SOUTH AUSTRALIA'S JUBILEE.
FIFTY YEARS OF PROGRESS THE PROVINCE AS IT IS The Centre of Settlement
A fertile plain, bounded to the south and east by a circling range of softly rounded hills, parted by a succession of verdant valleys : on the west by the blue
waters of Gulf St. Vincent, breaking mur- muringly upon long reaches of sandy beach ; and on the north stretching away in gentle undulations as far as the eye can reach — such is the site of Adelaide, the capital of the province which to-day celebrates its Jubilee. Beautiful for situation, admirably laid out, and in every way charming, this same chief city of South Australia is a perpetual monu- ment to the geniu3 of Colonel Ligb.fr, its real founder. Compact in itself, with ample streets, well-planted squares, and handsome buildings, and a forest of Bpire3 and towera visible from afar, it rejoices in the possession of noble pleasure grounds which on threa side3 gird it round, and of far- stretching suburbs, furnished like itself with the appliances and means to boot of a high civilization. Well lighted, well scavenged, well drained, for its height of some 170 feet above the sea gives it advantages of which, few large towns can boast; well served by tram cars and public vehicles, which run to all parts of the suburbs ; well provided with pure water, obtained by gravitation from reservoirs at the foot of the hills ; well supplied with the prime requisites of food for man and beast by the cultivated fields and rich pasture lands which on every side cover th3 plains, it challenges the admi ration of every visitor. The city is 6!rridedinto two paris— North and South — by a belt of reserve-land a third of a mile in width. Through, the middle of this flows the BivetTorrena, which descends from the Mils and on* entering the city bounds opens out into a long winding shrub and tree fringed artificially formed lake, on which, boating at all seasons is carried on and: aquatic sports are often held. Some times on moonlit nights the lake is gaily illuminated with pleasure boats moving to and fro, whilst from, a handsome rotunda on ,£he beautifully grassed slopes a band discourses exquisite music. At certain ; seasons open-air concerts are given on ; Sunday afternoons and Friday nights by : the Military and other bands. The river : is spanned by several handsome bridges, : giving passage to the traffic between the : two parts of Adelaide. The roadways . leading to these are skirted by plane : and other trees, mostly deciduous, : under the shade of which are delight ful, summer walks. North Adelaide ia mainly 'used as a place of resi dence, and thence are obtained charm ing* views of hill and plain and sea. SouthAdelaideia the great business centre, and; here are to be found traders who deal in every conceivable article of merchan dise) and who know how tc display their wares to the best effect. It is not because the population of the metropolis in cluding the suburbs i3 no more than 120,000 souls that the citizens will be content with inferior goods. To the extent of their means everything they purchase must be of the best. The shops must be adorned with the choicest specimens of the taste and skill of artificers in every department of industry. The best players and singers who can be induced to visit the antipodes must ba engaged to appear at the theatres and concert-rooms. Just now the equipages are not preten tious, for people have not much money to spend upon luxuries, but in ordinarily prosperous times there are many of these to b3 seen in the street3 which would do no discredit to Hyde Park. . The chief glory of Adelaide proper is Sing William-street, the praises of which have been sung by such distinguished tra vellers as Forbes and Sala, a3 well as by many equally capable observers Ies3 known to fame. It is one of the widest, and pro mises to be one of the grandest, streat3 in the world. It is ornamented along its course by many beautiful buildings. Pro minent among these are the Banks, .which, represents many orders of architec ture, and are as a whole so imposing that it is little wonder they should have im pressed: George Augustus Sala with an awed sense of the far-reaching power and influence of the Corporations which con duct business within their walls. But, besides the Banks, there is the Town Hall,, and the Post-Office, and Govern ment Offices, and the Supreme Court house, and many another edifies of leaser note more or less in keeping with the magnificent thoroughfare which they line. Parallel with King William- street, which, roughly speaking, cuts South Adelaide in halves, are other wide streets, the last on either side being 'West and East terraces. To the spectator looking south all of these open out a vista of verdant hillside, and, looking north, of grassy slopes, which end in the picturesque villaa of .Nortk Adelaide. Crossing these thoroughfares at right angle3 are other streets, which are still more favoured as to the distant prospect they ex pose, the hills to the east, being vis-a-vis with the sea to tha west. The more southerly division of South Adelaide still contains many open spaces and the places of business are joitled by residences, many of them humble enough. Proceeding northward, however, the Btreets become more and more crowded, the bustle of buyers and sellers and the press of loungers, loafers, and onlookers in general more and more conspicuous. In Pirie-atreet we come upon the Exchange, a large and commodious edifice to which merchants and dealera do much resort, hemmed in by other large and commo dious buildings occupied by la-^ryers and agent3 and commercial men gene rally. Near by is the Ausbral Club, chiefly affected by the mercantile classes, but withal well conducted and popular. Tha next street farther north is Grenfell street, which is divided by King William street from its continuation, Currie-streat. In it also ara pile3 of buildings devoted to wholesale merchandise, with here a nawa paper office whence the Begisler issues, and thera 3 handsome block wh-:ra the Young lEen'3 Christian Association has its iead-quarters. Nest in order come Bundle-street and it3 counterpart Hindley-street. These are the busiest thoroughfares in the town, for in them are found most- of the retail shops, and up and devm the pavement on fina afternoons the ladies love to walk to see each other, to inspect the latest 'styles in drees and the latest ornaments in gold and eilver and gems, It ia the fashion
SKETCH MAP OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA.
SKETCH MAP OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA.
