DEATH OF SIR CHARLES
CLOSE OF A NOTABLE
A SPLENDID PUBLIC
One of the most picturesque figures in Australia was removed on Saturday after- noon by the death of Sir Charles Todd, at his summer residence, Esplanade, Sea- wall, Semaphore, at a quarter-past 3 o'clock. Sir Charles left his residence in Angas-street a few weeks ago, and took up his abode for the summer at Sema- phore. Notwithstanding his advanced age he was in his 84th year Sir Charles Todd enjoyed uniformly good health until a short period before his death, a fact which he attributed to a good constitu- tion, a busy life, and a habit he had acquired of not worrying over trifles. The weight of many years was felt of late, but still the end came somewhat unexpectedly. Gangrene of the left leg developed, causing Sir Charles much pain. Drs. Anstey Giles and P. Bollen, his medical attendants, took prompt measures to give relief. The mem- bers of his family were advised that there was danger, and his son and two daugh- ters were present when Sir Charles peace fully passed away.
A Magnificent Achievement.
Thus closed the career of one who was for so many years the popular and efficient head of the postal and telegraphic service in South Australia. It is to him that the people of this State owe the completion just over half at century ago of the line of wire which linked them to Melbourne and the other eastern cities. To him also Australia is indebted for the completion of the transcontinental telegraph service, winch for many long years was the only means by which the news of the outer world was flashed to Adelaide for distribution among the other capitals. The skill of Sir Charles Todd and the enterprise ot the Government of South Australia brought about the construction of that stretch of 2,000 miles of wire across a track which prior to the performance of this great feat had never been traversed save by McDouall Stuart and his success ful band of intrepid explorers not much more than a decade previously. This mag-
nificent achievement so splendidly carried out will immortalise the name of Sir Charles Todd, and will give him a promi- nent place in the Commonwealth records as a successful pioneer of civilisation and development in Australia. What tongue however eloquent, what pen however facile can do justice to the value of that thin streak of wire during the long period when on it alone was suspended the whole tele- graphic communication between this conti-
nent and the wider world of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. All classes of the community must for ever acknowledge their
indebtedness to him for this signal ser- vice, for it has to be recognised that but for his courage, scientific skill, endurance, and resource, together with the faculty of inspiring confidence and enthusiasm in others, the colossal work would not have, been pushed through so rapidly, and in such a thoroughly effective way. Sir Charles took great pride in his work, and the con- scientious care he gave to every detail, could never be repaid by money, nor could any stipend recompense him for the patrio- tic way in which he devoted his life to the task-with him a labor of love-of main- taining this overland line, and all the other telegraphic services of South Aus- tralia, at such a high state of perfection during the whole of the long period in which he presided over the destinies of the great department of which he was the honored chief. South Australia should never forget that when Federation was es- tablished the postal and telegraph estab- lishment of this State was the only one in the Commonwealth which was worked at a profit, and which, at the same time, met all the reasonable requirements ot the people. This was the more remarkable
because of the immensity of the territory, the sparseness of the population, and the
extreme length of the main lines of com- munication. The facilities offered by the Postal and Telegraphic Department, not only in the city but in the most remote country centres of South Australia were greater, and the whole department worked more smoothly in the pre Federation days than it has ever done
since the innovations of the central execu- tive in Melbourne have been forced upon South Australia, while the financial posi- tion was better than it is now. Sir Charles is entitled to the credit of being an ideal departmental head, and had he been given the arduous task of organising the Federal Postal Department the Commonwealth would have gained very materially. He secured discipline, order, and contentment in his department, and there was not a subordinate, however distinguished or humble, who did not look on him as a father and a friend.
A Benevolent Autocrat.
