and river. Tasmania (960). Mt Esperance and Port Eeperance, Tasmania (960). Esperance Bay, Western Australia (2064). French reef, is in Recherche archi pelago (3189). Huon island, point and river, Tas mania, and Huonville, on Huon river, Tasmania (900). La Billardiere point, Tasmania (960 ?. He was the naturalist of the expedition, and when D'Entrecasteaux and Ker madec died at sea, he kept the records. La Perouse rock is in the Recherche archipelago. It carries 5 to 6 fathoms over it and is rarely indicated by a break. There was something symbolical in this rock and the elusiveness of their search (3189). Le Grant, cape, forms the eastern limit of Esperance bay, W.A. (2984). Mondrain island, off Esperance bay, W A. (2984). Recherche bay, Tasmania (900), . Recherche Archpelago, Western Aus tralia (2984). BLIGH'S SECOND VOYAGE. Much more happily than on the previ ous occasion, Captain Bligh entered Tor res strait on September 5, 1792 on board H.M.C. Providence. With him was Lieut. Nathaniel Portlock commanding H.M. tender Assistant, and they were returning to England from Tahiti after performing the task which his being cast away by the Bounty's mutinous crew had frustrated, i.e. he had on board bread-fruit trees for the West Indies. This voyage — it was one of discovery through Torres strait — gives the following names : Mt Augustus, on Banks island (2375). Banks island, after Sir Joseph Bank's (2379). Bligh channel, the most northern of all channels through Torres strait (2375). Campbell island, in Torres strait (2422); C. reef, near Travera Island. Torres strait (2375). Canoe islet (natives seen by Bligh). Torres strait (2375). Cap islet, in Torres strait (24221. Mt Cornwallis, on Dauan inland. Tor- res, strait (2422). Dalrymple or Damuth island it about 10 miles from Campbell island (2422). Dungeness island forms - one side of Basilisk passage, Torres strait (2422). Farewell islets are at the western end of Bligh channel (2375). Jervis island (Mobyag), on which in Mt Jervis and off which is Jervis reef is near Bligh channel (2375). Mulgrave island is near Banks Island (2375). Nepean islet lies about 5½ miles from Darnley island, Torres strait (2422) Pearce cay lies 6 miles from Dal- rymple island (2422). Portlock reef, Coral sea, to the east-

ward of Cape York (2422); P, islet, in Bligh channel (2375). Providence shoal, also in Bligh chan- nel (2357). Stephens or Hogar island, lies about 12 miles from Darnley island (2422). Three Sisters islets, in Bligh chan- nel (3483). Turnagain island, near the western end of Bligh channel (2375). Warrior (or Tutte) island and reefs, so named because of the warlike atti- tude of natives, is on one side of Bligh channel (2422). Bent on exploiting the nutmeg wealth of New Guinea John Hayes sailed from Bombay for his goal, but stress of weather drove him to make the pas- sage south of Australia, and he arrived off the mouth of the Derwent river, Tasmania, on April 25, 1793, and anchored his ships Duke of Clarence, and Duchess. For some reason or other he decided to explore a locality that unknown to him, had but recently been examined by both British and French navigators. Few of the names he be- stowed have survived, preference being given to those already given, but we have as a result of his visit : Derwent river, on which stands Hobart (960), after that river in Cum- berland. Risdon cove and ferry , near Hobart (3090), after the 2nd officer on the Duke of Clarence. On March 6, 1793, Governor Grose signed with Captain Matthew Bowes Alt, of the ship Chesterfield, a charter to carry foodstuffs from Port Jackson to Norfolk island. Then on April 10th following he entered into a. contract with Captain William Wright Bampton for the ship Shah Hormuzeer to carry foodstuffs from Bombay to Port Jack- son. The two ships came together at Norfolk island and made their way in company through the coral sea, On July 1 they were in slight of Darnley island, and it was not until August 31 that they were clear of the reef and making their way towards the Arafura sea. Thus, for 62 weary days they had been encompassed by the perils of Tor- res strait which had, so scared early Dutch navigators. The distance is 150 miles, so the two ships made only 2.42 miles per day. The names which fol lowed this exploit were : Bampton island and reefs, Coral sea (2763). Bampton (parama) island, Great North-east channel, Torres strait (2423). Bristow islet, in Torres strait— after the navigator who explored the Auck- land