MONDAY, AUGUST I, 1881.
THOSE who anticipate that the promised measure for the reform of the Legislative Council will introduce the elective principle into the mode of constructing the Upper Chamber in future, may pro- bably be disappointed. Inconsequence of the recent constitutional struggle in Victoria, and the adoption of an electoral franchise for the composition of the Upper House in South Australia, we have been too ready to come to the conclusion that the Bill, alluded to in our Governor's Speech, must necessarily introduce such a radical change as we have alluded to. There may be reform, however, without the introduction of such an important alteration ; .and having regard to the political history of the colonies, the Ministry will be careful in their action. Almost the only colony in which an elected Upper Chamber exists, and the only one in the Australian group, is Victoria ; and the working of the constitutional arrange- ment there has not been either so harmonious or useful as to lead Queens to be in haste to adopt it. In that colony deadlocks between the Chambers have been of perennial occurence, and at no period in its history has there been a cordial understanding
between the two branches of the
Legislature. On the other hand, it is said, "there ts no instance to be found in the records of any colony, in which the second House is appointed by the Executive, of a lasting, or in any way serious dispute between the Chambers ; whilst there is no reason lu believe thal, in colonies so circumstanced, the Upper Houses have failed in the performance of any of the functions pertaining to them
as senates." While the advocates ot the
existing system thus quote experience, as being altogether on their side, they also find reasons why it should be so. They point to the fact, that in an elected Upper Chamber, the members are all of a class, and are separated by social posi- tion, interests, modes of thought, and more or less by aims from the mass of the people, and their immediate repre- sentatives in the Assembly. They are not in sympathy with the bulk of those for whom they have to legislative. Under our present system, however, the Executive appoints the Upper Chamber, but the former is itself created by the Lower Chamber; and through it, the Council is, indirectly, an expression of the political feelings and sentiments of the people. Though it may not at first appear so, our Council is, it is held, a more Radical one than the correspond- ing Chamber in Victoria. Then, while the nominee chamber is indirectly the creation of the people, it is composed generally, but not always, as recent ex- perience has shown, of men who have been exercised in the practice of politics in the Assembly. To a knowledge of the forms of Parliament they have usually added calmness and moderation, not only in the discussion, but in the con- sideration of administrative acts and popular legislation. The fact, more- over, of their being nominated to occupy positions, ai vitam aili culpam, gives them an independence and strength of position that do not pertain to repre- sentatives, holding their places at the will and favour of a body of electors.
In discussing this subject it must be considered whether, while the nominee Chamber appears to be in theory more radical, it is not in practice really more conservative than the elective. It is true the electors choose the members of
Assembly ; and these again create the Ministry by whom thc Council vacancies are filled up. But the connection between the people and the Upper Chamber is
too remote for the latter to be much in- fluenced hy the former. When it is argued, again, that an elected Cha inlier, with a membership chosen by a limited class, is out of harmony with the mass of the people, it may be asked how far in this respect ourCouncil is so al present. Take the most recent additions to our Senate-they are gentlemen who have been rejected by popular constituencies. It cannot be said they are more in har- mony with the mass of the ratepayers than if they had been elected by limited constituencies. " While the peculiarity of the Moose of Commons is that il is solely dependent on the will of the people ; the feature of the House of Lords is that it is almost wholly indepen- dent of popular influence. If lioth Houses were subject lo the will of thc peuple,-that is,i f both were elected, they would be both influenced by similar motives, and anxiety to conciliate the electors might lead lo the passing of
measures without sufficient considera- tion." If we admit that our present Council is the more generally represen- tative, then we must conclude it is most unlike the british Constitution, and, unlike the House of Lords, is subject to the will of the people. The fact is, however, that it is not so. The point, however, which the constituencies may be called upon to consider at no distant date is whether, in theory and practice, it would not be well for the colony to have an elective Upper Chamber. Among tlie canons of modern poli- tical economy is the doctrine that representation should be as com- plete as possible. To concede the rights of minorities in this Aspect, we have had cumulative voting intro- duced into the election of local boards, and the formation of what are called three-cornered constituences. It does not seem unreasonable, that men whose wealth, culture, and intelligence have niscd them above the mass of the
people, and whose interests in the colony are large and varied, should have separate representation. Most people will admit that there is a measure of unfairness in the system, which gives as much political influence to the man who rems a humpy at a few shillings a week, and only pays indirect taxes, as to the
large landowner, who has a great stake j in the country, and contributes freely to '
the Colonial Treasury.