"He was a man, take him for all in all, we shall not look upon his like again." He was born and equipped for the great work which he performed, and South Australia can never be too grateful that the control of the vast department of posts and tele- graphs was at so early a stage in her his tory placed in such capable hands. The genial personality of Sir Charles Todd was combined with all those qualities which help to make a really ideal public servant. He never spared himself, but at all times and under every circumstance did what he considered to be his duty to the State, and his conception of duty was of a very exact- ing character. He had his reward in the warm and unstinted approval and admira- tion of the Government, the love and affec- tion of the employes, who gladly acknow- ledged him as-their chief, and the limitless confidence and respect of the people for whom he toiled and wrought. Seldom in- deed has a public official made such a deep impression on the heart of the community; as did Sir Charles Todd, whom at all times it was a delight to honor. His great achievements and his trying work neither puffed him up nor spoilt his delightful nature. He was ever simple, kindly, modest, and playful in his character and conversation, while at all times-even when most immersed in his absorbing labors - he was
ready to listen to any member of the staff or the general public-who desired to lay before him any question affecting the de- partment. There are successful men who arouse animosities and provoke jealousies, but he was not one of them. He ruled by love and not fear, and the worst thing anyone ever said against him was that it was beneath his dignity to make puns. They, however, to quote Mark Twain, fell as naturally from his lips as "the famous otter of roses from the otter." Sir Charlea was a benevolent autocrat-but his power
was very real. He was Postmaster-General, for years with practically no Ministerial
head, and it was only when Federation came that the qualifying word "Deputy" Was placed before his title.
A Colossal Achievement.
The full extent of the indebtedness of South Australia to Sir Charles Todd cannot be expressed in figures, but still statistics can be very eloquent sometimes. When
he arrived in Adelaide in 1855 there were but 87 post-offices in this State, and during that year they dealt with 676,287 letters and 795,041 newspapers, the receipts being £7,841. and the expenditure, including that on telegraph construction, was £15,033. There were but a few miles of telegraph line opened in South Australia when he landed, while telephones, of course, had never been heard of, and money orders and postal notes were unknown. When he re- tired in 1905 there were 711 post-offices, which dealt with 26,230,337 letters and 6,717,787 newspapers, in addition to 1,659,775 packets, and the receipts of that branch of his department were £158,316. There were 299 telegraph stations, all of which had been opened under his regime, with 20,737 miles of wire, erected under his supervision. The telegrams sent during the year num- bered 1,789,608 and the receipts were £108,403, or £266,719 in all, the expendi ¡ture being £254,718. Then, too, 264,609 money orders were issued in the State in that year for £303,526. while £129,316 was paid m postal notes. Telephone exchanges, too, had been established, not only in Ade- laide, but in a large number of the country centres. The magnitude of the services performed by Sir Charles for South Aus- tralia can be gathered from a comparison of these eloquent figures.
The Story of His Life's Work.
Sir Charles Todd had already made his worth known in England before he was in- vited to undertake the work of establishing the South Australian telegraph system. He had studied physics and astronomy to so much purpose that at the age of 15 (he was born at Islington, London, on July 7, 1826) he was appointed to the staff of the Green wich Observatory, and there he was one of the earliest observers of the planet Nep- tune, which was not discovered until 1846, when Sir Charles was 20 years old. Two years later he had made such progress in his profession that he was appointed As- sistant Astronomer at Cambridge under Professor Chalice. With that great centre of learning he always kept up a close and affectionate relationship, und he afterwards became a Master of Arts of Cambridge University, while three of his daughters married graduates of the same rank in that University. Two of them now reside in England, one at Cambridge itself and the other with her husband, Professor Bragg, F.R.S., at Leeds. The Astronomer Royal (Sir George Biddell Airy, F.R.S.), himself a Cambridge senior wrangler, had such a high opinion of the young scientist that he seized the first opportunity of getting him back at Greenwich in the capacity of as- sistant astronomer, and when South Aus- tralia sent to England for a Superintendent of Telegraphs and Government Astronomer be warmly recommended him for that posi- tion. Thus it happened that in July, 1855, Sir Charles sailed from England for Ade-