group and other sealing islands (2423). Chesterfield islets and reefs, Coral Sea (2763.) Deliverance island, western end of   their long passage (447). Talbot islands, in Torres strait on   the New Guinea side (2423). Treacherous bay, on north side of Darnley island, so named for the attack there by natives on the Chesterfield's boats (2422) In 1795 Bass and Flinders made their   first exploration by sea, getting as far as Botany bay in an 8 ft row boat, the Tom Thumb. The one name which   emerged from this was : George's river, which they explored for about 20 miles, and on their report Bankstown was founded. Their ship— H.M.S. Reliance — carried off the two young explorers, and it was not until March of 1796 that they were able to fare forth once more. This time they reached Red point, but bad weather and hostile natives forced their return. The sign posts erected by this journey were : Bass point, north of Kiama (1020). Flinders ridge, behind Kiama (1020).   Port Hacking, discovered by and named after Sydney's first pilot. Watta Molla, where they found re- fuge after a storm. On February 9, 1807 the ship Sydney   Cove, Captain Guy Hamilton, was beached on an islet in Furneaux group. It was a case of beaching her ere she sank under them, which circumstance   gave the following names to the grow- ing list : Hamilton road, eastward of the south-east point on Preservation islet, Bass strait (1706). Preservation islet, from the refuge it gave the sinking ship (1706). Rum islet, near Preservation islet — the Sydney Cove had on board 7000 gal- lons of spirits (1706). Then came the epic boat journey of Bass from Sydney to Westernport, which commenced when he sailed on December 3, 1797, and ended with his return on February 25, 1798. The new names were : Bass river, discharging into Western- port (1707). Cape Liptrap, between Wilson's promontory and Westernport, Victoria (1695b). Corner Inlet, on the east side of Wil- son's promontory (1708). Flinders, in Port Western (1707). Sealers Cove, near Corner inlet   (1703). Shoal -haven bight and rlver, north from Jervis bay (1020). Western port (or Port Western), on which is Flinders naval base. It was so named for being the most western point of exploration (1707).

On October 7, 1708 Bass and Flinders set out on board the Norfolk to deter- mine once and for all whether or not the great expanse of water south of Wilson's Promontory was a bay or a strait. This was decided when they met the heavy ocean swell on rounding Cape Grim on December 8, and they returned to Sydney on January 12 after circum- navigating Tasmania—or Van Dieman's land as it was then. The crop of sign- posts after this voyage were : Bass spit, in Frederick Henry bay, Tasmania (809).   Bass strait, separating Australia from Tasmania, is 120 miles wide between Cape Otway and Cape Grim (1095 a and b). Cape Grim, from its forbidding ap- pearance, on the west coast of Tas- mania (3687). Flinders bay and channel, in Norfolk bay (809). Flinders island, in Bass strait (1706). Flinders point, at entrance to Tamer river (3649). Hunter group of islands, in Bass strait, named in honour of Governor Hunter who encouraged their explora- tions (3687). Mount Norfolk, on the west coast of Tasmania (1079). Port Dalrymple, the principal har- bour on the north coast of Tasmania (3649). Tamar river, at the mouth of which is Port Dalrymple, and at the head of which, 38 miles from the sea is Laun- ceston (3649), Following in Cook's wake, Flinders sailed from Port Jackson in the Nor- folk on July 8, 1799, to examine more closely Moreton and Hervey bays. He anchored in Moreton bay on the 14th, and was back in Port Jackson on August 20. The names added to the list were : Flinders reef, off Cape Moreton (1670a). Pumice stone channel— or strait— be- tween Bribie island and the mainland. Moreton bay (1670a). Shoal bay, Port Stephens (1070). Skirmish banks, passage and point, in Moreton bay, were so named for an encounter with blacks there (1670a). Sugarloaf point, north from Port Stephens (1024). THE LADY NELSON. On December 3, 1800, H.M. cutter Lady Nelson, bound from London to Port Jackson, made her landfall off Cape Northumberland; and South Aus- tralia, and Lieut. James Grant applied himself to taking his command through the lately- discovered but mostly unex- plored Bass strait. The Lady Nelson was built under the supervision of Cap- tain John Schanck, and was the first vessel on the Australian coast to have a centre-board. A number of