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SATURDAY, JULY 21, 1888.
There is matter enough for reflection in the fact that on the three hundredth anniversary of the defeat of the Spanish Armada which begins to-day, England is suffering under the crisis of a war scare. Three centuries have come and
gone, and the island has reaped the full fruits, in freedom, in colonisation, in literature, in wealth, and in greatness, of that great victory which was won by the bravery of HOWARD'S seamen, and by the tempestuous winds of the northern seas. An English speaking nation domi-
nates America ; another is rising in that Terra Australis, which was only a dream to the boldest Spaniards in Peru, and the commerce of what was once the exclusive Spanish main is in the hands of British merchants. Spain herself has fallen upon a period of decay and powerlessness. Looking back, it seems
as if the rout of the Armada were the
beginning of the fate that has overtaken the proudest and then one of the most enterprising peoples in Europe. The fleet was the best equipped and the most unfortunate that had ever tempted the courageous volunteers of Castile and Aragon, and its ruin broke the spell of the successful expeditions
that had so often set forth fiom
Lisbon to conquer and annex lo that event may be dated the original expansion of the ] ngiish system of
colonisation It broke down the exclu siveness of a gi eat foreign rival, and marked the commencement of that dominion of the sea which has enabled the British colonies to establish them selves m peace and security \\ hoevtr may be tempted to seek for the cau.es of British development will be driven back by his researches to the enterprise of DRV__ and HAWKINS, and to the enthusiastic Protestants and pirates who attacked like bulldogs the pretensions of Spain "V\ itb their depredations began the weaknes-i of the first colonising power and the steady advance of their own country - et the strong right arm is is ni cessai v to keep what we have gained as it was at first to clear the waj
Many things have changed, theie Rio new s\ stems of government, new arms, new ships, new methods of warfare, and new nicas But the 1 ngiish people ne being rudely awakened to the necessity of defending their commerce a.amst later rivals \\ hen larne addi
tiona are mado to the 1 ronch fleet, when tho great ports of ] raneo are more and moro strongly fortified, it is timo for the 1 ngiish to consider whether their forces aro sufficient for defence and whether tho expenditure in proteo tion of their hcutage is at all coinmen
suiata with its vast wealth
It is curious to find bow obstinately the Hilton refuses to imitate tho Con tinental method of making great mill
tary preparations At the time of the Armada, 1 ngland had no thoroughly organised forte, and the ships sent against the towering Spanish galleons ?were ill found and ill equipped, some of them -suth a scanty supply of powder,
others with a starvation allowance of
provisions \\ hen the great naval war ?with Ti ance began, the French fleet was heavier, better armed, and moro imposing In the present day wo again find that it is doubtful whether the navj is adequate foi tho duty that will devolve upon it in the event of war J ho work of defenre has become
a task of gi eat magnitude 1 hero are many additional millions of population, and each and every individual is more dependent upon commerce for his coin fort and even for his livelihood than in earlier dnjs 'lherearo wider toutes of trade, and losses m the China Seas iniijit nflect London in a way that could never havo happened beforo the recent luglilj complicated organisation of in tei change A naval war, therefore, would non bo doubly expensive and dilhcult and perilous for two reasons, unless the countiy were thoroughly pro pared foi it In tho first place, all the waters of the globe from the North Sea to the Pacific Ucean would require fast Bteamers strong fleets, for tho sccuuty of mor diandiso, and, secondly, the interrup- tion of commerce would bo infinitely more senous to tho geneial community than it has been beforo Having regard to theso two considetations it may be «iid that the safety of J nglai d will depend not only on the courage and uierg) with which a hostile movement is mot, bilton tho capacity of tho peoplo to enduro a largo number of small losses It is, indeed, her Hist business to talvO every precaution, whatover may he the cost, to cnlargo the navy, to con struct guns, and to fortify every coaling Mation on tho routes of commerce But
if all this woro done, if every port wero strengthened with ramparts, and if the na\j wore strong enough to blockade the liai hours of au enemy, there would still bo io un for gunboats and cruisers to work havoc among merchant ships m tho open sea 'lhere are lesources in longland, as a st itoHinan once boasted, for twenty campaigns '1 ho one ques
tion is whethei tho nation will have
tile dogjctl persoverance, the disregard of mero trivial losses, and the pationt determination, which would bo re quired in a long and severe struggle
Ihat a real dangor oxists for England and the 1 nglitih raco in the present state of Europe ia manifest It is only tho strong man armed who in mildern dnjs can keep his goods, omi I ngland if sim fails in militai) matters, has much to lose, for undoubtedly pai t ot the means whereby she gains wealth
would fall to the share of tho victors 'lhere is little doubt that on tho ¡»lightest sign of real weakness, the 1 rench would push their mterosts even
«tthoiisk of u war 'Iho flowery in I tcmatioual sentiment that appears at cosmopolitan dinnoi paitios counts for nothing I» international business theio IB no friendship, and each country
niuat advanco for itsolf But the
¡(-«I weakness of Lngland, if sho
»w an), will not be found in the length of tho commercial routos that
require defence, nor in the immense territories that must be pi o tee ted The key of the situation, as Dis KAEI*. Baid of India, lies in London After all the criticisms that have been passed on the stupidity and supineness of the War Office and the Admiralty, there is the fear m many minds that the real source of the trouble that is half anti