The first Australian State to introduce Telegraphy was Victoria, which a year prior to Sir Charles Todd's arrival in Adelaide had equipped a short line from Melbourne to the seaport at Sandridge (Port Mel- bourne). The Russian scare consequent upon the Crimean war suggested to the South Australian Government the ad- visability of connecting Adelaide by means of telegraphy with some part of St. Vin- cent's Gulf, and it was with a view to have the whole work contemplated carried out on a scientific basis that Lord John Rus- sell, then Secretary of State for the Colo- nies, was requested to select a competent official to take charge of the business of telegraph construction. Sir Charles had the honor of initiating the service by the opening of a line between Adelaide and the Semaphore early in 1856. Within a comparatively short time he entered on the important task of erecting the line - 600 miles in length -which connects Adelaide with Mel bourne. This work occupied two years, and was completed in July, 1853, almost on the very day that "The Advertiser" published its first number. In October of the same year Mr. E. C. Cracknell, who came to South Australia as Sir Charles Todd's assistant in 1855, carried the electric current from Melbourne to Sydney. Sir Charles followed this triumph by building the direct telegraph line between Adelaide and Syd- ney, and it was while engaged on this task that he determined the true magnetic posi- tion of the boundary between South Aus-
tralia and Victoria. To Sir Charles be- longs the credit of having suggested the provision of a line of telegraph wire be- tween Adelaide and Port Darwin, and it was to his enthusiastic advocacy of the scheme in reports both to the British Go-
vernment and to the South Australian
authorities that the passage of the neces
sary Enabling Act through Parliament was due. Sir Charles rode across the stretch of 2,000 miles now crossed by the line, and thoroughly inspected the route before the great undertaking was begun, and he car- ried it through with characteristic energy, so that by August, 1872 - or just 13 years after he first conceived the idea - the strip of copper uniting the southern shore of Australia with that on the north was com-
pleted and opened for service. His plans were, however, still incomplete, and his fourth great overland line was that to Eucla (1,000 miles), which links up Western Australia with the rest of the telegraph
systems of the continent. This last service was duplicated many years later, un- der the supervision of Sir Charles Todd, who also laid the submarine cables to Kan- garoo Island and to other lighthouses on the coast, and initiated the telephone sys- tem in South Australia. From the date of his arrival he was Superintendent of Tele graphs-his appointment dated from Feb- ruary 10, 1855-but it was not until 1870 that the Postal and Telegraph Departments were amalgamated and he attained to the full dignity of Postmaster-General. He was the only permanent public servant who ever held an office with such a title in Australia, Sir Charles occupied the post of Government Astronomer from February 10, 1855, until a year or two ago, his total service in that capacity having reached over 53 years. In the last named capacity he performed astronomical and meteorolo
gical work of incalculable value to the
State and to the Commonwealth.
The worth of the services rendered by Sir Charles Todd to South Australia in many branches of energy was recognised by both the Government and the people. He was honored, too, in the wider world. He was created a C.M.G. on the completion of the transcontinental telegraph line, and in 1893 was given a knighthood of the same order. For his scientific attainments in the
profession of which he was such a distin- guished ornament he was awarded a Fel- lowship of the Royal Society of England, a Fellowship of the Royal Astronomical Society, Fellowship of the British Meteor- ological Society, and an honorary Fellow
ship of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Two distinguished European scientific in- stitutes also conferred distinctions upon bim. Cambridge University gave him the degree of Master of Arts, and this example was followed by Adelaide. He represented South Australia at the Internation Tele-
graph Conference in Berlin in 1885, and early in the following year he went to Eng- land, where he read an able paper before
the Royal Colonial Institute on "Tele- graphic enterprise in Australia." Sir Charles received many congratulations in 1891, when he celebrated the jubilee of his appointment to Greenwich Observatory, and again in 1905, when he completed 50 years' public service in this State. A very real compliment was paid him by the State Parliament, which refused to pass an Act for the compulsory retirement of septua- genarians so long as he remained in the
South Australian Public Service, while it is also to be remembered in his honor that his knighthood came to him without the intervention of anyone on this side of the
Public and Family Life.