promi- nent names sprang up in her wake as she passed eastward : Cape Bridgewater (Vic.) is about 40 miles eastward from Cape Northumber- land (1062). Curtis group of islands, Bass strait (1695a). Danger point, on the west side of Portland Bay (1062). Devil's tower, a rugged islet, 368 feet high, near Curtis group (1695a). Mt Gambier is, with Mt Schanck, proably the first land seen by those on the Lady Nelson, and lie about 14 miles inland from Cape Northumberland (1062). Glennie group of four islands, near Wilson's promontory (1703). Lady Julia Percy island (Vic.) about 20 miles east from Cape Nelson (1082). Lawrence rocks, about a mile from Danger point (1062). Moncoeur islands, in Bass strait (1703). Nelson, cape, is about 7 miles from Cape Bridgewater. Northumberland, cape (S.A.) notable for its kelp " forests " (1007). Otway, cape, on the north side of the western entrance to Bass strait. Grant named it Albany Otway (1062). Patton, cape (Vic. ) fronting Bass strait (1095b). Portland bay, on which is the city of Portland (Vic.) (1062). Rodondo island, near Wilson's promontory (1703), Schanck, mount (S.A.) inland from Cape Northumberland (1062). Sir William Grant, cape (Vie.) about 4 miles from Cape Nelson (1062). The second ship to pass through Bass strait was the Harbinger, Captain Black, which sighted King island and named King island on January 11, 1801. The new sign posts which are doing duty on modern charts were : Black point, King Island, Bass strait (404). Harbinger rocks, which lie about 4 miles from Cape Wickham, King island (404). King island, one of the western sen- tinels to Bass strait (404). The Lady Nelson left Sydney for Western port on March 6, 1801, under Lieut. Grant, who had with him Lieut. Murray, mate; Boven, 2nd mate; Ensign Francis Barralier, and George Daley (naturalist). The only name added to the list was : Murray pass, between Deal and   Brith islands, Kent group (1694). Schanck, cape, near Western port     (1707).   Desiring to have more explicit know- ledge of the mainland side of Bass strait, Governor King despatched Lieut, John Murray in the lady Nelson to

" trace the coast between Cape Schanck and Cape Albany Otway." pursuant to which instructions Murray sailed from Port Jackson on November 12, 1801. He did some surveying at Kent group, and on December 7 he reached Western port —the day after Flinders in the Investi- gator made the land at Cape Leeuwin. Murray sailed past the entrance to Port Phillip on January 4, 1802, and on the 30th sent Bowen in the launch to in- spect the opening. Bowen returned on February 4, and on the 14th Murray Bailed the Lady Nelson through the heads and anchored near Sorrento. The names from this voyage were ; Corio bay, on which stands Geelong (2371). Nepean point, at entrance to Port Phillip (2747). Port Phillip, after Governor Phillip (2747). The Rip, or tide race between Port Phillip beads (2747). MATTHEW FLINDERS. The value of discoveries made by Bass and Flinders became apparent to the British authorities as soon as Flinders had them published soon after reaching England in H.M.S. Reliance in 1800, and it was decided to prosecute further so profitable investigations Hence it was that Captain Flinders ar- rived off Cape Leeuwin on December 6, 1801, and although he had no such instructions, he decided that " the dif- ference of sailing along the coast at a distance, or in keeping near and mak- ing a running survey, was likely to be so little that I judged it advisable to do all that circumstances would allow whilst the opportunity offered . . . ." Flinders had associated with him the following : Atkin, J., 2nd master; Bauer, P., natural history painter; Bell, H., surgeon; Bell, N. and Bell, T., mid- shipmen; Brown, Dr R., botanist; Evans, T., midshipman ; Flinders, S. W., 2nd lieut.; Fowler, R, M., 1st Lieut.; Franklin, J., Lacy and Lounds, midship- men; Mart, R., carpenter; Olive, J., clerk; Purdie, R., surgeon; Sinclair, K., Taylor, midshipmen; Thistle, J., master; Westall, W., artist; and Wol sey, J., midshipman. On December 8 they passed the some what remarkable point, to which Flin- ders gave the name Hillier, and he then named Vancouver's Cape Howe West Cape Howe, " there being another Cape Howe on this coast named by Captain Cook. " They anchored in King George sound at 11 that night. They remained in King George sound until January 5, 1802, and Flinders began to meet the names of D'Entre- casteaux for which in most cases he substitued his own. A range