able promenade, and any ona who wishes to see fair Adelaide out of doora can be gratified by visiting these thoroughfares on any afternoon between 3 and half- pas b ^o'clock. Connecting Bundle and Gren fell streets there i3 an Arcade, admittedly one of the most beautiful in the world, which i3 well worth a -visit. It i3 lofty, it is cool, it i3 tastefully decorated, it is superbly lighted by day and night, and it 13 lined with shop3 where works of art and elegant trifles, not to mention light refreshments, may be obtained. And now we have reached North terrace, which rivals King 'William-stree- for width and for the beauty of its baild ings. On the southern side there are few edifices more worthy of notice than the Adelaide Clubhouse, the remainder of the line being chiefly occupied by the residences of medieal men who here, as elsewhere, have a propensity for crowding together. The northern side, however, skirting the Park Lauds, has been dedicated to public purposes, and if the old buildings there have little pre tension to beauty, and the new ones are open to criticism because of their incom pleteness, it ia none the less true that several cf South Australia's most noble institutions have their home here. In much too close proximity to the Railway Station, to which all the Government railway Iiue3 and three out of the four small private lines converge, ia the old Parliament House, which has done duty until now, but will only do duty a few years longer, for by its side ia baing reared the first wing of a capacious building, which will cost half a million sterling at least. The basement is or granite and the facade of white marble — both the product of South Australian quarries, for South Aus tralia, be it known, ia rich in all descrip tions of building stone, and the stucco of earlier times is being discarded in all important structures for the white free stone which is found in Iitnitles3 abun dance in the Mount Lofty Kange3, or for the costlier material used in the Parliament Building3. A few architects employ stone brought from New South Wale3 or New Zealand, and even the far-famed Caen stone i3 not un represented, bub caprice, not necessity, dictates the use of the foreign article. In immediate attendance upon Parlia ment Houses new and old i3 the Government Printing Office, and close behind the City Baths, which are freely patronised, and across King William-road is the viceregal residence, a plain, homely looking structure, half-hidden by the tree3 and shrub3 with which the demesne ii planted. More to the ea3t is the Public Circulating Library housed in a building which aforetime accommodated what there was of Public Library and Museum and Ar- Gallery. These three institutions have now found a more worthy abode in nevrly erected building next door, which is after all only an earnest of what i3 yet to come, and ia itself sadly overcrowded. In the rear is the Asylum for the Destitute Poor, destined ere long to be transferred to some more open and wholesome region in the country, and the head- office of the Military Staff and the Mounted Police, who heroically rest content with their humble quarters. Then we have the mustering and drill ground of the local troop3 ; tha exquisite little build ing which serves as a foretaste of what the future home of the Univeraity of Adelaide will be ; and tha spacious and well- arranged structures where the Jubilee Exhibition ia to be held, and the Adelaide Hospital, surrounded ty its own grounds, most of them tastefully planted. Skirt ing these grounds are the Botanic Garden and Park, where Nature has done something, but art and ingenuity and a cultivated taste far more to provide a thing of beauty and a joy for ever. Citizens of Adelaide never tire of this beautiful retreat, and visitors from the country and from abroad with one voice pronounce it a terrestrial Para dise. Skirting the Garden on oue 3ide and in sad contrast with its joyous and caarmiag surroundings ia an Asylum for the Insane, and occupying a corner of the Park 13 the Zoo, which, by reason of the extensive collection it contains of rare and ?wonderful beaat3 and birds, proves a formidable rival in public favour of eveD the Gardens. The half has not been said of what might be told of 'Fair Adelaide' — ita cleanliness and healthiness ; ita streeta and squares; its innumerable hotels tome of them equal, if not superior, to acy to be met with in Australia ; ita other buildings — oficial, com mercial, and ecclesiastical — for has it not the reputation of being a city of Churches ? — ita drives and pleasure grounds, for it ha3 its jYictoria Drive skirting for a mile or two the banks of the river, and meander ing gracefully' through Botanic Park; and it has its Cricket Oval and ita public tennis lawa and ita grajay
elopes where the holiday crowds can see the boat race3, and listen to the music, arid drink in the exquisite enjoy ment which accompanies the mere process of living in place3 possessing the genial and exhilarating climate which for two thirds of the year South Australia can boast. 'We must, however, hasten on and say something of the city's environ ments and of the points cf interest that claim the attention of the visitor beyond the circle of the suburbs. For throughout the colony there are many picturesque places, the natural beauties of which have been enhanced by the skill of the landscape gardener, or improved by the practical hand of the cultivator for the prosaic purpose of making a living from the soD. The level plains between the city and the sea westward and the rising ground from Adelaide to the hills have been laid out in plantations, shrubberies, fruit and market gar dens, and cornfields, according to the inclinations or needs of the colonist. The soil i3 rich, and often deep, and makes a grateful return to the cultivator for the care bestowed upon it. Within easy reach of the metropolis are scenes of a character to excite the fancy of the artist and the admiration of even ordinary observers, so pleasing are some in their simple rural loveliness, and so imposing are others in their rugged grandeur. Little townships — or villages as they would be called in England — nestle in the gullie3 amidst the steep, rocky, and often heavily timbered hills, and wherever tha ground ib suitable in the rich 'bottoms' are to be found well - cultivated market gardens in which fruits, familiar or foreign, and products of a very varied nature are raised in profusion. On the Blopes and summits of the hills grow giant gums of girth enormou3, and althoughitia said that there is a sameness in our forests there is al33 about them a charm all their own. Westward Ho ! But enough of generalities. Lat the reader accompany us on a rapid serie3 of tours west, east, north, and south, and thus gain some faint idea of what South Australia has to show. Krai; let U3 jump into the train at North-terrace and rattle down to Port Adelaide, the chief port of the province. Our way Iie3 through the townships of HindmaTah and Bowdan, which, with their si3ter townships too numerous to mention, form one of the principal centres of manufacturing indus tries. This can be seen from the mighty holes dug in the earth's surface and the smoke which pollutes the air, and the strange-looking places which represent ' ropewalks and brickyards and factories ot various sorts. On we go, having on our right to the northward cultivated fields, amongst them the Sewage Farm, where the contents of the Adelaide deep drains are utilized, and on our left more fields, then vineyards and orangeries and gardens margining the Torrens — here a diminutive stream — and then rich fields of lucerne and other succulent grasses. Presently we pass through Kilkenny, where ihs ironfounding industry has recently taken up its abode, and a. the end of some 8 mile3 alight at Pore Adelaide, a prosperous and a busy town of several thousand inhabitants. Here there are docks and wharf3, and store3 and shipping to be seen, but the moat interest ing feature of all is theP ort itself, which is a land-locked basin approached by a winding creek some 6 miles in length. Both basin and creek have baen deepened and made available at high tides for ships of almost any tonnage, and at low tides for vessels drawing up to 16 or 17 feet. On the other side of the Peninsula formed by the creek are two popu lar wateriog - places, the Semaphore and Largs Bay, both with long jetties, and many other attractions for the visitor. Here is the outer harbour, where the large steam6ra of the Orient, Messagerie3, German Lloyd's, and othsv. lines lie; and where in time to come better provision will have to be made for the trade. Looking southward along the shore we can descry four jetties, which mark respectively the site of the Grange, Henley Beach, Glenelg, and Brighton all watering-places more or Ies3 attractive. The Grange ia reached by a private rail way, which join3the Port Adelaide liuesome 4 or 5 miles from Adelaide. Henley Beach, which boasts of baing the point of the Gulf nearest to the metropolis, has to depend upon a service of trams. Glenelg ha3 the proud distinction of being the spot where the colony was proclaimed , and claims, not without reason, the pre miership among the popular ssavde resorts near to Adelaide, It has a large population, ar doubls line of railway con necting it with Adelaide, and in the roid stead of Holdfast Bay, agon which it is built, the steamers of the P. & Q. Cjm pany choose to ride when discharging and embarking tneirpas3sngers, mails, a ad cargo. The more distant townships, such aa Somerton, Brighton, and Marino, hare all their special claims, but are not so easily accessible from the capital a3 the other sites mentioned. 'For those who have not a mortal dread of the sea there are marvellous attractions in the Gulf and beyond it. On Torka'a Peninanla, to . the rigbt, there are pretty townships' fa'vour-id with a pleasant temperature in the hottest months el busuaer, Ou Kangaroo fyifypiij
ENLARGED MAP OF PORTION OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA.