Sir Charles, in addition to the magnifi- cent work he accomplished as head ot the Posts, Telegraph, and Telephone Depart- ment gave his service to many other pub lic institutions. He was always a lending spirit in respect to the operations of the Royal Society of South Australia, the Astronomical Society, and the Institute ot Surveyors, of which he was long one of the examining board. He was a valued
member of the council of the University of Adelaide, and he was likewise for years a
member of the South Australian School of Mines and Industries, in the progress of which he manifested the deepest interest. He was, at the time of his death, vice-pre- sident of the Board of Governors of the Public Library, Museum, and Art Gallery, with which he had been connected for very many years, to the great advantage of all three institutions. Everyone connected with these bodies had the highest regard for the attainments and the public spirit of Sir Charles Todd, who always threw his whole energy into what he had to do. For many years he lived at the residence built for him, near the Adelaide Observatory, and it was there that Lady Todd died in 1898. She was a Miss Bell, and he met her first while he was an officer of the Cam- bridge University. He had four daughters, of whom one married Professor Bragg,
F.R.S., another the Rev. F. G. Masters, M.A., of Melbourne, and a third to M. C. Squires, a Cambridge solicitor. The fourth daughter, who is unmarried, was the constant companion of her father till the time of his death. Sir Charles had two sons, Dr.C. E. Todd, of Victoria-square, and the late Mr. Hedley L. Todd, of the well-
known electrical firm of Todd and Samuel.
Until a very short time before his death Sir Charles retained the vigor of his mind and a considerable amount of bodily activity. He was to be seen almost every morning taking a stroll with a frisking spaniel in Wakefield or Hutt street, and he always had a cheery word for old friends whom he met during his perambula- tions. The veteran of 83 was as prone to
play upon words as he had been in youth or middle age, and his puns were constant and clever in the course of conversation. He took life cheerfully, and was ever an optimist. His years were full of happiness, and he was the source of pleasure to all with whom he came in con- tact. He radiated brightness and good nature. His long existence-covering nearly 84 years-was crammed with good and useful deeds, and he has left behind a monument of distinguished service of which both his country and his family have every reason to be proud. It may be truly written of him, as it was sung by Tenny- son of the great Duke of Wellington:
Whose life was work, whose language
With Tugged maxims hewn from life; Who never spoke against a foe;
Whose eighty winters froze with one re-
All great self-seekers trampling on the
Whatever record leap to light
He never shall be shamed.
Yea, let all good things await
Him who cares not to be great,
But as he saves or serves the State,
Not once or twice in our rough island
The path of duty was the way to glory; He that walks it only thirsting
For the right, and learns to deaden
Love of self before his journey closes,
He shall find the stubborn thistle bursting. Into glossy purples, which outridden All voluptuous garden roses:
Not once or twice in our fair island story, The path of duty was the way to glory. He that ever following her commands,
On with toil of heart and knees and hands, Through the long gorge to the far light has
His path upward, and prevailed,
Shall find the toppling crags of duty sealed Are close upon the shining table lands,
To which our God Himself is moon and
Such was he; his work is done.
An Aboriginal Walter Raleigh.
During the first few years that the over- land line was open several of the officials were killed by the blacks. Sir Charles had some personal encounters with the na- tives, but they were not of a very alarm ing character. "On one occasion (he said) I was travelling in the .Northern Territory with three blacks. All at once one of them ran a little way in advance, and hastily gathered some green boughs and threw them in a place towards which we were travelling. On reaching the spot I discovered that it was a bog, and the man had been thoughtful enough to make this provision for me to pass over. I knighted him on the spot and called him Sir Walter Raleigh."
