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-r_"A_7 MELBOURNE WATER

SUPPLY.

IMPORTANT ADDITIONS TO THE

WATERSHED ARKA.

The secretary for Public Worka (Mr C. Le   Cren) line received the following report from the engineer for Melbourne Water Suppy, in which that gentleman recommends that an area of 120,000 acres, comprising the whole of the Valley of the Yarra from Reefton to the Baw Baws, should he permanently reserved     for water supply purposes. Mr. Le Cren, in submitting this report, strongly urged that action should at once be taken in the direc- tion suggested by Mr. Davidson. 'Ihe Minster of Public Works expressed his cordial approval, and a recommendation has   accordingly been sent to the Lands depart mem asking for the reservation :-

Melbourne Water Supply,

May 25, 1888 'The Upper Yarra Watershed.

Memorandum.

It rteentli came to mt knowledge that the countr) (routing ill« Upper *i irru und its tributaries on beith ri-ht und ielt banks, iron» above tilt Cement Creek was in process i,i beni' survijed ami cut up into blocks, by direction 01 the Linds department, with I vieiv to its being thron li open lor selection '1 Ins «¡trink me in benn; ii matter ol suth seriousness in its possible eflect un the future niter suppl) for Melbourne, that with nil iVnatch and without uu-iting instructions I instituted all! nil! annes for the purpose ol securing «latí on which to base mi opinion us to the ailusubilit) ot this department taking some action towards sliijin. the projected alienation M) instructions have, in the face ol TOUR!) countr) ,md untownrd weather, been ablj curried out bj Mr IL W 1 uller, «horn, lot the purpose, I took 1-oni his duties, on Ños ! und 1 sections on the Malts aqueduct I have likewise, made an inspection ot the Uppet *i airn, and several of

its tributaries

As I i ow consider it mv duty to recom- mend that a lame area of countr), additional t0 tho watershed ureas already secured, he reserved a.iiuiat alienation, not for the ui

mediate needs of the eit), but to be utilised inpoasib!) the not ver> fur distant future, it nui) not be out of place to submit a short de- scription ol the existing; reservutiona und

the ir resources

llielirstto claim attention is the catch- ment (¡rounds of the Y tin Venn basin and the fient) liner watershed -

Above the old point of offtake on the Plein) Uiver, about two miles and a hnlt north of the Yan Yean einbuiliinent, the combined area of these umounts to-m round numbers-40,000 ««.res, of which 11,000 acres consist ot freeholds, all settled und largely cultivated, the balance (27,000 acres) len)!! unoccupied Crow n lands, permanently reserved for mater suppl) purposes 11) far the greater part of the water derived lrom tins area conies from the eouthern and south eastern spurs of Mount Disappoint ment, mid finds its wjy theiefrom by the cBsitru-windi is the main--brunell ol the I'llnt) '1 he western portion ot the range-, consisting enlirel) of Silurian countr), ure of little value in Melding water, evxepting in iierioilsot heavy and continuous rams, and die tltiod waters accruing at such times, and carnell oft hy Uruce's Creek, the anani chun neloi Glenvale, ure nlwuis heavily charged nilli tli)e) p mu Iel beside-i having m suspense some clements ol pollution Iroin die funning district through winch the creek lui-scs, and liom the township of \\ hittlc

teii

1 líese objectionable features in the supply to ian *trun reservoir have nil been chun tinted b) the construction of the clear water Channel, completed ni lb84, by which the lunn or eusteru brunell ot the Plenty is tapped above the settled and tilieuated dis

trier

I lie area, being part of the 27,000 acres of Crown lands in the W ntl rslicd us now re seriell, «Inch drains to the new off take at the junction of the Plenty and Jack's Creek, is uni) 10,500 actes I can uri¡e no reason »li) a law a part of the remainder might not revett to the Lauds department to be dis posed of as iui¿htseein lit, ui'iond the posai

billi) ot, in an emergency dunn« the ensuing Ino liars, being forced to take nil Hood waters therefrom available- lor the replenish ment of \ an Ye in reserv oir But, in view ot the facts thut til« reservoir is now near!) full, ami «ill, assured!), be quite lull at the com uienteuiuit ot the ensuing summer, and that in nliout ino years henee the Watts scheme ml! be in operation, 1 think this an unlikely