cipated is in the political conditions of the countrj J) or two generations the tendency of government has been to magnify domestic questions and to overlook foreign difficulties As the Germa i long preferred his little duchy to the union, so ml ngland the necessities of a party are apt to be placed before the ?welfare of the nation Any saerifice mav be made to snatch a victory at the polls One Government may not be much more to blame than anothor, but, as a matter of faet the questions of the hustings have taken precedence of all others, and to all appearance there are politicians who are too fascinated by the hope of a chance majority in Little Pedhngton to look at the grave perils i utsido the kingdom iho idea of statecraft is to care for the honour and the interest of the whole state to enlighten those who are ig norant of the situation to influence the people and not merely be influenced by them and to provide for the contin gencies which threaten any loss of power It would be too much to say that this form of statesmanship has been lost among the Lngli.h people, it has rather been obscured But in the too palpable want of unity, in their failuro to grasn the idea of unity which has made the most recent nations, lies their real peril En.land has triumphed over greater dtlhculties and equal dangers , and has been haris*-ed before with Irish difficulties and foreign wars and internal troubles Hie timid talk regarding the size and the world wide entanglements of the British Lmpne is absurd A nation must increase and be aggressive, must build fleets
and drill armies must anne., new tern tones to protect the old, and must assert its power and enerby at every turn, otherwise it will begin to go back In life there is no stationary point, and man and state must either be gathering strength or sinking into feebleness But the 1 ngiish people aie full of intellectual and inven tive and warlike vitality, and we may trust that in the hour of danger the party politicians will become pa tnots, or that they will be swept away by the patriots If not, if there should be no revival of that intense nation»,! feeling which was the great redeeming featuie in the character of DRU.E and the h hzabethan sailors if the love if
tho national unity has been seriously impaired, then the future of the Anglo Saxon race may pass boyond the seas, to tho younger branches that havo sprung from it
Ninety nine years and one week ago the Bastille was captured by the mob of Pans, and lest the woild should for get the ciretnnstanco, the anniversary has with Trench people since become a national fete, to bo celcbuted bj soc al githenngs and the deliverance of ad numble sentiments on the advantages of freedom and tho disadvantages of oppression I urther, in an ago when centennial cclebiations are all the rage, the centenal) of tho capture of tho Bas tillo has not been overlooked, and next ) ear a great exhibition is to bo held in Paris, at which all the nations of the world have been invited to assist Un
fortunately for the honour and glory of tho Bastille, most of the older Luro pean countries have looked a little nsl ince upon tho project, being in clinod, with constdeiable justice, to suspect that the exhibition is intended to commemorate, not so much the fall of an historical prison as the revolution of which this event was the precursor Apart from its consequences, indeed, tho capturo of tho Bastillo would t ke rank only with a variety of similar historical incidents equally picturesque, and would have but littlo claim to engoy a great international exhibition all to itself It is as the
fust step in the Trench Revolution that the full of the Bastille takes the place in history which has now been nssignea to it in these circumstances it can hardly bo wondered at if monaielncal
countries should not havo shown them
selves over anxious to take part olhcial y
in the commemoration of a movement which, lion evei beneGeial m its conse quences to the vvorld at laige, was fat ii
to two crowned heads and waa earned
out on lines of which no ordinary per son, whether of monarchical or demo eratic tendencies, could well apurove
'ihe participation of these colonies in
Blich a celebration stands of courso
upon quito a difierent footing Wo can shut our eyes to what happened long beforo out own time and can de cide the matter, tis in fact, it has been treated throughout, upon other cou siderations altogether \\ o have nothing to do with what took place in 1 urope whon our own country was but one year old, and wo neod concern our solves only with such questions as ex pense, and the reciprocation ol courtesies alioady rocoived from a friendly nation Indeed, the whole aflair happened so long ago mid tho world was so difieren t m tho da) s which saw the fall of the Hnstille thrit it is not easy for us to realise what things wero like m franco then And yet before the 14th of July, 17b9, the numburof those who thought that there vías anything very exceptional going on in 1 ranee was but small lhere wasdiscontont and suffering enough on tho one side, and misgovernment and tyranny enough on the other But a few concessions, constitutionally given, would, it was thought, bo tiuthciont to satisfy the pooplo , and if not, the people had sat quiet under t) ranny and miHgovornmont toi five generations, and were little likely to resist now J ho capture of tho Bastille gavo tho
he to comfortable reflections of this kind, it was the peonle s rejoinder to tho cRvnlry charge made two da) s bofoio by Prince LAMULSO. upon tho
mob Hitherto there had been little violence, and what little had taken place was on tho sido of tho King Deputation after deputation had waited upon tho Court at Veisaillos, no less thin threo deputations paile)od with the governor of tho Bastille before the
attack was made 1 von when tho
attack was made it came only after the volley which DE LAUNAY had fired upon the crowd. The mob of Paris were
slow to learn the power that was in them. The fall of the Bastille taught them this, and the subsequent course of the Revolution showed how the lesson had been learnt and laid to heart.