with a number of peaks induced the name Mt Many Peaks, and on another range he bestowed Mt Rugged; then as they hauled off the coast for the night he gave the name Haul-off rock, a con spicuous lump about 314 feet high which lies a mile or so off the main land near Cape Riche (a French name) (1034). On January 6 they made and named Cape Knob, and three granitic masses which Flinders named West, Middle, and East Mt Barren, and Shoal cape on the 8th, and they were in sight of Recherche archipelago that evening. On the fol- lowing day they saw and named The Causeway and Causeway channel, and for the reason that it offered them security amid a labyrinth of islands and shoals, he named their anohorage that night Lucky bay (2954). They remained at anchor in Lucky bay until January 17th. In the interim Flinders surveyed and plotted the group which lies off the entrance to Esperance bay. He named The Twins islets, Goose island, Cape Arid (from the French Aride) and Arid bay and strait; Cape Pasley, after Admiral Sir Thomas Pasley and Mt Pasley, and Mart island and rock (3189). THE HEAD OF THE BIGHT. Pursuing their voyage eastward on the 17th they saw and named Point Malcolm " in honour of Captain Pult- ney Malcolm of the Navy." This point lies 12 miles north-east from Cape Pas- ley. Then on the 18th they saw and named Point Culver, and Point Dover on the 19th and for days they ran along a coast that was like a level bank until Wednesday, January 27, When Flinders decided they had reached the head of the Great Australian bight, on which he bestowed that name. They had run for 335 miles from Cape Pasley along that flat, level line of bank, or low cliffs. On January 28th they came upon Nuyts reef, and Flinders bestowed the name Nuyts on a rooky cliff about 7 miles west from Fowler bay, in which refuge they anchored that night. It took its name from the 1st Lieut of the Investigator, Point Fowler followed in due course (1061). By the 31st they were nearing Nuyts archipelago, and saw and named Bell point , Sinclair Island, point and rocks to the east of Fowler bay, and Purdie Islands, all commemorating members of the ship's company. Then on February they perpetuated further the historic company by naming Lacy isles, Evans Isle, and Franklin island. Petrel bay was the name given to a cove on St Francis Isle off Nuyts. On February 5 Point Brown and Cape Bauer were names in honour respec- lively of the naturalist and the painter of natural history, and rounded off the naming by bestowing that of Streaky Bay (1061). The name Smoky bay fol- lowed by reason of much smoke from

native fires. Olive island and Point Westall were named, both after officers, and then Flinders named Denial bay " as well in allusion to St Peters (a nearby island) as to the deceptive hope we had formed of penetrating by it some distance into the interior country. " Lounds island and reef which lie 7 miles east of Purdies island were also named, also after one of the company. Anchor was raised on February 9, and they saw and named Cape Radstock, " in honour of Admiral Lord Radstock," and next morning they named Point Weyland, and discovery of islands to windward gave rise to anxiety for the safety of the ship at night. The islands were named Waldegrave and Top- gallant isles, and they were glad to come to anchor under the former, while the name given to Anxious bay com- memorates a very nervy time. On the morning of the 13th they were surprised to see breakers close to, but   they shaved clear. They saw and named Flinders island (after the 2nd lieut.) ; Investigator group, Pearsons isles and Ward isles (1061), and later Point Drummond was named " in com- pliment to Captain Drummond of the navy." Coming toward the point of Eyre's peninsula, they found themselves embayed, and Flinders bestowed the name Coffin bay '' in compliment to the present vice-admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, Bart.; who, when resident Commissioner at Sheerness, had taken so zealous a part in the outfit of the Investigator." To further honour his name, Flinders named the western point of the bay Sir Isaac point. Greenly's isles were passed and named, and at daylight on the 17th they named Whidney islands., point and reef, as well as Avoid bay and point on Eyre's PeninsuIa (2389). The Investigator was by now — the 19th —nearing the southern tip of Eyre peninsula, where Flinders named Liguanes bay and Cape Wiles " after a worthy friend in Jamaica,." On the 20th Williams isles