Telling "Old Man Todd."
"On another occasion I was camped on the north bank of the Murray, determining the boundary line of New South Wales and South Australia by means of time signals, exchanged with the observatories at Melbourne and Sydney. I established a small observatory and erected a tran
instrument, and it was gratifying to me to find in later years, when a determination was made of the difference of longitude between Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Port Darwin, and Singapore, that the position assigned to the boundary line in 1868 and marked by the erection of an obelisk, was practically correct. The of- ficers of the United States navy had made a similar determination of the difference of longitude between Singapore and Madras, the Indian Government between Madras and Suez, and the Astronomer Royal be- tween Greenwich and Suez, so we thus had a good voltaic determination of the dif- ference of longitude between Greenwich and the Australian observatories. The Australian work was carried on in conjunc- tion with Mr. Ellery and Mr. Russell at
Melbourne and Svdney and with Mr. Bar- rachi (now Government Astronomer of Victoria) at Port Darwin. It was while I was on the Murray at that time that an amusing incident occurred with a blackfellow who had attached himself to
my camp and had become quite friend I I knew that several insulators were broken between the boundary and Overland Cor-
ner, and I asked him to replace tbem with new ones and showed him how to do the work. He did this very faithfully, and wherever he replaced a broken insulator he tapped the pole with his hand, as he had seen me do with the relay when speak- ing to Sydney and Adelaide. When asked by an observer why he tapped the post his answer was, "To tell old man Todd
done 'em.' "
His Work at Greenwich.
In a chat with a representative of "The Advertiser" concerning his work as head of the new galvanic department at Greenwich, which he began in 1854, Sir Charles Todd remarked - "While in charge of this department I was respon- sible for the transmission of time signals and the dropping of time-balls throughout England. The work was exceedingly in-
teresting, and naturally I gained consider- able experience from the opportunities af forded me. While at Cambridge I made a galvanic determination of the differences of longitude between Greenwich and Cam- bridge. An interesting event occurred in 1855, and one which changed the course of my career. I had made a journey to Deal, where some trouble had occurred in the dropping of a timeball at the Royal dock- yard, which was worked by an electric cur- rent from the Observatory at Greenwich at 1 o'clock. I stayed a night at Tunbridge, desiring to spend a little time with a friend (Mr. Walker), who was an electrical en-
gineer. I was surprised on the following morning to receive a note from Sir George Airy, making me an offer, on behalf of the Colonial Office, of the position of Superintendent of Telegraphs and Government As- tronomer in South Australia. The position seemed to promise a useful career, and I
thought it was a suitable field for my life's work. After due consideration I accepted
the appointment. This was, of course, be- fore telegraphic communication was in ope- ration in this State, and I had to decide what system I would adopt in initiating the new order of things. As only a short line, from Adelaide to the Port and the Semaphore was as yet authorised, I selected Henley's magnetic telegraph instruments as being the cheapest in their work- ing. I was given authority to bring out a number of operators, but I advised the Colonial Office that this was not necessary, and suggested the appointment of a tho- roughly competent assistant, who would be able to undertake my duties and responsi- bilities in case any emergency should arise. This course was adopted, and Mr. Crack- nell was appointed on my recommendation. We came to Australia in the ship Irene which was commanded by Captain Bruce, arriving on November 5, 1855.
First Line in South Australia.
"Having reached the scene of our future
labors we lost no time in getting to work.
Although the line to Port Adelaide had been authorised, Mr. McGeorge anticipated our work by the erection of a cheap line to the port, which was completed just about the time of our arrival. This, how- ever, did not deter us from putting into effect the scheme decided upon, and the new line was opened on February 18, 1856. Mr. McGeorge's line, of course, had every support for a time. On February 21, 1856, the receipts of the Adelaide Government Office amounted to one shilling and three- pence. I mention this as an interesting fact, showing that no little enterprise was involved in undertaking the erection of the telegraph lines at this early stage. The business rapidly increased, and the Govern- ment eventually purchased Mr. McGeorge's line from the firm of Elder, Stirling, and Co. It was at once dismantled on being
"During 1859 the Government of New South Wales through Captain Martin- dale, wrote, asking me to recom- mend a competent man to take charge of the telegraphic system of that State. I recommended my assistant, Mr. E. C. Cracknell, who accepted the appointment."