On behalf of a nominee Chamber, il is contended that its permanent and independent character renders it impal- pable to sudden gusts of popular influence. In this respect it closely resembles the Imperial House of Lords. But recent experience in Victoria has
shown that an Upper Chamber enjoying i such privileges is a questionable advan- tage to the State. A brake, when put down too haid, stops the vehicle ; and so the action of the Upper House may produce, and in Victoria has produced, deadlocks. It is certainly a fact deserving of great consideration that these have occurred more frequently in connection with elected than nominee chambers. But would it not be belter that we should have these occasionally, than one Chamber which merely confirmed the sentiments and will of another, The fact that where nominal Councils exist, there have been no collisions with the Assemblies, may be regarded as a proof that they are too much alike ; and that the former do not secure to the colony those benefits, which are held to justify their existence. Wherever nominee chambers exist, there must, along with constitutional indepen- dence, be a want of independence of thought, interests, and proclivities. Inde- pendence in these respects may fairly be placed in the balance with that of position and power.
There are many points, it will be seen, involved in any proposed reform of the Council, that deserve careful con- sideration, and it may be asked why these should now be forced on the attention of the colony. We can only explain the conduct of the Ministry by supposing they recognise the almost
effete character of the present Upngr. Chamber, and think it better to 4avlH reformed, before it becomes an obstacle]
and stumbling block to future legislation.
MR. P. A. O'SII ANESY has been duly elected a member of the Linnean Society of New
À TELEGRAM in thc Courier states that on
July 25, 50 bulls, in charge of Mr. Horne, passed Tambo for Mount Cornish ; 12,000 sheep, tile property of Mr. Andrew Scott, from Hornet Bank, on the Dawson, passed, in charge of Mr. Thomas Penny, for the
Tun Courier of Tuesday states that before his Honor the Chief Justice, in insolvency, in the estate of George William Kettle, of Emerald, Mr. Mein applied, upon a special resolution of creditors, for a certificate' of discharge ta the insolvent, which was granted,
)¿ A CORRESPONDENT telegraphs from Marl-^
borough that Miss Wormald baa been committed for trial for the wilful murder of
Mr. Barnett's eldest daughter by drowning her in order to cover her negligence, whereby thc younger child was drowned.
WE have before pointed out that thc steps leading to the wharves are in some places extremely dangerous, and especially at night. Yesterday oftcrnoon a man fell halfway down thc steps leading to the A.S.N. Company's wharf, and was severely cut abouVtbe face,
from which the blood flowed profu£^.
LEO DAMKE, of de;moin^ssR Mount Britton, storekeeper, butcher, ana licensed publican, and Louis Severin, of Cairns, saw- mill proprietor, were on tho 25th ultimo adjudged insolvent upon their own petition.
In thc formor estate thc first meeting o|
creditors was fixed for thc IOU), and in the latter for the 1 Ith August.
WHILE the steamer Lady Bowen was lying at Bundaberg on Thursday night, one of the card-sharping fraternity in going on board mistook his way, and fell off thc wharf into the river. Hearing the splash the carpenter of the steamer, Thomas Dunlop, jumped into the water, and secured thc man as he was drifting away with the current. A rope was thrown to which Dunlop fastened the " spieler", and he was afterwards put into one of the ship's boats. The man had a very narrow escape as he could not swim, and was encumbered with a heavy ulster overcoat. This is thc second person Mr. Dunlop has saved from drowning within the last twelve months, and he is deserving of every credit for his promptitude and bravery ou this occasion.
^^TriF. immigrant ship Kamcnoth, 983 tons,
Captain Auld, anchored in Keppel Bay on Saturday, having made a splendid passage of SC days from Plymouth. This trip has only been equalled by one or two vessels. Dr. Salmond, Health Officer, received a telegram staling that all were were well on board. He proceeded to the Bay yesterday in thc Bunyip, and, should pratique bc granted, the new arrivals will be brought to town in the steamer Polly, probably this afternoon. Thc particu- lars published last week show that there arc on board 303 souls, equal to 2S74 statute adults. Dr. T. M. Tennant is Surgeon-super- intendent, and Miss Tozer matron. The Famcnoth is to the agency of Mtssrs, Walter I Reid and Co.
IT ii ¿tified in the Gazelle that iu future (tatton pastera in the post and telegraph departing will be styled "managers," such alteratioi to date from the lat. of August
Tus Hldaon Surprise Party gare a final performance at the Theatre Royal on Saturday evening, «hieb was fairly attended. At the conclusion of tho entertainment a large number o' the personal friends and admirers of the traine went to the wharf to see them depart saith by the Lady Boivcn. As the vessel ws cast off from her moorings some hearty enters were given to thc voyagers, and cordially 'esponded to.
