EABLY SETTLEMENT IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA.— No. 2.
EXPERIENCES OF A PIONEER.
[BY J. B. HACK.]
First Impressions. — Profitable Bullock-teams.— Settling Down.— Buildings.— Waiting for Land— Transgressing.— Tbe Governor and Mr. S. Stephens. — Sir John Hindmarsh.— An Impeachment before
the Council The previous article left off at our arrival at Glenelg with pleasant prospects. On February 1', 1S37, I wrote—' The sheep are landed. Two lots of 400 were put on board, of which 600 were landed, worth here about £3 a head. Stephen has seen Mr. Morphett, who will show us to-morrow a place on which we can locate. The country is very beautiful ; a plain of great extent, bounded on the east by wooded hills, which put us very much in mind of our our home in Sussex, near the South Downs. It is very hot to-day. 13th — We have our nine bullocks safely ashore. The sheep were tethered the night they landed; but we fear there will be many missing. As no freight would be paid on any not landed, the captain, in conse quence of the weak state of the sheep, landed them where he first cast anchor, which was two or three miles from water. A strong north wind on the morning follow ing our arrival prevented the vessel being moved up to the proper anchorage. The sheep were nearly mad from thirst, so that it was impossible to keep them together after the moon went down. A parcel of sheep netting, which I had put on board for a yard, was not landed, though promised to be so. Thermometer 104 in the shade. Stephen re mained on shore to see after the stock. We think of arranging for more to be sent, as the colony must be supplied. Called on Mr. Morphett at his hut. who was very kind and obliging. 14th— The bull and heifer were placed on shore to-day, and removed to the lagoon near our camp. I am very busy receiving goods from the boats. 17th— I have put up a tar paulin tent on the beach, and have been stow ing provisions and goods as landed into it. J. Hill is in charge. I go on board to sleep. We have our team at work, and are removing our goods to our Lagoon Camp. We can have 60s. per diem for hire of team as soon as we can spare it from our own work. Our bul locks, &.c, are much admired by the settlers, who have not seen a colonial team before. We are new taking loads from the beach, a mile inwards, at 10s. each. Ten of the crew of the Coromandel have bolted and formed a village in the hills several miles to the south ward. Our stray sheep will, I fear, be too convenient for them unless something is done
t0 bring the men back. We hear the Governor-is determined to do so. - 18th — Our team is invaluable in landing goods, but to receive them on an open beach is very annoying. Much is thrown into the water, and has to be rescued as we best can. I can see no prospect of getting land for a con siderable time, and feel much inclined to begin to do something in the storekeeping or mercantile line. There are many articles which are much wanted, and Captain Hart seems willing to bring in on return trips such things as are needed. Some income to carry us along until we can get land and begin farming is of great consequence to us. Came on board early. My feet and ancles much blistered by working in the water in the sun. 26th— On the 21st I had the package which contained the cottages hauled up early, and by the evening the family were housed. I had a bullock-cart on the beach to convey them and the bedding to the camp, -which really looked very comfortable, the cottage being complete except the roof, on which I threw a tarpaulin. The day had been very hot. I had the misfortune to crack the end of a finger with the poll of the axe in driving in the joists, and was obliged to seek out Dr. Cotter, who came out surgeon in the Coromandel He is to be our medical man. The rest of the week we were getting the goods in order and finishing the cottage. A heifer has calved, and her calf being dead we shall find her milk an acquisition. The goats also have been a great advantage to us. The Surveyor-General (Colonel Light), who is considered thoroughly competent, has fixed the site of Adelaide five or six miles from the Bay and the same also from the Port, which, although acquiesced in as inevitable by the colonists, has disarranged their plans, as every one hoped the city itself would be a port. Goods have been very much injured for want of protection. Our team of oxen is the first attempt to receive goods from the ships and convey them to their destination. We have very high offers from the Company and others to carry goods for them. March 2 — All day at Adelaide putting up the second Manning's cottage with two men. I have, with the permission of Mr. Fisher,. Resident Commissioner, placed this cottage in a clump of wattles on the public road just outside the town acres (afterwards North terrace). It will be in a great state of for wardness to-morrow. We note the autumn is stealing on us ; the day is very cool. We find Dr. Cotter a very pleasant man. He has been attending Stephen, who is far from well. 5th — I have to come to Adelaide and return to Glenelg every day, as I am head carpenter. Last night I had to walk home, as my man had hurt his foot and rode my mare. I hope shortly to be able to buy some town acres, as many months must elapse before sufficient country sections can be sur veyed to meet requirements. This is very hard on the settlers, as their means are growing less while waiting for land. We brought up a load to Adelaide from Glenelg yesterday for £3, after, having taken one for ourselves in the morning. I have been able to sell a quantity of posts bought from Captain Hart. We have to give stock keepers £50 per annum, and other hands £40, with board, notwithstanding original agree ment. The Scotch washerwoman — Bella Hill — is now working well, and has plenty to do with washing-up our sea stock of linen. We find the work of pioneer settling is very hard, and should be sorry to recom mend any of our friends at home to undergo the ordeal. When we can manage a kitchen it will be much easier.' 8th — At work build ing at Adelaide. No timber is allowed to be cut except from the bed of the river, which very much increases the trouble. I sent our sawyer— J. Hill— and another hand, with a crosscut - saw, up the bed of the river, but they could find nothing to answer the purpose ; so we must trangress, and we have a tree at Glenelg in view, which we purpose to convert into quartering, as we cannot afford to stand still. The lagoons at Glenelg begin to be stagnant and to dry up. Sutor and his wife seem very handy and will ing ; they have agreed for £55 per annum and board. 