This is the real significance of an event which has become one of the most celebrated in modem history. For the
rest, it is probable that distance has
lent its enchantment to a circumstance of which in itself there is little for
anyone to be proud. As a military operation the capture of the Bastille is quite insignificant. It is not surprising that the scanty garrison of aged inva- lides, most of whom were in sympathy with the besiegers, should have been unwilling to hold a position provisioned only for a day. And any glory that may attach to the successful invest- ment of the fortress will be sadly dimmed by the savagery which followed upon the cry, "la Bastille "est prise." It is often assumed nowadays that by the fall of the Bas- tille there was destroyed an engine that had been powerful for the oppres- sion of the people by a tyrannical monarchy. Nothing could well be
more erroneous than such an idea. The Bastille was a terror, not to the democracy, who were consigned to more lowly quarters but to the aristocracy ; and it was these latter alone who, if other things had not followed, would have been the gainers by the event of the 11th of July. There was nothing peuple about the Bastille, whose traditions, sombre as they doubtless were, were also blue blooded to the highest degree.
What the Tower of London was in the days of the PLANTAGENETS, the Bastille was during the four hundred years of its aristocratic existence. Among its prisoners were the Man with the Iron Mask, FOUQUET, Marshal RICHELIEU, DE RENNEVILLE, VOLTAIRE, LABOUR- DONNAIS, Cardinal ROHAN, LALLY, le Prévost DE BEAUMONT, and other men the recital of whose names sug- gests the list of presentations at some Court ceremonial In other ways, too, the reputation of the Bastille is far from bad, and will, at any rate, com- pare very favourably with many modern gaols A good deal more is known about it since the labours of M EA\AIS_ON have collected tho irchives and other papers which were scattered on the day
of its fall It is now spen that tho
Bastille, like many other historical characters, is not as black as it is sometimes painted A place where two bottles of champagne or burgundy
for dinner were allowed to some fortu
nats pn-toners, and where the meals were so good that MIKMONILL ate, m ignoranco and with satisfaction the repast intended foi his servunt, cannot havo been a very bad sort of prison And po->_ib¡y many a needy aristocrat may after his release have looked back with regret to the days m the Bas tille, when ho enjoyed dinners of
five courses and had the use of a library of 700 volumes In many cases, indeed, the Bastille was merely a place of moro or less honour able retirement \\ ives whoso proceed ings did not altogether plea°e their
noble husbands were sont thither to acquire discretion by a pnriod of mear ceration _oung men of good family but expensive tastes were sent by their fathers and guardians to tho Bas tillo, muth as thoy are nowadays sent to the colonies Of courso the
Bastille has darker pages in its annals, and on the whole no doubt a good thing was done when the fortress and all its
associations passed away on the 1 -1th luly, 1789 But it had its uses never theless, of which the worst, poihaps, that noca be sat 1 is that tiley would be out of date now 1 lighty wives and prodigal sons have to be dealt with dif ferontly nowadays, and a place to which parlmmentarj bores can be safely relegatod is, unhappily, jet to be dis-
Tho skilful pilot who shows his ic quaiiitinco with tho position of rocks and shoals by avoiding them does not havo so much étalement ¡is ho who prefers aciual contact to prove his knowledge And ns it is on the sea so it is on land, and 01 on union« politicians But the cotise qucnces are the same, whether on sea or land 01 ni Parliament Disaster lofions aurel) Sir Bl VAN O LOOHIKN ought by this tuno to know all the nakn, but he is fond of o\citeincnt Under a lieu»} press of canvas, as tho phroso Ooo3, and choeied by tho applauso of his fi louds ho minio an att ick on tho Public ¡service \ct in tho Legislativo Aaaombl) on luoadu) Ho asaertod, arnon,,' other things that tho board, tiiidin^ itself in want of a princip ii shorthand »»iltur to tiko the pi ice of Mr Uri h, \\ ho li id been promoted oilcred the position to a woithj thou^h old ofheer m the shuntl'a oíhco »»ho " novor wrote a "lino of shorthand in his lifo ' If that statement vvcie true, Sir BRIAV OLiXHiLts would have boon entitled to congratulation up m li vv mg mado a good point, but unfortunate!) for him it waa mt true, though for tho moment it appc ired as if ho had full knovvlodgo of tho facts But ho wns ically on a rock lho ollicial explanation puts quito a diftoront aspect on tho caso Mr LVNCII, the othcor m tho shcnfTs department, was not offered tho position of a shorthand «liter Ho happened to bo sonior to Mr WADI, who was nominated for that position, and was Oivoii an opportunity beforo boing passed ov or to show if ho w as fit for it 1 he board ia bound by tho net, boforo lifting an ofliccr ov or tho heads of Ina seniors, to gil o thoso seniors a chanco to tirj,o why that uhould not bo dono Unless Mr Lv¡»cii, or nnjono similarly situ ited, oould provo not onl) that ho was sonior, but that ho was entitled by qtialtli cation and mont to bo tho principal short
hand vvritor, ho would, of course, have no claim to tho olhco But ho would hav o had a gnov aneo if ho had not been notified of tho proposed chango lho pity ia that thoro should bo any hopo union,» the patronago part) that thov will succeed in inducing Parliament t > rev ort to tho old 8) atom by a distortion of facts lho frivolous gossip of the departments ia mt tit for Pailiiiiiiout, and Sir BitiAN O LoGHLiv will no doubt seo that ho must bo more careful tn futuro vvhun he
ventures to inako chutaos against tho administration of the Public Service
