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GUNS AND GUNNERS. (Continued From Mostration Pages). at emRineer vas immediately appour.ed, tut a Mr. Genrpe Bridles BeDidi -ra- Bade a lientecant of arUUcry, and wii daiced vith tit! inepection and i-rV- tron of batteries and cannons of tbe =*t lleme*. TtiB gentleman b»s an Interestim; lib torv. Be iras an officw of the hoa. £a»t Udia Companies' a«illery; in 3om..iy, and havincr. sreordinc to the custom --f tho time, fouefct a duel in which his ad versary was killed, V vas tried snd sei tenced to be cent to Sew South Wjles. Oi arrivine here he was accompanieJ by thaaJiisheEt recommendatiDiiB. and ???«- ' toallr Tixdved a nardon. He was ti* first ..itillery officer U receive appuiaCuaut Acre as a colonial officer. . * Lieutenant Bellads was reinstat--a m U.e Indian Army on July. 30. 1806. r-*- vionsl^. to his Ieavuur the colony, bat no 4. nbt in view at hie denartare, Uent-nant binchin (the adjutant of the New 8'-«L Wales Corps) had been appointed artl!i-Tv ard engineer officer, dating from As'-il IS. 1806. Tab officer iras originally in the marines and returned to Fnsland with them. Tiicre hr joined the New South Walvs K-q» fDd whilst retiminz to Kew Eoo»h W6Jr= iu tbe convict ship Lady Shore, he Kin; in charge of Ike dctadnnent of tnat regt B«t, which supplied the suard. handed over to about a dozen mutineers tl-» arms. c]itBt, acd ammunition. This cowardlv action on his ?»rt wse the mesju of the ship liein? raptcied. Hmchin, with twenty -leht dthrrs 'as ?At away in a boat 300 mOes from laid, lut erentuallr reached a port on th* fuast of BrazS. He reported to Governor King, in Aueuet, 1806, that the defence of ¥*« ? Pbillip was nrbgnssins. the rarnr* ti. * %erlons, and cap brasures of three sid« %e3te completed, the outer wall-' of the .r-.mpart on the fourth and flf ti sidia had teen raised five feet, the foundatun of tte airihaile- laid, and a bombpro--f of 14 ft. squart completed under one 'Jl\ Kins; i-acribea this as beinj under U» sunerviaion of AdhiUnt MSnehta. wth ai assisunt. Be adds, « when .completed it will mount twenty runB, of whieh Then is bow in the eoloiV -New EoutH W*i«l six twelve and eieht six-pounder*, thna fun rix lS-poundea an requirri ^to com- ] plete the ordiusKe for that defence,* This fort, «hfis.iw aenr «empkted,

(Only six 6-poandtTB beine monnted. was uMd as a astatine' batterr. The last ™- pirtant salute fired from it was whui , ttc Duke of Wellington's death wa« an uHtnccd in 1853. \ On Governor Blfeh's assumption i'. ('*» Uinchin made a renort to him of the stole 1 of the fortincatjons. In this «ly_ lLs»*'-] fcrts are mentioned, viz: Dawea Join'. 1* | enns. carriaae of eif^t unservi=^i3..-: ; George's Head, ♦ jpins not mounted. ln clndins Barrack Square and -!ovcmm-ii House, there were 31 guns in tbe colney, it of which Cf ulJ not be used. In connects with th.' defence ci Pot Phillip tb*re is one intcrectinc ria'ter in connection with it that might be lur tier investifated. Amoms* Governor King's letters «» one dated October 20, 1807, from Lau traant W. Uinchin. Kim was at :nn tane livine: in England. The writa-, itfter tddroesinj; him as 'Dear Govcrco',' and making complinientarv remarks re*oct icg affairs durbw his regime, says:— I am not vet dismissed from tV «l'us. tioB of cneinter, lrat aooo cxp?-t *uc* will take place. I shall not be sorry. The nwrkss of the fort are all taken off. aad several other alterations, I am sold, are to be made— not (or the better. I ca i «- ?are you. I understand the fonn4a-lHi et-iK, on which your name is as the a-™ Of'vcnor, hto be taken out and *-mr 'tlif ehe aubstltated. On .that dlv. » I «m.i»t dismtoed. before, 1 aball reugn

