IN THE EARLY DAYS. THE FIRST DECADE.
No. VI. BUSINESS PROGRESS. TOWN AND COUNTRY HOTELS.
"Whoe'er has travell'd life's dull round, Where'er his stages may have been; May sigh to think he still has found The warmest welcome at an inn.' The usual order of forming a township in Australia in the old times was first a hotel, next a general store, followed by a blacksmith's smithy, and a saddler's shop.
Another hotel was then pretty sure to fol- low. Rockhampton was no exception from the order, for the Bush Inn, as previously stated, was the first building of any im- portance here. It started on the site of the present Criterion Hotel in a very modest way, but was considerably enlarged and improved after the Canoona rush. Mr. Parker, the proprietor, died in 1860, and the folowing year his widow married Mr. J. A. Watt, who owned the principal but- chering establishment in the growing town. In 1862 Mr. John Ward took the hotel, which was named the Criterion. Later in the year he transferred it to Mr. Thomas Nobbs, of Notiu Roekhampton. Mr. Nobbs kept the hotel for a good many years, when the lease expired, and Mr. John Cramp, who meanwhile had married Mr. Watt's widow, took over the hostelry. It has changed hands a good many times since then. About a dozen years ago it was rebuilt, and the handsome three-storied brick building of the present day is one of the finest holds in Queensland. Mr. Nobbs, who will be mentioned later, still resides at North Rockhampton, of which borough he has frequently been alderman and on one occasion Mayor. His son, Mr. T. V. Nobbs, is at present Town Clerk of Rockhampton. All was bustle at the time of the Canoona rush to get hotels built. The second inn erected was the Alliance Hotel, which still occupies the same name and position, in East-street. It was bnilt for Mr. A. Thozet, and two of his compatriots sawed the timber. The original hotel was built of yellow-wood, which is really the wood of the beautiful Leichhardt tree. The hotel was covered with slates, supposed to be the only building in Rockhamp= ton, except the old Custon House, so roofed. It was found that slates retained the heat more than wood, and others, profiting by Mr. Thozet's experience, covered their new premises with shingles, which came into general use till supplanted by galvanised iron. The hotel soon became a popular resort of bush- men, and did a good business, though it changed hands rather frequently. The Rockhampton Hotel was built on the river bank, opposite Messrs. Ruther- ford Brothers' Bazaar, in 1859, by Mr. John Ward. It was a good class of build- ing for those times, and in 1861 Mr. Ward sold out to Mr. J. R Skardon for £2500. Mr. Skardon kept the hotel till 1866, when it was burned to the ground and was never re-built. Mr. Ward was not to be kept out of a hotel though, for he built the Commercial Hotel, at the corner of little Quay-street and Dennham-street, in 1861, and soon after sold out to Mr. George Gannon, who had come to Rockhampton from Gayndah, at the time of the Canoora rush.. Mr Gan- non kept the hotel for some years and then transferred it to Mr. W. Chapple, and it went through a number of hands, including those of Mr. Ward himself, till finally the license was allowed to run out. Mr. Charles Wakefield, who had started a shanty at the time of the Canoona rush, built the Fitzroy Hotel in Quay-street on what is now the bonded store. He died in 1862 and was succeeded by Mr. W. C. Gardner, and the hotel changed hands several times, among those who had it being a Mr. Moses and Mr. John Ward. In the early times the tariff at the first table was 12s.' per day. In 1859 Mt. W. .Tame* built lie Golden Fleece Hotel, at the corner of Quay and William streets, where the fine new Com- mercial Hotel, erected by Mrs. L. Johnson, now stands. Mr. James was followed by Mr. R. W. Anderson, afterwards butcher at Mackay, then came Mr. Hart, who was succeeded by Mr. M. Moses, Mr. J. Cramp, Mrs. Pearson, and a number of others till the licence was allowed to run out, and the allotment remained vacant for many years. Captain Champion, who had been in the Clarence and Eagle steamers, built