and Slea- ford bay were named, and on the 21st Neptune's isles, Sibsey, Spilsby and Stickney islands got their names to- gether with Thistle island and Thorny passage. It was on this day that the boat containing six men was lost, from which circumstance the name Catas- trophe was given to the south-east tip of Eyre's peninsula. Memory Cove and Taylor— one of the lost men — both com- memorate the tragedy. Two other names given in this locality were Wedge island and Gambier isles " in honour of the worthy admiral (now Lord Gambier) who had seat at the Admiralty board when the Investigator was ordered to be fitted. " SPENCER GULF. On leaving the scene of this disaster, the land was found to trend to the north, and Flinders was encouraged to be- lieve that at last he had discovered the southern end of a strait running through to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Cape Dinington (784) was named, as were Boston and Bicker island, Stam- ford Hill and Surfleet point. Then came Grantham island, Spalding cove, Boston point and bay, Kirton point, Boling- broke point and Louth isles, at the en- trance to Port Lincoln (2389), Sir Joseph Banks group of about 20 islands was named, " in compliment to the Right Honourable president of the Royal Society, to whose exertion and favour the voyage was so much in debted." Then on February 26 they entered the bay which Flinders named Port Lincoln, " in honour of my native province." Sleaford mere was examined in hopes it would replenish their failing supplies of water, but it was found to be salt. On March 4 Flinders observed a solar eclipee, and on the 6th the Investigator sailed out of Port Lincoln, and " we prepared to follow the unknown coast to the northward, or as it might be found to trend." The name Reevesby was given to an island in the Banks group. Then came the names Elbow hill, Barn hill, Mount Young, " in hon- our of the Admiral, " Middle mount and Mt Brown, the last-named on the east side of tho gulf, and not far from Port Augusta. Then with Mt Arden in sight Flinders decided that " Nothing of par- ticular interest having presented itself to detain us at tho head of the gulph, we got under way in the morning of the 13th." And so the Investigator be- gan tho return voyage down the gulf. On Monday, March 18, Flinders named Point Pearce " in compliment to Mr Pearce of the Admiralty," and Point Riley for the same reason. They heard dingoes howling that night, and next day named Corny point, which is on the opposite side of the gulf from Port Lincoln. He also named the gulf they had explored, as well as the cape at the termination of Yorke peninsula, after Earl Spencer " who presided at the Board of Admiralty when the voyage was planned and the ship put into com- mission." He also named Hardwicke bay " in honour of the noble earl of that title," and Althorp islands off cape Spencer, Louth bay and Point Lowly. Point Marsden on Kangaroo island was named " in compliment to the second secretary to the Admiralty," and Nepean bay of which Marsden point is one of the points, after Sir Evan Nepean, first secretary to the Admiralty. The Investigator was anchored at 6 pm. on the 31st, and on the following day they made a raid on the kangaroos which abounded, and " half a hundred weight of heads, forequarters and tails were stewed down into soup for dinner...." It was " in gratitude for        

so seasonable a supply," that Flinders named Kangaroo island. On the 23rd while the ship still lay at anchor he named Kangaroo head, Mt Lofty on the mainland behind Adelaide, and Cape Jervis which confronts Backstairs pas- sage. GULF OF ST VINCENT. Leaving their haven on March 24, they saw and named Troubridge hill in the gulf of St Vincent which he named " in honour of the noble admiral who presided at the Board of Admiralty when I sailed from England . . . ." and gave the name of the Right Hon. Charles Phillip Yorke to the peninsula between the gulfs of St Vincent and Spencer. They sailed from the head of the gulf of St Vincent on March 31st, and gave names to Troubridge shoals and In- vestigator strait. On April 2 they were back in Nepean bay correcting chrono- meters and slaying kangaroos for food, and on the 4th Flinders gave its name to Prospect hill, on Kangaroo island, and also named Pelican lagoon. Weighing anchor on the 6th Flinders discovered and named Backstairs pas- sage and Ante-chamber bay, and also Cape Willoughby, on the eastern end of Kangaroo inland, a small cluster of islands