ENLARGED MAP OF PORTION OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA.
to the left, there are baya and inlets of surpassing interest. Few place3 in Aus tralia are more charming than American Kiver, which spreads out into a broad expanse of water apparently completely land-locked. Near its margin are hills of considerable height, and ita surface is broken by rocky islets, the resting pkee of thousands of pelicana and other seabirds. Indeed, it was from the description given of this spot that the poet got the idea for his weird study of 'Pelican Island.' The waters of the Gulf swarm with fish, and the best angling grounds are within such moderate dis tance of Adelaide that there ia little to prevent enthusiastic fishermen making frequent descents upon them. At the entrance to the Gulf — Investigator Straits, a passage some 31 miles wide— lie the Althorpe Islands, which possess a rugged beauty all their own. The principal member of the group rises to a sheer height of 300 feet, and its summit, which a about 2 miles in circumference, is almost a dead level. In crevices of the rocks innumerable birds find refuge, and in these and in holes in the sand the queer-shaped penguin also has its habitation. Still going westward, after clearing Investi gator's Straits, rounding the toe of Yorke's Peninsula, and crossing the base of Spencer's Gulf, the pleasure-seeker fiads himself among picturesque groups of islands — the chosen haunt of the mutton bird and the seal— which lead the way to one of the finest and loveliest habours in the world— Port Lincoln. He who has seen Port Jackson can form some idea of it, and yet but an imperfect one, for the water ia more thickly studded with islands, the inlets are lesa numerous but more open, and the promontories are fewer but larger. Still there is the same ever-varying prospect, the same enchanting alternation of HUrub covered land and calm, deeply, beauti fully, blue water ; while benicd all on the mainland are low ranges of hills, forming a charming background to the picture. Nor does Port Lincoln monopolize all the beauty of thi3 region, for near by £3 a succession of other bays, each more lovely than the Ia3t. In all of them is to ba found the luscious oyster and fiah of almost every kind known in Aus tralian seas; while the kangaroo and plover on shore, serve as pleasant, if somewhat precarious, sporfa for the lands man. The Scenery of the Eastern Hills. Let uanow turn our eyes and steps aist ward from. Adelaide. Between the city and the Mount Lofty Ranges aforemen tioned there are numerous well-populited townships, admirably situated from a sanitary point of view, and exceedingly pictureaque. Directly east and extending north and south i3 the large Munioi pality of Kensington and Norwood, remarkable for the handsome gardens attached to most of the principal private residences. It is approached through the pretty suburb of Kent Town. It is flanked by Eose Pack and Marryatville on the south, Maylands, Payneham, St. Peters, and Hackney on the north and north-wes*-, and with the rural villages of Magill, Knightsbridge, Burnside, and Beaumont on the east, with Glen O3mond more to the south. All these place3 have their peculiar points' of beauty, and at every turn the visitor meets with some striking variation in the scenic effect. A pleasant drive by way of Botanic-road, through Kent Town, Hackney, and Stepney, pa3tthe orangeries and vineyards of Payneham, and thence through the little hamlets of the Glynde, Campbell town, and Thorndon Park bringa the visi tor to one of the grandest scene3. in our hills, a spot where the rocky, aides of the Gorge ri3e to a groat height, guarding the Torrens as it tumbles through, its atony channel in search of a smoother bed. Gras3trees, thorny bushes, and. hardy shrub3 clothe the hills, but the soil ia too rock- bound to' bear much vegetation. At the moufch of the Gorge a strong dam of solid masonry haB been built to keep back the. stream, and thence an aqueduct and a pip.. respectively carry the water to the Hods Valley Reservoir (167 acres in area) and Thorndon Park (2fi acres) — the two' sources of water supply to the city and suburbs. Close by Hope Valley lies a pretty township called Paradise, which in thematter of fruita and flowersand verdure ia no unworthy successor to the Garden of Eden itself. _ More to the southward, through Burn Bide aforementioned, trends the road to the favourite resort of Adelaidean3 it- summer time, the Waterfall Gully, which lies almost in the heart of the hilla 'below Mount Lof fey. The gully divides two sariei of hill slope3 which descend into :it, fitting. into ona another like the interlocked' fingers of two bands. Down th9 valley a brook— or creek in colonial parlances — runs, having on ita banks many fruitful planta-' tiona, chiefly orangeries and orchards. The gnlly ia blocked at the' south-eastern end by a high steep reef of rocka, down which tha stream, falls in a pretty cascade, and here a dam has been built fos subur ban water supply -purpoBea, There- is a fall above this where the gully narrows, and a thin stream tumbles over into a deep pool fringed by ferns and shruba. On either side the rocky hill rises with an abruptness that makes it almost insar-' mean table. By-and-by the great South- ' Eastern-road is seen . winding; its way along the hill aides, and at one-point on its course' an entrancing 'view is obtained of the whole lengUi of the Waterfall Gully, the cultivated plains beyond, the City of Adelaide, tha Port,
Lefevre'a Peninsula, and the Bes, the Port River winding like a Bilver ribbon in the distance. There are rainy lovely views from the hilltops around A ie laide, but this surpasses them all. Having now mounted the range let us take in the view from ita highest point — Mount Lofty itself. From this elevation the panorama ia wonderful in its diversity. Away to the left i3 fcheEagle on-the-Hill, a atopping-plaoe for travellers who have come so far up the steep road winding through the charming town ship of Glen Osmond, past almost per pendicular hill apurs and well- worked quarries, and round 'The Devil's Elbow.' Along a deep valley, beyond but o£ courae out of sight from the Mount, is carried the railway line which runs to Melbourne. More directly westward, extending to the south-west and north- west as far as the spectator can see, are the blue waters of St. Vincent's Gulf, to reach which the eye has to travel over a scene of surpass ing beauty, the broad plains —upon which are clusters of houses, plan tations, gardens, roads, railways, and parklike recreation grounds — all clearly defined in our pure atmosphere. More to the right there ia a variation in the view. In the near distance ia Norton's Summit, a charming little township perched high above Magill, and set in a framework of hilltops. A little further away are Morialta, where there ia a pretty little waterfall, and Marble Hill, whereon is built one of tha viceregal residences. From these points the spurs of the hills come down and merge in the Dlains, the range curves to the north-west, and the River Torrens winds ita way from the great Gorge till— the eye following its course, by the verdure upon its banks and the bridges spanning it— the narrow stream broadens into the artificial Lake . of which mention has already been made. The view to the south and south-east take3 in a sue cession of hills and valleys, stretching away to Lake Alexandrina. The Blopea are covered with tree3 from foot to summit, some of them young, vigorous, green, and flourishing, othera seared or burnt to the core by bush fires that have suddenly swept through the ranges in the summer, season. Eastward there is tier upon tier of thickly wooded hills, among which, though not in sight, are picturesque village?, brought into being by the spread of agriculture and horticulture in the early days, and kept in being in later times partly by theae pursuita and partly by gold-mining, which is being prose cuted with aome. vigour, and which offers