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GUNS AND GUNNERS. (Continued From Illustration Pages). an engineer was immediately appointed, but a Mr. George Bridges Bellasis was made a lientenant of Artillery, and was charged with the inspection and direc- tion of batteries and cannons of the set- tlement. This gentleman has an interesting his- tory. He was an officer of the hon. East India Companies' artillery, in Bombay, and having. according to the custom of tho time, fought a duel in which his ad versary was killed, he was tried and sen tenced to be sent to New South Wales. On arriving here he was accompanied by the highest recommendations. and event tually received a pardon. He was the first   artillery officer to receive appointment here as a colonial officer.   Lieutenant Bellasis was reinstated in   the Indian Army on July, 30, 1806. Pre viously to his leaving the colony, but no doubt in view of his departure, Lientenant   Minchin (the adjutant of the New South Wales Corps) had been appointed artillery and engineer officer, dating from April 13, 1806. This officer was originally in the marines and returned to England with them. There he joined the New South Wales corps and whilst returning to New South Wales in the convict ship Lady Shore, he being in charge of the dctachment of that regi- ment, which supplied the guard, handed over to about a dozen mutineers the arms, chest, and ammunition. This cowardly action on his part was the means of the ship being captured. Minchin, with twenty-eight others was   acht away in a boat 300 miles from land, but eventually reached a port on the coast of Brazil. He reported to Governor King, in August, 1806, that the defence of Port Phillip was progressing, the ramparts,     merlons, and cap brasures of three sides   being completed, the outer wall of the rampart on the fourth and fifth sides had   been raised five feet, the foundation of the sixth side laid, and a bombproof of 14 ft. square completed under one side. King acribes this as being under the supervision of Adjutant Minchin with an assistant. He adds, " when completed it will mount twenty guns, of which there is now in the colony of New South Wales six twelve and eight six-pounders, there- for six 18-pounders are required to com-   plete the ordinance for that defence.' This fort, which was never completed,

only six 6-pounders being mounted, was used as a saluting battery. The last im- portant salute fired from it was when   the Duke of Wellington's death was an- nounced in 1853.   On Governor Bligh's assumption of office Minchin made a report to him of the state   of the fortifications. In this only three forts are mentioned, viz: Dawes Point, 14   guns, carriage of eight unserviceable;   George's Head, 4 guns not mounted. ln cluding Barrack Square and Government House, there were 31 guns in the colony, 25 of which could not be used.   In connection with the defence ci Pot Phillip there is one interesting matter in connection with it that might be fur ther investigated. Amongst Governor King's letters was one dated October 20, 1807, from Lieu- tenant W. Minchin. King was at the time living in England. The writer, after addressing him as "Dear Govcrnor," and making complimentary remarks respect- ing affairs during his regime, says:— I am not yet dismissed from situa-   tion of engineerer, but soon cxpect such will take place. I shall not be sorry. The merlons of the fort are all taken off, and several other alterations, I am told, are to be made— not for the better. I can as-   sure you. I understand the foundation stone, on which your name is as the then Govcrnor, is to be taken out and some- thing else substituted. On that day if I not dismissed before, I shall resign

my Colonial appointment, which I held under you with pleasure. An inspection of the wall shows that   there is no stone visible with an ins r p tion, but at the nor'-east corner in the base course is a stone, the face which   has been carefully plastered or cemented   over. Why so ? None of the others have been so treated. If this facing was re- moved, might it not reveal the name of Governor King. Dr Harris writing to King five days after Minchin says: "Anything that bears the name of King is sufficicnt to damn the person that uses It in his (Governor Bligh's) opinion." In this may be found the reason for Minchin's state- ment.     Solid Masonry.   Whcn the 40th Regiment of Infantry arrived in Sydney in 1814, Captain John Gill, of that regiment was appointed en- gineer and artillery officer, and the work of construction was carried out by him. This was the first attempt to put up a   solid masonry fortification. It was situated on the rocks at the extreme end of the point — a square, each face of which was 30 ft., and at each corner of which was a circular bastion for one gun on a traversing carriage. On the face on the land side a two storied tower occupied the centre, flanked on each side by a smaller one. A draw bridge over a waterway connected the mainland, the entrance being through the