When tho Stato took ovor tho South Subuiban railway syatoin it had to deal with ti now class of tiuilic, very different fiom tho up country work to which tho department hitdpioviously had to attend But the acquisition was made many )0«rs a^o, »«<! thoro has boen ample time anice for the officers to havo thoioughly mastered tho details of their duty ton aids thoir non clionts Tor tho moat pal t, indeed, they havo succeeded adinnably, but hero and there may bo seon ov idonccs either of absoluto neglect or want of judgment which no »oil organised institution can afford to have pointed to moro than once As tho defects aro shown they should bo rome died, and as the commissioners hav o been very willing to bring tho department up to all requirements, it may bo expected that Ihoy will always ba ploasod to bo
informed of nhereaud how tho Borneo stops short of gil ing satisfaction They cannot perhaps transform tho porters into noll maiiuored (.oiitlomoii all at oiico, but it IB within thoir power to make the station accommodation unoxctptiouablo, mid thus do much to nniko railway tra»oiling ngiooable It is possible, for instance, for thom to immediately leiuovo the grounds for com plaint on account of the want of shelter and tho nuserahlo inadequacy of the aiiuiiiiohicuts at the Brighton Bondi
station A correspondent brought tina Bubjoct forward in a letter published on Mondiy, and he spoko not only for the I comparât» ely few residents in tho localitv, 'but for tho -voiceless thousands who
book to that station every year, and who live m all paita of tho metropolis
I Brighton Beach is the most popular
resort near Melbourne, being easy of access and rich in charms But its stition
I is the poorest apolony for whit a station I at such a place ou^ht to be One has I only to visit it in the busy hours of a
holiday or Saturday afternoon to bo con scioua of tho necessity for vast improve- ment In the hot mouths tho sun strikes with pitiless fierceness upon tho people, and theie is no protection from run or wind Of course ill persons waiting for a ti-un feel cquilly when exposed to physical discomfort, but it invariably happens that the crowds which visit tho boich aro m tho nuin composed of per sons who cannot, iii addition, affoid to Buffer damtigo to their clothes It is for thom particularly tint tho plea is mide for better iccommodation, and Mr Sr-EiGHT must admit that they are
entitled to the fullest attention that a pmato compiny having to conduct a competing servico would ghdly give thom were they m -ii.lind and not ni
Simultineously with a rccuirenco of diphtlioiia m Victoria comes tho news of an alleged effectual remedy from New Zealand Dr J MURRI,. GIBBLS pub
lishes in tho current number of tho -rlitsiraiuirt Medical Jot i nal n piper m which ho speal s w ltji v quito unusual con hdonce lhere is nothing vi¿ue, for m stance, abouthisopciun.; stitoiiient, which is -"Iho coiisUtit bluegum steam ti eat
" ipi--* « H »_io diphthom ni nil its " forms-such ia the íesultof mv o-pcrt
" euee " List summer ana mtuiiin md to ditto Dr MURRAI GULI-S has trotted 110 cises without i (leith iml aloe ti
collca^uo, Dr O CARI OLL, he ilth olhcer of-sow Plj mouth, has tieated 150 with but olio death from subsequent pitalvsis
Dr O CAEPOLL IS a recent convert to tho bluegum Bystem His death rate was 20 per cent under ordumiy trcitiiient, " owing to tho number of laryn_,o_l com " plications every uno of this class dying, " notwithstanding that tracheotomy was " porloimed ' Under thoso eircum stances Dr O CARI OLL " elected tents ' over tho patients' beds, and kept them "in a const mt atmosphere of blue "gum stein.]," with tho result above Btatod ' Mopping tho throat,' wo aie told, is useless It is sufficient to keep tho patient night md diy in the bluegum steam attnospliuo, no matter whether tho throit, nasil pissages, or larynx are affected Iho tent is a tory simple affair, Dr G mm-s using an open umbrelli with a sheet over it Iho writer adds -' Tho oil of eucalyptus " globulua is not only an antiseptic, but " it has a pecuhinty, which makes it
" most suitable for tho tieutmont of "diphtheria, in that, if tiken into the " Btomach, it reappears in tho secrotiou "of the glands of tho throit It disin " foots tho niombriiio and discharges " on tho mouth and throat m a " very short tuno Patients breathing in " atniosphoie charged with it for i vvoek " aro nor. weakened, notwithstanding " the dopiessing ellects of tho diph " thoria poison It counter lets thistle " pressing oflcct, in consequence of tins "ills',- seldom to uso tomes after an " attack of this disoidui Children never " object to tina trcitiiient, playing under " their tents with thoir tova, md aro able " to tuko plentv of nourialitneut cluimg " tho whole dtuation of tho diseiso 1
"lurilly evei givo stiinul nits, and " then only a little wine-brandy " noter Iho trcitiiient prevents tho " disease spreading to tho larynx ' It is ti pity that the paper is fiimply a signod article, and was not leid before the Medical bociotv, whcio it would havo been fully discussed bj competent critics At the same time, Dr GIBBES boldly challenges tho verdict of his piofessionil hrctlucn, and wo may hopo tint they v ill seo then wa. to uko public notice, favourable or unf ivourablc, of tho îsevv Plv mouth oxpeutneut No mole fell disease than diphtlioiia tlueitcns tho family circle, md the public interest in discoveries and treatment is keen accoid ingly
Our Bliippiiif! Mid comnieiciai news will be found on pa^e 7 of to tiny a issue
Consideration is beiiuririveii bj the Govern- ment to the question of the necessity of nu proving the cable communication with Lurope Hie Admíralo has been ur^ed to (leapitch a vesstl specially ti survey the route tor a cable from Australia tu Viincotmrs Islam!, but up to the pre stilt no positive reply has been received At the ImptrinlConfcruice a resolution in favour of the survey ot tin- route was uti tmmoiisl) adopted and Mr Gillies is of opinion time if the colonies were now to ask unite II.» that that resolution aliould be given effect lo the) would most prob »bli receive a lavour
able reply Hie interests ot sume of tne colonies are known to be antaKoiiistic to the project and therefore Mere may be difhculty in getting them to join ni the representations. But shoul 1 they do 80, und the application be granted, Mr Oillua would be prepired to undertake that Victoria would bear» portion of the coat of the survey