tempting inducements to en terprise. The Mount Lofty Range is bold and beautiful in it3 outline and its changing huea, eapecially when the golden glow of the setting sun contrasts with the deep purple, of the gloomy gulliea, aome of which are in deep Bhadow owing to the abrupt rise of the hills. The range ia most conspicuous from sea ward, and ia seen to great advantage from the anchorage at Holdfast Bay, whence it appeara aa though the City of Adelaide lay under the - very Bhadow of Mount Lofty. The temperature in the hills baing delightful in summer-time, eligible spots are occupied by the residences of wealthy citizens, who resort there during the hot weather. On the slopea facing the sea are vineyards, which are yearly encroach ing more and more upon the available apace. We . have already spoken of Norton's Summit, but not of the approach to it up the valley from MagilL : In forming it Nature seems to have been in a violent mood. She has shaped the hills with, a rough-and-ready hand, piled up black rocks, and cut the hillsides almost per pendicularly. Man has boldly carried a winding road'through this fantastic scane, and the spot ia a favourite resort for people in search, of the picturesque. Here is an ex tenEive nursery, known aa the Grove Hill Nursery, a great attraction to visitors. In the gullies, aa elsewhere through the range, industrious market gwdenera turn the soil to the beat po-ssibi-s account, at the same time unwittingly m:king the place prettier by their efforts. Midway between the Gorge and Norton's Summit ioads lies another ravine more ragged and striking than either of the others. Rocky accliritiea overhang the roadway, threaten ing at any moment to overwhelm the hapless passenger. Threading hi3 way eastward the traveller finds the gully — which leads to what is known a3 the Montacute — to be a cul de sac, bat before reaching its extremity he passes the site of one of the firac copper and gold mines in South Australia, and finds that' there are still aome who believe these rough and pre cipitous hillsides to be rich in mineral. Turn we now to the north east, where a Bplendid road, passing through North Adelaide, makes ita way across plain, and hill, paEt quaint townships, almost a3 old as the colony itaelf. Before reaching the range the road divides to aeet again 6 or 7 milea further on. One branch ascends what is known aa Anatey's Hill, fiom which a glorious view is gained of. the plain below, and. after keeping on the summit of the Tange presently drops down into tB© fertile valley in which, ia situated Highercombe, ' the residence of the Speaker of the Assembly, and the modest township of Houghton. The other - branch skirts a spur of the lulls, and - does -not meet the ranges until - it has awepfc past two or three townships, leaving the Dry ?Creek labour' Prison :a mile 1 or two to the left. At last the range has to be scaled, and at its top ia seen the entrance to the romantic gladei of Glen Effio, where 009
of ova principal jam factories is conducted. A mile or two more and the junction with the Anstey's Hill line -is reached closa to Hiahercombe, and thenceforward the traveller passes over alternate hill and dale until he reaches Gumeracha, one of the most English-looking of all the hill townahip3, for here are grown many an English tree and bush, and amongst the gorse the sharp eye of the passenger will hardly fail to discern a braca 0? ts?o of the genuine English pheasant. The country is now more open for a few miles, and by the side of the road runs the little brook which in time becomes the River Torrena. Presently the road again divides, one portion after traversing boulder-strewn ranges making it3 way across mileo of flat country to the Murray at the port of Mannum, the other de bouching to the left and winding off among the choice farm and pasture lands of Mount Pleasant and Mount Torrens. If the tourist desires it he may make Ma way by country road3 through beautiful parklike scenery to the pretty village of Angaaton, the centre of a large winegrowing district and an undeveloped field for minerals of many aorta. Near here are alao Tanunda, with its clean streets, white-walled, brown-thatched houses, and fair fields ; Greenock, more solid German than canny Scotch, despite the name ; and Seppeltafield, the centra of a great wine and spirit industry. Tee Boundless North. The chief means of access to the North ia the railway, which if it has not super seded the roads has robbed them of much of their popularity and traffic as welL If the visitor wishes it he can by stepping into a train at North-terrace commit him self to'travel over nearly 1,000 miles of rails before he starts on his return journey for Adelaide. He cannot do the whole dis tance without changing carriages, for there is a break of gauge to reckon with, but there 13 practically no break in the con tinuity of the lniea. The first 25 miles bisect the Adelaide Plain and the traveller ia made acquainted with two or three townships which the railway has not benefited. Then comes G&wler, locally known as the Modern Athens, a thriviDg town, beautifully situated on the slope3 and at the foot of a con tinuation of the Mount lofty range of hills- A few miles further on the first junction takeB place, one line trending away to the right past Kapunda, where forty years and more ago copper was mined for with highly satisfactory results, and closing its career at Morgan, one of the most popular of the Murray River ports, the other continuing its course almost due North. By-and-by there is another offset, this time a narrow-gauge line, which winds away to the left, touch ing the quiet township of Port Wakefield, at the head of St. Vincent'B Gulf, and having its final ter minus at Kadina, Wallaroo, and Moonta, townships which have gained a world-wide renown by reason of the rich ness of the copper mines from which they draw their prosperity. From this line branches are carried northward, one ending at BIyth, another at Snow town. On through mile after mile of rich ccrn land, now level as a billiard-board, now gracefully undulat ing, the Great Northern Railway runs, leaving to right and left many a township built up by tradesmen who owe their daily bread to the settlera who wrast from the Boil its fatness and too often to their own hurt neglect to do anjthing to restore ita fertility. One of the oldest and largest of these ia Clare, where in forner times Iriah most did congre gate. At a hundred milea from the city ia the Burra, site of one of the most productive copper mine3 ever opened up, but now abandoned. Forty or 50 miles further ia Terowie, where the broad gauge finally changes to the narrow, and near by ia Petersburg, whence branch out railways right and left. The former Btrikes through the heart of the most extensive auriferous district aa yet dlsco veredin South Australia. Near to it is Tee tulpa and the Alma Mine3, and its further extremity on the other side of tha New South Wales Border ia the Broken Hills property, where is baing worked a silver mine which is probably the richest that the world ever saw. The latter line pursues a tortuous course through culti vated fields and magnificent meadow land, past township's which sprang up like magic from fifteen to eighteen yeara ago, until it ends at Port Pirie, the principal shipping place of tha district, upon the improvement of which many scores of thousands of pounds have been spent. We are now in the region of foresta, where energetic steps are being taken by the Government to repair by wholesale planting the destruc tion caused by bush fires and woodmen. But we must hasten -on, for the way is long. Still the train carries us through almost limitless expanses of wheatfield. The prospect i3 bounded on ths left by a high range of mountains. This ia the Flinders Range, which begins nsar where the Mount Lofty Range and its continuations die out in solitary and picturesque Mount Remarkable, and then runsfor hundreds of milea northwards. Pre sently the large and bustling