centre of the tower. This battery moun-   ted ten 24-pounder guns. Early in 1854 the news from Europe led to the conclusion that war was not far off and during April of that year startling headlines appeared in the news papers, whose colums were filled with letters demanding instant action for the protection of the port. A public meeting was held on May 21 is the Circus, York-street, Sydney, for the purpose of addressing the Queen and expressing loyalty and devotion to the   British Government. All the prominent men of the day were present, and ac- cording to the Herald, "The speeches were eloquent and fervent ; " but no reference was made to defence. The news that war had been declared by England and France against Russia   was received in Sydney on June 26. The battery of Mrs. Macquarie's Point, which has long since disappeared. moun- ted two ten-inch and eight 32-pounders and commanded the channel round Brad- ley's Head The guns on the battery at Kirriblli   were five eight-inch, but they were re- moved some years ago. The barracks built here are now used by the boats' crews of the Naval Commander in Chief whose residence, Admiralty House, is just above it. Two or three attempts had been made to fortify the rock on which Governor Phillip used to keep those of his early colonists who had thieving propensities and which the latter had naned Pinch- gut, but any works commenced had never been completed. Now, however, at a cost of about £17,000 a strong fortifica- tion was erected. The native name of the small island was Mattawee, but from this time it became known as Fort Deni- son. an absolutely useless fortification.   Its armament was two 10-inch guns, one 6-inch and twelve 32-pounders. To complete Denison's scheme of de- fence, Fort Macquarie was enlarged and strengthened, and its old guns replaced bv three 10-inch, each weighing 87 cwt, five 42-pounders, seven 32-pounders, and one 24-poundcr, these beinj; added in 1861- 66. Fort Macquarie of late years has pre sented quite a different appearance from what it did then. Extensive reclama- tiou works for the extension of Circular Quay round Fort Macquarie and the filling up of the reefs and rocks which had been enclosed placed the fort some distance from the water, which originally   lapped its base. The last gun was fired during a sham attack in 1886, and the fort was de- molished in 1900 to make room for the

erection of the tramway shed that now occupies the site. By 1859, the outer line of fortifica-     tions had disappeared and Sydney. with the experience gained by the British fleets in the Black Sea and the Baltic during the war with Russia, was left   with the inner lines of batteries only as her means of defence should hostilities have broken out. "The whole strength of the British Empire," which Denison relied on to defend Sydney, was represen-   ted by six warships to guard the whole   Australian coast, New Zealand, and the Western Pacific one companv of Royal Artillery and four companies of the 12th. regiment. It was in this regiment that the late Major-General Richardson was then a lieutenant. Of the warships, one was the Herald, originally a 26-gun frigate, but at this time carrying only four, which when sent out on this commission was described by a writer in the English press as a "rotten old tub." The other ships were the Cordelia of 11 guns; Elk, 12 guns; Iris, 26 guns; Pelorus, 22 guns;

and Niger, 14 guns. The first three of these were old sailing ships. The last     two were new vessels, screw steamers carrying then the best guns. Sydney would have fallen an easy prey to any foe that might have felt disposed in case of war to come along. Ball Practice.   What was wanting in equipment, how   ever, was made up in enthusiasm. Dur- ing the sixties ball practice was regu larly carried out in the harbour bat- teries, and it. was the usual thing for advertisements to be published in the press cautioning shipmasters, boatmen and others to keep away from the line

of fire. It is interesting to recall an incident of the seventies. It had been decided   to fortify the Heads, and some large guns had been ordered for the Middle Head battery. These were landed at Milson's Point and rolled by members of the Permanent Artillery on heavy baulks   of timber along the road. Sergeant-Major Green, with heavy Dundreary whiskers, in charge of the working party seen in our illustration, was the original No. 1 of the Artillery Regiment in Australia. His daughter was the wife of General Holmes, who met his, death under such sad circumstance in the recent war in France. A stray   shell killcd him instantaneously, and Mr. Holman, the late Premier of New South Wales, who was standing nearby, wit   nessed the tragedy.   The last English troops were with drawn from New South Wales in 1870, the Royal Artillery under Captain Gra- ham, and the 18th Regiment under Lieu- tenant-Colonel Elliott, leaving in the ship Silver Eagle on September 6, {For the matter published herewith we

are indebted to Captain J. H. Watson, of the Australian Historical Society, from whose collection of photographs, too, and the Australian Historical Society's, we are indebted for the unique illustra- tions accompanying this article.}



When Governor Arthur Philip had landed almost two months   in Sydney Cove, he appointed lieut. Dawes, an officer of marines on the Sirius, to act as officer of artillery and engineering, in consequence of which the ordance of the settlement and the construction of a small redoubt on the east side were put under his                     direction. The ordnance consisted of two brass six-pounders mounted on field carriages which had been landed in March prior iriuc in iLai by tho French navigator La Perouse. When Lieut. ??      and Lieut. Philip Gidley King went by boat to visit Macquarie on February 1788, under instructions from Governor Phillip, they             found that that officer had thrown round his tent a       stockade and mounted two small guns.