9th— Digging a sawpit to-day. The tree we have felled will turn out sufficient posts and rafters for our new kitchen. We have broad palings we brought from Laun ceston for the roof and sides. We wish we had another Manning's house to give us more room for our party. We have great trouble in finding the catt!e in the mornings ; we should be helpless without the horses. The bull and heifers are missing to-day. I am paying a man 18s. per week and board to look after them at night and bring them in to be jyoked and milked. If he always brought them in we should be gainers by the expense. The children are very wild, but we hope to mend matters when at Adelaide. 13th— Three bullocks missing for some days, but hearing of them Stephen rode over and found them about eight miles off. One of them, Sharper, a very fine beast, dropped down about a mile from our camp at Glenelg, being overdriven, so we had to butcher and flay it. We sent a quarter to the Buffalo and sold great part at 1s. per lb., so we shall any way realize its cost, but the loss to our team is very serious. One that had been lame haa to take Sharper's place. On Sunday we had Mr. Samuel Stephens, the S.A. Com-, pany's Manager, and Mr. John Morphett to dine with us. We we able to produce some fine fish, preserved meatpie, and a rice pudding, which was good fare for so early an entertainment. The milk and daily- rice puddings keep the children nobly. We are looking forward to a_ dairy when we get to Adelaide and the heifers calve. 16th— Put- ting up a kitchen at Adelaide and two men's rooms. A meeting to-day of the holders of preliminary sections to determine the mode of selection, which- was agreed to be by. lot. I had to be represented by Morphett, as I could not leave my work. 1 was glad I was' not there afterwards, aa the Governor and Mr. Stephen^ came to high words, and the former very unwisely threatened to take Mr. Stephens into custody. It is a misfortune that Sir John Hindmarsh is not a different character. He' seems well intentioned, and may have been an efficient naval captain, but he is firm and determined to an excess. The possibility of his doing harm is fortunately very limited, bo much power being vested' in the Resident Commissioner, Mr. J. H. Fisher, while as to the site of the city Colonel Light, Surveyor General, has full power to act. The Governor seems quite led by his Private Secretary, Mr. George Stevenson, who has taken on himself, I hope temporarily, several important offices, and seems to think himself the only responsible nian, and is becoming very unpopular. The Governor , declares Encounter Bay to be in his opinion the proper site for the city. '21st— Hard at work as : usual,- enjoying very much a dip. in the Torrens after work is over. There are large pools near, with perfectly clear water, and ? very, deep. Our numbers are drawn to-day for our three preliminary town acres, being 72, 92, and 341— one very -near, to our present location in the nearest street. Bul
lccks in better order and working regularly. 24th — I have been laid up for three days; it is very hard for the building to be delayed. Stephen brought in a kangaroo to-day and killed a native dog. They are very numerous and bold. We approve very much of the kangaroo, and thought it the best diah at table we have had here. A party of natives about to-day ; set them to work cutting wood. 25th— Quite cold, morning and 'evening. I am much better in health, and hope to have the family up from Glenelg very soon. . The Isabella ought to be in if she is coming as the captain intended, but the westerly winds are against her. Our team earned us £15 last week besides some home work. We hope to Enrchase at the sale of thetowna^restobe eld on the 27th, as we want some land of oiir own, and may be able to grow something. A3 they are-jBipected to realize about £5 each they must be a profitable investment. Miss Carter is everything to ? my wife ; she' seems to think she cannot do too much for her. If it were not for her good offices we should fare much worse than we do. We cannot see how we could have done without her. Stepnea brought in an emu, having been out with C. J. Stuart,- the Com pany's stock overseer. The leg was as large as an average leg of lamb. 2Sth— Fine weather, with an easterly wind. Had hot woik on the kitchen roof to-day ; hops to move up on Friday. The sale of the town acres went off with much spirit, and has realized, besides the 427 preliminary acres, £4,CC0. We have bought sixty. All the sites of the town are now sold. People are no\v besinniDg to erect temporary abodes on their acres. There is quite a township on the fiat between ours and the river* We shall build on our acre in Hindley-Btreet. The. Rtv. Charles Howard is putting -up a Manning's cottage about 100 or 200 yards from my place. They are very nice people. He « ill make a very pretty place of it. The church is to be adjoicine. He adopted my vlan of using short piles for a foundation. BatLed affer work, though __ the . water was very cold, but refreshing. 31st — Corr.ileted tbe roof cf the kitchen to-day. Stephen and Tom Davis, one. of our hands, went on an excursion through the hills, to tiy and find tracks of our missingsheep. Called on Mr. R. Gonger, the Colonial Secretary, this morning, andfeundthe Gorer
lor and Mr. Stevenson with him. Had a long conversation on various matters. Wella are being commenced in Adelaide. April 7— A week ha3 elapsed ; too busy to write. Stephen has returned, but found no trace of our sheep. He brought the hind quarters of a huge kangaroo. They had the Timor pony to carry their loads. We all came up from Glenelg on Monday, the 2nd. and areglad of the change. Stephen remained at Glenelg in charge of the other cottage and stores. The William arrived from Launces ton with 700 sheep and 12 bullocksfortheS.A. Co. The Isabella sailed a day before her, so she may be daily looked for. We bespoke 400 sheep, 12 bullocks, and 4 cows at a stated rate when delivered, and expected to take over Captain Hart's invoice of goods at 10 per cent, advance, vhich will keep U3 employed for some time. We continue to earn £15 per week by employment of team. We have put the new bull into the yoke, and he works well. Sutor is preparing a piece of ground for seeds. I was not sorry to hear ;hatMr. Stevenson has been in a manner, broughtjbefore the Council for sundry matters, public and private, and has been obliged to resign all his appointments but Private Secretary to the Governor.