the Clarence and Eagle Hotel, in Quay- street, near the site of Avonleigh, in 1861, and put in Mrs. Harrison and Mrs. Genery as landladies. Mrs. Genery subsequently married Mr. George Wilson, who was a butcher in little Quay-street, opposite the Criterion Hotel. Mr. Wilson afterwards kept the Alliance Hotel, and the Bull and Mouth, and finally migrated to Towns- ville, where he died some years ago. Another inn erected about 1860 was Tat- tersall's Hotel, at the corner of East and Fitzroy streets, where the Royal Hotel now stands. Among the early tenants were Mr. M'Cauley, Mr. E. Gregory, and Mr. C. Murphy. Mr. Gregory afterwards kept the Normanby Hotel. Mrs. Gregory, a hale, white-headed old lady, still survires, and resides with her son, Mr. G. Pohlmann, in Alma-street. The Bull and Mouth Hotel was erected in 1863 by Mr. George Wilson, on the site of the present Commercial Bank. It was afterwards owned by Mr. Philip Hardy, Mr. Robinson, Mr. Charles Bouel, and others., the license finally dying out. In Quay-lane, about the back of the Palace Hotel, Mr. Jeremiah Murphy had the Smamrock Hotel, a great rendezvous at one time of the sons of Erin. As the main streets began to fill up these hotels in the lane gradually died out, though Mr. C. Hourigan, at present of the Australian Hotel, had the Golden Age 'Tap,' at the back of what is now the Post Office Hotel, for some years, and there was also a "tap" at the back of the Royal Fitzroy Hotel. William-street was then the main outlet of the town as it is at the present time, and this thoroughfare fairly bristled with hotels right out to Gracemere. Messrs. Page and O'Rourke had a hotel at the corner of William and Bolsover streets, and further up were the Freemason's Arms and the Sovereign Hotel (now the Dun- more). Mr. P. Kennely was the first land- lord of the Sovereign Hotel, and was succeeded bb Mrs. Creigaton, who subse- quently married Mr. Mitchell. This lady still resides in Rockhampton. Mr. Pascoe was the first landlord of the Free- masons' Arms, and was succeeded by Mr. Joseph Marshall, who kept the hotel for many years. At the corner of the Lower Daw- son Road and Derby-street, was Mr. Prendergast's Golden Lion Hotel; and at the end of Stanley-street Mrs. Kezia Tregilgas's Cornish Mount Hotel. At Allenstown was Mr. P. Egan's Merrygig Hotel, and further along the upper Dawson Road, the Squatters' Hotel, built by Mr. W. James, and afterwards burned down. The Ulster Arms, Mr. John M'Gregor proprietor, was where the hostelry still stands. Near thee Yeppen Lagoon was Mr. E. Rowleys Bull's Head Hotel, and about two miles along the road Mrs. Pearson's Sportsman's Arms Hotel. On the Gracemere side of Scrubby Creek Mr. J. Montgomery had a nice hotel, and on the hill at Gracemere Mr. Macken- rie Scott had a public-house. Mr. J. Row- bottom owned a hotel at Stanwell, which survived for many years, and at Westwood Mr. P. Hardy built the Woolpack Hotel in 1860. Westwood was than known as Presto, from a word found there on a big tree, supposed to have been cut by Mr. W. H> Wiseman's party when surveying there a year or two prcviously. Mr. J. Bartholomew had a hotel at Gogango. All these hotels were built early in the sixties, the majority of them before 1863. Mrs. Glasscock built the Leichhardt Hotel in 1864, and kept it till her death. Mrs. Longmore, Mr. John Joyce and Mr. R. D. Cruickshank subsequently took in on and on Mr. Cruickshank's retirement in 1879, Mr. John Gibbs, from the Denis Hotel, took possession. On the death of her husband, Mrs. Gibbs carried on the hotel for some years, when she married Mr. J. Esler, who died only about a year ago. The hotel has obtained a wide and excel- lent reputation as a first-class hostelry, mainly through the kindness and attention of Mrs. Esler, who added to and greatly improved the building. The Alma Hotel, at the corner of Alma and Denham streets, now owned by Mr. C. Hourigan, and Mr. B. Brogli's Victoria Hotel, further up Denham-street, where