on the outer end of Backstairs passage he named the Pages. Stretching towards the east they sighted what they took to be a white rock at 2 p.m., but it proved to be the French ship Geographe, and at 5.30 " We veered round as le Geographe was passing, so as to keep our broadside to her, lest the flag of truce should be a deception." Flinders and Mr Brown the naturalist went on board and met Baudin, and it was from this circum- stance that Encounter bay appears on modern charts. The two ships separ- ated next morning, and Flinders did not disturb the names Cape Launes and Rivoli bay bestowed by Baudin. Cape Buffon and Carpenter rocks were also allowed to stand. He also left Cape Bouffers of the French until on reach ing Port Jackson he found that Grant had named it Cape Banks. They reached King Island on the 22nd, where they remained until Satur- day, the 24th, after which, with true persistence, Flinders followed the in- deration past Cape Schanck and found his way into Port Phillip, without knowing that Murray had discovered it ten weeks earlier. They remained with- in Port Phillip until May 3, in which time they named Indented head, Station peak and Swan bay. Making eastward through Bass strait, they named Cape Wollami " the native name for a fish at Port Jackson " which cape, Flinders said, resembled the head of that fish. On May 9 the Investigator entered Port Jackson, having under her indomitable commander and dauntless crew proved her right to the name she bore. BAUDIN AND HAMELlN, Then came the French exploring ships Geographe under Baudin and the Naturaliste under Hamelin, the former of which met Flinders in Encounter Bay, South Australia, in April, 1802. The Naturaliste arrived in Port Jack- son on April 24, 1802, and sailed on May 18, while the Geographe arrived on June 22 with most of her crew down with scurvy. The Naturaliste returned to Port Jackson on July 3. So deplet- ed was the personnel of the expedition that Baudin decided to despatch the Naturaliste to France with skeleton crew, retaining the balance as a full complement for the Geographe. To effect this, he required a small vessel as tender to the Geographe, and pur- chased from Governor King the schooner Casuarina, and it is the name of this vessel which appears on the panels of charts No. 1033, Champion Bay to Cape Naturaliste, and No. 1034, Cape Natural- iste to King George Sound. The names of some officers of this expedition were Baudin, Freycinet (who was to revisit Australia in 1610 as commander of L'Uranie), Hamelin, Peron, Ronsard, and St Cricq. Some names, bestowed by this ex- pedition, which remain on modern charts, are : Baudin Rocks, near Cape Jaffa, South Australia (1014) ; Baudin Island, W.A. (1716); and Baudin Island, in Yampi Sound (1043).   Casuarina islets, off Kangaroo Island, S.A. (2389) ; Casuarina Shoal, near Fremantle (1058) ; Casuarina Point, in Koombanah Bay (1033) ; Casuarina Reef, near Cape Bossut. W.A. (1048) ; and Casuarina Mountain, near Wynd- ham (1387).     Freycinet Isle, off Port Nelson, W.A. (1047) ; Freycinet Estuary, Islet, and Reach, in Shark Bay (518) ; Freycinet Point, near Cape Naturaliste (413) ; and Freycinet Peninsula, Tasmania (1073), Geographe Strait, Tasmania (1073);' Geographe Bay and Reef, near Cape Leuwin (1034) ; Geographe Rock, near Cape Leuwin (413) ; Geographe Chan- nel, Shark Bay (518); and Geographe Shoals, near Fort Hedland (1437). Hamelin Bay, W.A. (1472); Cape Hamelin, W.A. (413) ; Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay (518) : and Hamelin Bould- ers, north from Thursday Island (2375). Cape Naturaliste, Tasmania (1705) ; Naturaliste, cape and reefs, W.A.   (1034) ; Naturaliste Channel; Shark Bay (518).     Cape Peron, Tasmania) (1679); Peron Channel, Tasmania (3687); Peron   Islands, near Cape Ford, W.A. (IMt) ; Peron Cape, Flats, Mountain, and Pen- insula. Shark Bay (518) ; Peron Hill, near Jurien Bay, W.A. (1088); Cape Peron, near Fremantle (1058).     Cape St Cricq, Shark Bay (?518),    