township of Orooroo, ia reached, then tha almo3t equally large and bustling township of Quorn, where the line once more divides. One spur a few miles in length goes to Port Augusta — a town situated at the head of Spencer'a Gulf, which already ha3 acquired great importance, and which ia destined to attain far greater, seeing that it ia the natural entrepot of the trade of tens of thousands of square mile3 of Northern country. The other division of the rail way already stretches some 300 milea northward, andisevennowbeing extended Indeed, this ia no other than the Trana Australian line, which ia in process of time to bridge the continent from south to north. The traveller, until he haa gone many milea beyond Quornj doea not lose sight of cultivation, but Nature is not on the side of the farmer. In truth, this I3 the region over which the pastoral tenant holds away. It has few charms even for the. squatter, except in very favour able Beasona, but for the sightseer there are wildly rugged hill scenery and romantic spots, which render it strangely interesting. There is, for instance, near Ediowie the famous Wllpana Pound, a sort of Australian imitation of the Happy Valley of Rasselas. It consists of a park like e a cent of well- watered ground, so nearly surrounded by immense rocky pre cipitons MII3 that the gap can ba cloeed by a few panels of fencing. In this ' Pound' gras3 grows freely, the rainfall, which ia all too scanty throughout the North, being more copioua on the slopea of the Flinders RaDge. There ia a melancholy lack of perennial rivera in this country, but the periodical floods which viait it have washed out enormous vater courEes down which at times the water rushes in huge volumes, carrying with it trees, stones, and every thing else that would impede its course. In no place in the world will grass grow more luxuri antly than in these Northern plain3, but it' will 'not grow without rain, and bo during many seasons the stock has to Eubaist upon saltbusb. and blue bnsh and other scrubby vegetation which is not pleasant to the eye, however good it may bs for food. The country is rich in minerals, and many copper mine3 have been partially opened out, but the prices are now eo low tbat there Is no incentive to enterprise. For ths rest immense dreary stretches of bush-covered plain are only broken by extensive Iake3 and lagoone, containing water aa salt as brine. Happily there are underground supplies of more palatable water, and the work of forming artesian wella is going merrily ar,d prosperously forward. In many places these subterraneous stores hava found a natural outlet, and the upward flow of water, highly charged with mag nesium and other substances, has formed is til© way of deposit curiousmoundjJmany
Feet in ' height adown; which theHroterj trickles. Sor are these the only nataraFf *' cujiijsities, far at one spot near the River ' FiDk8 rises ' Chamber3*s Pillar,' a i curious monolith -of smcLstona 150 feefc ' high, standing in the midst of an almost '. level plain, and looking like a portion of ; Eome ruined edifice. In most nnespected '. places, too. the traveller cornea upon toweriDg heaps of loose stones, some- ! times in a region where no other : Btones are found for miles. Ttieaa have been called the bones of defunct hi!'.'. Far away in the more remote interior there is a Land of Goahen, to which settlement has already penetrated, and which the railway will do much to open up. South asd South-east. In the South and South-Eaat there are scenes full cf attractiveness. The southern suburbs have grown up like mushrooms, but unlike mushroom3 they give promise of perpetuity. Parkside, Unley, Goodwood, and half a dozen other townships cluster togethor, and are crowded with workmen's cottages, inter sperEed with more pretentious villas. A broad road, runcit-g dua south from Adelaide, goes through Unley and passea Mitchani, a quaint, irregularly laid out village, at the fout of the hUl3, whers the sometimes unruly Brownhili Creek wind3 its way amidst grass lands and gardens. Here also Nature ha3 been javish in diversifying the scene, for Mitcham is hardly its equal amongst the suburbs for rural beauty. Many a pretty pretentious cottage and comfortable 'cm-of-town' house may be. found in this healthy locality, which also is pro vided with its reservoir. There is here a fine estate — Torrena Park — in the laying out of which the best skill of the landscape gardener ha3 been employed. From Mitcham there are two roads wind ing up in eccentric fashion the steep hilJa' tides to townahip3 and small settlements in the southern hilla. A splendid road on the west side takes the traveller up over the spura of the range, whence is a magnificent view or the Gulf, to Belair and Blackwood, IcciJities noted for the purity of the atmosphere. Another road on the east side runs past a popular place of public resort known as Government Farm, and on among steep hills and deep ravines, where market gardeners cultivate their tiny plots and gain a good living there from. The western branch of the road also goes on through hill and vala and forest land to Clarendon, Dashwood's Gully, the Meadows, and many other old-fashioned but picturesque townships of the same character, where vines and fruit-trees abound, the roadsides bordered with the sweetbrier, and the banks of the 'creekB with blackberry-bushes and wild flowera. There i3 another South-road — the Great South-road, which traverses the remains of the Blapk Forest to the south-west of Adelaide — a locality once the hiding-place of cattle-stealera and other desperate characters. Paat tho vine and fruit-tree clad township of HdwardBtown, up O'Halloran Hill, through Morphett Vale and the heart of a hilly district on to Noarlunga, a curious old-fashioned place with a winding river running through it in horseahoe form, it pursues ita way. Further on is Aldinga, with the ancient town ship of Willunga to the right, and the sea within a mile to the left ; then Myponga, Yankalilla, and on the coast Normanville, and the final stopping place is Cape Jervia, which is only divided from Kangaroo Islaad by a narrow strait known au Backstairs Passage. This is a delightful drive through ever changing scenery, the watera of the Gulf within easy reach all the way, and the laBfc part of the journey rendered singu larly interesting by wooded mountains and romantic valleys. There is a grand road running away towards the South-Ea3t, but much ot ita glory has departed since the construction of the Intercolonial Bailway, which mounts the hills to the south of Adelaide, runs along the crown of a range for 2 or 3 miles, then dashes away through valley and glen until it reaches the summit station some 2&miles from Adelaide, where the heights about 1,700 feet above sea level. Thence it pursues its pictureequs course amongfore3t iand and gentle cultivated elopes, through tunnels and over ravines until it ap proaches the large English-looking town ship of Mount Barker, when a division takes place. One line bears away south ward, and leaving a line of townships, and the first goldfield of the colony, Echunga, to the right, proceeds to Strathalbyn, a large and Bingularly pretty town ship. From this point its coarse carries it through stretches of uninviting mallee scrub until it reaches the southern Eeaboard. Here are Goolwa, near the mouth of the Murray, where the river steamers take in and disembark cargo ; and Port Elliot, en a rockbound coast, which serves as a special attraction to Bummer visitors. Victor Harbour is some 4 or 5 miles beyond, with its grim island of granite, bold head land, and splendid breakwater. Hear Port Victor is the Bluff, the site of what wa3 formerly a whaling ataticn in the great curve In the coast which wa3 named Encounter Bay by Captain Flinders in commemoration of his meeting there in 1803 with the ship of. Admiral Baudin, the French navigator. A railway branching off near Strathalbyn from the line just described carries pas sengers to Milaug on the lakes. If there