event

1 lie loss of flood water from Brnce's Creek ami tlie western parts ol the ranges is com- pensated for b) the perennial discharges iib lamed I rum Wallaby and Silver Creeks, > lu b ire su diverted is tu join their waters

pulí t'io'f «{jip, \']flSH Hoth^thiso creeks

Ire fit tin uortli»rn water "system, mid,,' Ltuihlly drain to the lung Puirot, and tlicnce to the Goulburn Hut, excepting in tunis of unusuullv lienv) rams, the aqueducts loiiatructed in 188- b comet all their waters across the Dividing Lunge to the Plent), and ihcno to inn Vim '1 lip joint arcu ol the Miershci!« of Wallaby and Silver Creeks, uluch extend trom the summit of the Piont) Kungea northiiurda fot about six miles, is IS.JOO acres 'Hie country is entirely Crown lands, absolute') uninhabited lind unsettled, it consists mostly ol a rich choculute soil, »nh numerous granite outcrops timbered Mill mountain ish (/ nuth/plitsAmn idnUn

Olid the usuul shrubs mid varieties ot scrub associated there« ith 1 he land is per l-aiieutl) reserved fur water suppl) purposes

It ottrlips in part n 'tunbei reserve ' Uranteil in water supply interests) extending ¡mm the Melbourne mid Yea road, ni the 1 irish ot kiii.luke, westwards to the north lusterii railviiij, near Wandong, tin southern lound») being the crest ol the main dividing unte (litre 1 iiown us the Plenty Ranges)

and the northern bouudur) running pirillie! lo tin eouthern boundiirj, und two nu'

ilisunt tliereirom '1 he urea of thut portion ot this timber reserve, not overlapped oy the \Wlliib) and Silver Creek watersheds is 13-00 acres

Hie Watts watershed ia temporaril) re nerved for water suppl) purposes 1 he per inaiient reservation is only awaiting Ihe )reparation ot certain plans and descriptions resulting from a recent exploration mid aur- ic) ol tin* boundaries ot the area lins will nulli k ihu Mille) ni the Walts trom a point cn the mer J. miles above Healesville, to (.ether with those of nil its tributaries aboyo mell point to their sources, also the tnlh)s ul New Ulura anil l'onncll)'s Creeks on the north und of Cruteburn mi the south BIOLSOI III" in nu stream lhere will also be included me «illira ot the Htidc.ec or Corrailderrk Ueek-which is a direct tnbumiy ot the larra-(rum its intersection willi the eastern 1 uni! IT) ot the aboriginal station, and in eluding ill it» sources and head waters '1 he count» otubratid ni ihn reservation ?lirou.liout resembles both lu lormntion anil tcietiitioii thut m the W allabt and Silver

tiwi «utersheiK Ita total inca is 60,000

un s

Hu reservations thin, are is lollow -1

Acres,

tie i-in \ean c-tcliliicnt anil Croit it hillls

lorn h j watersheds, of laeLslrecIl en« tun a I iictern braiichua tit tho 1'lenlv

«nil linne s Udt. 27 I mtirsl «111H allait anil Mlicr CrroU lb ort un ol timliur i ison u north uf Uitlillu.

Iniluileil lu the Hallali) ami

Total . H«.

Anlwln-h m , i n r i, might be reduced «v il H I I« ) au i on iho southern slopes

1 i r n r«j v. jt of the gathering

I' "H H i cutan brauch

i. more importance Hum mero areas in th"

consider mon oi watersheds is the quantities of »atertnij will j it lu, or that can be made turuiiiblc iroin them, winch ure nut ititi a)s

11 iKittioiml to uri i

''tiring a succession of vcars ending nilli '!«! 1W tin couibnuil Pleut) mid Wal

l»li) Creel. Msttius did nut give witter in Milicmit quuutitus to supiilt the eil), aliliini.li nt tin tiimmcn nuetit ni the 'In uclit Hu consumption ol water in the eil) ful Buburba waa much below the present fan au I the service was only maintninid hy 'itaiiinL, fruin tile »toe!, previous!) nccuniu