Olsen's garden now stands, were also erected in the early days, probably in 1862. The Cambridge Hotel, now the Three Crowns was put up in 1863. The Union Hotel was built about 1866 by Mr. L M'Gregor, who also erected a theatre. Previous to this the Cornstalk Hotel and music hall had been erected on the now vacant ground at the corner of fitzroy and Bolsover streets, by Mr. J. Crook. The Volunteer Arms, where the Scariff Hotel now stands, was erected by Mr. K. Nurcombe, who kept it for a long time. About 1866 the Golden Age Hotel, now the Post Office Hotel, was erected by Mr. P. Kennedy, who had previously been landlord of the Sovereign Hotel. The Bel- more Anns was opened later by Mr. William Callaghan, now of Sydney. When Mr. Callaghan sold the Belmore Arms, he opened at the corner of East and Den- ham streets, where the Oxford Arms now stands. Towards the bottom of Bolsover stree the Globe Hotel was bnut about 1866. Several other hotels sprang up later in different portions of the town. 'Whilst all this rapid hotel building was going on in Rockhampton, North Rock- hampton was by no means idle. All kinds of theories were formed as to which would be the main outlet of the town. A road to Yaamba was formed on the north-side of the river soon after the rush, and as it made a considerable saving in the dis- tance it soon became the main thorough- fare to that thriving little township. It was also held by some people that the larger portion of the town would be built on the north side of the river. With this view, Mr. Thomas Burnet, in 1862. built a greet hotel opposite the present Victoria Hotel. It was built very strongly of wood, and was four stories high. It did a fair business for some years, but afterwards stood as a huge monument of a mistaken idea. Mr. Bernard Pene built the Cremorne Hotel (at first named the White Horse Inn) in 1862, and Mr. Charles Murphy, the Charleston Hotel, where Mr. Nobbs now lives. Mr. J. B. Gordon erected a hotel at Alligator Creek, near Yaamba; Mr. Charles Evennett widely known as "Flash Charlie," built a hotel on the Peak Downs Road, on Canoona run; there was likewise a hotel for a time at Princhester, kept by Mr. Pascoe. Mr. Joseph Squibb erected a hotel at Marl- borough in 1861. Mr. Squibb is still alive and continues to keep the hotel, conse- quently he has been a publican at Marl= borough for forty-one years. He is a very popular man, and well-knovrn to all classes of travellers. It will be seen from the foregoing list of hotels, all built when the town and dis- trict were young, and the population small, that every facility was given townspeople and travellers to spend their money. The list is probably not quite complete, particu- larly as regards Westwood and Yaamba, where hotels sprang up rapidly in the early sixties. The chief drink in those times was brandy, whisky being seldom asked for. So, in the matter of intoxicants, the taste in forty years has completely changed. Brandy is seldom called for now, whisky and beer being the drinks demanded by the great majority of those who use re- freshments of that class. The hotels have net increased greatly, though the popula- tion has more than quintupled. In 1862 Mr. St. John Keyse built a large store in Quay street, which was kept as a wholesale wine and spirit business for a year or two. The hotel accommodation being limited, a demand sprang up for a club, and in 1963 a syndicate built the premises now occupied as a residence by Mr. G. S. Curtis and appointed Mr. Dennis Dunleavy as manager. The Club House, as it was termed was never very popular, being for one thing too far away from the business centre. Subsequently Mr. Dunleavy built the Denis Hotel, at the corner of Alma and Derby streets, where the Grosvinor Hotel now stands. Mr. A. G. Machefer was the first im- portant cordial and aerated water manu- facturer. He started in Quay-lane, oppo- site the Firzroy Hotel, and at the end of 1861,
or early in 1862, and did a very good busi- ness. As time went on the wine and spirit business was added, and Mr. Macheier removed to East-street, below Mr. Jones's timber yard. In 1866 Mr. Machcfer went to Sydney with his wife, leaving her there on a visit. He started back in the steamer Cawarra, which was wrecked and all hands lost Mr. James Beckering had been left in charge of the business in Rockhampton, and he was joined by Mr. George Morris, who was a brother of Mrs. Machefer, and the busi- ness was continued under the firm of Morris and Beckering. Mr. W. G. Capern was either a partner in the firm or else the manager. Mr. Beckering was subsequently killed when kangaroo hunting, and Mr. George Morris died later on. Then Mr. Samuel Morris continued the aerated water manufactory, Mr. Caporn having previously opened a wine and spirit