INCIDENTS IN HIS
In recognition of his one weakness, and in reference to the initials of the title which he so long bore - P.M.G.-Sir Charles Todd was long ago dubbed "Pun-Master General," but the identity of his sponsor is not known. The harmless and amusing verbal recreation was indulged in by Sir Charles from his earliest days, and the habit remained with him to the end. Some of his jokes were exceedingly good, and all were begotten of good temper and a desire to be agreeable. It is said that Sir Charles on an average perpetrated a pun or pro- pounded a riddle every day of his life. Many of them were, of course, forgotten as soon as made, but some have lived, and will bear repetition.
When Sir Charles was travelling to Mel- bourne by steamer in 1877 the steward came round in the afternoon, and asked him if he would take tea. "Oh, yes." was the reply; "without T I would be odd.
The Caledonian Society a year or two ago entertained Sir Charles in Melbourne, and the chief, in proposing his health, asked how it was he took an interest in astro- nomy so early. Replying on the spur of the moment, Sir Charles said the only explana- tion he could give was that his mother initiated him in the milky way.
Sir Charles some years ago expressed re- gret that he could not agree with Mr. King- ston politically. "How is that Sir Charles? ' asked Mr. Kingston. "Well, in me, Mr. Kingston, you Observ-a-Tory," said the Government Astronomer with a chuckle.
A deputation waited on him as Post master-General to ask for better postal facilities at Orroroo, and after several
earnest speeches had been made bymembers of Parliament and others, Sir Charles re- plied, with a twinkle in his eye -"I am afraid, gentlemen, I shall not be able to grant your request. You have overlooked one important item. There are only two
letters in Orroroo."
Sir Charles was travelling in a railway carriage once with an official party from Adelaide to some station in the hills. The train passed another at the Mitcham sta- tion, and a dispute arose as to whether it was the Mount Barker train or not. There was a consultation of guide-books, and the decision was that it was a goods train. Farther on the train passed through Tor- rens Park, where there were some fine stock running. Special attention was di- rected to a fine blood horse, and Sir Charles, leaning forward to look at it, re- marked-"Yes; that's a good strain, too."
Here are some riddles with which Sir Charles is credited:
If I saw a young lady standing in the water at Henley Beach, what prominent person who took part in the Boer war would I be reminded of? - De Wet.
When are the passengers and a ship of the same mind? - When the passengers are telling stories and the ship is lying to(o).
His Proudest Moments.
Sir Charles was once asked by a repre- sentative of "The Advertiser" what he considered was the proudest moment of his life. He replied
"The proudest moment of my life was the day of my marriage to the daughter of Mr. Edward Bell, of Cambridge, who bravely consented to share my lot in a new and strange land. Probably the next proudest moment of my life was when, re- turning overland from the Northern Terri- tory, I sat on the ground near Central Mount Stuart on a cold night with a little pocket relay connected with the wires and communicated with Port Darwin and Ade- laide."
