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  • SheffieldPark 22 Feb 2010 at 13:38
    Correct guage to gauge.
  • Anonymous 22 Aug 2015 at 20:42
    gauge re-corrected to the original spelling in the article of guage, where applicable.

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(From the "British Quarterly.")  

Of the first kind of cases, those con- nected with dreaming, one of the most remarkable is one related by Sir Walter Scott, of a gentleman of property who was on the eve of losing a law-suit in consequence of the loss of an important document which he believed his father had at one time procured. After every conceivable place had been searched, and when on the eve of compromising the suit, he dreamt that his father appeared to him and told him where the   document in question was to be found, and where, to his great surprise, he obtained it in time to gain the cause which he was on the verge of losing. Many similar cases are related by Dr. Abercombie, of individuals remembering in dreams, while under the influence   of anxiety regarding the subject of them, where important papers referring to long-forgotten events, had been placed. Nay, several facts of this kind would appear to prove that not only may events which had been long forgotten be remembered in dreams, but that events, which at the time of their occurrence had passed unheeded, and never subsequently been objects of memory at all, may become at a future time the subjects of dreaming. The following fact is of this kind :

"During an investigation in the North of   Scotland, respecting an atrocious murder committed on a pedlar, a man came forward voluntarily and declared that he had had a dream, in which there was represented to him a house, and a voice directed him to a spot near the house, in which there was buried the pack, or box for small articles of merchandize, of the murdered person. On search being made, the pack was found, but not precisely at the spot which he had men- tioned, but very near it. The first impression on the minds of the public authorities was, that he was either the murderer, or an accomplice in the crime. But the individual accused was soon after clearly convicted ; before his execution he fully confessed his crime, and, in the strongest manner, excul- pated the dreamer from any participation in, or knowledge of the murder. The only fact that eould be discovered, calculated to throw any light upon the occurrence was, that immediately after the murder, the dreamer and the murderer had been together, in a state of almost constant intoxication, for several days; and it is supposed that the latter might have allowed statements to escape from him, which had been recalled to the other in his dream, though he had no remembrance of them in his sober hours."

We have also referred to cases in

?which any kind of dream can be pro- duced by Avhispering into the ear of the person asleep. One of the most curious instances of this kind is one related by Dr. Gregory, of an officer whose com

panions were in tne naoit 01 amusing

themselves by taking advantage of this peculiarity, which ho possessed in a singular degree. At one time, they conducted him through the whole pro- gress of a quarrel, which ended in a duel, and when the .parties were sup- posed to be met, they put a pistol in his hand, which he fired, and was awakened by the report. On another occasion, they made him believe that he had fallen overboard, and induced him to imitate all the motions of swimming, and ultimately to dive so as to escape from a shark which they said was pur- suing him. He instantly dived, and awoke from the bruises he sustained by throwing himself on the cabin floor. Similar cases are recorded by Smellie

and others.

Illustrations of cases of the first kind of somnambulism to which we have re- ferred are sufficiently familiar to all ; but of the second kind a few examples, briefly referred to, will be found to bear immediately upon the exposition of our present subject. Dr. Gregory relates that thoughts and even expres- sions occurred to him in dreams which

he used in his lectures and writings. Dr. Franklin stated that the bearings of political events which puzzled him when awake, often were resolved in his dreams. Condorcet often solved obscure

calculations in his sleep. Many in-

stances are recorded of individuals

composing pieces of music and poetry in their dreams, which they afterwards remembered on waking. A distin- guished Scottish lawyer on one occa- sion, after studying a difficult case for some days with great anxiety and at- tention, rose during the night-time, and wrote a long paper, which he locked in his desk and returned to bed. On the following morning he told his wife that he dreamt he had delivered a clear and luminous opinion on the case with which he had been so much perplexed ; and that he would give anything to recover the train of thought which had passed' before him in his dream. On being directed to his writing-desk, the opinion was found fully, clearly, and correctly written out.