Some writers have assumed because   Dawcs was Instructed to construct a   small redoubt on the east side of the Cove. This was the first fortification of Port Jackson. But is was not that     honor i guns to the west point of the Cove, Dawes Point, sometimes called     Maskel's Point. after Dr. Maskelyne       Astromer of England.   foil .- lei:, us. in hi. Ac:o-.nt of lii kHElis »Wv in. ISev Smith W : -- . that i --number. 17SS. i« was new** v to senj t. tl:c Cape of fioo-I h -pe fo ? f.od. ; ..'?; tin' -iriu- iran therefore orde:pl !?? rrc:irc fur l:er voyac with all m fK-dition. and as she would be enabl.':l to t .king all h.Y euns. eight of them were

Lin led on llu- wet poin: of the C' \e and. a small Lri-c-tw'.irk «-. thrown up in front of t-»in. And thus cam.- iiil ? exisu-ncc. early ii: September. last fe-ing. finished, a flagstaff was erected.

and lira filial! piece*, i-f iron nrdim.e. placed in it.' Th.-sc 'runs would be the ?.»?« eu-iHiimd Ts sent out for the s;ttle i.- in. If further proof in nm*'«iT. Major Ross, tli- Lieutenant -( iovrrnor. n.av I™- sighted a- an authority, ai-.l In wiites on Julv HI. 17SS:~I must olw.-r ? to lli -ir Lordships tliat the dctaclip-.ent k at this houi -uithoul any kind 'f -1p-

.urpri-* though ,1 liavo rcp«r ?'???? mentioned and urgrd his Excellence to -:, t something or «Uit i-rr-.-icd f'-r ili'- I i-rpop.~e.' Anyhow, tlie fortification. iK-ins m?:e!y (U'.rtli«-ork thrown up as a protection t- i,li? LTns and the -T^n ^in-inff them. The original armaments of the Sirius. acording to the correspondence of Cap- tain Arthur Phillip, was six carronades of

and four 6-poundcr guns, but Philip ap lied to the Admiralty before the ship   left Depford to have that number in- creased by ten more 6-pounders, with the necessary ironwork to fit carriages   which could be made at any time, for   use on land or sea, as required. Those who have seen the Sirius gun at Maquarie place will be familar with

the class of gun in use in the Royal Navy at the end of the eighteenth cen tury. and as its measurement and weight agree with that of the 6-pounders of that period, a fair estimate can be formed of the guns mounted in Sydney's first for- tifications Whilst noticing the guns of the Sirius it may be here remarked that if it is ex- tremely doubtful if tho gun in Macquarie place belonged to that ship. This vessel was comissioned in Oc- tober, 1786. and in December of that year she received her guns on board at longreach on the Thames. The foundry date on the Macquarie Plaee cannon is 1788, two years later than the ship's commission. It was for many years at the lighthouse at South Head, and was

moved to its present position in 1907,   when the anchor of the 'Sirius was placed there. A brass plate which was placed on the gun when at South Head is still in position, but its incription is mis- leading. The wording runs : This gun which formed a portion of the   armament of HMS, Sirius, the first man of war to enter Port Jackson, was landed here shortly after the foundation for the colony signally, signals, etc.   This viewed as an historical record is absolutely wrong in two respects. The Sirius was not the first man-o'-war to     enter Port Jackson that honor belonging to H.M.S. Supply, which, under the com mand of Lieutenant A. Lidgbird Bail, and

having Governor Philip on board. an- chored in Sydney Cove the day beforo the Sirius arrived. Nor was the gun landed in Macquarie Place reserve for signalling purposes that being the purpose for which it was used at South Head. To return the Sirius' guns. Trad-     ition says that four were originally sent to South Head. According to the late Mr. Joseph Sidding? three of them were   about 1885 put on a board a boat to be sent to Sydney, but in mid-harbour     the craft capsized and the guns went to the bottom.   There is a gun at South Head which forms no part of the fortification. The     legend attached to it is one of the stories in connection with the scare during the Russiann War ir 1854. Mr. Henry Packer. Who at that time was assistant signallman

relates how, during the great excitement prevailing then, and when the news- papers were being inundated with letters   explaining schemes for the defence of Sydney this weapon was sent down to signal the city when a suspicious Vessel arrived at the Heads in the day time.   Two tar barrels accompanied the gun.; and these were to be blazed at night time. Lieutenant Fayrer, of H.M.S. Herald, was stationed at South Head at the same time, and the news papers state; that "he was to have the use of the pilot boats, together with a supply of blue lights and rockets, for the purpose   of boarding and reporting any strange vessel entering the port after dark. But how he was going to accomplish this   should the strange vessel prove an enemy is not known. At the end of 1788 Dawes was build ing on the west point, of the Cove a maga zine of stone. large enough to contain fifty barrels of powder. This was com pleted by February 14 following, and the powder belonpinp to the settlement was lodged within its walls. It is interesting to look at the sites as then occupied by these batteries. That on the western point of the Cove has been one of the most prominent landmarks of

