Powers could have urged with, equal force the pretext under shelter of which the American Government escaped from an international duty, though perhaps not one of them would have cared to back their excuse by so selfish a reason. This Government said in so many words that their fleet was comparatively small, and that when the hour of danger and need came privateers would serve their turn. Twenty years may have somewhat modi fied their views on these points, but we hardly t^mk so, inasmuch as though the pretext may be weakened, the feeling in favour of privateering has not disap peared. In one thing certainly the United States have not changed. After the refusal to be bound by the Treaty of Paris to the extent here indicated, they had the effrontery to propose ''stead the assimila tion of the laws of w;-»* at sea and on land, thus prohibiting the capture or wanton destruction of merchant vessels. To this England naturally and strongly objected, seeing that this alteration would take from her the power of disabling on the ocean those with whom she could not hope to contend ashore. It would have been, indeed, the first step to her eflace ment from the supremacy of the sea. But in the treatment of an enemy's ships England has never been 'wantonly' destructive or excessively cruel under the circumstances. War is always cruel ; yet England has shown that on land she is not, and will not be guilty of acts like those that have covered other nations with eternal meanness or infamy. Instances of these are too recent to require citation. Moreover, there is in truth no comparison between the suffering inflicted and the damage done by the capture or destruction of hostile private property at sea and that which happens on land when an enemy's territory is invaded. The advancing army may, even in accordance with the notions and rules of the Brussels humani tarians, be guilty of acts the enormity of which it would be hard to surpass. * ' It may,' as has been pertinently remarked, ' eat the food out of the mouths of the people ; it may deprive them of the means of moving what is left to where it may be wanted; it may take the bread-winners to work, and leave their children to starve.' Of course IOU's of some soi'c are given m return for the supplies, but these are apt to remind one of the Druidical maxim, that what is lent in this world will be repaid in the next. 'Greenbacks' were to these as a Bank of England twenty pound note to a five-franc one. In short, the protiering of these worthless receipts is the grossest of all international false pretences. A writer on International Law in the Contemporary some months ago asserted that ' so soon as England is engaged in hostilities with a European or American State, the question will arise whether enemies' goods are to be free ^rom capture at sea.' This question, so far as European Powers are concerned, was answered by the Treaty of Paris in one way, namely, that immunity from capture may be had by placing the goods under a neutral flag. By this rule England abidt3; bat she doe3 nut, and it is to be hoped she will nor, spare enemies' goods in enemies' vessels. Whether England will lose more herself by adhering to her ancient usage than by giving it up seems to us equally easy to answer. In the past she has been able to take care of herself, and in the present she is providing means to ensure her safety, whereas on the contrary the abandonment of her settled mode of action, in time of naval waifare would take from under her feet the very ground of her maritime preponderance. The wider enquiry as to the blessings of un molested commerce amid the storm and devastating career of war is too hypo thetical to be seriously descanted on. It may, in sooth, be relegated to the limbo of exploded theories regarding the sanctity of pure compacts and the Siamese-twin re lationship of commercial treaties and universal goodwill and amity. This absurd doctrine that nations are to remain at peace while their armies and Heats are fighting, has been well illustrated by Sir Ed. Creasy. In 1806 Talleyrand addressed to Napoleon Bonaparte an exposition of principles identical with those which were affirmed to the detriment of England by the Great Powers at the Brussels Con gress. Talleyrand quoted Montesquieu to prove that belligerent nations should do as little harm as possible to one another, and especially that they should not capture mercbiflt vessels and cargoes. This sounds uncommonly ingenuous and refreshing, yet covers two suggestive truths — Napolecn did all the harm he possibly could to every nation with which he came in contact, and the want of a strong fleet alone prevented him from doing more. As an insular and oceanic Power England must pursue the policy most likely to help herself. Were she to grant what is now sought she would surrender & position that has helped to make her invulnerable on the seas. She must at all hazards continue to ' rule the waves.'' There is no certainty that she would be thanked for her generous concession, and no guarantee — say in a conilict with the United States— that her unprotected vessels would not be attacked by American privateers. ^National promises are at present far below par in the market of reciprocal agreements. During the late war with France Germany