Heil n inn UMUI reservón In 1881 the ?»ira-o dnili consuiuntiuii «as 12\ million ull'iis in IM, « it «us II. million gallons m J1"»" waa ! li million gallons, and m Ibb" H » risen t" lhj milli,,,) Wilions >, ct, no1

utlistiiuiling the iniriiiaeil tonsiiniiitioii in ¡nelintot jeur, the Piont) and Wallabi Creek 'Jsteuis not mil) met it but lillid up the reservoir vvlneli had lullen to lift , roprismt "-. nu accumulation ot -,t_ti millions ot ua'

¡«in while lingi unmciBiiri d quantities «out .o*inti> Iheinttiki at iniiieiui fur the

"ir «as tit an ttvi r ice rate «ii 2 tj unlliotis of Wons perdí), nu I u it wire certain lins «nil 1 beniiimiiuiul otlier worl siuiil »)sleiua "nil! as ti the superlluoiH It IH to lie re ?Minuend, hotvever, that las!) em tv as one ol "«ntniii! riiinf di, and that the contiiiuiiiicc "i "it «Irou.lit lor another )uu would have lien Uiaustroui

I lonsidcc that, taking a lengthened s«ncs i«, !r" '" "-""J"««-"»» willi the liol ling li... ' ,".'" '"" *uin nstrvim, the rai am! Wal In lu Creek watoishiils as at , M " bul.S .".'"?«-d, uni) be relied on to lui I iliout 17 tnilliona of callous r«'" «lui

«* In i"'* M''-,'m "s being brought into vi.i,,. i *.-" l-a"gid and mimnium li,« "'..'-«'""I'.d Cou-uilurulilt dntii na 11

"""*-n«ira-b> which is iiitunt all those KM ,luw"'J'" «emeral creeks in excisa ol o \ ¡"-i1," ' -"?-'"?i I"-«-" «-ollme.l It is «at I,' ."uJl -Jli'l"i' c r- "' ..''. I"»1

oith.il'm,m-m wl>u made the trial anne) li lX i " l";oi,-'-t.Il»-' <!'". di'liar!ment is Wh..,. '," "'", «?"''"<?<-««?" tur n vast jmouiil ol careliil observation and dedu

.I.1,1'',"""'«1*"! minimum nf thu seveial

ile i, ''¡'"i"»--!"-«'«"s sisnin ami mail

""""l Mell "urn,. m,"u|, ,s ..-, ""!,",," y,

gallons per tiny niter making due provision tor "compensation water YY'orta are in progresa for the com ej ance ot this quantity to Preston for distribution thence to Mel

bourne. But by the erection of n dam in the Y\ utta valley, the Hood waters or those in exceBS o! 25 million gallons- per dru, can be impounded, and when required can be drawn upon to s.ii!pli'm..ittlie2->inillion_rüimmum Having tina phnee ot the \\ atta scheme in view the tunnel- are hein" constructed to carry .0 milliona of gallons per dnj ill public road, and nccommod ltion bridges ovtr the uqneituct are being builtnt such leitlsas will permit the enlargement oi the open eh tune), and sjphoti basins are provided with two outlets only one of winch Rill as at present designed, be connected

Unis it is known the YYatts sjstemwill iurmsh 1 maximum quantity ot 2J inilhoiiB of gallons per day throughout the year, lind eau be developed bj the bnildmg of the dum re fern d to sons to deliver a further quantity of JJ millions of gallons perduv for 110 tinja in etch j ear, the mean anpph Irotu tina source then amounting to 11. millions ot gallons per du)

i hen, on the completion of the YYatta worl s is at present being cirned out, the visible supplj tor the etty will he

Gallon«

Tram Yan Y tin 1 000 000 1 rom Um \Y ans j 000 000

Total ._,00O 000

And on the full development of the YY'att. siBtein by the iiupoundniL ot Hood water, it