on either' side of the grub and also uround these circles are white spots. 1 consider it as pretty as my caterpillars were- The grub is about two inches long. The chrysalis is partly greenish yellow and the rest of it is a dull red. It has lost all the pretty markings. I am waiting anxiously to see What it may turn into. It's a fight for life for the baby ones because the ants are carry ing them away to their nests and what the ants do not get the birds seize, ex cepting a few I have my eyes on. They are doing1 good work, killing our peats of burrs and weeds. The grubs are soft to handle like silkworms. I have writ ten to 'Marie Antionette' a nice fat letter, and hope she won't be surprised. That was very nice praise from 'Shel- ley,' seeing she herself is such a beauty lover. It is very quiet and still here only for a rumble every now and then, just the ideal time for letter writing. (I think it is fun being out in the rain, 'Hermit,' but I am not so keen when it is a case of a thunderstorm. You must be kept busy with your ex ploring, when there are so many new and interesting things to discover after the rain.) 'Merry Maid,' Yalterol, Blackall Line, writes : Since my last letter to you I have done a lot of travelling. I Lave been as far north as Townsville and as far south as Brisbane. The north was in a very bad state when I was up there, but since then there has been plenty of rain. Townsville and Mcckay are two very pretty places. I thought of 'Jolly Madcap ' while I was in Towns ville, but I did not have the luck to see her. While I was in Brisbane I went down to RedclilTe one Sunday on the ship Doomba- The ocean was very calm on our downward trip, but it was just the opposite coming home. Going down to Redeliffe one could see the Horni brook Highway in the distance. We had great fun on the slippery-slide, too The Brisbane Botanical Gardens were beautiful. There are some very pretty birds there too. While in Brisbane I «aw two very good talkies. They were 'Curly Tod' and 'Whoopee.' Have you , seen these two talkies, Cousin? The news of poor Nellie Rodgers' death came as a great shock to me. The poor girl must have suffered a lot of pain. I always looked forward to her letters to the G.C. Cousin, I am still waiting for the return of my snap. It is one that I would not like to lose. I saw bj the last G.C. page where one of my pen pals was going to Brisbane shortly. 1 hope she enjoys herself- There is always something new to see in Brisbane, be cause it is growing so rapidly. 'Her- mit' wrjites long, interesting letters, doesn't she, Cousin ? She writes to one of my cousins and my grandma. I have been doing a good deal of fancy-work . lately. I have just completed a pair of ; d'oyleya and I am working a tulip de signed table runner now. I missed the G.C. page while I was away, and I thought of it every Tuesday. Well, Cousin Ruth, I wish you and all my fellow clubites a very happy and pros perous New Year. (I am glad you had such a lovely holiday, 'Merry Maid.' Uncle Sam is the one to tell all about the Hornibrook Highway, Redeliffe, etc. I have seen the pictures mentioned. Your snap will be returned.) 'Wild Violets,' RawbeUe. via Monto, writes: I decided to wait for my book before I wrote. Thank you very much indeed for it. I found it very amusing, also the illustrations were well done. Do all Mary Grant Bruce's books cost the same ? How many of them hav» you read, Cousin T Would you please telt me the price of 'Uncle Tom's Cabin?' I received a pleasant surprise when I eaw my serial printed. 'Tubby's' (although I'm lat* in saying it) was very interesting, and well written. 'Hermit's' is very nice also. There was only one more story of the Christmas competitions printed.

Aren't the rest suitable, Cousin ? The wattle-growing in the scrub frontage is in bud, and I'm looking for ward to the time when it will flower. The best of luck for everyone for the rest 6f 1036. (Yes, 'Wild Violet,' the books of Mary Grant Bruce are all priced alike, according to our local book-sellers. I have read several of the 'Billabong' series. 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' may b« obtained for about 4s. (40 points). The overflow of the Christmas competition stories grew unsuitable as tha festive season faded.) 'Glee,' Tablelands, via Calliopei writes : Thank you so much for the book, it ib ever so much finer than I dared hope. ' And now may I work for one of Dickens's works ? I'd like a well-bound edition of 'David Copper field,' please. How many points will I require ?

I was very sorry to hear of the death of our Clubite, but after all, I guess it is better that way. I wish to thank the girls for their kind congratulations. I do ' appreciate them. I assure you. With best love. (If you are requiring a leather-bound volume of 'David Copperfield' this would take about 60 points, 'Glee.' In other editions £he book can be obtained from 3s. upwards. I think all the nice things said about you have been well deserved.)