with a magnanimous show of humanity assured the enemy that her merchant ships would not be captured, as indeed they could not be by such a navy as Germany possessed; but when German vessels were seized Bismarck took care to exact heavy money penalties from the occupied dis tricts. The naval history of England is a resplendent one, and we cannot doubt but tint jf the hour — far distant, we hope — comes when the march will be again on the ocean wave, the valour of her past heroes, no less than the terror of her overwhelming strength, will create sudden and swift disaster among her enemies, and thus speedily terminate wars, which should never be prolonged. The Corporation a-t- Road Metal. — For the most part the members of Corpo rations are business men who show some amount of aptitude and tact in the management of their own affairs. Yet by a cuiious coincidence this all disappears when they come to deal as a collective body with city affairs. As the wit and wisdom of the English barrister are some times said to be in the wig, so the folly of a City Council must surely be in that combination of circumstances which welds the individual members together into a mystic Corporation. A diffi culty has arisen in the Adelaide Council as to the metal required for repairing the city roads. A short time since the Council advertised for tenders for the supply of metal. Three were sent in, but as thtse were in excess of the estimate it was resolved at the meeting held on April 18 that none of them should be accepted, but that the contracts should be readvertised. As the case was urgent the Mayor meanwhile had an interview with the Acting Sheriff to ascertain whether any stone could be obtained from the Stockade. The result of the conversation was reported and discussed at a spcci?l meeting of the Council held on April 24. The Acting Sheriff stated that being under contract to supply stone he could not let the Corporation have any for three weeks or a month. At the end of that period he would be prepared to enter into an agreement with the Cor poration for one month or twelve to supply them exclusively with stone, ex cept such as might be required for the immediate use of the Government or for other public purposes. The price was to be 4s. a yard, loaded at the Stockade. From four to five trucks containing five and a half yards each could be sent daily. The offer -was to remain open until noon of April 25. It was stated the railway charges would bring the price up to nearly G's. per yard, and that it would cost from Is. i*d. to 2s. 3d. a yard to cart from the station to South terrace, or to Robe and MacDonnell Wards. A motion was proposed that the oiler of the Acting Sheriff be accepted for six months. It so happens that there is metal stacked in wards where it is not just now wanted. An amendment was therefore proposed 'That the City Surveyor be empowered to use the metal now stacked in the various wards for the repair of the city roads, the same to be repaid as bor rowed, and that the Government offer be accepted, viz., 5,000 yards at 4s. a yard.' The amendment, however, was lost and the original motion was carried. At the meeting held on May 1 the Council accepted the tender of Henry Dunston for GCO yards to be delivered at the Central Market at 8s. 9d. per yard, and of George Scott for 400 yards to be delivered in Angas-street at 8s. 5d. per yard. Thereupon a warm discussion ensued upon the subject raised at the previous meeting. The hope was ex pressed that the system of allocating funds to the different wards would soon be brought to an end. The Mayor at the close of the discussion concurred in this view. In support of the wisdom of using what metal they had stored in the places where it is wanted, he. supposed the parallel case of a firm with four branch establishments, one of which had a glut of -a particular class of goods, while at another there was a scarcity. It would beji very curious proceeding to refuse to supply the deficiency from the overstocked house. Yet in the city one locality had heaps of metal in which the grass was literally growing, while others were urgently requiring it. But the surplus in the one case must not be touched to make up the deficiency in the other. We are inclined to think that the Mayor and the minority who sided with him will not be alone in the conviction that it is high time that the log-rolling and miserable narrow-mindedness which sacrifice the general interests of the city to the claims of any particular ward should be brought to an end. ? New Legal Fibm.— We understand that Mr. T. W. Fleming and Mr. Hillary Boucaut, late of Messrs. Boucaut, Bruce, & Stuart's office, have entered into partnership under tte style of ' Fleming 4 H. Boucaut.' Mr. Fleming was formerly in the office of Mr. J. G. Daly. The Presettktuan Church. — The annual meeting of the South Australian Presbytery wi'l be held this morning in the class-room of the Flinders-street Church, and in the evening a public meeting will be held at the church itself. Hinemabshsquabe Chtjbch. — A tea and public meeting in connection with the anniver sary services of the Sunday-school of the above Church will ba held thu evening. Trades' Association.— A meeting of journey men butchers has been convened for to-day at the Black Bull Inc. Thb Mat Races.— The following forfeitures have been posted for events at this moating: — Two-Year-old Stakes, Mr. H. Fisher's b.c Speechless, Mr. W. H. Bickford's b.c Hero; St. Leger, Mr. J. H. Robertson's b.c Ali Baba, Mr. II. Fisher's br.f. Troy, and the same gentle man's Mizpah and Onyi. The Back Cup lHDEX.-»Messr«. Frearson and Brother have sent us a neat little book showing the weights, performances, and pedigrees of the horses that are entered for the Adelaide Cup. Monthlt Diaet. — Mr. Williams has issued iu a corrected form his diary for May, the Kapunda Railway time-tabla having been wrong. SOUTHERN YOBKE'S PENINSULA.— We are desired to direct attention to the altered ar- raagement for the tailing of the Cerae, as advertised. She now leaves Port Adelaide on Tuesday and Saturday. Unlucky Idestcfication.— ' jEgles' is re spofi&ible for the following: — ' Time, 11 o'clock. Place, Greig & Murray's. Occasion, a wheat sale. Enter a policeman with a driving whip in his hand. ' Is the owner of this here?' * Thank*, constable, that's mine, said Millstone*. ' ' Then will you plase to give me your name, Sir, till I summons you. You've left your hone asd baggy outside unprotected, against the by-laws. I took the whip onl of the socket.' Millstones didn't mind the tummons bo much— but to be dene by a policeman.'