business in East-street. Mr. Caporn is one of those who remained faithful to his new home. He was a member of the Municipal Council for many years, and in various ways did his share for the advancement of the town. Mr. Caporn now lives privately at West Rockhamp- ton. Another cordial manufacturer of the early times was Mr. Edward Treven, bet- ter known as 'Black Ned-' His factory was on the north side of Archer-street, exactly opposite the upper end of East- street. Later he shifted into Quay-lane, and finally sold out to Mr. George May, who improved the plant and for a long period carried on a lucrative bnsiness near Messrs. Rutherford Brothess' bazaar. Mr. James Cunningham was also a cor- dial manufacturer in Quay-lane, near the back of the European Hotel. The business was subsequently carried on by Mr. Maur- icc Harris, adjoining what is now Messrs. Burns and Twigg's foundry. Later several other started in this class of business, but the advent of the brewer- ies of Messrs. M'Laughlin and Co. and Messrs. J. M. Headriek and Co., diminished the demand for aerated waters. AUCTIONEERS AND COMMISSION AGENTS. Auctioneers and commission agents were fairly numerous in Rockhampton even whilst in its infancy. About the first to start in 1860, were Messrs. Lambert J. Bird and Mills Wormald. In 1862 the firm dissolved and Mr. Wormald carried on business on his own account. Mr. Bird formed a partnership with a Mr. William Lloyd, but in 1863 the firm ceased to exist, and Mr. Bird departed south. Mean- while Mr. Wormald carried on a flourish- ing business. He had the reputation of being one of the best stock auctioneers in Australia. He was also expert at re- partee, and people with plenty of leisure occasionally attended his sales for the purpose of indulging in chaff. One day a wag, who at that time was not known to the auctioneer, worked off an old joke on Mr. Wormald by asking: "Can I bid, Mr. Wormald?" Certainly, my lad," replied Wormald. "Then I bid you good day," and he departed amidst the laughter of the crowd. About 1863 Mr. G. S. Curtisa entered Mr. Wormald's office as a clerk, and with such a good tutor he speedily acquired a knowledge of the business, and soon began to conduct sales. On the deathh of Mr. Wormald in the seventies, Mr. Cur- tis carried on the business on behalf of the widow, finally becomig sole proprietor of one of the best auctioneering businesses in Queensland. Auction sales in the early days were mainly sales of houses, which fre- quently fetched from £12 to £20, so it was a very profitable business. Wormald's office was right opposite Richmond House, the sales frequently taking place at the yards opposite, at the rear of Tattersall's Hotel, where the Royal Hotel shops now are. The mode of sale was for a rider to mount the horse to be sold and gallop up and down East-street to show his pace, apparently, not paces, whilst the spectators looked on, hoping the horse would buck, and give some fun. The bucking frequently happened, and in such a locality it required a good horseman to show the nags off. Mr. Wormald's principal rider in The early sixties was Mr. John Jacobs, better known as "Johnny" Jackson. He was a fine rough rider, entirely without fear. He came here in 1860, having travelled over- land with cows to Fort Cooper. In addi- tion to riding he was a horse dealer and subsequently became cattle buyer for Mr. D. Martin. In 1874 Mr. Jacobs commenced to buy for Mr. W. Pattison, and is still a buyer for the firm of Pattison and Co., having been in the same employ- ment for about twenty-eight years. He obtained the name of "Jack- son" in consequence of a previous owner of Tattersall's stable having his name over the gate. After a residence of forty-two years Mr. Jacobs bears his years lightly. He is highly esteemed by his em- ployers and by all who know him. Mr. George Ranken was also one of the early auctioneers, as were likewise Messrs. N. O. Paton, Thomas Bowden, D. s. Laurie, F. Templeton, S. R. Davis, J. Forsyth, and ohers. Most of these, however, remained in business in Rockhampton for only a few years. Mr. Ranken subsequently went into partnership with Mr. William Rea, under the style of Ranken, Rea, and Co. "Billy" Rea, as he was familiarly termed, was afterwards member for the town with Mr. Macdonald-Paterson.