In the event of a refusal to (leap nell II »easel specially to undertake theaurvej, Mr Gillies thinks that the colonies niljin accept the offer mude at the Imperial Conference by Mr 1 kuluin, the represéntame of Canada on behalf of that ciuntrj, to supply a ship and an ex naval ofllccr experienced in hydro eapliy to do the work It would be nereis try lirat to ascertain whether the Imperial Go »eminent would accept a survey thus made because it the Government of Great Britain were naked to pay a portion of the cable eubsuly, they would moat probably Httpulute betöre coiiicitting that the surveys should bo carried out by uu olhcer in whom the) had the utmost reliance
At the time 01 the interruption ol cable communication willi hurope, Captain Ful* lurton (chief harbourmaster), at the instance of the Detettce department, issued iin order lo the pilota at Port Phillip lleuda to anchor all foreign war vtasela tit Queenscliff uulil mstructiono in regard to them hud been received from the Minister of Defence. Tins order hits not been repealed, but now that the cable communication luis been restored the Government will counter- mand it. No bar will therefore exist to any loreign war veaael which may arrive in Vic- torian water« dunn, the continuance of the CVnteiitiiiil International I.xlubitioti bein, brought up to Hobson'a liny.
'lbe suggestion made by Mr. M'Intyre in the Legislative Assembly on Thursdii), that aometluug should be done to relieve the Homo of the atinmacatst upon its members by Hear Admiral Field, who stated in the Home of Commons thal there were A number of members of the Vic- torian Assembly who could bo bribed, had been anticipated by the Premier. As soon as Mr. Gillies read the tele* H m m from tho London correspondent of the Aigut on the Bubjtct, he de- spatched a tueasngc ti the agent general directing lils attention tu the Btuteraent, und nailing lum to use bia In lluence with some leading member ot the House of Commons io apply to Henr-Admlnil Field to mime bia nuthonty for the charge. Mr. Gillie« also luiptesacd on the dirent general that, ahonld ltcar-Admiral Field re «ard the ctimiiiunlciiilon made to him aa boin, confidential, and thereiore decline to supply the name of lila informant, it should be represented to him that it wita moat unfair to the colony to malee such un uasor tlon without being prepared to .ive the name of the person responsible for it.
At a uiening of the Cabinet held yeBtor* doy, the OoTcrtiment decided to re-enact the Local Government Statute 188(1. That measure provided that where any council of a municipality, in contravention of section 342 of the Local Oovernment Act, hud ob taincd advances prior to June 23,1880, on the credit ol the municipality from any bank by overdraft on lui current account, the amount
of the liability should be recoverable from the municipality nsifithad been legally borrowed. The councillors, who by section 342 ot the Local Government Act were held to be per- sonally liable ior any overdraft incurred be- fore the conclusion of the municipal financial year, »veto thus freed from all responsibility in that direction. Municipal councils, if unable to liquidate their overdrafts by Sep- tember 30,1830, were also given the right to discharge them at any time before September 30, loSS Many of them have been unaDle to comply with tina provision, and have, there- fore, asked the Government to extend the operation of the net for a further period,
which will now be done.
At the meeting ot the Tramway Trust held yesterday afternoon, the worka committee reported that, weather permitting, the St. Kilda and Prahran lines would be ready for trafilo within six weeks The chairman (Alderman O'Grady) was asked if it waa meant by thia that the cara would be able to run over the new PrinceVbridge in that time, and he replied in the affirmative.
At the meeting of the City Council to be held on Monda«, the council will be invited hy the public works committee to consider the propriety of presenting an address, con- gratulating Hia Excellency the Governor upon the holding during His Excellency's term of governorship of the Centennial In- ternational Exhibition to celebrate the com- pletion of the tirst hundred years of British settlement m Australia. One of the desiccators intended for UBe at the City Abattoirs hn3 am» ed from England, and the health committee has arranged for the delivery ot it at the abattoirs. The health committee has received a letter from the commissioners of the Centennial International Exhibition intimating that they have become involved in difficulty with regard to the erection of the switchback railway where first proposed, and are desirous of removing the structure to another site. The commissioners request permission from the parks and gardens committee to erect it in the southern portion of the Carlton gardens, and the committee recommend that, with a view to relieve the commissioners from their difficulty, permission be given. The council will likewise be informed that Councillor Cain has withdrawn his resignation.
With regard to the report made to the Central Board of Health recently by its inspector, Mr Taylor, relative to diseased carcases of meat at the city abattoirs, the following notice of motion for Monday's meeting of the City Council has been given by Councillor Anderson :- "That a communi- cation be forwarded to the Central Board of Health, inquiring what action has been taken with regard to the lnspector who re- cently misled the board and the public with a report which conveyed a false im- pression, and had the effect of casting dis- credit upon the City Council and its officers, and also requesting to be informed aa to what was the alleged inaccuracy in the letter sent to the hoard on behalt ot the coun- cil under date the lull msL" The same matter was referred to at the meeting ot the Central Board of Health yeaterduy, when the board resolved to request the Chief Secretary to appoint a board to inquire into the correct- ness of Mr Taylor'a report, and into the cir-
cumstances connected with it.