FlBK AT TBB Btkba.— Mr. Wilson, landlord of the Bon Accord Hotel, If ew Aberdeen, discovered about 7 o'clock on Sunday morning, the 30th tilt., that one cf the upptr bedrooms of his house win on fiie. When he reached the apartment he found the bed a mass of flames, and immediately threw the burning articles out of the window. A plen tiful supply of watar be'ng at hacd, he then, with the resistance cf other persons, sneceeded in extinguishing the flames. Part of the floor and skirting - boards were burnt. The exact cause of tho fiie h not known, but it is supposed that a lodger who wps going on a journey and had risen early had forgotten to extinguish a candle. Works of Art. — Wo have beon favoured by Dr. Campbell wi'.h a view of two beautiful original cil piintirgj, the werk of hia brother, Mr. Archibald Campbell, an artist of con -iderablo standing, who died some time since. One repre sents a humble rustic cottage on the shores of Loch Long, in bcoilazd. An old fisherman is seated oat of doors putting the finishing touches on a rude toy beat for a little child, who stands eanratly watching the operation, and thoroughly believing in the genius of her worlfcnan, A sturdy boy leans against the wall of the building looking on with half-assumed indifference at such child's play, whilst a girl is gracefully kneeling beside the kind old man and watching the work and neglecting her own, for a can of water from the well stands by her side. The grouping of the figures is excellent, and the benevolent expression in the aged Bait's rugged honest features is cleverly brought out. The quiet lake in the soft haze of the morr'ng com pletes an exquisite picture. The other painting is equally true to nature, and as pleasantly homely in its subject. In a cozy room of an old fashioned cottage with its solid-looking ancient furniture are two figures — an old peasant and her son. The aged mother is comfortably Eeated in a bigh-backed chair with her head bent down in a listening attitude whilst her son i3 trying to make her understand some matter of importance. The look of doep attention on the old woman's wrinkled face and the respectful earnestness in the son's have so much reality about them that one cannot but think that the attift mutt have painted the scene from life. It k difficult to tay which is tiie better of the two pictures, each being so close to nature and so well * i ought out. Serious Results of a Quarrel.— The Terowie correspondent of the Northern Argus reports some unhappy incidents: — "A man named Ludford, who has been engaged as cook on Tetulpa Station, met with a serious mishap in a drunken quarrel. A dispute had arisen which eventually culminated in a fight among the occupants of the kitchen. Ludford was lifting a bucket of boiling water off the fire when he received three blows on the head with a stick, one of which, just over the left ear, partially stunned him, and knocked him into the fire. He was badly burned about the arms, chest, and throat, and an incised wound was found on the scalp. He was sent down with the intention of entering the Hospital, but when he reached Paratoo he was too much exhausted to proceed further. The proprietor of the eating-house attended to him as well as he could with the means at command, and in a short time he was able to proceed to Parnaoo, where the mail contractor, Mr. Terry, cut off his clothes and found the flesh literally peeling off his bones, and the stench arising therefrom was most offensive. Eventually he reached Terowie, and Dr. Carter was soon in attendance, but could not give much hope of his recovery, as in addition to his injuries he was completely exhausted by travelling. However, he is now progressing favourably, but it will be some time before he will be quite well. VERY SEVERE INJURIES.— As Mr. McFeat, aged about 60 years, was returning from working at Smithfield home to Gawler about 10 o'clock on Saturday night, the 29th ult, in taking a short cut across country he, the night being dark, missed his way, and got some distance above the Dead Man's Ford, at the south end of Murray-street, in one of Mr. Pile' paddocks. Not knowing that he was out of the track, he fell over the bank of the South Para River on to the rocks, a drop of about 12 or 14 feet. The poor fellow lay in the cold all night, and on Sunday morning a man in passing near saw him, and gave information to the police. Mr. McFeat was then removed in the vehicle of his son-in-law, Mr. Mortimer, to the latter's house. Dr. Dawe was speedily in attendance, and after carefully examining the sufferer found that his left wrist was broken, left elbow dislocated, front teeth knocked out, face cut and disfigured, spine in- jured, and legs paralysed. The patient was also suffering very much from the exposure the whole night in the cold. Dr. Dawes has been constant in his attendance, and McFeat is in a very precarious condition. BORDER DUTIES.