idv Colonial appointment, which I he'd under you oitli pleasme. - ^n ineperUor. of the wall Knows tl-a? there u no Ftone visible with an iue r p lion. but at the nor'-east. corner ia th'' b.iec course is a Fton^ the fare -f fj'J has been i-arcfully plaster -1 or cementeu !«.»irr. IVliy roI Kone of the oth?re u*'« ! be™ so treated. If tbia facinc 'j» ie iS-ned. miclit it not reveal the Him? of Oovernor Fine. Dr Harri* writing to Kin? five -layi. 3lUr liinchin sart: 'Anvthiae tint b.-cjs tl-c name of Kini; is suff^-icnt to Alan Die person that used It ;n hit (Govcmnr Blishiaopin'on.' In this may be found the reason for Minob:n'e state ment. - I Solid Masonry. | Wlicn the 4Gth Regiment of Infantry arrived in Sidney in IS14, Captain ?lohn Gill, of that mrtment was appointed en cinecr and anillerv onirrr. and the worlt of oonstcuction wai carrW «nt by him. This was tlie l^r^t - nttemnt to pat up a solid masonry fortification. It was situated on tbe rocks at tbe extreme end of tbe point — a square, earn face of whii-h was 30 ft-, and at each corner of whieh was a circular bastion for one cun on a traversing carnane. On the face on the land side a two storied tower occupied the centre, flanked on each side by * smaller one. A draw bridce over a waterway connected the mainland, the entrance being through Uw,

| centre of the tower. This battery moun ted ten 24-pouadcr (Tons. Early in 1854 the news from Europe led to the conclusion that war was not far off and darino- April of thot year startling headlines appeared in the news papers, whose columij were filled with letters demanding instant action for tha protection .of the port. A pnblie meeting was held on Hay 21 is the Circus, York-street, Sydney, ior the purpose of addressdix the Queen and «pi easing loyalty and devotion to tbe British Government. All the prominent men of the day were present, and ac cording to tlie Herald, 'The Bpeeches were eloquent and fervent ; ** but no reference was made to defence. The news that war had been declared by ' Knglanr] and France against Russia was received in Sydney on June SB The battery of Mrs. Macquarie'a Point, which has jene since disappeand. moun ted too teu-ineh and eight 32-pounders and commanded the channel round Brad ley's Head The guns on the battery at KirribiUi - were five eight-inch, but ther were re aeuvfd some veara ago. The barracka built here Mre now used by the boats* crewe nf tie Naval Commander in (Tiiel whoFe residence. Admiralty House, is juet above it. Two or three attempts had been made to fortify the rock -n which Governor -hi]]ip need to keep those of his early colonist* who had thievic£. propensities and wliich the latter had nanxd Pinrh gut, but any works commenced had never been completed. Now. however, at a cost of about £17/HK- a^ strong fortifica tion was c.c-teji. The native name of the email island was Mattawee, but from this time it became known as Fort Deni Fon. an absolutely C6eless fortification. , Its r.rmament was tiro 10-inch guns, one 6-inch and twelve 22-pounders. To complete Denison's scheme of de fence. Fort JUacqnarie vas enlarged and strengthened, and its old guns replaced* bv three 10-inch, each weighing 87 cwu, five 42-poun'Jera. seven 32-poundent. and one 24-poucdcr, these beinj; added in lSAl-fia. ? Fort Macquarip of late years has pre sented quite a different appearance from wh£t it did th^n. Extensive reelama tiou works for the extension of Circular Qnav round Fort Macquarie and tha- ItUine up of the reefs and rocks which had been enclosed placed the fort some distan-e from tbe water, which originally - lapped its base. -The last gun was fired during a ahaja) attaok in 18S«, and the fort wa» de molished in 1900 to make room for Urn