Among those not previously mentioned who remained in the auctioneering business for some considerable time, were Messrs. H. J. M'Dermott, Mandermott Bro- thers, Sydney Lambert, A. E. Alexander, and Nobbs and Co. Still a little later Mr. G. B. Shaw also added auctioneering to his business. Mr. R. L. Dibdin, who arrived in 1862, when quite a young man, soon commenced business on his own account as commission agent and valuer, to which be added auc- tioneering in a few years. Mr. Dibdin continued this business till quite late years. He was a most enterprising and clear headed townsman, and one to whom the welfare and progress of Rockhampton and its people were always dear. Mr. Dibdin has acted for many years as escort for the Mount Morgan Company's gold from Mount Morgan to the Queensland Bank. There is little or no risk in this duty at present, but fifteen or sixteen years ago, when it had to be brought over a rough road, where robbers might easily have con- cealed themselves, it was by no means free from risk. Mr. Dibdin still performs this duty. BUTCHERS AND BAKERS. Apparently two or three people did a little butchering in the early days, but a Mr. Stevenson appears to be the first person of importance in that line of busi - ness. He had a shop near the site of the present Custom House, and he built a yard on the bank of the river below what was formerly known as Blind Gully. This yard was subsequently washed away by a flood, which caused the bank to crumble. Mr. Stevenson, obtained his cattle from Messrs. Archer Brothers. Mr. J. A. Watt (at first Watt and Muldoon) was the second large bat- cher. He started business in 1859 or 1860, and it continued for some years, latterly about where the premises of Messrs. Golds- brough, Mort, and Co. now stand. Mr. Watt died about 1865. Mr. John Ward also opened a butchering business about 1860, near the upper end of Quay-lane. Mr. Ward, however, was as varied with his butchering establishments as he was with hotds, for he started several in different parts of the town, including one in 1863, at the corner of East and Denham streets, where Messrs. Flavelle and Sankey's shop now stands. The Commer- cial Hotel faced Quay-lane, at the back of the butcher's shop. Mr. James Mackean was in charge of this shop in 1864. Mr. Ward did not confine his speculations to hotels and butcher's shops, for he built shops and houses of all kinds in different parts of the town, and as the value of property was always increasing, needless to say be made money rapidly. Mr. George Wilson was early in the field with a butchering establishment in
Quay-lane, just above the shop of Mr. Kasch, cabinetmaker, East-street. About 1862 Messrs. T. Macdoaald-Pater- son and William Jager opened a butcher's shop at the corner of East and Fitzroy streets. This shop still remains and is the premises of the Co-operative Butchering Company. Mr. Jager subsequently had a butcher's shop opposite the Scariff Hotel Other early butchers were Messrs. Mar- tin Brothers, who continued in business tin Mr. William Martin went north, leav- ing the business to his elder brother, Mr. Daniel Martin. The latter gentleman car- ried