In many well authenticated cases of somnambulism the persons appear to have enjoyed the exercise of certain faculties in a very exalted degree, and to have displayed a degree of intelli- gence and memory, in regard to the subjects which engaged them, of which they appeared quite incapable while awake. The following will serve as an illustration of such cases, and will be found, we think, to throw some light upon the feats of some clairvoyantes :

"A girl, an orphan of the lowest rank, residing in the house of a farmer, by whom «he was employed in tending cattle, was accustomed to sleep in an apartment, sepa- rated by a very thin partition from one which was frequently occupied, by an itinerant fiddler. This person was a musician of very considerable skill, and often Bpent a part of the night in performing pieces of a refined

description, but his performance was not taken notice of by the child, except as a dis- agreeable noise. After a residence of six months in this family, she fell into bad health, and was removed to the house of a benevolent lady, where, on her recovery, after a protracted illnes, she was employed as a servant. Some years after she came to reside with this lady, the most beautiful music was often heard in the house during the night, which excited no small interest and wonder in the family; and many

waking hour was spent in endeavours to dis- cover the invisible minstrel. At length the sound was traced to the sleeping-room of the girl, who was found fast asleep, but ut- tering from her lips a sound exactly resem- bling the sweetest tones of a small violin. On further observation, it was found that, after being about two hours in bed, she became restless and began to mutter to her- self. She then uttered sounds precisely re- sembling the tuning of a violin, and at length    

after some prelude, dashed off into elaborate pieces of music, which she performed in a clear and accurate manner, and with a sound exactly resembling the most delicate modu- lations of that instrument. During the per- formance, she sometimes stopped, and made the sound of retuning her instrument, and then began exactly where she had stopped, in the most correct manner. These par- oxysms occured at irregular intervals, varying from one to fourteen, or even twenty nights ; and they were generally followed by a degree of fever, and pains over various parts of the body.

" After a year or two, her music was not confined to the imitation of the violin, but was often exchanged for that of a piano of a very old description, which she was accus- tomed to hear in the house where she now lived ; and she then also began to sing, imi- tating exactly the voices of several ladies of the family. In another year from this time, she began to talk a great deal in her sleep, in which she seemed to fancy herself in- structing a younger companion. She often descanted with the utmost fluency and cor- rectness on a variety of topics, both political and religious, the news of the day, the his- torical parts of scripture, public characters, and particularly the characters of members of the family and their visitors. In these discussions she showed the most wonderful discrimination, often combined with sarcasm, and astonishing powers of mimicry. Her language through the whole was fluent and correct, and her illustrations often forcible and even eloquent. She was fond of illus- trating her subject by what she called afable, and in these her imagery was both appro- priate and elegant. She was by no means, says my informer, limited in her range Buonaparte, Wellington, Blucher, and all the kings of the earth, figured among the phantasmagoria of her brain ; and all were animadverted upon with such freedom from restraint, as often made me think poor Nancy had been transplanted into Madame Gerilis' palace of truth. The justice and truth of her remarks on all subjects excited the ut- most astonishment in those who were ac- quainted willi her limited means of acquiring information. She had been known to con- jugate correct Latin verbs, which she had probably heard in the school-room of the family ; and she was once heard to speak several sentences very correctly in French, at the same time stating that she heard them from a foreign gentleman, whom she had met accidentally in a shop. Being questioned on this subject when awake, she remembered having seen the gentleman, but could not repeat a word of what he said. During her

paroxysms, it was almost impossible to awake her, and when her eyelids were raised, and a candle brought near the eye, the pupil seemed insensible to the light. For several years she was, during the paroxysms, entirely un- conscious of tiie presence of other persons ; but about the age of sixteen she began to observe those who were in the apartment, and she could tell correctly their numbers, though the utmost care was taken to have the room darkened. She now also became capable of answering questions that were put to her, and of noticing remarks made in her presence; and with regard to both she showed astonishing acuteness. Her obser- vations, indeed, were often of such a nature, and corresponded so accurately with charac- ters and events, that, by the country p opie, she was believed to be endowed with super- natural powers."

