A Pioneer Home.
[By Townacre.] -
My old friend of many a walk through the city during the past few months was on the sick list this week, and I was com mencing to worry about a supply of copy, when Mr. W. B. Wilkinson suggested a motor run down to the home of the Everard family, on the road to Glenelg. It was a brilliant suggestion, as Ashford and Marshfield comprise the oldest farm in the State, and recently a considerable por-
tion of the original selection of 2,000 acres, which was taken up in London by Dr. C. G. Everard before he sailed ior South Aus tralia in 1836, has been subdivided for Closer settlement. The land selected by this fine old pioneer extended almost from Goodwood to Glenelg, and the wisdom of his choice is bcarjng fruit to-day. The time ie fast approuehing when the whole of the land between Adelaide and Glenelg will be utilized for 'building purposes, and at frequent intervals more of these park like paddocks are receiving attention from surveyors of suburban allotments. It seems like a desecration of old-time memo ries that the fine old trees which have been growing for centuries should be re moved, but sentiment has to be thrust aside when the demands of the moment have to be served.
DR. C. G. EVEHARD. The fine old pjonecr, who selected Ashford and Marshfield. on the Bay road, in 1836.
—The Old Home.— Dr. Everard established hia home at what is known as Ashford, but Marshfield, where his granddaughter (Mrs W. G. Nash) is residing, was a portion of the estate originally selected. I had the privilege of entering that fine old homestead on Tuesday, and the pleasure of meeting Mrs. Nash. The whole atmosphere was de- lightful; it seemed to suggest lavender, old lace, and rare china. It can easily be un deratood that Mrs. Nash 'loves every inch of the old home,' and it must be dis- tressing to see the broad acres being trans- formed into townships. 'Why,' she told me, 'they actually cut down the beautful old mulberry tree which my grandfather brought out from the Cape of Good Hope; it waa the first muiberry tree planted in South Australia.' And I expect a similar fate awaits a gum tree, which must have been one of the' giants of the forest.' Fire appears to have partially destroyed it years ago, and some idea may be formed of the growth of thie tree when, it is stated that the butt measures 45 ft. in circumference. It is a little east of this old tree that Messrs. Wilkinson, Sando. & Wyl will submit a number of building sites on Saturday nert. Mrs. Naah showed me quite a number of interesting relics of the past, and among these was a letter written on May 29, 1837, by Dr. Everard to 'his sister in England. He arrived in the State with wis wife, three sons (William. Charles, and James) and one daughter (Eliza) by the Africane on November 9, 1836. — An Interesting Letter. — This interesting letter describes his impressions:— 'Adelaide, South Austra lia, ilay 29. 1837. My dear Sister--The brig Rapid, being on the point of sailing
to England, I seize the opportunity oi sending you a few lines. We sailed from the Downs on the 3rd of July, and after a most beautiful voyage landed at Kangaroo Island on the 3rd of November. We stopped a week by the way to refresh at the Cape of Good Hope, which appeared to me a charmingly picturesque and romantic country. I made an excursion on horse-back about 24 miles across the country, and was delighted with the natural flora and the great variety and beautiful plumage of the birds. I travelled the 24 miles one night after sunset, and was at tacked by several dogs, which rushed out upon the road, barking, or, rather howling, at the heels of my horse. I was informed afterwards that they were hyenas. The wild animals appear to me a great draw- back to enjoying a rural life at the Cape, for even in the immediate vicinity of the town tigers are occasionally met with. One mountain near is called Tiger Berg. At Simonstown we were very hospitably enter ta£ned at the house of a merchant, while James and Charles went in a bullock wagon, drawn by 18 oxen, some miles up the country to the farm of a Dutch wine merchant, who was very kind to them. Six weeks after leaving our kind friends at the Cape we landed at Kangaroo Island, which did not present anything remarkable to induce us to remain there. The whole is land appears a vast thicket of rather small trees, with thick undergrowth of ever greens, many of which were exceedingly ornamental; but the soil was sandy, and fresh water was to be found but in few places. The South Australian Conrpany have, however, established a settlement there, at a beautiful Bay called Nepean, and have given the name of Kingskote to a town. We, however, lost two of our settlers there, who, with four more, attempted to cross the island. They were lost in the bush, and died probably of thirst. We stayed four days at Kangaroo Island, and then proceeded to the spot which our chief surveyor indicated as the place probably of our future