— In commenting upon the arrangement made by the Governments cf New South Wales and Victoria anent Customs duties on the rivers the Border Post states that "the merchants of Melbourne were in the habit of forwarding sugar to the Riverine and Darling Districts by the Mount Alexander Railway to Echuca, and on payment of 5s. per cwt., or £5 per ton duty, it was admitted into New South Wales. The sharp practitioners of the com- mercial circles of Melbourne have discovered that by sending the sugar up the Murray and paying duty to the South Aus- tralian Government of 2s. 9d. per 100 lbs., or £3 1s. 7d. per ton, a clear profit of £191 5s. can be made on every 100 tons landed by that route. The water carriage, too, is as cheap by ocean and river to Wentworth or Echuca, as to either place by rail and river from Melbourne. The result of their little movement is that the exports of sugar from Melbourne into New South Wales via Echuca have fallen away 700 tons during the six months ending 31st March ult, and a loss of £3,500 to the Government of New South Wales. South Australia gained £2,155 by this ques- tionable morality. Victoria lost the railway carriage of 700 tons of goods." IMMIGRATION OF FOREIGNERS.— On this subject the Australasian writes:—"At a time when the project to introduce 40,000 Russian immigrants to the Northern Territory is under discussion, it is worth glancing at what has been or what is being done in the colonies to encourage or facili- tate the immigration of other foreigners. It is evident from the readiness shown in the various colonies to introduce natives of other European nationalities that the capacity of the British to assimilate and absorb people of other races, as has been shown so conspicuously in America, is fully relied upon. The Scandi- navian immigration to New Zealand some years ago will be remembered by many readers. The other day a meeting was held at Sydney to take steps towards co-operating with an Italian Society for promoting emigration from Italy, with a view to securing a share of the emigrants for New South Wales. The opinion was ex- pressed that they would bring with them many industries adapted to the climate, and prove valuable citizens. South Australia already has a numerous community of German settlers, but the Government desires to attract more, and has commissioned the proprietors of the Australische Zeitung, published in that colony, to send 1,000 copies of the paper by each European mail, to be distributed in Germany for the promotion of emigration to South Australia. The Zeitung requests German colonists to forward the addresses of suitable persons in the Fatherland, and particularly of social Clubs and friendly Associations. All that Victoria has done to give a stimulus to emigration from the Continent of Europe is, we believe, summed up in the munificent treatment it has accorded to Chevalier Bruno, in illegally stripping a pastoral tenant of his land to confer an extravagant grant on that adroit and fortunate sericul- turist. Whether this will have the effect of inducing a large influx of continental immi- grants we have yet to see." Speaking Hobses.— Blacks have perpetrated another daring outrage on the Nonnanby River, within a mile of the township and the police camp. James McNamara, with loading for Ed wardstowr, camped one evening with 13 horses, and on proceeding to round them up in the morning found seven killed and three others with spears still sticking in them, while one had been carried away to a dipton^ where It was skinned, cut up into joints, and the meat re moved. The whole of these were valuable animals, while the three which were permitted to escape were but scrubbers in comparison. The Brisbane Courier remarks that, to use a stereotyped phrase, ''The police an in pur suit,' but bitter complaint is made by the j packers of the apathy of the police force.'