rrfclion of tile tramVay shed that now occupies the site. : By 1S59, the outer line of f ortifiea- tions had disappeared and Sydney. w;th ' tbe «XDeriencn ^aineoVbv the Briti&h fleets 'in the Black Sea and the Baltic tlnrine the war. with Rossia. »ss - left wi.rli the inner lines ^oJ batteries only as iier means of defence should hostilities have broken out. 'The whole strength of the British Earpire,' which Denison ' relied on to defend Sydney, was r«pre*tn ted by *ix . -warship3 to giiard tne whole 'Australian coasc, Xew Zealand, and the Western Pacific ^one companv of Boral Art31cr\r and four companies of the l£t& resident. It vns in this reeimeut th&t tLe late Major-Gcneral Bkhardsoa was then a, lieutenant. Of the warship5, one was the Kerald, orisjnally a- 26-eun frigate, bni at thfa tfine. 'carryinjr qnlr four, which when sent out on this commission was dwiribeil by~ a writer in the English press as a 'rotten oH tnb.r The other stairs were the Cordelia o! 11 puns; Elk, 12 enns; Iris, 26 cons; PeloTT-'s. 2» jriins;

and Xiyer, !4 (rtmi. Toe first throe or - These were old sailing ships. ' The last two were new vessels, screw steamers carrrhijr then the best £tms. Sydnev would have fallen an essy prey to any foe that might have felt dispraed in case of war to cpme alone Ball Practice. ^J ' What was wanting in equipment, Low ever, was made vp- in enthusiasm. Dut-| ing the sixties ball practice was rega-, larly carried cut in the harbour bat-l tetiee, aid it. was the nsuaT thing for advertisements to be pnbiiahed in the rress cautioning shipmasters, boatmen] and others to keep a-way from the line]

of lire. It is intenstnu; to recall an incident of the. seventies. ' It had been decided to fortify the Heads, and some large Si:os had been ordered for tbe Middle Head battery. These were landed at Mflson's Point and rolled by member: of . the Permanent Artillery on hearr baulks of timber alone the road. Sergtant-Msjor Green, with heafy Dundreary whiskers, in chaise of the working party seen in oar illustration, * was the orisinaVXo. 1 of the Artillery Regiment in Australia. Hia daughter was tbe trffr of General Souses, whs met his, Seats under such sad circumstance in the recent war in France. _ A stray -befl fcOlcd hhn instantaneously, and Mr. Bolnun, the late Premier of Kew, South '. Wales, who was standing aesriiy, wit ceased the tragedy. | The last English troops were with drawn from New Sooth Wales in 1610, the Ko$al Artillery ender Captan. Gra ham, and the 18th Begiment under Liea, taant-Coloiiel Elliott, leaving in tlie ship Sh-er E*& on: September 6, (For the matter published herewith we

are Imlebted to Captain J. It. Watson, of tbe Australian Historical Eocfety. «&om whose collection of pbotoprrjnhs, too, and the Anstratisn Historical ^ociety% we arc indebted for the unique iHustra tioxis accompanying tius artide;J



When Governor Arthur Piiiii ;. li;i«] Undjd about two months in Sydney Cove, he appointe-1 LJM'l Jhiwps, an officer of marines t-Ti tl:i- Sirius. t-o act its office ** of :*rt:Ihry and engineering, in eon tieiui?m-ti of which the ordan-?; of tho1 sc;£lement and the «*]? t-; rjcLion of a. sin3.II redoul-t on ii.-- oa-t. siJc were put under hN direction. Tin- ordnnau-e conft!st*d of two bras; .six-|xv.iiHlrrs mount.*! --n field -iarriapes uhi?h lutd Lven landed in Mari-li jiriur in iLai liv tho Frrnvh navijpil.T. 1,:: IN r*: use. Whpn Lie.n. l):^o* .ind Li.-ui. Philip Ridley K:ij: v.w.i. hv boat to visit .Mo:.iiir um Fe:?m.iy -i. ITS'*, under in-t n «. t ;« n- fn«n -itivrrnor l*liil:*. t!nv i':.-und (.hat 'that officer had th:\r* u r.nui:- hi- fc»rt»* a s1-k-:-:1-1-- :m-l o i:,led tn'» *mall guns.