ehouid be among visitors to Adelaide men who delight in sport they must not fail to vitit this part of South Australia, for on the lakea there is game without num ber, and in a long narrow sheet of salt water connected with them, and known as the Coorong, there are swarms of fi3h. BeBides the sport the scenery ia beautiful, and on one of the points is an aboriginal mission station, which is well worth in Bpecting, where the traveller may depend upon a cordial welcome. The Tnteecolon-ial Bailway. Returning to the Intercolonial Railway, which broke off at Mount Barker Junc tion, we are not long in finding our way to the Murray Bridge, where a township is rapidly springing up, and where the sportsman can find pleasant employment for a few of his leisure hours. If it pleases him he can take steamer here and go down the river to Goolwa or up the river past Milang and Blanchetown and Morgan and the site or the pro posed irrigation colony of Chaffay Brothers to Wentworth, finding on hia way much to beguile him of hia cares and to familiarize him with the true meaning of dche far niente. If he is not tired of the railway he can be carriad at the rate of 40 or 50 milea an hoar over one of the be3t-l*id and easiest-running lines in the world across the Ninety-mile Desert to Border Towd, whence again changing into a narrow-gauge carriage he will be speedly transported to Narracoorte. Once in this thriving township he must not leave it without inspecting the marvellous cave3 cloEe by. These are immense excavations formed by the hand of Nature, and deco rated like a fairy palace with the beautiful
stalactites and stalagmites, which assume all sorts of fantastic forms. These caves are famed fax and wide, and visitors coine from great distances to see their wonders. They are storehouses of enor mous deposits of guano, and in one of them the petrified body of a native was found Borne years ago. When lighted up the Interior presents a spectacle of wondrous beauty, the stalactites reflecting tie light in a thousand different hues. , Caves asi- Extinct Volcanoes. Tb.3 visitor's curiosity having been satis fied, it is open to him to take the railway to Lacepede Bay, one of the moat exten sive and tranquil harbuurs on the coast, or to journey by a railway which has juat been finished to-Mount Gambler. In the latter; caB8^lii»'Coai8e} Bill -be thxoagh
magnificent estates purchased in the -early aayeTaria' stiH dedicated to aheap, past the township '. of Penola, and over the Dismal Swamp, which extends far to the south westward, and joins other tracts of swamp Unds which have been partially drained, and are now under successful cultivation. Mount Gambier itself i3 the centre of one of the most fertile regions appertaining to South Australia. Here too the country ha3 singular characteristics. Iadoed there i-= ample evidence that at some remote parijd it wa& subject to volcanic disturbances, for much of the ground is undermined, aad there are to bs plainly seen the craters of extinct volcanoes. The most strik ing feature in the scenery is the Blue Lake, celebrated in soug aud story, and depicted on canvas and in sketchbook by artists innumerable. Thelakeliesdc-ep down in what ia evidently thecraterofaouceactiveburiiiKg mountain, and it3 waters are ''' deeply, darkly, beautifully blue.' The depth is, in faot, profound, and as tho rocky side3 of the lake are very precipitous, a descent to the margin cf the water is not without the agreeable excitement of dmger. The waters of the lale are supposed to have an underground communication with others iu the neighbourhood, and altogether the Blue Lake is one of the most noteworthy sights that the colony can offer to the tourist. The climate of the Mount is delightful, and in every sense that part of the South-East deserves ita appellation of the Garden of South Australia Baving now completed our hasty tour through the Bettled districts of South Australia, we Bhail take it for granted that those who have accompanied us have bad their curiosity sufficiently aroused to want to know something more of this huge province. We EhaU, therefore, pro ceed first to explain, HOW THE PROVINCE WAS DIS COVERED aKD EXPLORED. Eakly Navigators In the records of the discovery of Aus tralia authentic histoiy is b-j copiously diluted with fable that it is impossible to separate the one from the other. Happily it matters little whether the shores 'or thus great continent wero visited first by Chinese and Malays on their expeditious in search of beche-de-mer, or whether the honour of first assigumg it a lecil habitation must hi awarded to tho Dutch, the Spanish, or the Portuguese. Certain it ia that each of these several nations had given it a name and had made considerable advances in their knowledge of ita coast3 before Great Britain, represented by Dampier, had gained a single laurel for adventure in its waters. It was not long, however, ere the tracks of thi3 enterprising buccaneer were followed by other Englishmen, the line of early Australian navi gators closing with Captain Cook, who gained imperishable fame by his maritime explorations in many seas. The surveys that have been made since hia time belong essentially to the chronicle of modern undertakings, and we are not now con cerned with any of them, except such as bear upon this province. It ia on record that lieutenant Grant, in charge of Her Majesty's ship the Lady Nelson, was the firet white man to cast eyea upon this south land, and he has given proof of the tiuth of the record by including in his map Cape Northumberland, Mount Sch&nk, and Mount Gambier. Pre-eminent upon the muster-roll of South Australia's naval worthies, however, stands the honoured name of Captain Minders. Leav ing Spithead in the Investigator on July 18, 1801, he sighted Cape Leuwin on December 6. Reaching King George's Sound a few days later he found a sheet of copper inscribed 'August 27, 1800. Charles Dixon, ship Elligood,' as an indisputable token of the earlier visit of a European, and probably an Englishman. Coasting eastward Flinders in due course passed hthe2 Great Austra lian Bight, and discovered successively Fowler's, Smoky5 Streaky, Anxiou3, and Coffin's Bays, Thistle Island, Memory Cove^ — eo called after the loss of a cutter and crew, an event which might rather have suggested Sad Memory Cove a3 an appropriate title — Port Lincoln — the beauties of which he describes in raptnroua terms— the Sir Joseph Banks Group, Spencer's Gulf, Kangaroo Island, St. Vincent's Gulf, whence was descried the Mount Lofty Bange. While Flinders was thus making his way to the eastward Admiral Baudin in the French ship Le Geographe was voyaging westward. His first taak was the examination of the southern shores of Van Diemen's Land, and here he lost a boat with its crew, and became separated from his consort — Le Naturaliste — in a storm. The account of the Admiral's visits to our Beas show3 how narrowly South Australia has escaped a deluge of Gallic names. In the maps of ,this voyager the colony is termed 'Terre Hapoleon.' Kangaroo Island is christened ' L'Isle Decie's,' St. Vincent's Gulf 'Le Golfe Josephine,' and Spencer's Gulf 'Ls Golfe Buonaparte.' It is noteworthy that hi all the discussions about the neces sity for changing the name of South Aus tralia no one seems to have thought of reviving the title of ' Terre Napoleon !' Bandin's discoveries have not been unac knowledged. As he wag the first navi gator to explore that part of the conti nent lying between Cape Northumberland and Encounter Bay, Flinders, with that spirit of chivalry which ever characterized bis conduct, retained Baudin's designa tions of the various capea and bays, and hence appear on our charts to this day the names of Lacepede Bay, Cape Jaffa, Cape Lannee, Cape Buffon, Guichen