Disgraceful OvracBowDiHG nr Unley. — A case reported by the Sanitary Inspector of the Unley Board of Health shows that at the oorner of Arthur-street, Unley-road, there ia a very dirty three-roomed house, in which ton parsons are living. To make matters worse the water closet in a small backyard is in a moot dilapi dated condition. The disgraceful state of affairs does not end here, for in the yard a horse « kept, and a well there is believed to have stagnant water. How long such a state of things has exiited does not appear, but the list statement of the Inspector that one child is ill cannot be surprising ; the wonder is that there are not mere serioua result3. 1'ba owner of the property is a Mr. Moore, who resides at Hilton. The Un'.ey Board of Health will reauest that he will at once cleans9 the premises. It is evident that there should ba no delay in remedying the present evil. A Jump Overboard.— During the voyage of the Florence Irving, when the vessel was 15 miles north of Mackay, a Chinese prisoner named Ah Lee, who was boinj conveyed from Cooktown to Rockhampton to await his trial for horce stealing, was missed. The Brisbane Courier tells ' that search was made throughout the steamer but without avail, and it ia supposed that he jumped overboard and was drowned. In accordance with the belief of his countrymen as to the necessity of providing for the inner man during the passage from thb to another world, John took the precaution of appropriating a loaf cf bread before launching on his journey.' Floriculture.— We have received from Mr. W. C. Bigby, the publisher, a copy of a small work on annuals, basket-plants, and climbers, by Dr. R. T. Wyido. The book tiives some clear and well- written directions for the management of Buch growths, and a list indicating those which are hardy and can be raise i in the garden, and such as from their delicacy can only be grown succeasful'y indoors. Dr. Wylde certainly de serves the thanks of our floriculturists for kh useful and well-timed manual, the result of a lengthened experience as an enthusiastic cul tivator of rare and choice shrubs and flowers. Presentation to Mb. Mooee.— The Rev. J. C. Baynes, of St. Peter's Collegiate School, has, on behalf of the congregation of St. John's Episcopal Church, Salisbury, presented to Mr. W. S. Moore, of the Pulteney-street Sjhoola, a cheque for about £20, as a recognition of tho way in which his services as lay reader have been appreciated. The testimonial was accom panied by a co.-dial letter, which says that the present is 'a small token of the high estaem and affectionate regard in which } ou are held person ally, and of their high appreciation of your sdif denjing labours in promoting the welfare and interest of their Church. They desire mo to convey to you the warmest thanks for the services ycu have rendered them on all oc«a*iona in supply ing the wants of the Church, and to express the hope that you may be long: spared to continue your work among them, resulting as it does in so great a benefit to the whole com inanity. Permit me also to add my own grateful testi mony to. your usefulness and worth, not only at Salisbury, but at Eufiold and eteewhere, where ycur labours are as highly valued and appre ciated.' We understand that a similar recog nition was accorded to Mr. Mooro at the close of last year. The members of the Ejfield Church of England also presented Mr. Moore with an acknowledgment of his persevering efforts in their behalf. Malingering.— A case of malingering is being practised in the Ararat Gaol by a prisoner named Murphy, who was sentenced a short tinie ago for stealing clothing. He has been examined by Dr. Galbraith, the medical officer, and the other medical men of the town, who quite coincide that tho man is simply feigning. The Ararat Advertiser says that Murphy ?' howls and cries, and gives absurd answers to all questions. He pretends to forget bis father's name, sajs a shilling' is siipence and made of steel; a key is composed of copper, and window-glara of ice. He cannot read, he sayB, but he can write his name. He calls kerosine gin, and as an experiment some was given him, which he drank and asked for more. He also bad a drink of astafoelida, and intimates that it is especially palatable. Un fortunately, or fortunately, the man does not understand that he confounds mania with dementia, which is altogether incompatible; and to these phases ho adds a touch of melancholia, being decided apparently, as the Yankees would say, to go in ' bald-headed.' ' Thb Rainfall.— The following are the quan tities of rain recorded at the places mentioned for the 48 hours ending Monday, May 1, at D a.m. Adelaide ? 0-170 Willunga. ? 0-040 Melroae ? 0*060 Port Elliot ... 0*410 Burra ? 0-080 Goolwa ? 0*280 Clare ? 0*200 Mannum ? 0*030 Aubnrn ? 0-230 Mount Barker 0*030 Kadina ? 0-300 Strathalbyn ... 0-008 Moonta ? 0-090 Meningie ? 0-070 Kapunda ? 0*100 Narracoorte ... 0-020 Tanunda ? 0-100 Penola ? 0-160 Gumeracha ... 0*110 Mount Gambler 0*160 Ak astronomical Joke.— While Professor Proctor was lecturing in Boston on ' Other Suns than Ours' ho received a cable despatch an nouncing the birth of boy twins in his family. ' Every man in the audience,' says an American paper, 'was delighted that they were ''other sons than ours.' ' The City of Mexico.— It h stated by the Engineer that ' one of the most curious things at the Philadelphia Exhibition will ba an archi tectural plan of the City of Mexico. It3 di men- tions are 33G feet by 231 feet. It will display all the characteristics of the city, and will ba peopled by 60,000 leaden figures dreasoi in ap propriate costumes — some for tho opera, bill, and social party, and others vending fiuit and ice-creams, carrying baskets, and roiling barrels. In the streets will be 1,900 coaches, un equal number of other vehicles, aiid u lot oi artillory pieces. Effects of the Sun ox Lunatic.?.