Sydney Harbour sincee the occupation of this, territory. It was here that Lieutenant Dawes irected the first observatory in Port Jackson. This was constructed of wood, and was one of the first buildings put up. It was used to house the as tronomical instruments sent, out in charge of Dawes by the Board of longitude, and as that officer had made this branch of science his particular study, he was ap- pointed to make observations of a comet then expected to show up. The building was found to be quite unsuitable for its purpose, and in July of the following year a larger observatory of ston was com-menced. Both the batteries in the Cove were also found useless, and it was decided to build one of stone on the western point, and to move the one which was in the

growing town to the eastern point. The former work was commenced in June. 1791. and was finished by the middle of August when the guns belonging to the settle- ment were moved to it. The small reduobt in the neighbourhood of where now stands the warehouse of Harrison. Jones and Devlin was levelled to the ground and the flagstaff erected on the Dawcs Point battery, when that was finished. On the site of the rrdoulit was built a large store. 80 ft. x 14 ft., which was intended for dry goods and which had an upper and lower floor, and was at this time the best store in the country. The first record we have of a fort on the eastern side of Sydney Cove which for many years was known as Benelong Point, and has recently had the old name restored was made in the return of pub- lic buildings erected since October. 1796, wherein it is stated that there had been raised a redoubt with eight embrasures on the east point on which were mounted a part, of the guns of H.M.S. Supply. This vessel must not be confounded with the armed tender of the same name which came out with the First Fleet, and which after the wrcck of the Sirius returned to England. The report referred to men

tions also that two guns had been mountcd on Gardcn Island. Since Lieutenant Dawes had left the colony no one had becn appointed to suc ceed him, although Governer Hunter had   made application for "a respectable store keeper " However, on Governer King tak ing up the duties of the office, he ap- pointed Captain Edward Abbott, of the New South Wales Corps, to act as engineer batteries and cannon of this colony. The   appointment was dated September 29, 1800. Abbott immediately got to work and drew up a return of guns and state of the   battery at Sydney, and this shows that   at the timc there were batteries at Dawes Point mounting ten guns; at Benelong Point mounting four guns; at Windmill and Middle Head four guns; and at Gar-   den Island two guns. He speaks of the battery at Dawes Point as having "four- teen embrasures formed of stone and earth miserably put together and in such a state that many parts of the work fell to pieces when the guns are fired. The one on Bene

long Point was even worse, bcing formed of wattle casks and earth in a total state of decay, whilst at Garden Island the trunks of the guns arc buried in the sand and are rotten." That was the position in 1800. Governor King at once proceeded to put them into as good a condition as cir- cumstances would allow. He advises the Duke of Portland on March 10. 1801, "that   the battery on the west side of Sydney Cove has been reconstructed. and is now capable of annoying anv vessel with   effect. He also prepared a two gun bat tery on Gcorge's Head, which he said would "completely prevent any attack from without." On August 21. 1801, Captain Abbott   furnished another return from which it appears that, in addition to Dawe's Point battery having been repaired, it had been   strengthened by the addition of two small guns. The east point battery remained in the same state of decay as before. Some years ago whilst the present bat- teries on George's Head were in progress one of the original guns was found

buried in debris honey combed and riddled with rust. King continued adding to the defences; no doubt England's position with rcgard to the maritime powers of Europe prompt- ing him to take steps for the protection     of the settlement. He took in hand a more ambitious piece of work than any   than had yet been attempted, and that was to rcplace the same redoubt, on Wind- mill Hill with a citadel. Captain Abbott, whom Governor King had placed in charge of the military works. having quarrelled with the Gover-   nor, resigned the position immediately         he had presentcd his report on August 23,   1801. He was succeeded bv Lieutenant Barrallier, a gentleman whom as a civilian the -Governor had brought out with him, and who on arrival had been appoin-   ted to a vacancy in the New South Wales Corps. Barallier being a traincd surveyor and engineer, was in every way qualified for the post formerly held byDawes and   Abbott. It may not be out of place here to men tion that after he had left the colony     and was residing England. Barallier was appointed by the British Government to   superintend the erection of the Nelson   monument in Trafalgar Square. He is   also noted in Australian history as one   of those who unsuccessfully attempted to cross the Blue Mountains. He was also   responsible for the fortress that King to erect under the name of Fort       Phillip, on the spot now occupied bv the Signal Station and the Observatory. Governor King in desribing the work     on August 14, 1801, wrote that "the   cel is commenced and considerable pro- gress has been made on the highest Wind- mill Hill, which circumstances may even- tually render necessary, as it commands the town and country round and the approach of the harbour." Through misunderstanding and conse- quent bad feeling between the Governor   and lieutcnant Col. Paterson, Barralie left the colony in 1803. No successor to him had to resign his position, and ho left


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DAWES HATTKKY. Sunday Times Photo-.