Wlllbl

Gallons Per Daj rrom Yan Yean _. 17 000 000 -rein the Waua . 31 500050

Total ~ 51500 000

In seeking a conclusion as to what further provision (it aro) should be made to secure water for the Melbourne of the future, uti important consideration is as to the quantity per (lend of population per daj that should be provided for 1 or this purpose the former recorda of maximum consumption in this eily »re ot little value lor until the bringing into operation, on Christmas Uuj last oi the must reeent main, the ¡III,h levels in the suburbs hnve ncarli til vi ays, in verj hot (.euther, been nindi luutely supplie I On several occasions aniee the 1st if lanuivry last the consumption was over... million« ot gallons in one dnj but lor the mildness anti humility ot the suiuim r this great demand would have olteneroccurre 1 Í veil with the new minti m work eenuin districts weit ni

sulheiently supplied during the duj boura, und with still limber mema of convejutg unter lhere is no doubt a eonsuinption ot ,l.i millions of ¿.alloua would have bten reached lins qniintitj would, in mj opinion have met nil requirement.-. (It muy here be stated that tht mums into town can supply «greater than the above quantity it drawn upon throughout the whole J thoura, all incou v entonce arose from the demand for water bénit, w ullina limited portion oi the daj ) Assuming this estimate to be a fair one, and the population supplied nt iCO 000, which allowing tor the recentlj settled portions ot the metropolitan area to which the water ninnis lune not j et been entende I, seems to nie lair, we have a rate of cousumpt.jii per he id ot 'ft gallons, per daj, winch would appear to meet everj icriuircmcnt

lnasinuth na the mains ns laid up to the prestnt time permit ot the supply of ii millions ot gallons it is r.nsuuuble lo assume t lat when less th tn JO millions were drawn oil all demands were satislieil Dilling the mouths of I niluan- anti lebruarj, the latter rate prevailed on nine days only 1 feel some vvhatstvfe therelorc m puttinj, the maximum demand lor water ni this city down nt 100 "allons per head per daj I have no Incilttj for nseeitaining with an) accuracy how this compares ctneiull) with the rate of con sumption in other I trge towns in hot climates, and it is submitted the experience «f towns in mild or cold climates does not nnply 1 understand, however, that in New . orl Philadelphia and otner large oitieB in the United ..tates a rate ot 120 g liions per head per,In) in summer is not uncommon

'Hie minimum consumption in Melbourne and suburbs is easily rietet mine I It is at us minimum for the present season now and the fluctuations for the nott two or three months will be trilling 1 he rate is, taking the prev mus estimate of population supplied .12 galloiiB per hciitt per daj

In every year there occur dnja of e.een tional demand, perhaps limited to JO or 10 lo meet this exceptional demand would not ltd 1 matenallj to the total consumption of water tor the ¡our, und it becomes, in fact, mure a question ot mains than of watersheds Hut after going into the mean dull) summer eonsuinption, and estimating, cluclly Irom my e.pcricncc ot the district» ¡.encrallj, what additional quantity would have obviated complaints and aftorded satisfaction to all ratepayers, 1 consider the water supplj to Melbourne should be on n basis of not leas than It gallons per daj per head of popula tion Yod uti important punt in this con «eel - i iel) uta >lui wo hain not experienced tttti-o other detr uds that will be involve-1 in

a complete sewerage ajstem lint which

will hu an element to be louaiucred some daj

At this rate the visible supplj of water from the prestnt rtscrvati ni. will aufliee tor n population ot nearlj 700000 Hu question uri.is -la this a suUi.ua number to proYide tor' 11 is perhaps no mittat au engineer s tune tious to determine such ii matter and only in ii count.) where water tor still greater mun btrs eau be secured in their pristine punt), «ni without present cost to thccoinmunitj, would it be worth while to moot the subject in the face ot ti .tsiblc supplj tor nearly double our present numbers'' lltitliiivinx bein face to face with this subject in a responsible capucitj lor ten jears having in the course of mj duties exceptional opportunities tor noting the development ot Mclboure, nnd being aware to some extent of the equally treat development of American cities nnd hearing from time to lime of elicit dillteulttcs in procuring good water m sulficent quanti

ties, I uni ot opinion, and deem it my duty ao to represent it, thal all available sonreís of water supply for Melbourne should be ueciired consistentlj with reasonable pro vision lor the settlement ot people on Crown hinds I see no re ison win the population of Melbourne should be limited to "00,000 and water for double that namber lunvuil

illili if it only be protected And, as in some decree militating the future it is to be borne in minti that m the hist 10 or 11 j ears the Melbonrne YViiti r ¡supply in nil important particulars has doubled-i e , the tuileut,e of pipes the consumption ot water and thu revenue derived therefrom have incieiised bj more than 100 per ei nt