Son- lit rs liave as=unied bwms- Dawcs a Instructed to constm ?: a Cove e was th,. fir-t fortjfic :ti,n of Pot. i s n. But is was not. tla'. 1-onor i sin'.1 to tho west point of tie Covp, a. ps Point, sometime- c.:ll d Maskrl ? ??,. ~; oint. after Dr. Jlaskel/.-'. Aftror omrr of England. foil .- lei:, us. in hi. Ac:o-.nt of lii kHElis »Wv in. ISev Smith W : -- . that i --number. 17SS. i« was new** v to senj t. tl:c Cape of fioo-I h -pe fo ? f.od. ; ..'?; tin' -iriu- iran therefore orde:pl !?? rrc:irc fur l:er voyac with all m fK-dition. and as she would be enabl.':l to t .king all h.Y euns. eight of them were

Lin led on llu- wet poin: of the C' \e and. a small Lri-c-tw'.irk «-. thrown up in front of t-»in. And thus cam.- iiil ? exisu-ncc. early ii: September. last fe-ing. finished, a flagstaff was erected.

and lira filial! piece*, i-f iron nrdim.e. placed in it.' Th.-sc 'runs would be the ?.»?« eu-iHiimd Ts sent out for the s;ttle i.- in. If further proof in nm*'«iT. Major Ross, tli- Lieutenant -( iovrrnor. n.av I™- sighted a- an authority, ai-.l In wiites on Julv HI. 17SS:~I must olw.-r ? to lli -ir Lordships tliat the dctaclip-.ent k at this houi -uithoul any kind 'f -1p-

.urpri-* though ,1 liavo rcp«r ?'???? mentioned and urgrd his Excellence to -:, t something or «Uit i-rr-.-icd f'-r ili'- I i-rpop.~e.' Anyhow, tlie fortification. iK-ins m?:e!y (U'.rtli«-ork thrown up as a protection t- i,li? LTns and the -T^n ^in-inff them. Tin- .ii-JMiiif armiuiu-nts of the -?'?!». a:-ioidini' tj the i-nrr-s|Kindau'o of -:'P- Urn AitTVur .IMiili|-. was six t-arroE -dof

:..-H f..:,r li-p,,nndcr siuu.. lut| l'liili,, ap I'lied to l hi- Adjniraltv l«-fi,r. i]i0 -hip I.-tt IVj.lfonl to have that nunibpr in fi-«ii-p.i li»v- ten more C-liounders. with me ne«-e*«ary ii-onwork to lit --sirr- ^--.. - lihli nuild lie made at any lime, 'for '--? -?!! land or sia. as reiiuin-d. Those who Imve sepn tin- Sirius -nn 'p Maninari,. 1'la.e wiU be famiUr w'ich

tin- 'elae* of ^nin in lui in til.? lli-val Xiivy at the end of the eighteenth .on ti;r-'. and as its measurement and woi-'ht a^r.-o with of the 6-pounders of that period, a fair estimate can b,- of the suns mounted in Sydner's first for liu.-ations Whilst liolu-in' the srun- of the Shin. ;t may 1m- here remarked that if it *s l-x* tromelv -!oulitful if tho gitn in )laii|iiario lla.e heloi^d to that ship. This vessel was eojnmi^sioned in th t.ljer. 17S6. and in December of t'at year she reeeived her kiui*. on boarl at l*nyreaeh. oh the Thames. TJie fon.idrj dat-' on the jrarpuarie Plaeo cannon is HNS. two vrare later than the .'.lip's il;e lijrtitlioa*. at South Mead, and uas

ji oved to iU presffc position, in inuT. w'h^-u tlic. ancbocol te .'Sirius was p'ii«-'.-d there. A brese plat »-hii.-u lias placi-l c-n ihe ^un when a'J^outh Hfiad is still hading. The irordii: runs : Xliis jun which fo Bed a portion of the iirinantent of ldJLS,-irius, the first ;nan i.i'-v-iir tc enter Por: Jackson, was landtil hire shortly after if* foundaUon for the -?- iijfiv sisnally ^vfi^, etc. Tlii's. viewed ajt listorkul recora. is iil»sol.utely wron*|fi two i^eapeets. l'he Hrius wiis not tb| first Tiian-o*-« a ? *n ?:tor Port Jackan.liflJ; honor belonging to il.iLb. Supply, mieh, under the cum inand of Licutauuil 1. IJdpbird Jiail, acJ

having (Governor flilip on Uoard. xv c::orcd in Sydjer Qnre the day b-*'cro the Sirius arrived. Xor'wag the s^slajided in Ma£ou?ri,: l'late respire for fjpallinjr puroses. that Liint' the purpOBefa- which it was '»ed nl South Bead. To return t* ii i Sirius' {runs. Irad: 1m.ii save that fat were orijrnally tent i- South Head. ^«ccording to the Jate .Mr. Joseph Sidftn i three of them -.\ere arwut ISSo pel oi: board a boat io oe x* nt to Sydney, tart in mid-hart: .nr tiit. craft capei**} ?«id the ^uns wen* to l!-c bottom. i; There is a (OT'Jl South Head which i- i ms no part -f lie fortification. The h yend attached wh is one of the stories :?. ..mntvtion waitle scare darir.^ the lin-eirn War ir BK Mr. Henry Packer.