It may be mentioned that when he was offered the post of superintendent of tele- graphs in South Australia, Sir Charles went down to Cambridge to consult his be trothed, and but for her acquiescence it is more than probable that he would have stayed in England. The linking together of the two events mentioned as the proudest moments of his life lends impor- tance to the fact that when, just prior to his departure from England in 1855, Sir Charles was replying to the toast of "The bride and bridegroom" at the wedding breakfast, he expressed the hope that one day he might be instrumental in bringing the mother country and Australia into tele graphic communication. He first suggested the transcontinental telegraph scheme to Sir Richard McDonnell in 1859, before Mc Douall Stuart had traversed the route which the line now takes, and which was then "terra incognita." He again advo- cated the undertaking in a paper read be- fore the Philosophical Society (now the Royal Society) in 1863, but many South Australians laughed at the idea. "In 1870 Commander Osborne, on behalf of the Eastern Extension Telegraph Company, offered to lay a cable from Singapore via Java to Port Darwin, and again Sir Charles urged the Government to construct the land line. The other States were asked to help, but they declined, and South Aus tralia boldly entered on the undertaking alone. The first 500 miles north of Ade- laide and the last 500 miles which connec- ted with the cable at Port Darwin were constructed by contract, but the 1,00 miles through the centre of Australia were done by the department. In January, 1872, Sir Charles had to go to Port Darwin, as the contractor could not complete his work. The cartage of rations for the men en- gaged on the line cost from £26 to £30 10/ per ton, according to their distance from the coast. Sir Charles went to Port Darwin by the Omeo, and the Tarurua followed. They carried 157 horses with plant and stores. The Young Australia, a small paddle steamer, was sent round the western coast for use as a river craft, but Sir Charles-by an indemnity guaranteed to the captain-persuaded the owner to forestall the arrival of the small boat, and to navigate the Roper River, where pre- viously no steamer had ever floated. Sir Charles stayed in the Territory for five months, and then travelled southward, in- specting every inch of the 2.000 miles of wire until Adelaide was reached. When, with his small pocket instrument, he sat on the ground at Central Mount Stuart and spoke first to the Port Darwin and then to the Adelaide station, the cable to Port Darwin was completed and England and Australia were in communication. That was on August 22, 1872. Recently Lord Tennyson, a former Governor of the State, sent to Sir Charles Todd a copy of the "Illustrated London News" of February 22, 1873 (found among the papers of the late Poet Laureate), which contained picture concerning the overland telegraph expedi-
Astronomy a Hobby.
"My first hobby, induced by my entrance into the Roval Observatory at Greenwich under the then Astronomer Royal, Sir
George Airy (said Sir Charles on one occa- sion), was astronomy. Although it was the month of December when I commenced work at the great observatory, the first day seemed the longest in my lite. I thought it must be nearly 4 o'clock when I heard the 1 o'clock time ball drop. When I went to Cambridge I had regular astronomical observing work with the Northumberland equatorial telescope and the meridian in- struments, the transit and mural circles. These two instruments are now combined in one, called the transit circle, of which we have a good specimen at the Adelaide Observatory. Going to Cambridge in 1848 I became one of the observers of the theo- retically discovered Neptune, and made the acquaintance of the late Professor Adams, the senior wrangler, who had calculated the position of the planet. On returning to Greenwich in charge of what was then called the galvanic department. I became acquainted with the late C. B. Walker, electrical engineer, Latimer Clark, and Mr. Varley, and had an introduction to practi- cal telegraphic work, in which I became interested. Therefore astronomy and tele- graphy became my great hobbies, as well as meteorology. Soon after the extension of telegraphic communication with Melbourne and Sydney, in conjunction with the astro nomers in Melbourne and Svdney, a system of weather reports was introduced in the early sixties."
THE CHIEF JUSTICE'S.