This girl, during her waking hours, was dull, stupid, awkward, slow to learn, without any taste for music, and less intelligent than any of her fellow


In the preceding, as in most other cases of somnambulism, the individual had no recollection, when awake, of what had happened. When persons, however, are in a subsequent fit of som- nambulism, they recollect the events of the previous one. In all cases some of the faculties, not usually in exercise in ordinary sleep, appear to enjoy an un- usual and exalted activity, while others seem more than usually torpid and in- sensible to external agencies.

With such facts as these before us, let us return to the phenomena of animal magnetism, and survey them j and we

think that much of our wonder at what is credible will cease, and what is in- credible will receive an easy solution. What are the facts regarding mes- merism, which the experience of the last few years, in this and other countries, appears to substantiate ? First, that, in a great majority of cases, the usual passes, and other means employed by the experimenters, fail to produce any effect at all ; the subjects are then de- clared not to be susceptible. Second, that in a large proportion of those who are affected, nothing but a light slumber or natural sleep is produced. Third, that, in a few, this sleep becomes so profound, as to render the subject of it insensible, or nearly so, to pain. And, fourthly, that, in a very small number only, and those chiefly young persons, or females, this sleep is of that unnatural kind which permits of the patients con- versing, receiving ideas from others, and displaying certain sleep-waking phenomena. We have already admit- ted that the facts referred to here are substantiated by evidence, and may be verified by experiment; and that the insensibility occasionally produced in such cases, is probably identical with that condition which it so much resem- bles, not unfreqtiently observed in hys-

terical affections.

PICTURE WEAVING.-Of all the various specimens of weaving, requiring either artistic skill or mechanical knowledge, we think that the most difficult which attempts, in the ob

jects it would delineate, to imitate the en- graver and lithographist in the minute line shade and distinctness of every particular which their now highly cultivated arts so eminently give them the power to bestow. Yet true it is, that for some years past the manufacturers of France have been carrying on the manufacture of portraits and other picture weaving, which, for beauty and neat- ness of execntion, bid fair to rival the sister arts. We have seen several specimens, and speak not the language of adulation, but of sober unaffected truth. Having been invited to visit Mr. Robert Kerr's new factory at Seedhill8, to see in the very process of weav- ing a fine portrait of Louis Philippe, King of the French, which Mr. Kerr has, at an immense expense, drawn, designed, and got up. Justas we called the figure was finished, and, judging from the many portraits we have seen, we hesitate not to say that it is a capital portrait of the citizen king. It is a sixth full length. He is in military costume, with his hand resting on the charter of 1830, which he has just signed, with the regalia of France lying on the table beside it. We can- not speak in sufficient terms of approbation at the introduction of this to us new species of manufacture. It is in every respect equal to the production of the French loom ; and we belieYe Mr. Kerr has spared no expense to make it so, and his outlay must have been very considerable. The loom itself is quite a curiosity, and differs as much from other looms at sight, as the agricultural implements of the present day would do, compared with those of a century back. We heartily wish Mr. Kerr every success in his new and elegant branch of business, and his ingenious work- men health and happiness while their heads and hands are being employed in the execu- tion of it.-Renfrewshire Advertiser.

A few days since was found in the stomac h of a bullock slaughtered by Messrs. Podgar and Barnard, {butchers, of Langport, a gold chain, about one yard long. The chain is not in the slightest degree tarnished, but, when found, it was coiled up about half way. -Liverpool A Ibion, Nov. 24.

The best physicians are Dr. Diet, Dr. Quiet, and Dr.Merryman.-Leeds Mercury, Nov. 29.