Tm BIS.N. Company's R.M.S. Dorunda, with the mails from England to the date of June 17, via Brindisi, left Cooktown yesterday morning it 8'30, being fifty and a-half hours late. Shi calls at Townsville, Bowen, and Flat-top bland. The Australia, P.M. Com- pany's R.U.S., with the incoming mails from England, including London dates to lflth June, and the usual monthly advices from America, arrived at Sydney on Saturday morning. Tue Queensland portion of the mails will probably come forward by the Wotonga, s., which left Sydney on Saturday for Brisbane.
A SOMEWHAT serious accident occurred to a young man named Danial Cokeley on Saturday night. Cokeley is engaged at Mr. Lupton's tannery, Lion Creek, and left the Welcome Home Hotel to returr. home. He was slightly under the influence of drink, and was pro- ceeding on horseback at a furious pace up East-street as a hansom cab was coming in the opposite direction. The driver geeing Coke- ley, pulled up the :ehicle, but that, unfortu- nately did not prevent an accident, for Cokeley's horse, which is blind in thc off eye, went so close to tho cab that the shaft penetrated thc inner portion of Cokeley's right thigh, lacerating it in a very ugly manner. The collision caused the man to fall from his horse. Ho was picked up by tho police and taken to the lock-up, and thence conveyed to the hospital, where according to latest accounts he is lying in a very bad state. It is said no blame is attributable to the driver of the cab.
THE Governor in Council has made the following additional rule for the general government and discipline of the Police Force :-"No officer or member of the Police Force Bhall have any claim to, or be entitled to receive without special authority, any reward offered either by the Government or by private individuals, or associations for the detection or apprehension of criminals, or recovery of lost pooperty, &c. Rewards so offered are intended merely to net as inducements to tho public to afford information or assistance to I the police, not as stimulants to the Police
Force, which is maintained for the purpose of detecting and preventing crime. Should tho servioe for which any such reward is offered be performed by> member of the Police Force, the amount thereof must be paid into the 'Police Reward Fund,' established under the Poliee Act, from which deserving members of the foroe will receive such amounts as they may be considered entitled to, in consideration, of special services."
THERE is every probability that to^^^^H be kept as a holiday, and the rea^t^t^t^M the auspices of the Rockhampt^^^^^^H Club is therefore sure to be y^^^^^^^H A most inviting programme, <1^^^^^^^^H
is aet dawn for disir^BBBBB^Bl^^oport
will be commenced at ll a.m. Eaob race will
finish near the Bridge, from which a good view will he obtained, and at the conclusion of each a cannon will be fired from the steamer Fitzroy which has been kindly placed nt thc services of the Committee by Captain Sykes, Harbour Master, as flag ship, and will be moored alongside the North Side jetty for
the accommodation of members and their friends. The launch Ant, carrying the Umpires, and Press representatives, will follow the races, and a buggy will convey thc judges and starters,. An additional prize in the. shape of a silver Maltese Cross, to bc awarded by the Umpires, has been presented by Mr, W. Pearse, for thc best coxswain. It only requires the present pleasant weather to uphold, and a very enjoyable day's aquatic amusement may be relied on.
VOLUNTEERS are reminded that class firing will commence at the North Rockhampton Rifle Bange at 2 p.m. to-day.
"THE TRANSCONTINENTAL."-Great in- terest was evinced on Saturday at the Conference held at Rockhampton House, East-street. From nine in the morning until half-past ten p.m., a visit of eager votera Presented themselves at the "ShillingTable."
he scrutineers ascertained, at tho conclusion of the day's polling, that 927 voters had recorded their votes. As the Conference ia to continue for one month it will be impossible to ascertain the numerical strength of parties. Sufficient to state that the business transacted at Rockhampton House on Saturday was enormous, the efforts of the obliging assistants being taxed to their utmost. To-morrow, Tuesday, every department in thc House will be supplied with greater "bargains." To- day, Monday, employer, assistants, and small boys patronise the regatta.-[ADVT],
To REMOVE Eoe STAINS.-If spoons arc stained with egg, as is very often thc case, th"? etains can bc removed by rubbing them willi a little common salt, but this must be done when they are first cleaned after use ; if thc stain be allowed to remain, it is much more difficult to get out.