— A curfoua article on this Bubject has appeared iu tho Gazette da Hopitaux which states that J)r. Pocza, director of the lunatic asylum at Alessandria, Piedmont, having conceived the idea that the solar rays might have soais curative power in diseases of the bt-ain, com municated his views to Father Secchi, of Rome, who replied in the following terms :— ' The idea of studying the disturbed state of lunatics in connection with magnetic perturbations and with the coloured, especially violet, light of the sun, is of remarkable importance, and I consider it worth being cultivated.' Such light la easily Dbtained by filtering the solar rays through a jiass of that colour. 'Violet,' adds Father Secchi, ' has something melancholy and lepressive about it, which, physiologically, :auees low spirits ; hence, no doubt, poets have iraped melancholy in violet garments. Perhap3 riolet light may calm the nervous excitement of anfortunate maniacs.' He then, in his lettar, advises Dr. Ponza to perform his experiments in rooms the walla of which are painted of the same cobur as the glass panes of the windows, ffhich should be as numerous as possible, in )rder to favour the action of solar light, io that it may be admissible at any hour of ;he day. The patients should pass the night ia rooms oriented to tha east and to the south, and painted and glazed as above. Dr. Poaza, following the instructions of the learned Jesuit, prepared several rooms in the manner described, ind kept several patients there under observa tion. One of them, affected with morbid taciturnity, became gay and affable after throe lours' stay in a red chamber; another, a maniac who refused all food, asked for some breakfast ifter having stayed 24 hoars in the same red chamber. In a blue one, a highlyexdtad madman with a strait waistcoat on was kept all iay; an hour after he appeared much oalmor. Hie action of blue light u very intense on the jptic nerve, and seems to cause a sort of op pression. A patient was made to pass the night in i violet chamber. On the following day he begged Dr. Ponza to send him home, became he felt himself cured; and indeed he hat been well ever since. Dr. Pocza's conclusions from his experi ments are these:—' The violet rays are, of all Dthers, those that possess the most intense slectro-chemical power; the red light la also very rich in calorific rays; blue light, on the contrary, is quite devoid of them as well u of chemical icd electric ones. Its beneficent Influence is aard to exp'ain; and as it is the absolute ne gation of all excitement, It succeeds admirably in calming the furious excitement of maniaca.' New Yacht.— One of the Melbourne crack jrachts has been purchased for the Premier, Hon. J. P. Boucaut, Q, C, and is now on her way round. She is said to be about fourteen tons, md gf excellent sailing qualities. *
A Judob Under Fibe —Sir William Stawall, Chief Justice of Victoria, was in an awkward position about 11 o'ekek on a night lately. Tha G along Advertiser relates thai Bis Honor had retired to bed at Mack's Hotel, and was reading, a lighted candle being close beside him. A sudden puff of wind through the open window drove the curtains on to the candle, and they were immediately ignited. Tha whole room was in a blsze in a few secouds, and had it not been for great presence of mind displayed by Sir William in quickly tearing the btirnkg fabrics down and beating the tire out a serious confla gration might have been the result. His Honor escaped without injury, but received a shock. The Euglish State Ckowx— The following description of the Impeiia! Siate Crown has been furnished by Profesior 'fennant, minsralo gist to the Queen: — The Imperial State Crown of Queen Victoria wa* nwde by Messrs. Rundeil and Bridge in the year 1838, with jewels taken from old crowr?, *nd others furnished by com mand of Her Majesty. It consists of diamonds, pearls, rubies, gappb;re3, and emeralds set in silver and gold; it has a crimson velvet cap with ermine border, and is lined with white silk. 1*3 gross weight is 39 oz. 5 dwt. troy. The lower part of the band, above the ermine border, con sistfi of a row of 129 pear's, and the u/per part of the band of a row 112 pearls, between wbioh, in front of the crown, is a large sapphire (partly drilled), purchrsed for the crown by King George J V. At the back rs a Fapphire of emiller size »nd six other sapphires (tbree on each side), between which are e?^ht emeralds. Above acd below the seven sapphires sra 15 diamonds, and around the e!ght emeralds 128 diamonds. Between the emeralds and the sapphires are 16 trefoil ornamentB, con taining 160 dumoud?. AVx-ve the band are eight sapphires, Burmounted with eight dia monds, between which arn eight festoons, con sisting of 14S diamonds. In the front of the crono, and in the centre of a diamond Maltese cross, is the famous ruby said to have been given by Edward Prince of Wales, son of Edward IIL, called the Black Prince by Don Pedro, King of Cast'le, after the battle of Najera, near Vittoria, A.D., 1S--7. TbJs ruby was worn in the helmet of Henry V. at the battle of Agincourt, a,d. 1415. It is pierced quite through, after the Eastern custom, the upper part of the piercing being filled up by a tmall ruby. Around this ruby, in order to form the cross, are 75 brilliant diamonds. Three other Maltese crosses, forming the two sides and back of the crown, have emerald centre?, and contain roRpee^vely 132, 124, and 130 brilliant diamonds. Between the four Maltese cresses aro four ornaments in the form of the French fleur-de-lis, witu four rubies in the centraa, and sur rounded by rose diamonds containing1 respec tively 85, S3, and 87 rose diamonds. From the Maltese crosses issue four imperial arches composed of oak leaves and