As all the water irom the Pltntj lî.ngiB, vi huh could at reasonable out'ay bo ob t ant 1 is tilrcadj steuretl, tin«, district in anj Inluro project may he set aside I luther additions must be taken from th Yurru watershed It ma) 1 tlnnl be kit to the i-n.inccr ol the luture to determine the modi ot briii-ini, them to town whethei bj vvaj of the Units scheme or south oi the Y urra throughout It is onlj mtendul Itere to in dicate vvntersh da vvithin rtusunaDlc dis tunee whit li mn,li_ le reserve! without in jurv to the eoniminnt)

Hie Biil-er Cretk is the lurlhcst south of Ihc sire ima tobe brou.ht into the YYatts liiver scheme as being evented Although a tribut».j- ot the Yarra, it more properly l>o longs to the YYatts-itse.lt a tributar) of the larra-being enclosed bj tue same range or spur from the minn dm lui,, range which bends the YYatts and (jrucibtirn J he suutlurn boundary of the lladter watershed is the Don linnet, lroin tin southtrn and eastern slopes and spur» ti! which How direct to the Yarra tile Uun the Die the \c.li.n and minor creeks Jo the east ol tin .dhan, but llovving out ot the southern slupea oi the main rim hug ran), ni the

ucmilj of Mourns Arnold uni I rant are the < erneut the Bellell, or Oshiinni.sj H the Aruist.iiuc, or Cutt btrlim I \\ nish s nuil other i reel s all of «huh join the Y urn on its right lunik It is not miessntv her to rclcr lo mi) ol the tiibutitries j nun. it on tin left bimi

I lu most obvious uni Minple.it mode of mi| pluiitiHiin, the existing vvatei sup) I j sytiutn vvuitld b ti i in tir un nu I the wt stern t .tiemit) ot the IJ ii lttin"c t mi the wen lo I L construite I on the badger an 1 bj a ehanntl on such t ntotii secure the witts r ofthe Don then ns re quired, cam on tin tontonr chiinml to intercept the Dei the .ethtvn th Lenient Lncl s tin 1 BO on milli letchingth main atrium ot tht \nrri lor jears this has been my ovvu idei On stitet investi), mon it [ossesms I lui I illa lilian

tates 1 iratli, b) thus taking tht s mil -triunia us « ,vpeeln iles deni ill let! all til

guieers vit ill I ni it veiv (.nut ineastiit le tied to one line ( I con lint from the I! i li,i r lo 1 reston linn the milli« tit tin Dm Ihc DK, tlie\etliau andoftlioHesuinllerstreiins intervenait, lui vi bein I iktn up mid inquired as In i holds fur above pusalbli Inn s ot e in dull or points ol diversion Hie etiunlrj is nth m the «..trune Irom nu agritultural point of view and ot the -Uiuims mcnlioniii us matting ¿tom the Dim 1 tinge not one is ol especial inagiutu le It m i) be saul ot them that not mu ot them would bi north the c at ot diverting wire it not I ir p ssihilitim bemm! r-or insttnce the Don tin lir-slci the stn nins that w mill be so riivtite 1 is not i pial in vi lunn, to the badger ita mnnnnnu I emu muk r tenir millions ot ¿.allons per d«)

while it would in (en .linn tin- construction ol a channel 11 miles long ( r a tunnel ol li vi units to si eure it further lins rtehjl ni I, ihr ti|,h which the si reams thuui.h Humorous are small is in pro.mut) io old tsluhhshcil ilistni t» t« within ens) iicenss ol milli ins tin I its billie shut up ittntiist «tithmint mi! lit be tlet tiled nu uileiltruie wuhixtsi

lug uneresta anil a local miutuittiiK as no ile ulii it wotil I I«

1 propose thtrelorein ni) recommendations to abandon lill primary Ideas arrive I it onll by titling through the lush, und without propir tltittt on tin ground» -