on the trade for many years, and was always noted for his straightforvrardiiess and probity. He was an excellent towns- man in every way, and no man was ever more generally respected by all classes. By his industry he amassed a considerable competency, which was lost in his old age by an unfortunate speculation in Mount Morgan shares, just before the fall in values occurred. In 1864 the late Mr. William Pattison arrived in Rockhampton, and soon started business in William-street, in a shop at the opposite corner to where the butcher ing establishment now is. He subsequently removed to the shop now used by Messrs. Pattison and Co. Mr. Pattison, as most people know, was a leading townsman till the day of his death. His judgment on business affairs was sought by all classes, and never in vain. He was a large owner of station property and stock. At one period through disastrous seasons and press of creditors, Mr. Pattison was compelled to go through the Insolvent Court. He al- ways regarded this as a stigma, and he never rested till he had paid his creditors every farthing he owed, though he had received his cer- tificate of discharge almost at once. He was always a power in the town, and at the same time was held in the affections of all who knew him. There was never any ostentation, about him; he always described himself as "William Pattison, butcher." By his death, a few years ago, Rockhampton lost one of its very best citizens. Mr. Henry Schmidt was the first baker in Rockhampton. He started business in 1859, about twelve months after the Canoona rush, in Quay-lane. The first oven was built for him by a man named Harris, the father of Benjamin Maurice, and Thomas Harris, who were all well-known in this district subsequently. Mr. Maurice Harris being for many years a hotelkeeper. Mr. Schmidt soon built up a capital busi- ness, which was carried on till he died in 1883. Mr. Schmidt at one time was the landlord of the Alli? Hotel. He
was an alderman for several years, and took a considerable interest in the progress of the town of his adoption. He brought up a large family of sons and daughters, one of whom is Miss Florence Schmidt, the well-known singer, now in England. His widow still resides at Fefsberg, in Quay- street. It is nearly forty-two years since Mrs. Schmidt arrived in the Grand Trianon, from Sydney, at the time of the Canoona rush. Mrs. Schmidt is no doubt the oldest resident of the gentler sex in Eockhampton. Soon after Mr. Schmidt's death the busi- ness was purchased by his foreman, Mr. Schwarten, whilst Mr. Frank Wynne, who had also been an employee for many years, started business in Derby-street, where he still carries it on. Mr. J. Ashbury opened a baker's busi- ness in Quay-lane, just at the back of the present Royal Bank, in 1860. A year or two after it was turned into a boarding house by Mr. J. O'Donnell, who subse- quently sold it to Mrs. R. Pearson. Mr. J. Bundy, in the early sixties, opened a baker's shop in East-street, somewhere near the present Belmore Arms. This busi- ness was continued for many years, till Mr. Bundy finally removed to Sydney. Mrs. David Wiley is a daughter of Mr.