INFLUENCE OF THE MIND UPON THE BO- DILY HEALTH.-The brain is the local habita- tion of the moral and intellectual faculties, is nourished by the same blood as the body, and is most intimately connected with it by means of the nerves, which are diffused in innumerable branches ovpr every part of the frame, and are indispensable to the right per- formance of its different functions. Such, then, being the mutual dependence between the brain and the body, it must be evident that when the one is diseased or excited the other will be affected thereby. When the nerves, for example, supplying any organ, are injured by disease, the nervous influence is then imperfectly transmitted to it from the brain ; or, if they happen to be divided, the power of sensation, or voluntary motion is destroyed in that part. Again, depressing passions and violent mental emotions will cause diminished circulation and impede re- spiration; whilst exciting passions, conversely, will accelerate the circulation and quicken respiration. When the powers are prostrated by insupportable labour, they react on the brain, and render it unfit for study ; and head-ache, nervous complaints, insanity, and diseases of the digestive organs are occasioned. The principal sufferers are men of business, who make labour the sole object of existence, and they onlylive a portion of the time allot- ted to the human race ; and hence the neces- sity of abridging the hours of labour. When the blood is deteriorated by an impure atmo- sphere, it circulates in this state through the brain, which is deprived of its necessary sti- mulus, and oppression is the consequence. The Student and Young Man's Advocate.

BAD VENTILATION ; ITS INJURIOUS EFFECT ON THE ventilation, also, is as injurious to the mind as to the body, and in its more aggravated forins not only induces head-ache and apoplexy, but, conjoined with other circumstances, is prone to favour that depression which leads at times to low spirits, or even to suicide. Vitiated air from, lamps and candles, as well as from respiration, tends to ascend, though, as projected from the nostrils and mouth, it mi ves, at first, more or less downwards, or in a horizontal direc- tion. In experiments made on this subject, the temperature of air lrom different indivi- duals placed in a box lined with cotton, and open above and below, was found to be gene- rally four degrees higher above the head than below the feet (the oox was suspended in the air) ; and, at natural temperatures, a current constantly ascended on every side from the person. Thus, then, it is obvious that, if the natural movements of vitiated air in ordinary apartments be facilitated by one opening at the lower part, and another above, every room will ventilate itself sufficiently to pre- vent the more extreme effects that are so often observed at present. If the lower open- ing be diffused by extending it along the skirting, the current becomes more mild and equal, and less liable to strike upon the per- son, so as to produce an offensive draught. If the upper aperture be led into a chimney flue, or into an independent flue warmed by its near position to a hot chimney, its action is more powerful and more uniform than a mere aperture in the wall near the ceiling, and not so subject to modification in windy weather. If it communicates with a powerful chimney-flue, it works still better, exeept when the fire declines, or the supply of fresh air is interrupted, a dangerous recoil taking place, and the upper aperture discharging smoke into the apartment; this defect may be obviated to a great extent, though not entirely, by the use of valves, unless they be regulated and adapted from time to time, ac- cording to the varying circumstances of the

case.-The Builder.


the special meeting of the proprietors of stock in this corporation, formed to extend emigration, and to promote agricultural pur- suits in Lower Canada, Mr. J. Galt, the secretary, read the report of the directors. This document stated that the general busi- ness of the company continues to proceed satisfactorily in Canada The sales of wild land for nine months to 30th September have amounted to 10,901 J acres, for the sum of £6552 12s. 6d., or at an average of 12s. cur- rency per acre. The sales of town lots in Sherbrooke have been 1\ acres for £805, or £111 per acre. The cotton mill has gone into successful operation, and the progress of building and improvement in the town pro- mises to be constant and satisfactory. The total sales are 10,909 acres, for £7357 12s. 6d. The system of produce payments, so far as the operations of last year are concerned, have been most successful, the amount on hand at 31st December last having been since realised, and the entire result having produced a small profit after meeting the expenses of collection and sale. The re- ceipts taken in kind this year have, so far as the Canadian advices reach, been equally satisfactory. The commissioner of the com- pany has been in England since July, endea- vouring to establish a line of railway from Montreal, via Sherbrooke, to Portland and Boston. He was requested f o undertake this mission by the railway directors in Canada, and feeling the intimate connection which existed between the success of their project and the interest of this company, he acceded to their request, in doing which h"e has since received the full approval of the court of