settlement, which was miles up St. Vincent Gulf; and on the 9th of November we landed at Holdfast Bay, and pitched our tent about a mile from the beach, near some fine ponds of fresh water abounding wifh wild flowers. You must understand we were the first settlers. Those who had preceeded us were the surveyors and their people and some of the companies who founded the settlement at Kangaroo Island, where they had been about four months when we arrived. After pitching our tents and landing our goods, myself, William, and our man proceeded to build a cottage, the one in which we now live, and a very comfortable one it is, I assure you. The framework is of small trees, the wails of flags cut from the lagoon, the roof of reeds, the interior fittings are of deal, which on board ship were our bed places;
the floor of clay rammed hard to make firm, and covered partly with India matting, partly of oilcloths. We then dug up a bit of ground for a garden in which vegetables grew well. I had some delicious water melons, some of 10 lb. weight the seed of which I procured at the Cape. We occassionally shot for dinner ducks. After a very long delay the site of the chief town was fixed, and we have been upon our town lands about a month. It certainly is admirably chosen and must eventually become a very prosperous city. It is situ- ated upon two gentle slopes, with a river between of excellent water, beautiful grassy plains surround it, with a sufiiciency of timber to make it look well. It is five miles from where our cottage is situ- ated, which is now called Glenelg, and seven mjles from the harbour, which is called Port Adelaide, but a canal is con- templated of six miles in length, which will bring merchandise from the port to the city. They did not make the city at the port on account of its marshy situation, and its want of good water. I have 10 acres in the town, five of which, were mine
by priority of choice, the remainder I bought at public sale, and the average price was £6 per acre. I would sell one of my first five for less than £200. I am now, .........................only felling and grubbing up the trees upon one acre preparatory to building my own house. I have, lost my labourer, he would not work for me longer, although I had agreed to give him 12/ per week, but he could earn more, he said, and if I did not choose to advance him, he would leave me, and he accordingly did so. In England he did not earn on an average more than 6/- per week, and did not taste meat from one week's end to the other, but here he got meat every day, and less than a bottle of rum per day was not enough for him. Honest, sober, industrious labourers are much wanted here; they would very much better their conditions, and would soon be come independent. Therefore, Wiliiam and I are obliged to work hard, but we enjoy at, is we know it is all for our own comfort and prosperity. The Governor would have appointed me to the Magis- tracy if I could have made up my mjnd to live at Kangaroo Island, and I should have had £100 per annum, but I declined, as I liked this place too well to leave it altogether. His Excellency has given one entertainment since he has been here, a ball and supper, to which we were invited, and it passed off very agreeably. I do not expect we shall gee our country sections for 12 months to come, we have such a paucity of good surveyors. The Rapid goes to England for the purpose of fetching some. But before my paper is filled I should 'tell you chat the country, soil, and climate exceed my most sanguine expecta-
tions, and that I would not return to live in England on any account. This is near our shortest day, and the days are like Eng- lish summer; thermometer 65— at night from 56 to 60— the greatest heat of sum mer has been 110 in the shade, but very endurable on account of the fine land and sea breezes. William desires his kind love to his cousins, and to tell Elizabeth that if she does not bring it herself, he fears he will never receive the purse she promised to make for him, the distance is only 12,000 miles. I have no room for more than to say we all enjoy excellent health, and with best wishes of us all to all, yours, believe me, to remain every yours truly, sincerely, and affectionately, Chas. G. Everard.' A footnote stated:— 'Pigeons, black and white cockatooes, and parakeets of most charming plumage and great variety. All of the birds, as also quail, were to be met with in abundance; the quail are most de- licate eating. James at present is our only sportsman, and an excellent shot he is, rarely failing to bring down his bird, and it would have amused you to have seen him with his gun and a naked native boy on each side of him showing him the game. Apropos of the natives, they are far from numerous, and on the most friendly terms with us, doing us any kind office they can such as fetching wood and wtater, and are very grateful for anything we give them, and very fond of biscuits. It waB in 1837 or 38 that William Everard planted the first wheat in South Australia