acorna ; the leaves contain 728 rose, table, and brilliant diamonds ; 32 pearls from the acorn set in cups containing 54 rose diamonds and one table diamond. Tho total number of diamonds in the arches and acorns is 108 brilliant, 113 table, and 559 rose diamoiids. From tho upper part of the arches are suspended four large pendant pear-shapad pearls, with rose diamond caps, containing' 12 rose diamonds, and stems containing 21 very sma'l rose diamonds. Above the arch stands tho mound, containing in the lower hemisphere 304 brilliants, aLd in the uppor 244 bril!ianl3, the zone, and are being composed of 33 rose diamonds. The cross on the euinmit has a rose cut sapphire in the centre, surrounded by four large brilliants, and 108 smaller brilliants. Summary of jewels comprised in the crown : — Olo large ruby irregularly polished, 1 large broad sapphire, 16 sapphires, li emeralds, 4 rubies, 1,363 brilliant diamonds, 1,273 rose diamonds, 147 table diamonds, 4 drop-shaped pearls, and 273 pearls. [From yest ar-? rf* Evening Journal. South Australian Yacht Club.— In the notice of the proceedings of the South Australian Yacht Club on Saturday, no reference was made to the Adelaide Bowing Club, the members of which, at the request of the Commodore, who is also President of that Club, took part in the affair in order to add to the interest of the cele bration. Two craws turned oat, and rowed down to the North Arm after the yachts, and on the return of the Commodore followed the Zephyr to the moorings. Weslctan Methodism. — The foundation stone of a Wesleyan Church was laid at YahJ, in the Mount Gambier District, on Wednesday, April 26, by Mrs. C. Fidler, who was presented with a trowel, level, and mallet on the occasion. A number of donations were laid on the founda tion-stone, after which an adjournment was made for the public tea. This was held in the Yahl hop store, and a large number assembled to partake of the good things provided by the ladies of Yahl. The public meeting waa held in the evening in the hop store, Mr. S. T. Webb, of Mount- Gambier, presiding. The Watch learns that the total pecuniary results of the flay — donations and collections— amounted to nearly £30. which will be devoted to the Trust Funds of the new church. Accident.— As Mr. Percival Gaylard, of One treehill was driving home from Adelaide on 3aturday evening April 29, when about a mile ind a half from Modbury, on the Golden Grove read, one of his horses shied at a heap of stones, ind swerved right across the road, throwing Mr. Baylard sideways out of the trap. Mr. Gay lard's foot was caught and entangled in one of the crosspieces which connect the pole to the ;arriege, and his body was thrown in front of ibo wheels between thorn and the hones' legs. In thie dangerous position ho was dragged ibout 20 yard?, when hh body acting as a skid stepped the horses. In thi3 precarious position Mr. Gayiani lav at lcrv-t an hour, and then he ?al!ed loudly in Cue hcpf» of securing assistance. Mr. TbotEas Rawllng3, who lives nearest to the !cene of the accident, hearing the nowa, went md found the unfortunate gentleman in the iwkvard is described. He qviokiy released SJr. Gr.ylard's Ie?, wMch vras now quite lowerless, and with the assistance of Mr. Rawlin^s, jun., lifted Mr. Gaylard into his trap u.d drove him to tho llodbury Hotel. Mr. Butler at oaoe started for Dr. Curtis, or Teatreo Sully, and tbat i'orit'eraai promptly arrived. Be found that Mr. Gayl&rd had brokoa the imall bone of his right ktr, and received a severe iijury to his knee. The in j -dries were inime liately attended to, and the patient, who is low lying at the Modbury Hotel, although in ?rcat pain, is going on as woll as can be expected. That Heathen Chinee.— The 'peculiarity' jf the Celestials Is strikingly exemplified by the following incident narrat9d~by the Border Watch: — ' Mr. H. Blackmore, Overseer of the District Council of Mount Gambier West, was, on Tues day, April 25, painting the fence that enclose! the Cave Reserve, and laid his coat down on the jround just inside the fence alongside Commer jial-Btreet. In tho course of bu work he had to remove a little distance from it, but thought it was safe from molestation. But such thoughts rere erroneous. A short time after the garment was laid down, one of the Chinese, who carry on :he trade of gardeners near the town, passed vith his market baskets on a pole slung )ver his shoulder. Mr. J. Underwood, who xcupies a building on the opposite site ;f Commercial ? street, observed 'John' stoop down and abstract the eoat, and hastily ihrowing it into one of tho baskets, pr.33 on. He jommunicftted with Mr. Blackmore, and the atter, taking with him one of bis sons, at once proceeded to the ' heathen's' domicile, and asked or the coat. The Chinese solemnly protested ±at they had not been in town that day, and ;hat they had seen nothing of the missing coat. However, Blackmore threatened that he would ' send for the polioe' immediately if the article f&s not delivered up forthwith, and being thus persuaded' one of the Chinese produced and landed the coat, rolled up nicely in a parcel, to is owner. Taen another of the Celestials ?campered at high pressure speed to a cUep :aturAl hole in the paddock it the side of the ?oad just above the old cemetery, and returned a a few minutes with the papers and other :hing8 the coat pockets had contained, which he lad hid in the bottom of the hole. After the :nroged loser ef the garment had administered bo the thief a severe shaking, he left him and his :ompanion in great fear and trembling.' Eebatum.— In the report of the late dramatic mtertainment at Strathalbyn on the nee night, ;t was erroneously stated that the performance ros in aid of the rase instead of the Institute fund?. The mistake occurred through the bills jeing headed ' race night.'