DISSATISFACTION IN SCOTLAND.-The fact oannot longer be concealed that Scotland is becoming dissatisfied, impatient, even dis- affected, in consequence of the treatment
which her affairs have received and are receiving at the hands of the Government which she did so much to put into power. There have been mutterings of discontent in many quarters for some time, but now the suppressed mutterings haye given place to outspoken and emphatic remonstrances. Within a week the Scotsman in Edinburgh and the Herald in Glasgow have not only complained that nothing was being done, but have protested against thc vacillation which has characterised the attempts to do some- thing. The profuseness with which bills are promised right and left is interpreted to indicate a desire to appease both left and right rather than a resolute purpose to advance thc business of the country. The readiness with which billa arc dropped or suspended after they have lieen introduced-witness the Court of Session Bill aud, it is to bc feared, also the Teiude Bill-has increased tho feeling of uneasiness. The fact that the greater part of one day's sitting last week was given up to Dr. Cameron's Free Education (Scotland) Bill has not allayed thc disaffection ; it has rather increased it. It shows, it is said, that while time can be found tn discuss the specialities -some say thc crotchets-of private members, which lead to no practical result, time cannot be found tn consider and advance such measures as tho Teinds Dill and tile endowed
Institutions Hill, which are nnt Parliamentary playthings, and for which there is real need. Scotland docs not want talk, it wants business; and the talk is apt to become intolerable when actual business ii at a standstill.
A CURIOUS FWD.-The Argus gires tho following particulars of the finding of old coins near Melbourne :-A rather extraordinary discovery of moucy was made on Mouday on the Military Road, between Emerald-hill and St. Kilda. Mr. II. Clark, ono of the inspectors concerned with the Public Works Department, was standing on the road talking with three men who were seeking employment. In kicking the sand about he turned upa shilling, and on further search being made, a piece of an old sail was found, and m it there was £20 in silver and 21 sovereigns. The silver was very much discoloured, sud had the appearance of old leaden coins, but on ex- amination they were found to be all legitimate coins of realm. Some of the sovereigns bear the 1710, and are all in an excellent state of preservation. The money was equally divided between Mr. Clarke and the three men. Since the discovery the ground has been searched by hundreds of persons, but the only other money found was a farthing. The money was discovered about fonr yards from where a large sum was found about 12 months ago.
A JEWELLERY KODDERY.-On tlie 15th instant (thc Argus states) information was forwarded to the detective office that a pair of diamond earrings valued at £250 were missing from the shop of Mr. Moses Goldstein, of Bourkc-strect East. From thc statement made to the police it appears that two gentle- man had been making purchases of jewellery and that in thc course of selection they were shown the earnings in question. After tho customers bad left thc shop some time the earrings were discovered to bc missing. Constable Porter, of Hotham, having heard that two men had been going about thu district endeavouring to dispose of a quautity of diamonds, succeeded yesterday in arresting one of them, who gave tho |name of Ebenezer Smith. The constable subsequently found at Smith's residence several pawn-tickets, which indicated that a number of the diamonds had been pawned at Mr. Hcaly's Viotoria-Btrcet, Hotham ; the London and Liverpool Pawn Office, Gertrude-street, Fitzroy ; and Mr. Abraham Smith's Bourke-strcct West. Up to Wednesday night about £209 worth of the diamonds had been recovered. The other man concerned in the robbery is Richard Thomas, aud he was also arrested.
A BRAVE L.tDY.-Vanity Fair contains the following-The Guards have not had numerous chances of distinguishing themselves during their present compaign in Ireland. One act of vulour has, however, boen performed which racritB mention and remembrance. Mrs. Dalrymple, the wife of The Hon. North Dalrymple of thc Scots Guards, was walking a few days ago in tho streets of Dublin, when an alarm was suddenly raised and a runaway horse was seen to be dashing in a mad career down the street. Everybody rushed to get out of thc way, and in the confusion a little child was either knocked over or fell down directly in thc way of the runaway horse. In another moment the child would inevitably have been killed. Not an Irishman stirred.