directors. The Governor said that this was I

not a meeting for the presentation of ac- counts. The meeting was in fact only one for information ; and as Mr. Galt was about to return to Canada, the directors thought his presence at this meeting was desirable, to answer any questions the proprietors might feel anxious to put. Mr. Galt then gave an encouraging account of the progress ot the affairs of the company. The report of the directors was unanimously carried, and after a vote of confidence was passed to Mr. Galt, the meeting separated.-Bell's

Messenger, Dec. 8.

THE CORN RETURNS.-The government, we find, are taking steps to collect accurate information as to the corn returns. Circulars

have been sent to the inspectors in this county, requiring them to make a weekly return to the Board of Trade, stating the quarters of wheat sold, and what quantity is below 52s., and what above ; and the same with respect to barley and oats, specifying, with regard to the former, how many quar- ters are below 19s. It has been alleged that the present averages do not represent the price of corn, as a great quantity of very in- ferior is brought into the market and sold at a low rate ; and that these returns are pro- bably intended to decide that point.- Essex


MR. HUDSON AND THE GAUGES.- The Broad and Narrow Guage Commission   examined Mr. Hudson on Saturday. Mr. Hudson is a strenuous advocate of the narrow

guage, on the plea of economy, and he affirms that it possesses all the capabilities as regards safety and speed of the broad guage. The main points of his evidence were to the following effect :-- "We have been enabled to do everything on the narrow guage which the Great Western has accom- plished on the broad. Economy was the great inducement for the narrow guage. It would be impossible to enlarge the guage, as they would gain nothing with regard to speed or power by it, as they had already sufficient power on the narrow guage lines. The narrow guage lines were more convenient for traffic. A truck weighing from seven to nine tons could easily be moved by one horse ; but those on the Great Western, weighing thirteen tons, could not be moved by one horse, and it was difficult to attach a leader to the load. He had seen this difficulty arise at Bristol. Unless some great advantage   could be derived from the broad gauge   which had not been shown, he thought the narrow guage had been wisely chosen. In his opinion the public had not overrated the inconvenience of a break of guage." -Leeds Mercury, Nov. 29.

In the streets of Brussels there may now be seen in the windows of the clockmaker's shops, large mahogany clocks with the   following inscription- "Railway time." It appears that it is owing to the care of the directors that these clocks have been exposed, in order to facilitate the arrival of travellers at the different times of departure.-- Atlas,

Nov. 8.

ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE POOR LAW COMMISSIONERS.- The parochial year of 1844 is the first since 1837 which does not exhibit an increase of expenditure over the precedingyear. The total number of persons relieved in the threa months ending March 25, 1844, amounted to nearly a million and a half, and were about 9½ per cent, of the entire population, according to the census of 1841. Of the million and a half persons relieved, the report states that a large pro- portion were permanent paupers. The number who were relieved in the workhouse was 239,818 ; and the number who received out-door relief was 1,246,743. The report contains some very strong observations on the magnitude of the sums annually levied in England and Wales for the purpose of local taxation. The amount collected under

the head of poor's rate includes various county and borough rates, police, lighting, sewerage, and paving rates, most of which are not returned to Parliament; and adding some other branches of local taxation, the Commissioners estimate the total amount of local taxes annually levied in England and Wales, to be not less than £10,000,000. There is a table giving returns of the pauper lunatics and idiots in England and Wales, supported by their respective parishes in August, 1844. They amounted to 2,245 males, and 2,799 females; together 5,044. The average weekly cost of maintenance was 4s. 10^d.-Leeds Mercury, Nov. 15.