"Sir Charles Todd was one of my oldest friends in South Australia," said his Honor the Chief Justice (Sir S. J. Way, Bart.) on Sunday. "I had known him since his ar- rival in the State, and had been on inti- mate terms of fritndship with him for over half a century. The most pleasant recol- lection I have was the last time I saw him, just before Christmas, on the occasion of Sir John Forrest's last visit to him while on his return to Western Australia. Sir Charles and Sir John were old friends, and Sir John always made a point of calling on Sir Charles when in Adelaide. Sir Charles had had a slight accident, which confined him to his room, and when I saw him dur- ing Sir John's visit he was in splendid spirits, full of quips and cranks and remi niscences of the most pleasant character, awakened by Sir John's visit. I never saw Sir Charles intellectually brighter than on that occasion. He was a master of the art of playing upon words, but underneath his exceedingly humorous manner there was deep sincerity, and he possessed great administrative ability. That was exem- plified by his construction of the first great line of telegraph in Australia, from Ade- laide to Melbourne, but the work by which he will be always remembered was the erec tion of the great overland telegraph line to Port Darwin, which, in conjunction with the submarine cable, united Australia to
the mother country. In that respect Sir Charles must be regarded as one of the great builders, not merely of this State, but of the continent. The marked ability he showed in the management of a big public department led to his appointment as Postmaser-General when the post and telegraph departments were amalgamated. The fact that, although he was at the head of a department notoriously underpaid then as compared with other branches of the public service, he always had the goodwill and affection of his officers, stamped him as a man among men. I had the privilege of being intimately associated with the late Sir Charles in the Public Library, Museum, and Art Gallery, and also in the Univer sity, and I know it would be difficult to exaggerate the benefit which his knowledge of attains, mastery of finance, and ripened experience proved to both institutions. Right up to the last he was a vice-president of the Public Library Beard, and until last year, when the infirmities of age compelled his retirement, he continued to be chair man of the financial committee. It is diffi- cult to conceive a more enviable career. Reverenced and idolised by his family, honored by his sovereign and by
learned societies and scientists all over the world, the centre of a wide circle of friends, he maintained an active public career till over 80 years of age, and was then permitted to enter into a dignified and honored retirement."
"ALWAYS ANXIOUS TO DO HIS
The Deputy Postmaster-General (Mr.- K. W. M. Waddv) stated that Sir Charles Todd was head of the telegraph department when he entered the service in 1860. Four years later, when he came to Adelaide as an operator, there were only five employed in the telegraph office, which was then situated in the old Broken Hill Chambers in King William-street. "I was only a lad at that time," continued Clr. Waddy, "and there were so few of us that Sir Charles knew us all personally. As a boy I learned a little of meteorology, and Sir Charles used to keep me a good deal at the
Observatory with him. In 1875 I became corresponding clerk, and later on secretary. The latter position, of course brought me into daily contact with Sir Charles. He was one of the ablest managers of a big department Sonth Australia ever had. He was always anxious to do his best for the public, and he used to impress upon all his officers that the public had to be considered first. He had great special ability, and could pick out special men for special work. In that way he gathered round himself a staff of good officers, who held him in the highest respect. His fair treatment of them won their loyalty and regard, and in all branches of the service the deepest re- gret will be felt that he has passed away. The intimation of his death came too late to enable us to make arrangements to at- tend the funeral but as many officers as can be spared will be permitted to pay their last tribute of respect to the man they all held in such high esteem."
"FULL OF YEARS AND HONORS."
In the Pirie-street Church yesterday morning, the Rev. II. Howard referred to the death of Sir Charles Todd, and paid a high tribute to the character and worth of the deceased gentleman as a citizen and a friend. He said that, like many others of the congregation he had enjoyed the privi- lege of Sir Charles' friendship and had always found him to be a kindly, courteous, and cultured Christian gentle- man. The element of grief in such a re- moval from their midst was reduced to a minimum. Sir Charles had come to the grave in a ripe old age, full of years and honor. His had been a fine career, closely interwoven with the life and progress of the State. South Australia had been sin- gularly fortunate in the character of the men who had been entrusted with the shaping of its life. They had been men of sterling worth, who had helped to lay its foundations deep and broad. Conspicu- ous among these had been the gentleman whom all South Australia had delighted to honor, and who had now passed to his re- ward. Such men did not die, they lived on in lives made purer and nobler through having had privileged access to the, circle of their refined and refining fellowship. The highest tribute they coujd pay their memories was to emulate their spirit and follow in their steps.