Mrs. Dalrymple ran, however, quickly into thc street caught the horse, as he came up by the bridle, and by force and dexterity turned him aside and stopped him. The courageous lady was found afterwards to have broken the bones of her wrist by the efforts she had made. She deserves all honour for the womanly sentiment of pity, and tho manly promptitude of tho act by which she signalized
MtLKiNO.-Tho faster and more gently a cow is milked thc greater, a contemporary in- forms us, will bc thc amount given. Slow milkers always gradually dry np a cow, and for thu reason that, if thc milk be not drawn about as fast as it is given down, it will sub- sequently bc withheld, and that withheld is, E' ;er of course, what is known as the
s-in fact, the upper surface of the ie udder. Many milkersdrawthemilk rong downward pull-indeed with a ^his should never bo allowed ; it thc cow. and often injures thc udder, cat, and with a firm pressure of the c fingers empty it, drawing slightly eat at the same time ; so proceed ly with each hand until tlie milking exhausted. Many milkers get the j alow milking because steady, finn, quick milking tires the fingers and wrists until by practice thc muscles get used to tlie work, Until this use comes naturally, Hie individual should milk only such a number as be can without severe cramping of the hands ¡ what are milked Bhould he milked fast, in- creasing thc number until there is no tiring
whatever. Five minutes is about thc limit
that should bo allowed for milking a cow, and cows should be milked as nearly at a given hour, morning and evening, as possible ; uudue distension of thc udder is always injurious.
THE ELECTROPHONE.-A very remarkable and interesting experiment is descrihed by tho Inst European Mail as having been made at Calais and Dover, betveen which places a conversation has been kept up viva voca by means of a uew kind of telephone, which bas been patented uudcr thc name of the "Electrophone." Not only were the words whispered into thc apparatus at Calais distinctly heard at Dover, and of course vice verm, but the listener at one end was perfectly well able to distinguish by thc mere tone of voice who was speaking at thc other. There can no longer be any doubt that it is perfectly practicable to converse across or rather under the sea by means of any submarine cable, and thc success of thc experiment opens up vistas of possibilities, of rapid communication that a few years ago would have belonged to the realm of dream- land alone. The inventor maintains that it is just as easy to talk across thc Atlantic as from one room to another, and he bas succeeded so well iu the first practical illustration of his apparatus that one is scarcely justified in doubting his assertion that he has found out a system by which the words spoken from thc other side of thc ocean can bc fixed on their arrival hero and treasured np for future
WOOL COMPETITION.-The competition be- tween tho woolbrokers of Sydney and Mel- bourne is attracting some comment in the Press of the southern colony. One of our contemporaries, in a recent issue, says :-"In spite of the active competition to which our local woolbrokers are exposed with their brethren in Sydney, who are aMed by the railway authorities in that colony, tile ship- ments of wool from each of the colonies are increasing at a rapid rate." So for as wc are aware, the railway authorities of New South Wales have nothing whatever to do with thc woolbrokers. They carry produce at nearly uniform rates for similar distances with only such modifications as variations in thc condi- tion of thc traffic demand. But the Victorian
Government has been for Borne time carrying
New South Wales wool from Echuca and Wodonga at a great reduction upon the rates charged for Victorian wool from the same rail- way stations, and if our authorities should be tempted to introduce a discriminating tariff on their railways, it will be entirely due to this challenge oï Yicloria. A telegram from Mel- bourne yesterday morning announces auother reduction on wool from Kchuca, which will be taken as another bid for Riverina wool c in
Bcquent upon thc proposed opening of tho railway to Darlington Point on the way to Hay. How much further thc Governments may go in competing for the traffic remains to be seen, but a complaint from those who arc taking the initiative comes with au ill grace. As to the woolbrokers, they must bc left to their own resources, like all other business men ; and if they are prepared to do business at a loss, their clients will doubtless appre- ciate the privilege. At present we aro in- formed tho Melbourne charges on 100 halos of greasy woo', weighing 40,00 ) lbs., and sold at 10,1. per Iii., would amount to OT I Os. 4d. against £40 7s. in Sydney, a difference of 5s. lOd. per bale in favour nf Sydney, if that lie the case, no railway interference can restore the balance to Melbourne, not even if the
Victorian Government should go thc length of carrying Riverina wool absolutely free nil the way from the Murray. In regard to thc tendency of trade," (ioldshron^h's Monthly Circular" for July gives the shipments of wool from Victoria at 301,401 bales for tho 1880 season, sud lt 314.277 bales for thc season ending on the 30th of last June,
against 199,432 bales shipped from Now South Wales for the former year, and 213,552 bales for the latter. The increase, therefore, was 14,121 bales from Sydney, and only 12,870 from Melbourne, upon the figures supplied by the leading Melbourne broker. In the railway report just published. Mr. Goodchap gives thc increase of wool traffic on the New South Wales line last year at 50,083 bales, with an increase of £21,243 in the revenue; and £17,448 of the additional revenue was earned on the Southern and Western lines, to which thc competition with Melbourne and Adelaide is confined,-S. M. Herald.