" COBDEN, THE FARMER'S FRIEND."-At a meeting at Preston lately, Mr. Cobden re- lated the following anecdote :-" As regards agriculture, it is a curious fact that all the best farmers are with us for repeal. I met Lord Ducie at the meeting at Birmingham last week, and he told me an amusing anecdote. His Lordship has an annual sale of cattle-well, he had a bull designed for sale, and he says to the bailiff, ' I'll call him {Cobden, the Farmer's Friend' ' (loud laughter). And on the day of sale there appeared, with a large label, ' Cobden, the Farmer's Friend. ' The bailiff, somewhat dismayed, expostulated. ' My lord,' said he, ' if you sell him with that name, you won't get more than half his price' (laughter). ' Never mind,' replied his Lordship, ' I'll risk it.' Well, the animal was sold, and he brought a capital price-a great deal more than he was worth" (laughter).-Liverpool Albion, Dec. 8.

VALUE OF RAILWAY PROPERTY.-A Par- liamentary return, published some time since, gives the annual value of railway property in each county of England and Wales, as fol-


£ s. d. In Middlesex. . . . . . . . . . 960,443 18 1

Lancashire. . . . . . . . . . . 593,515 6 7 Surrey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191,018 6 7 Durham. 171,089 16 8 Derbyshire. 104,204 0 0

Yorkshire. . . . . . . . . . . . . 95,510 13 5½ Leicestershire. 72,280 4 1 Warwickshire. 61,826 8 0 Northumberland. 57,534 17 0 London (city). 42,661 0 0 Glamorganshire., 17,222 0 0 Monmouthshire. 12,540 17 0 Southampton. 8,982 2 0 Cheshire. 7,273 0 0 Gloucestershire. 3,920 3 3 Somersetshire. 3,858 10 7

The number of miles already in operation in the counties of York, Lancaster, and   Middlesex, is as follows: -

In Yorkshire.286 miles of railway.

In Lancashire. 174 do. In Middlesex,about 40 do. -Leeds Mercury, Nov. 15.

HORRIBLE OUTRAGE NEAR LLANYMYNECH. We recently gave an account of the horrible treatment which a young girl named Eliza- beth Rider had received from her mother, who, probably in a fit of madness, rushed upon her and beat and abused her with such brutal violence that her life was for some time despaired of; and she is not, even now, considered out of danger. On Friday week the prisoner was brought before a bench of magistrates, and her daughter was examined touching the injuries which she had received. The poor young woman, who appeared in a most deplorable condition, was accompanied by the surgeon and nurse. On being carried into court, weak wine and water was ordered for her, and shortly afterwards the miserable looking prisoner took her place at the bar, not at.all concerned at her awful situation. During the investigation, the young woman was supported by the nurse on one side, while Mr. Owens, surgeon, through whom

the questions were put, sat on the other. She stated that she locked the door to pre- vent her mother from wandering, when the old woman flew upon her, tried to strangle her, and, not succeeding in this, tore the hair from her head ; beat her first with a broom-stick, and next with a bottle till she broke it ; she poured boiling water over her from the kettle, and then seizing a potato

masher, and subsequently a rollingpin, beat' her about the head and face with them till she was nearly insensible. The prisoner is then supposed to have made use of the bill- hook, for the poor girl resumed her evidence by saying, " I held on the broomhook with one hand, when my mother could only work with the point at my head ; I was not then insensible, for I quite recollect my mother working at me till I was covered with blood ; the blood ran from my head down into my mouth, and almost smothered me." To a question as to whether the mother, when using the rolling-pin, did also strike with the billhook, witness said, " 1 suppose that after she beat rae a good while with the rolling pin, she must have taken up the broomhook when I had lost my senses ; I strove against my mother and kept the hook from me as long as I could ; the blood was after I was struck with the rolling-pin ; I was insensible for a little while and then came to myself again, and was again insensible ; when I came a bit to myself my mother was lugging me into the pantry ; she had hold of my two arms, and my head was against her body; I think she did not lug me long by the arms, but that she pushed me by my legs ; does not know how far into the pantry; I was then somewhat sensible ; as she saw I was

not dead, she began to beat me about the   head with an heel of an old shoe, saying,