r.'Iatc* how. di-rin^ the Kreat excitement ^rovailui^ llien, ajid 'wiien tile new? 1-tpers were bein^ inundated with Ier €r explaining schemes for the defence of J-y*liiey. this '\reapon Iwas sent dowr. to ^i^naJ tjie city when a suspicious Vfssol iii rived at the Meads in the day time. Two tar barrels accompanied the pun. and these were to be blazed at night lime. Lieutenant Fayrer. of F.»r.S. l.'crald, was stationed at SouUi Hea- at the same time, and the news|-apeis -*^.tc '. tl-at 'be was to faave the Ui^ of till? pilot boats, together 'with a supply of ! Ink lisfhts and rockets, for the purpose -;.' boarding and reportinjr any stranpe i-*»;*el ent«ri»^ the port aft-^r dark, flnt l:t vv hp was jroin^r to aifomplish z'ii* should the sfT.*;nj2p voss*-l prove an enemy At the end of 1T8S Daves was build ing on ihe west ]K-iiit, of the Cove a maga zine of stone. Iwr^ro enough to contain fifty barrels of powder. This was com pleted by February 14 following, and the powder belonpinp to the settlement was lodged within its walls. It is interesting to look at the sites as then occupied by these batteries. That on the western point of the Cove has been one of the most prominent landmarks of

Sydney Harbour s'nre the occupation of this, territory. It was here that Lieutenant Dawes irected the first observatory in Port .laikson. This was constructed of wood, and was one of the first Imildinp I»lt uji. 1, was used to house the as tronomical instruments sent, out in pharire of Dawe. hv the Board of longitude, and as that .iflii-er had made this branch of science 1] s particular study, he was ap theii exacted to show up. The building was found to lie quite unsuitable for its purpose, and in -luly of the following year Both the batterifs in the Cove were also found useless, and it was decided to huild one of stone on the western point, and to move the one which u-ns in the

growing town to the eastern point. The former work was commenced in .lune. 1791. and was finished by the middle of August when the {runs belonpinj to the settle The small reduobt in the neighbourhood of where now stands the warehouse of Harrison. Jones and Devlin was levelled Ut the ground and the flagstaff erected on the Dawcs Point battery, when that was finished. On the site of the rrdoulit was built a large store. Wl ft. x 14 ft., which was inW-nded for dry goods and which had an upper and lower floor, and vise at this time the Im store in the country. The first record we have of a fort on the tastern side of Sydney Cove which for many years was known as Benelong Point, and lia- recently had the old name reston-d. was made in the return of pub lic buildinj.'- erected since October. 17!Ki. whvicin H is stated that there had been raised a redoubt with eight embrasures on the cast point on which were mounted a part, of the guns «f H.M.S. Supply. This vessel must not lie confounded with the armed tender of the same name which came out with the First Fleet, and which after the wrc.-k of the Sirius returned to Kngland. The report referred to men

tions also that twotnin- had b en mounrcd on Cardcn Man*. Sin.e Lieutenant l-aw-- had left the colony no one had Ix-cn appointed to suc ceed Ii in. although governor Hunter had n:ade application for 'a respe-talil- .tore kee|HT. - However, oil -Miveni-.r King tsk in? up the duties of the office, he ap pcinled Captain Kdward Abbott, of the New South Wales Corps, to act as engineer hatter c* and cannun of this colony. The appointment was dated September 2!l. 1S00. AulKJtt immediately ^-ot t., woik and dr w up a return of gulls an.l -tate of the battery at Sydney, and I hi. shows that at the t.:mc tin-re w.-re batteries at Dawes ]-''int m'inti'ng four ^'iis'. at \\ in'dm^n and Middle II 11 four jruiis. and at har den Island two guns. He -p»aks of the battery at Dawes Point as having 'four- l*en embratnirt1* formed of -ton-' ;ind earth miseraiilv put together and in f-ucli a state that many parti- nf llm work fell to pieces when ilit* jruni- are tired. The one on B^ne