iby, Kivoli Bay, and a few other places; whilst Flinders, out of com pliment to his French rival, styled some rocks near Cape Jaffa Baudin's Bocks. It was on April 8. 1802, that the two explorers met in the bight which Flinders afterwards named Encounter Bay in memory of the event, and solemnly greeted each other before pursuing their several ways. In 1815 the coast was visited by Captain Dillon, who touched at Port Lincoln. In 1819 Captain Suther land arrived on a sealing voyage. He landed near Corney Point, Ybrke's Penin sula, and afterwards stayed seven months on Kangaroo Ialand. Captain Goold, who had been connected with H.M.S. Dryad, came here twice on seal ing expeditions from Sydney^ his first visit being in 1827 and his Becond in the following year. He ran into Boston Bay, and spent the Christmas of 1827 there. Kangaroo Island seema to have been thought more of than the mainland, as it was frequently visited, and Sutherland was sent there expreaaly to get salt and sealskin?. To one Captain John Jones has been assigned the credit of first enter ic g the Port Creek in the course of a coasting voyage. Colonel Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, coming some time after Jones was lad to try and find the stream of which that navigator Epoke, and the result was the identification of the Port Creek with the one Jones hsd seen, and its final selection for the premier hMVour of South Australia. The Histoey or Exfioeahon. Although the visit of Flinders to St. Vincent's Gulf took place early in the present century, nearly a generation was allowed to pass before any definite step waa taken to bring to light the character of d-e country now known as South Aus tralia. The first to embark upon the work of exploration waa the adventurous Captain Start, who, after discovering in 1828 the Bivex Darling, was driven back by drought. He returned to Sydney, and shortly afterwards w&a commissioned by the New South Wales Government to trace the MurnxmMdgee to its ontlefc. The navigation of this river- waa very difficult. Ia some cases faflgn trees sketched acioas feoaa either, bask, -ari b
the Stream -waa -bestn^dad with - snagv -| On 'orie'occasion~thetlr~difficnltie3 appear i to have 'culminated j: and- itheip -progress -i was apparently stopped by ; the channel ' being blocked by fallen timber. By a 1 vigorous effort, however, they surmounted i all obstacles, and immediately afterwards . the boats were swept by the curren.6 into - a magnificent river 300 feet broad. 1 Thia stream Sturt named the Murray. - In ?'. due time he traversed- Like Alexan- '. drina, and made an unsuccessful at- - tempt to get through the aand-birred mouth of the river. The voyage thus accomplished was in those primitive times not free from peril, but the record of it had the good effect of removing some eiroiieous notions as to the character of the. territory passed through. 'Hurried as my view of it was,' says the ex plorer, 'my eye never fell on a country of rr.ore_ promising aspect or of more favourable position than that which occu pies the space between the lake (Alexan dria) and the ranges of St. Vincent's Gulf, and continuing northerly stretches away without any visible boundary.' This trip down the Murray was the first service which Sturt did for South Aus tralia, but it was not the last. In August, 1844, nearly eight years after the procla mation of the colony, the gallant captain was placed in command of an exploring party to endeavour to penetrate into the then unknown interior. Afteic a struggle lasting for twenty months he came - back vanquished by the difficulties of the ta3k, and the name of ' Sturt'a Stony Desert' is an eloquent testimony to the nature of the obstacles encountered. Had he pursued a course a little mora to the east ward or westward he would probably have won those laurels which his drafts man (J. M. Stuart) eventually achieved. Sturt finished his active career aa an explorer in 1846, and retired upon a well-earned pension from the Soath Aus tralian Government. He refused the honour of knighthood proffered by Her Most Gracious Majesty, and died on Jute 16, 1868, plaiu Charles Sturt, leaving behind him tha memory of a noble, brave, and manly life. The favourable description of the country givtn by Captain JSturt induced Governor Darling, of New South Wales, to dispatch another expedition to explore the country from Gulf St. Vincent. The schooner Isabella was selected for the purpose, and the a nmiaiid of the expedition entrusted to Captain Barker, who waa accompanied by two friends, Mr. Kent and Dr. Davis. The Isabella arrived off Cape Jervis on April 13, 183L Two days later Captaia Barker, accompanied by Mr. Kent, three marines, and a boat's crew, landed with the intention of ascending Mount Lofty. The boat struck the mouth of the Onkaparinga, and having pulled up as far aa the water would allo ff, Captain Barker and Mr. Kent proceeded towards Mount Lofty, and ascended it the next day. They were thus the first white men from that elevation to cast eyes upon the wild and beautiful' scene below. It requires no great stretch of imagina tion to believe that Barker's thoughts when on that mountain-top carried him forward to the time when upon the fertile plains beneath him would rise a populous city, the metropolis of a great and prosperous State. Be that as it may, hia description of what he saw, doubtless, in a great measure led to the founding of the colony. On the 21st the travellers rejoined the boat, and the party proceeded south to the neighbourhood of the Murray-mouth. A email hill was observed on the other side, and Captain Barker, against the wishes of his party, Bet out to swim across the river to take bearings and ascertain the nature of the country beyond'. After some difficulty he reached the other tide, ascended the hill, and wa3 never seen afterwards. After a time it waa decided to seek assistance from the sealers on Kangaroo Island. One of those early settlers agreed to go to the mainland with a native woman to com municate with the blacks. She faithfully executed her mission, returning with the sad intelligence that he had been taken for a stracge animal, and having been speared in the shoulder, breast, and hip, had been thrown into the breakers, whence the body had been carried out to sea. Having thus loBt their leader, the expedition returned to Sydney. It is around the name of E. J. Eyre that some of the most romantic incidents connected with the early attempts to explore the colony cluster. It was in 1841 that this dauntless traveller set out on his perilous journey along the inhospitable ssacoast of the Great Australian Bight from Spencer's Gulf, to King George's Sound. His journals of this and other expeditions form a deeply interesting volume. He was sent out by the colonLstB of South Australia with the sanction and support of the Government, and the accounta published by him not only record his impressions of the character of the country, but contribute invaluable in formation aa to the manners and customs of the aborigines, of whom comparatively little waa up to that time known. Previous to this, hia -most remarkable trip, he had won his spurs as an explorer, ha\ing conducted parties, across the Liverpool Plains, in New South Wales, towards the Murray; from Sydney to Port Phillip i from Port Phillip to Ade laide ; and from King George's Sound to Swan River, besides msking several jour neyB from Adelaide towards the Far North. On his most memorable expedition his party consisted of five Europeans and three blackboys, together with - nine horses, a pony, six sheep, and provisions for nine weeks. He had to travel 140