1 1 hat Ibu streams tiru coiupurtitiscl) ni .ii ullitaut

J tin those of cxpcilioiiu vir that in loiklnu up lumia tor lint I» ni lit ni Ylnll inrii«

no injury shall accrue to existing interests ,

and

1 1 hat b) dealing with the matter in a comprehensive manner the persons respon Bible for the water suppl) to Melbourne in the future will have perfect freedom in de velopini, the resources provided for them in the then most littuic, wa)

lowards the upper part of the \irra bei omi Warburton us at Cement Creek but more especially at armstrong Creek the coutitn changes the n li chocolate \ lennie soil is in a great decree lost und exceptiiij, in the deep lluvial torlea which are rich by the denudation of the sleep ninnes, the Inn 1

is of small value

\ contour trom the Bodger with a gradient ol 7 I li per mile intersects the Bellell winch is the first creel ot an> magnitude be)on I the Cement at 70 cb ans back from the lim and continued easter!) would inter cept the Armstrong nt ii like distance from the river 1 in illy it woul I run into the river ttsclt nt ibontoO ch mis above the bridge it Reefton

Neither the creeks nor (he river have b en giuged an 1 it present oui) the roughest npi roumati tis to their vnlumescan be made Hie uniteddisclnrc.es of the Bellell and Vrm stron" nppi ir to be souiewh it less than that it the Watts without its trioutunes is the Ornceburn or suy a minimum ot lo million t.liions perdí) I cstimued theliirrnat Keelton bridge which is ibove the junctions ot the creeks named with the river to have a volume ot 1)0 million of kallona per day lins is m some decree corroborated by an estimate ma le b) Mr Callanan district sur vejor some wee! sprior tom) visit. Iromhia observations lie c imputen, the discharge at Lib millions of callous per da) but I iscer tinned that at the dutc ot mt inspection the vvnttr level «as (in ln_her than that ob served b) Mr Callanan

In such matters acennto fruu.ings are of the first importance but cm onl) be secured at the expenditure ot t me which m this instance could not be ador led Meantime there is abundant evi leuce that with the Belli» and \rmstrong Creeks and the i arra at Jtcefton even if onl) one third of the biipp sed minimum \olume ot the latter be utilised there is ample suppl) without in volving stonie for a turth r population ot '100 000 or to.cthcr withth italreid) secured foi a total population ot 1 bOO 000 And with storage ti is watershed is capable ot in detinue expulsion

1 now beg t > submit that it is proper

I«) I hat the watersheds ot the Bellell

and Armstrong Creeks above the points ot their intersection "bj u possible line ot conduit having an inclination ot Tit bin i ei mile to the Bud"ei Creel

(u) And the whole of the; larra water

shed including those of its tributarle-» on entier side trom the point at winch such conduit with such intimation would intercept it vi7 about 0 chinns above, or east ol Reefton bridge be permanently reserved for the water supply to the cit) of Melbourne und suburbs as approximately shown on the plan herewith to.ethcr with a strip of 10 chains m width to be deli Intel) set out b) surte) tor the purpose of euch possible conduit from the .urra to the Badger be permanently reserved tor the water suppl) to Mel bourne and Buburba

'1 he are i of the tract of country BO described and w hich includes the valley ot the Yarra from Reetton to the Ban Bews as taken Irom the map of the count) ot Lvel)n,

is 1_0000 acres

It this 8u._eation meets with approval and is adopted us I enruestlv iccommend, thi

country so reserved might be utilised tor griing purposes until wanted, mid tbe timber should be fairly conserved But min in. o' prospecting or any industry unit would tend to injure or reduce the purity oi the water should be absolutely forbidden

I have to ui! nowledgc and do so with pleasure that ni urriviug at a dettmti opinion as to the advisnbihtv of the abandon ment ot the Don Kaltee and those streams lssum«. therelrom 1 li ive had the advantage of the able nlvice and expeneiice of Mr District Surve)or Callanan who has in everv way ntlorded me assistanei even toorderm. the cessation of the binds surve)a on the Yarri and Cumterlau 1 | cndinn ni) submis sion ot this memorandum

W M D vi mscn

1 ngineer Melbourne \\ mer Suppl) ihe Secretar) Public Woiks, Kc

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