THE EMPRESS OF THE SEAS.
Not a year passes without some pro posal for a change in the maritime law of natioDS be;ng mooted. In .the halls of peace as on tho threshold of war tho
nterested voice that cries for chango is to be heard. But it is not England that calls aloud. She has nothing to gain by any departure from, the accepted rules that now guide those who go down to tho sea in battle-ships. Her interests and her usage, perhaps her preservation, and undoubtedly the retention of her mari time supremacy, point in a direction quite opposite to tliat indicated by restless advisers and would-bo re form el.'. Now as the proposed chango principally — nay, almost exclusively — affects England, it is her immediate and pressing concern to prevent or at least not to yield to it if it is likely, as we think, to be to her hurt. That the present Govern ment are not disposed to advise any dero gatory concessions of the kiud proposed, however craftily, would appear from tha well-founded rumour which has reached us. It seems that many of the larger merchant steamships have been already surveyed in the leading home ports witli the view to ascertain their adapt* ability for conversion into gunboats in the event of an outbreak of war. Elaborate reports, we are assured, V'ivc been sent in to the Admi ralty, stating the number of guns and men these ships are capable of carry ing. Now the proper war equipment of a poi tioii of England's maritime ileut, at a time when commerce would be at leaBt clifabkd, would unquestionably strengthen England's right hand for attack and defence. If for no other purpose, then, these steamers could be fitted out so as to act as convoys and protectors to other traders whose immunity from risk o£ capture or destruction would thus bo substantially increased. Moreover, thejf would be but the complement of thoBa email and powerful ironclads that are now bcin-*built to escort our argosies across he ocean. Without them, perhaps, our squadrons of commercial ships might be safely set afloat, but with them the security would be redoubled without a sacrifice of efficiency, for officers aid parties of men of the Royal Navy would be placed on each gunboat, and with economy, for the existing crews of the steamers would also bo generally retained. This feasible scheme for tho augmentation of the British navy in tima of war cannot be a matter of unconcern to Australians, and wo mention it here in order to exhibit the unlikelihood of Eng land listening to the proposals to which we referred at the outset, and which wo . proceed to examine. They underlie more than the question of mere ships and guns; they involve the very piihciplca and. usage on which England has hitherto ! acted. It is propo3od that England should agree with the other nations to a treaty declaring the immunity of an enemy's private property at sea. On the face of: it this suggestion is of the most impudent character, for while, niahjrc affected and protesting words to the contrary, private property on land ia not exempt from tho ravages of war, England's concession of such a demand would be to throw to the winds a principle and practice of peculiar value to her. She is, we venture to opine, hardly so demented as to sit down on the lap of this Delilah to have tho locks of her maritime strength shorn. The jealousy of her oceanic predomi nance stimulates her rivals to suggest this artifice to cripple her great ness. While their mercantile fleets havo in some cases rapidly increased their navies have not kept pace, and tho evi«« dent inability to protect their commerca makes them all the more anxious to dis arm tho giant whose blow they fear. But England with good cause stands byheu maritime usage, despite tho European combination against it. The United States— which have been the great diffi culty in the way of a settlement of tha international law on sea questions— hero join with the Continental Powers. But their attitude is easily understood. Not anxious to be burdened with a regular fleet when privateers can be sent afloat on an emergency the American Govern ment are willing and even eager to sub scribe to any. change that will obviate a permanent and costly necessity. Their conduct is of a piece here with what it was when the Declaration of Paris waa made. Then they could not, for trans parent reasons, consent to the abolition of privateering, nor would they, in tho same place, accede to tho third rule of tha treaty, which was that neutral goods are not subject to capture though under an enemy's flag. The 1'ive Great Powers, together with Turkey and (then) Sardinia, agreed to make these, with others, the rules of their conduct at sea in time of war; yet three at least of theso