(alongside Morphett street). He had to pick up part of the yard, as it was too hard to dig, and he sowed the seed. The wheat came up and grew like magic; spring rains brought the plants as high as the fence, great heavy ears began to show, and people all stopped stoned to gaze in thankful- ness. They saw that the new land was fertile, and they would not longer be de- pendent on chance shipments of perhaps damaged flour at £8 a bag. 'F. S. D.' writes:— Tbe articles appear ing weekly in your paper 'by 'Townacre' on the several streets in the early days of Adelaide have afforded a deul oi pleasure to those residents of 50 years or more ago, and provided quite a fund of subjects for conversation connected with early reminis cences, while at the sune time thoroughly interesting the.:, younger, generation - of Adelaideans and later colonists. But, as might reasonably ibe expected to happen, 'Townaore's' 'good old frientf' would in all likelihood be better acquainted with one locality of the city than another, apart from hia memory not carrying him as far back as otiier city-born residents; so in that respect the early history has the ap pearance of being faulty consequently. Nevertheless it affords subject 'matter for much controversy of comradeship, innate from our British parentage, and when one looks baick to wha't beset the pioneers of the colony, the long tedious passage in a sailing vessel extending over some months (ao different from the luxurious and steaoj transit by the present large ocean-goinp steamers), and reaching Australia as a swamp and scrub, then to land amidst a horde of wild natives, and form a settle ment for future generations— one feels almost impelled to raise the hat in memory of -these early pioneers. So that the poo'i tion of some early buildings may be recor ded, it might be .mentioned that on the southern side of Flinders street, before the two-story buildings now appearing were erected, there was on a part of the vacant block Weibourne's cooperage. The top story structure was ocoupied 'by Messrs. Coombe and Blackmore, and by Mrs. Selth, and the late F. Basse commenced business
Kuhnel also had rooms. Then came what is now known as Molton's lane, on the eastern corner. Mr. Molton exhibited pic tures in the window, the large front room being used for dancing pupils, as Mr. Mol ton taught dancing, and did picture fram ing. Then came Hill's (upholsterer), Gooden's, and later Sexton's basket making then Culley's, another picture framer and on the corner of Freeman street Mahnke's shop and bakery. Crossing the road on southern side was a paddock up to J. O. Ladd's aerated factory, which stood on the site of the Baptist Church Manse. Then came Divett street, and at the cor ner of Doreetta 'terrace. Miss Hillier had a ladies' seminary. Afterwards Mr. Fer nerly occupied the house. On the other corner of Roper street iMr. A. J. Baker (Superintendent of the Fire Brigade) and the Hon. Charles Mann, occupied the pre mises; later Dr. Kidner and Mrs. Beeby. On the eastern corner were Delano's shop, a dwellin[g] and a one-story shop occupied by Mrs. Medicroft, then came the London Inn, the first occupier being a Mr. Love lock, and later T. Blinman. Then came a small cottage standing far back, occupied by Mr. Hayden, and again back from the footpath, O'Leary's two cottages. Still going east were Mr. O. Rankin's timber yard and workshop, and two-story dwel lings, one rented by Mr. Paynter and later by Mr. C. Mann, then a small cottage, a paddock, and Wyman's blacksmith shop on the corner of Pulteney etreet. Opposite was Christian's shop, later Bricknell's. Going east two or three small shops, one Zsohorn's, end then came Berriman's house, with a garden in front, standing well back. Summers's boys' school was at the rear of it. Mrs. Neiumann resided and gave mufiic lessons. A few cottages followed, and then there was a paddock to East terrace. On the northern side of Flinders street, about where the Earl of
Zetland stands, was a large area enclosed with a , high wall, which was used as a barracks for soldiers going to and from New Zealand, then, came a paddock to Prvz- godda's: -then E. Fischer's engineer works; then Wyatt etreet: a small paddock and two cottages — one, I thinik, was where Mr. Simpson first started in business, before removing to Gawler place. Then came Wanstal s butcher's shop, a yard, a small paddock, and Scriomburgk's biker's shop; then the small street and paddock to the Somerset Inn, which was occupied by Tun- stall; in the yard horses were broken in by one of the soa*. On the opposite corner was St. Paul's Church Manse, then a pad dock led to two double-story .building, one of which was occupied by Mr. Fahlbusch, the tailor; then there was a paddock to Hutt street. Mr. Rymill resided on the opposite northern corner, and on the cor ner of Flinders street and East terrace. Mr. A J. Baker erected a large residence.