Another of the numerous actions arising out of transactions relating to the sale of land waa brought betöre Mr Justice A'Beckett in the Dquity court yesterday The plaintiff Richard Manning, a licensed victualler, sued Henry Cheel, ot Prahran, gentleman, and A. It Daly, of Melbourne, solicitor, to enforce apecilic performance ol a contract for the sale ot land at Malvern. The land comprised 10 acres on the Waverley-road. The plaintiff said that be had purchased it from the defendant», through their agents, Meaara. H J. Dixon und Son, estate agents, on the 20th October, 1SS7, for ¿2 COO, and had paul 1200 deposit. The land had be- longed to the détendants und to Mr. W.Fitz Henr). The delence wus that Messrs. K J. Dixon were not authorised agents to sell, but were only agents to receive proposals to be submitted to the défendante, and that the agents bud exceeded their authority in iiccepting uny offer. It was also enid that Messrs Dixon and Son were aware that the
property wu« placed with several other agents, and the restriction waa imposed on all of them against accepting any offer. le waa tilsosnid that betöre the plaintiff purchased the détendants, had sold the property, and that this was known before the contract with the plaintiff waa signed. Mr. Justice A'Beckett waa ot opinion that the delendant's version ol the transaction was correct, and that the authority to Dixon and Son was restricted to receiving offers for the purchase. He there lore gave judgment tor the détendants with costs Mr. Higgins and Mr. Hodges appeared tor the plaintiff, Dr. Madden mid Mr. Leon tor the détendants.
'Hie Full Court gave judgment yesterday on an appeal from an order of Mr. Justice \\ ebb in nn action of Hubertaon v I he II ealth ofSationaQM. Co. The plaintiff, Mr. W. It. Hubertaon, complained thal some shares he had in the company were illegally for- feited und sold. He brought the action against the company, treating it in one aspect as an incorporated company, una ni another as an unregistered compiny. The malinger was also mude a delen.lant, as lie lind purchased the shares Mr Jua- nee Weob allowed an objection that if the company was to be sued ua an unregistered partnership, till the members ol the company should be made détendants, and he gave the plaintiff the option entier of making those shan holders détendants or else ot Confuting
the acnon to the compiny as un incorporated j company. I'liiintiff's counsel rctuacd to Hillend the pleadings, und the case was struck out. The plaintiff then appealed. 'Hie Full Court held jenterduy that the pleadings ought to be amended, mid gave the pluiiitifl liberty to amend by adding one shareholder as a détendant on behalf of himself and the others, and when that amendment was made the uenoo could proceed The plaintiff wus orien d lo pay the coats of the appeal. Mr. Goldsmith appeared for the plaintiff; Dr. Madden, Mr. Topp, and Mr. Higgim for the
'Hie validity of the local option polls and
the legality of the decisions of the licensing couria uro still being brought up lor IIIBCUH Bimi in the Supreme Court Yesterday Mr. Hodges npplieii to the Supreme Court tor an order calling on the justices and the clerk of the licenaing court for the liallarat Kustdia tnec lo show cause why the determination mude bj the licensing court as to the houses which were to be abolished should not be quashed. A poll waa tul.eii on the -.¡rd March last to ascertain to what number the lictnscd houses in the licensing district for liallarat Knut proper should be reduced. 1 he returning t.tiicer reported that the deter* munition ot the electors was to reduce the number of house« from li to 27. The licenaing court oat on the 25th June to decide what houses should be abolished. The Justices refused to take any evidence to show that the poll had not been taken in accordance with the regulations of the Governor m Council, refused to inquire
what the determination of the electora waa, J except in an far us it waa stilted to be by the i report of the returning officer, and held that this report waa Una! and conclusive. It was contended jestenluy that the licenaing justices were wrong in their decisions on euch ot those pointa, and lurther, that a poll had not been legally taken, inasmuch as the notices hiul not been published by the re- turning ollicer, as required by the regula- tions, und ulao that some regulations under which votes were rejected us informal were illegal and ultra »ne«. The rule waa granted calling on the justicea and the clerk to ahow cuuse why the papers should not be trans- mitted to the Supreme Court,
An appeal »as heard in the Full Court yesterdav, against a decision of Mr. Justice Webb, in nn action ot Jorriano v. Lucai The plaintiffs brought the action against one Isaiah D. Lucas, dunning that certain pro- perty at Preston belonged to them under the will ol one Charles Lee, deceased. They alleged that the defendant had In 1885 Irniidulently procured himself to be registered as the proprietor, bi lim lim false declara, tiona made, Unit he hail purchased the pro pert) In 1871, and had afietwnrda continuously been in occupation of it by himself or lils tenants, The defendant is the executor of Mr. Lee's will. Mr Justice Webb, at the
close of the evidence for the plaintiffs, held that the plaintiffs had not proved their case, and gave judgment for the defendant, who had declined to give any evidence. The plnmtifls appealed against that order. The full Court decided yesterduy to allow the appeal and set aside the order , and to direct that an issue should be sent for trial b\ a jury whether the defendant had purchased the pro- perty, whether he had paid for it, and whether he had from 1871 till 18S5 been continuouslv in occupation of it in his own right by himselt or his tenunts. The détendant was ordered to pi» the costa of the appeal, the costa of the previous trial to abide the result of the action Mr Higgins and Mr Topp appeared for the plaintiffs , Mr Goldsmith and Mr.