" You're a tough 'un, but I'll finish you ! '.- '

(Great sensation.) The shoe was an old one

of my own, and had nails in the heels ; after   that she fetched the broom, and began to punn me about my legs and thighs with the

stail." The remainder of the evidence is   unfit for publication. It made all who heard

it shudder, and drew forth expressions of   extreme disgust towards the brutal prisoner,   and of feeling and commiseration for the all but dead young woman, who, at the conclu-

sion, faintly ejaculated, " I do not think my   mother is as sensible as she ought to be : I've no spite against her, but am very sorry for her." Other witnesses having been   examined, the prisoner was committed to Shrewsbury gaol, to await her trial at the next assizes.-Liverpool Albion, Dec. 8.

A YARN ON HEMP.-Invaluable plant, pride of intelligent agriculture, that tendeat thine own fibre, and strength to him that rightly cultivates thee, and constitutest the greatest element of mechanical power j What does not England, the world itself, owe to that growth which we now contem- plate? Armies are encamped within thy walls, thou towest forth the ship of dicovery on her venturous way, and carriest man and his merchandise to the Equator and the Pole ! Vain were the auspicious breeze unless it blew upon thy opening sails ; and what were the sheet-anchor, but for that cable of thine which connects it with the

ship. Vegetable iron, incomparable hemp I Extemporaneous memory can scarcely follow thy services. Talk of the battering-ram, but what propelled it forward? The shot, whiz- zing in the teeth of adverse winds, carrries thy coil to snatch the sailor from the rock where he stands helpless and beyond aid from all the powers or productions of man and nature but thine! Thy ladder, and thine alone, can rescue from the bouse on fire ! Look at the fisheries all over the world : the herrings of Scotland and the cod of the Baltic might defy us but for thee. What were wells and windlasses without thee ? Useless as corkscrews to empty bottles. Thou art the strong arm of the pulley and the

crane. Gravitation itself, that universal  

tyrant, had bound all things to the earth but for thy opposition. The scaffolds were thine from which grew the Colosseum, and the Pyramids have arisen in thine arms. The kite of science, which went cruising among thunder clouds to bring down to a modern Prometheus the spark which ignites the

storm, was held by fibres of thine. The  

diver and the miner cling to thee for safety,  

and they that hunt the wild bird's egg on

the sea-shaken cliff as they swing over the   frightful abyss. With the lasso the bold Matador, like the Retiarius of the ancient

arena, makes the cast that is for life. Then  

the fine arts ! Carrara sends her block for the Laocoon by aid of thine ; and what were

all the galleries in Europe but a collection of I gilt frames, but for thy backing and support.

By thy subserviency alone (for what were , panel or laminated copper for such gigantic works) did Raffaelle bequeath so many lega- cies of his immortal genius. It is the strength of thy fibres that is the strength of the loaded supper tables of Paul Veronese; and the

velvets, the furs, the satins of Titian and ' Vandyke are quilted upon thee. Nor dis dainest thou to render to man, who bruises thee to try thy virtue, a thousand humbler services. Thou preservest our horses from flies, our fruit from birds ; and who has not felt how thou cheerest the weary length of continental travelling by the crack of the whipcord at the approach of a new relay 7 Blachwood's Magazine.

The landlords of the north and east of Ire- land have volunteered to advance £600,000 for the drainage of 4,200,000 acres.-Atlas,

Nov. 8.

The Minister of Agriculture in France has issued a circular to the Prefects of the several departments, intended to allay the popular fears respecting the harvest. It has, he says, been abundant enough in many quarters to supply the deficiency in other quarters by the mere operations of internal trade ; and where the potatoe crop bas fallen short the wheat crop is redundant.-Leeds Mercury,

Nov. 29.