mues witnout water, the tune occupied in covering that distance being five days, and no sufferings of castaways at sea could have surpassed the privations of that brave and enduring little bind. In arid country even such a small party of men and animals had a struggle for existence, and their leader, who was continually venturing forward by himself, was alone for a week with only 3 quarts of water, part of which precious supply got spUt When 600 milea from their goal, with a desert to face and with horses worn out with thirBt and hard, work, the men were reduced to brushing the dew off the Bhrubs with a sponge and squeezing the moisture into a quart pot, a . chance supply, found by digging, in some sand, enabled them to quench their raging thirst and rest foe a week, while one of the white men and a black went back nearly 50 miles for some provisions— cast aaide because they could not carry them. After this a horse had to be killed. Its flesh waa greedily eaten and its blood greedily drank by the travellers. Dysentery broke out, natives deserted, but— melancholy evidence of the barrenness of the country — we are told that they came back 'starving and penitent.' The faithinl overseer, Baxter, was shot by one of the blackboys. The murderer and his accessory deserted the party, taking with them the stores, guns, and ammunition, and the other blackboy, named Wylie, who proved faithful to the end, became Eyrs's sole companion. These two, carry ing between 20 lb. and 30 1b. weight of baggage each, patiently plodded on, tracked by the murderoua blacks eager to commit another crime, but too cowardly to attack openly the white man and his native boy. Having dragged their weary feet over a fearful journey of 150 miles, for the moat part without- water, they at last saw a French whaler near the coast commanded by ? Captain Bossiter. After, resting: for., two weeks . on board this hospitable craft the pair resumed their travels, and for twenty-three days pushed on /throogh country fit only for wild animala to- live in. To add to their miseries the cold Becama. intense and tho weather wet, bat in the end, on July 27, after a journey of many months, thej reached AibaDy, -Wgetexa Assfragfe; ^ -
The records oi this- sensational trip are. ir ^s6nae~ Teapect8~iiniqT2ei* ~ but - few- of ihesewho have -aerioualy xindeir taken the - ifork of exploring this country have ' escaped a full measure of the privations md hardships which fell ao heavily on Eyre. Space would fail us to set forth jven in the briefest way the exploits of the noble band of travellers who, since L861, have contributed to perfect our knowledge of the huge country :omprised ; within tho limits of South Australia. In 1858 began the id venturous career of John McDouall Staart, who at the inarance of Messrs. Chambers, and largely at their expense, set about throwing light upon the interior of the colony. In Iii3 lirst trip in 1858 Stuart confined his travels to the vicinity of Lakes Eyre, Torrena, and Gairdner, which at one time were believed to form portions of a great inland sea — an idea fostered by the speculations of Eyre, who had formed erroneous conclusions from the view northward gained from the summit of Mount Deception. It wa3 in 1860, however, that Stuart's name first became renowned in the annals of exploration. Incited by the desire for fame, and by the wish to earn the bonus of £10,000 offered by the South Australian Government 10 the first explorer who succeeded in crossing from the south to the north coa3t, he, in that year, offered to head an expedition, and in March left with a well-selected and well-equipped party. On April 23 he reached the centre of the continent, and named 4 hill there Central Mount Stuart, but waa prevented from going further by illness and difficulties deemed insur mountable. In 1861 he renewed the attempt, and got a little further north ward, but once more he was foiled, and had to retreat. In 1862 he set forth again, and this time achieved a triumphant bucccbs. He reached the north coast by a route which ha3 been since followed almost exactly by the telegraph line which now puts Australasia in electric communication with the whole civilized world and is being pretty closely followed by the railway fine also. Stuart's dis coveries were of immense importance. He not only cleared up mistakes respecting the character of the interior, but was able to repcrt the existence of splendid streams in the North, some of them running north-east and others north-west. Well worthy to be ranked with Stuart in the muster-roll of the explorers of whom Australia has reason to be proud is the heroic John McKinlay, who, by reason of the experience he had gained in travelling over the country between the Darling and Lake Torrena, was selected to Jake charge of the expedition Bent out in 1861 in search of the ill-starred Burke and Wills, leaders of a party sent out from Victoria to cross the continent. Having found the remains of Gray, one of the members of the expedition, and ascer tained, as he thought, the fate of the leaders as well, he pushed out for the Gulf of Carpentaria, and in May, 1862, actually reached that destination. Finding no vessel there to succour him he deter mined to make hh way to. the Bettled parts of Queensland, and finally, after almost euperhuman exertioh3, accom plished his purpose. It was left to Howitt to complete the sad work which McKinlay had undertaken. By him, King, the survivor of the Burke and Wilia expedition, was rescued, and the re mains of the dead heroes themselves were conveyed to Melbourne by way of Adelaide, and buried with the pomp and circumstance befitting their gallant labours in the field of exploration and their distressing fate. Aa for McKinlay, he again distinguished himself in 1865 as the leader of an expedition which under went terrible Bufferings in the Northern Territory. It is related of it and him that they were driven to the desperate expedient of making a voyage down the Alligator Eiver to the open Bea on a raft made from the hidea of horsea which had been, previously killed for. food. After thia adventure McKinlay retired into private 'life. . He died in 1872, and the people of Gawler, hia place of resi dence, have raised a fitting monument to his memory. It would be a grateful task to lengthen out the story of how the knowledge now possessed of all the principal parts of the extensive province of South Australia has been acquired. From the earliest day3 of settlement, when such journeys as those undertaken by Messrs. Hutchinson and StraDgways in a bullock-dray to Encounter Ba^ and Messrs. Robert Cock and W. Finlayson on foot to Lake Alex andrina, ascending Mount Barker en route, were thought to be, and really were, ex ploits involving no little risk/ down to the pre?ent time, when a journey across the continent ia thought lightly of, each year something ha3 been added to the general stock of information concerning the land we live in. Among those who have pro moted exploration in a practical way must ever be held in high respect the names of Messrs. Chambers, Sir Thomas Elder, Sir W. W. Hughes, and others asso ciated with pastoral pursuits, while in the long, catalogue of names of men who have themselves bome the burden and heat of exploration in South Australia must be mentioned Menge and Darke, Horrocka and Hamilton, Babbage and Goyder, Warburton and Go3se, Ernest Giles and Ball, Hack and Stuckey^ Forrest and E03S, Gregory, Kekwick and Mills, Tietkins and Favenc, Winnecke and Lindsay. Most of these have indeed taken their Iive3 in their hands and gone out into the pathless wilds of the far interior,, undergoing constant peril from 'the natives, frnm t.tiA infprminaWfl Fitrfif.nTiPR ! nf
gloomy scrub, 'bat, worst 6f\ all, from lack of water. . Some have died in harness, falling victims to the treachery of. the blacks, or succumbing, to the ter rible suffer ings , which they have had to endure. Over the fate, of a few, an impenetrable cloud still hangs. Such is the case with Leichhardt— -one of the boldest and most unfortunate ot the heroes of the bush. It ia nearly forty years since he started onjthe expedition from which he he has never returned, and although traces of him have been found, no one knows when, where, or how he met the death which has : too surely overtaken him and his brave com panions. As a result of all this expendi ture of money and enterprise and personal courage and endurance we can boast that South Australia is ; known from end to end, and th3t every part of it that has ; not already been occupied may be said to be readily available for occupation.