Mitchell for the defendant
'lne Crimmul Sittings of the Supreme I Court were continued ou Thursday before his
Honour Mr Justice Wrenfordsley, Mr 1 Wulsh prosecuting for the Crown. Samuel , Richardson, ot North Melbourne, cabmet I maker, waa tried on a charge of forging and
uttirmga bill ot exchange for £50 The bill waa an accommodation bill m the name ot Charles Frederick Ross Sir Bryan O'Loghlen appeared for the prisoner, and the defence was that Ross had given a number of accom
| modation hills for different sumB to the pri-
soner, and was mistaken in Baling that he had not given him the one for i5G 1 lie jury acquitted the prisoner, and he was dis charged. Hie sittings were continued yes terdaj, when William Allwood, a man about iJOvenrs of age, was tried on a charge of in- decent conduct Mr Purves, Q C. and Mr, Coldham appeared tor his defence A good deal of evidence having been taken, both for the prosecution and the detence, the jury re- turned a verdict of not guilty, and the pri- soner was discharged. The Court then ad- journed until Monday morning
With reference to the supposed edict from the Chinese Government, said to hi.e been received by Chinese merchants in New Zea- land, our Dunedin correspondent writes - Inquiries made BIIOW that there are almost as many versions as there ure merchants. All concur in stating tint a piper ha« been re ceived, anil all are more or less reticent, but they state that the warlike aspect given in the hrst version is absent A merchant in Auckland stated that the document inter- preted was as follona --" From the Governor of Clinton to the Chinese business people out of China (no reference whatever is made to New Zealand or Australia) Complaints have been made to tue big merchants in China,by the Chinese people out of China that ther have been badly treated 'I hey are advised not to import any more goods from China The world is wide, and there ia plenty of room for the Chinese people at home. Don't let other people treat you as they have done. There are plenty of places in China for busi-
ness." A Dunedin merchant states that the document which he has received, and which is probably reterred to, arrived with the re- port of the commission which recently visited Australia, and stated that it was in- tended to strengthen the Chinese army and navy for defensive purposes solely, and sug- gested that the Chinese abroad might sub- scribe towards the outlay to be incurred. When the money was required they would be informed of the fact
Writing on the 12th inst, our Dunedin correspondínt reports :- "Continuous rain has again caused floods in the neighbour- hood ot Dunedin, and railway communica- tion is now interrupted both north and south. An accident which occurred on the Northern line was of an alarming character, though fortunately unattended with any serious results. The railway line winds round a cliff a few miles north of Port Chalmers, the lull having been scarped out sufficiently to allow of the line being laid. On the outward side, about 200ft sheer down, the ocean boils and beats against the rock. Special precautions are taken at this point to prevent an accident, but the experience of the pas- sengers by the express train from Christ- church on the evening ol the 10th inst. shows what might cause a dire disaster the surfaceman had just passed over the spot, and signalled to the train that all was safe. As it had been raining for some 12 hours, the engine waa proceeding dead slow. The vibration, it is supposed, liberated a large rock which had been loosened by the rain, and it thundered down on the engine, striking it low down. The engine canted over at once to the land- ward side, and in doing so smashed one of the rail. Two waggons which came next also left the metals before the train came to a standstill.The locomotive was seriously damaged. At the place where the accident occurred there is a slight bank on the out- ward side, but if it had taken place a few yards further on, and the rock had struck
the engine higher up and forced it off the metals on the outer side, it is almost certain that the whole train would have made a plunge into the boiling ocean at the foot of the cliff. As it was, the passengers were not much alarmed, as they hardly realised what had occurred. An engine sent from Dunedin curried them to their destination three hours after the usual time. A gang of men was sent out the next day to repair the damage, but it was lound a heavy slip had occurred at the mouth of a tunnel, and this has temporarily blocked the line. On the Southern line not much damage has been done so far, as the interruption has been caused by a creek being backed up, flooding portion of the line to the depth of -ile. Aa the ruin still continues, and n good deal of anew tell on the mountains inland, there are fears, however, that the damage muy prove somewhat serious.
The slnpa ol the Imperial Navy on the Australian station, the Nelson, Diamond, Calliope, Rapid, and Lizard, are to leave Sydney to day lor Melbourne, and are due to arrive on Tuesday next. These ships will haven total of 1,500 men on board, and ure to assist in earning out the ofhciul pro gramme m connection with the opening ot the Centennial International exhibi- tion. It ia expected that H M S. Or- lando will arrive at Melbourne on the 3rd or 4th of August, and that the tleet will remain in Melbourne until the middle of August, and then proceed to Sydney, On arrival at Sydney the Admiral will transfer his II IR to H. M.S Orlando, and the Nelson will proceed home by the Suez Canal Cap- tain Attwell, of H M S. Lake, ia bringing the Orlandoout.and will take the Nelson home. Mr. J. S. Shcaralon, the aearaen'a miaaion ary at Sydney, arrived in Melbourne by yesterday's express to arrange for sleeping quarters for the men of the fleet while the ulupa remain at Melbourne, as a large number of itiem will be given leave every night.
The Governor in Council lias appointod the Rev Canon llandfleld n trustee of the land and buildings ot Trinity College in the room of the late Dr. Heart). Canon Handheld, who represented the general body of sub- scriber«, had previously resigned his seat on the college council, mid tina vacancy has just been tilled by the election of Profeasor Nanson, of Melbourne University.