Bundy. Mr. J. Dunne and Mr. H. Ansell were also bakers in Rockhampton over thirty years ago, as well as a few others whose names cannot now be recalled. The first baker at North Rockhampton was Mr. Joseph Molloy, where he started about 1863. He died less than ten years after, and his widow subsequently married Mr. H. Butcher. Alderman F. Molloy is Mr. J. Molloy's son, and all the family have continued to live on the north-side. DBAPEES AND TAILORS. At the founding of the town nearly all the "general stores," as they were called, sold drapery and clothing, but there were a few establishments devoted entirely to that class of goods. Among the first of these were Messrs. Hemmant and James Stewart, who had a place of business in Denham Street, where the back premises of the Bank of New South Wales now are. There was a row of shops there which had been built by Mr. A. F. Wood, and in one of these the firm started business. In 1864 the partners built a shop at the corner of East and Denham streets, which gave more accommodation for their expanding busi- ness. Some little time subsequently Mr. Hemmant retired, and Mr. E. S. Lucas was admitted into partnership under the style of Messrs. Stewart and Lucas. Still later Mr. Lucas retired, and started busi- ness on his own account further down East-street. Mr. Stewart then continued the business under the style of Messrs. James Stewart and Co., under which name
it remains till the present day. Mr. Stewart has enlarged and extended the business in many directions, till now it is by far the most extensive in that particular line of re- tail business in Rockhampton, and ranks among the largest in Queensland. Though Mr. Stewart has never formally taken any prominent part in local and parliamentary affairs, he has done so privately. For some years he was Chairman of Directors of the Mount Morgan Gold-mining Company. Limited, and he has been one of the most liberal supporters of mining in Queensland. He has always been ready with his cash and advice to help forward any movement for the betterment of Rockhampton. He has been a large employer of labour, and is one of those whose word is his bond. Mr. Stewart's private house, at the corner of Bolsover and Denham streets, was built by Mr. J. Leith Hay, and was at one time used as the Queensland Government Bank. Mr.Lucas, like his former partner, has al- ways taken an unostentations interest in the well-being of Rockhampton and its people, having been identified with various insti- tutions having for their object the mental and physical improvement of the inhabi- tants. Mr. Lucas still carries on a pros- perous business under his own name, which is known as the Job Drapery Warehouse. Time has dealt very kindly with these pioneer drapers, and after a forty years' experience they are still satisfied there are few better places than Rockhampton. It may be hoped that both gentlemen will continue to take an active part in their businesses for many years to come. Mr. Henry Prosper had a tailoring and drapery business in Quay-street, near the Custom House, which he opened in 1859. The business was largely tailoring, and in this respect he was the first. He did a good business for several years, when he died, and his widow is now Mrs. Baker, of Cooktown. Mr. Louis Sandel, who was mostly a clothier and outfitter, built a shop at the corner of East and Fitzroy streets, where he carried on business for many years. He opened in either 1861 or 1862 in Quay- lane. His son, Mr. E. Sandel, has till lately, been a hotelkeeper at Lakes Creek. Mr. J. B. Skardon, proprietor at the Rockhampton Hotel, opened a drapery business in 1862, with which he combined the sale of boots and shoes. Messrs. Rush and Co. opened a drapery business near where Messrs. Row and Co.'s druggist shop now is in 1863. The pre- mises were burned down in 1867, and sub- sequent Messrs. Meikle and Stewart opened a drapery business near the same place. About 1862, the Chinaman "Charley,"
who is now so well-known as the Salvation Army- flag bearer, started as a tailor in Rockhampton. Charley is now in his seventy-sixth year, and still prides himself that he never worked for a boss. Charley had few of the vices of his race, and in his old age is looking hopefully forward to a happy hereafter, where creeds and colours will be unknown. As years rolled on drapery establish ments multiplied greatly, among those whoio were here about 1863 or 1864 being Messrs. Nesbitt, Pearce, and Co. and Messes. Isles, Finney, and Co. Later there came Mr. J. Forrest, Messrs. J. W. Face and Co., and Messrs. Wing Wah and Co. Messrs. For- rest and Face are still residents. One of the first millinery and dress- making establishments opened in Rock- hamptim was that of Mrs. Scudder, who opened in Quay-street, in 1861. Mrs. J. Cordial soon after had a similar business in East-street, opposite what was once known as Grant's timber-yard. The Misses Tannock. one of whom continued business in Rocknampton for nearly twenty years, opened a millinery and dressmaking busi- ness in East-street in 1862. Mrs. Williams had a similar establishment, in Quay-lane the same year, and Miss Ankrtell, in East- street, opposite Grant's timber-yard. In 1863 Mrs. Edgar opened a dressmaking business in Alma-street, just above the Electric Light Works. Mrs Campton also opened in the same line on the south side of William-street. As the population en-larged, dressmaking establishments in-creased all over the town, but it will be seen that even when the place was young every effort was made to attend to the wants of the ladies in regard to the pre-vailing fashions.