long Point was even worse. Ijcin' formed of wattle .asks and earth in r total ^fat-- of de--iy. whilst at -iarden Island the trunks of the guns arc buried jn the sand and arc rottiTi/' That was the pesit'on in lSiki. put th-m into a. gcod a condition as cir cumstances wouM alloxv. He ad\i-es the Duke of Portland on March Up. ls-11. - that the battery on the west side of Svdney Cove ha- bi-cn recon-tnii-ted. and is now capable of annovin^ anv v --el with elTect.' He also'pr'n'red a ii\o-»nu liat fcry on CcorgeV Head- which lie said would -completely pr-vi-m any attack fnim without.' On August 21. lSlll. Captain t appears that, in addit:on to lUwe- Point battery having lieen repair, d. it had lieen strengthened by th? addil^tn of two .mall gun.. The east point battery remained Some years ago whil-t Ilie pr sent bat gre,s. .me of the original guns «?«. found

Imrieri in debri.. honey.-.iniln-d and riddl.d nist. no doubt England'. |Mrsition with rcr:.ird to tie maritime powers of Europe promjit ir-p him to take steps for Ihe prol- ?? in of the settlement. He took in ha:id a. iMir- ainhitions ?i.-.e of work ilian ;-ny ' l.inil. hn-I vet 1^-n attempted, and lh;:t «:.s f icpl.u-.- the same redoubt, on Wi.d n-ill Hill with a ciudel. lw-1 | in charge of the rn.iliu.ry \ ..rks. hiivin.r .| with &e Covr vt r. r«l-uni -d tJie 7i.i.itu»n immedia e'y , le liad | ns..ntcd his re-x-rl on Augi:ii'. J:l, 1S(|1. II, wa.- stic-eeiled bv Ijeiitenai-t li::n. the -;o,-emor had bro'.tgiit out \* :th him. and who on arrival liad lx-.'n. ap:- ia tel to a va.-iney Ul. the New Soit'.h Val.» C-in*. Maralli.T. being a u^iincd surveyor .tnd th^ |~« fo^nsrly hi-ld liv m«l .?-Uiol'.. It mav no', lie him -.f )ilac- here to mon t:on thai after !ie had Ic'i t'i,- ??: I my aJid wa. re^iiliiiL' iii.Knslanl. Barallier -va» apjioint.-.i iiv thr- tirilish 'iove1: !ii'i»?nt t-- superintend .he erection of 'the Ne!£ *n u uniinK-m. in Trafalgar Siimre. lie n ai ... ii'.lel in Aiunnjian hislorv at one nt t'-i.w- win. nrs-aci-^sf:illv attsnri'l t-. cr.--s ih- Mountains. Hi- wa= .il -o usioii-il-h- for the fortress that Kin;: i,.:-vd[(1 !,. en i iitmIit th ? iimip of I'.-rr 1'l.illi-, op t:M. spot ii.iw ..c-upiej bv 'ie Sj;nal Srati..u and the Observatory. .; itniir Kinir. in des -ribing ihe w;»:l; .hi A'igii-i 14. 1S(U, »Tore 't-* e'li .:»?! i. commenced and considerate prc ;-?-?-. ha- h-e:i rnaJp en the liiab?sl W.::l n:ill Hill, which circumstances mav -?-??,- :-.|i-lo:-.c]i .if the harbour.' Throitrf. nii»-.iii-leMand:3i- aul ('is- ? m bid i'tt-!i-'i- between ill* (iovenior and !.i?ulcnant - '«?]. Patcison. Uara.I* ;hc .-..lonv -?- ]sn:i. Xo -ixe^or to him 1,1,1 to n-i',:ii his position, and ho left


^ES* ? FOKTIFK ATIOX AT Ml ,|.|.K :i,.;Aj, IN ,s7,

1'(IKT -\IA«-;UAI!IK. 1K2H.


DAWES HATTKKY. Sunday Times Photo-.