News baa been received by the loBt English mail that Dr G. H, Morrison, son of the principal of the Geelong College, has been dieted a fellow of the Knjal Geographical Society in London. Alter taking Ina medical degrees at the Edinburgh University, Dr. Morrison travelled in the West Indies and North America, and at present hold» on important medical appointment In Spain.
In our obituary columns is announced the death, at Shropshire, England, of Mr. Wil- liam Owen, nu old Victorian colonist Mr. Owen waa for many yean actively identified with the Hoffman Brick Company, Bruns- wick, was one of the pioneer nil way contractors of Australia, and »vas greatly re Bpected both in public and private life. Ho leaves a widow and child.
'1 he system of electric lighting laid down in Knssell-atreet by the Jumes electric Lighting and Telephone Company waa aub jicted to a severe test yeaterday. A large water-niain in Little Buurkc street burst during the course oi the morning, the water from it finding its way into the conduits in which the electric wires are laid. The drain- age, however, was au perfect that the water never reached the pans in which tho wires rested, and consequently the insulation waa in no way affected When the water had drained away the pipes were pertectly dried by n current of air forced through them by means of a blust-fitn
A meeting of draymen und other person«
interested was held laat evening at the Mel- bourne Coffee palace, to consider the adviea bility of appealing to the Sopreme Court to test the question whether the City Council, under their by laws, can prevent vehicles travelling on the tramway tracks. A com mutee was formed to collect funda tn order to assist Mr lliomus Johnson to appeal in the case Police v Johnson, lately heard in the City Court, in which the defendant waa fined for refusing to m ive his dray from the tramway track in Flinders atreet
During the last three weeks Miss von Finkelstem has been "ectunng to crowded audiences in Geelong, Ballarat, and Sand hurst, and ber three farewell lectures m the Melbourne lown hall have been fixed for Saturdav, Monday, and luesdaj, July 28tb, SOth and 31st inst Popular prices of ad mission will be charged, and in recognition of the public patronage extended to her lectures in the Athenteum hall, and at the instance of the committee of the Melbourne City Mission, the lady has consented to devote a liberal portion of the proceeds of her farewell lectures to that deserving institution Thes» three lectures will be the last uppearances of Miss von Iinkelstem prior to her departure tor Sydney and the lectures chosen are ' Homes and Haunts of Jesus "City Life in Jerusa lem and ' The true Life ot Jacob ' On Saturday evening the Dean of Melbourne will preside
The final productiou of " Monte Cristo Jun was given at the Princesas Theatre last evening by the Gaiety Burlesque Com pany Ita lost night saw no diminution in the large attendances " Mies Lsmeralda will b*> presented for the first time to night
The performance of the comedy Bache lora by Messrs Brough and Boucicault' Com pany at the Bijou I he itre during the week lias drawn good bouses Hie same piece will Le repeated this evening
lhere was no performance by Miss Amy Sherwin s Opera Company at the Opera house 1 ist nigut on account of arrangements having to be made for the production of
' Taust to ni.ht Hie Excellency the Governor has announced his intention of being present at tonights pertorm
" Uncle Tom s Cabin ia proving a (»rcat attraction at the theatre Hoya- JNo notice is given of a change
.he extravaganza "Zuleika" has been played at the Alexandra Theatre during the past week lue same piece will be repeated during next week
Hie Victoria hall has been well Glied during the week with audiences attracted by Mr 1 rank Clark s Minstrel and Variety Com pan) A chance will be made in the pro gramme to nizht
I he combination of Cogill Bros' Minstrel Company und Rickards s Variety Iroupe has performed to very (.uod houses'at St George s Hull during the past week A change of pro gramme is promised to night
As notitied else where the Lynch Family of Bellringers do not appear this evening at the Athenäum, the hall being otherwise engaged On Monday their usual course of concerts will be contain«!
1 he city organist will pi ve a recital this eveuuu. on the I on ii Hull organ
?\\e are requested to direct attention to the preliminar) notice concerning a number ol mining properties at Coromandel, New Zealand, which are nilen led for sill- Hie notice ia advertised awaiti lu our special
lhe Bishop of Melbourne will preach at All Saints Church Northcote, to morrow morning in connection with the Mission Services winch have been held with i,reat succ «s during the p ist weel I lie diocesan misBioiicr will pre ich both afternoon and
Hie Rev Um Allen is ndvertised to deliver a series of Sund ly evening addresses nt the Carlton Indi pendent Church, on
' Some I e ilures of the Century
Mission services mil be held by the Rev Georee Sproule at St Georges ltojiil pirie, to du) at J ti clock for clul tren and at hall
p ist 7 for men oui) On Sunday there will lie a communion service at 9 and lit 11 0 clock a «peel ii service tor children and p irenta at 3 o clock, and a public service at
lhe Archbishop of Melbourne will perform the ceremony of blessing and opening St. Brendan's Roman Catholic new church, Flemington, to-morrow, at 11 a.m. A special choir, with Mr. Furlong as organist, will render the choral service. In the evening the Rev. Farther Morrough will officiate.
Sermons are to be preached to-morrow in St. Patrick's Cathedral on behalf of the St. Vincent de Paul Charitable Society, in the forenoon by the Rev. J. L. Hegarty, and in the evening by the Rev. J. Heffernan.