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RUSSIA AND BATOUM.

The peace that was restored in Asia Minor by the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano is about to be rudely broken in^». . UDon bv the execution of the terms of

the Treaty of Berlin. Barely four months have elapsed since the conclusion of tho former agreement put an end to tho vigorous but ineffectual attempts of tho Russian army of the Hion to storm tho ridges between their lines and Batoum, and once more preparations are baing mado for the renewal of the conflict There is no longer any room for doubt — i£ indeed any has been entertained— that the people of Batoum and the country immediately surrounding that town aro resolved to carry out the determination they have announced of resisting to tho utmost the entry of the Bussians. The whole population is in arms, and already twenty thousand volunteers have marched to the frontier determined to stll their lives dearly. Nor can there bo much doubt that the fast-approaching oonfiict will be a desperate and a protracted one. The Russian forces will no longer bo resisted by tho trained troops of tho Turks, but they will have opposed to them bands of resolute and warlike Lazis and Georgians, carrying on operations in a mountainous country admirably adapted 'o guerilla warfare, where they will find themselves at a great disadvantage. An admirable description of the Batonm ountry given by a correspondent of tho Daily i\rctcs affords some conception of tho difficulties in the way of an invading army. To the north of Batoum mountain chains project from the main range to the shores of the Black Sea, constituting formidable natural barriers on that side of tho district Between the heights occupied by the Russian troops and Batoum run three of these ridges— the Tchad tepeh, the/Tsuroo-Hissar, and the Chacke, from which points of vantage the defenders of tho city can sweep the surrounding country. These were the positions occu pied by tho Turks, against which 'tho whole might of the army of the Rion' wa3 three times ineffectually hurled— positions absolutely impregnable if properly forti fied. On a ridge at Hossoban, fronting the first of these three chains, the advance troops of the Russian army are entrenched, and these are supported by the linos of Jehanguir immediately to the north, and further on by an entrenchment at Ouzor ghetti, some few miles to the south of tho Russian port PotL From Poti a railway runs to Tiflis, and at Orpirih, a paint on the line midway between Ouzerghetti and Kutais, strong earthworks have been con structed. Between the main chain of mountains and the spurs running seawards is a deep ravine leading through the spurs into the flat country around Batoum. This offers the easiest approach to the city to an army entering the province from the north. From the heights above, however, this pass can bejswept by cannon, and at its head a bend in the chain throws up/at Kavass ooh, a natural redoubt, which is virtually the gate of the pass, and from which a aking fire can be poured down on tho head of an advancing army. Not only h he country wildly mountainous, but tin hill slopes and summits are rendered almost impenetrable by a den33 growth of timber and brushwood. Through the winds and mazes of the chains none but tho mountaineers of the country can find their way, and there ara absolutely no roads, no mountain passe3 through which a large army can be marched, save the one ravine. To enable heavy guns and their limber to bo drawn over the heights towards B;itoum tracks have to be cut, mountain torrents have to bo bridged over, and rough temporary roads have to bj hastily constructed. These ohstaclos triumphed over, the difficulty of keep ing open the line of communication behind the invading army remains. Their retreat is liable to be cut off and their flank to be assailed from all sides from the overlooking heights. The immense advantage possessed by irregular bands of mountaineers over trained troops thu* situated has been prominently illustrated by the memorable encounters between the British and the Kabulis in Afghan istan, and the disastrous retreat of tho former through the Khai bar Pass in 1842. . Strongly fortified as it is thus to tho north, Batoum is more easily accessible from the Bouth. Tho Chorok, which empties itself into the Black Sea a fow miles below Batouin, is a tolerably wide end navigable river, and from Artvin, a point in the river only four honrs' sail from its mouth, the city may be reached in an eighteen hours' march. In the lato war the harbeur of Batoui^and the mouth of the Chorok were defended by

ironclads, bat these safeguards will no longer bar the Russian approach from seawards should they adopt this line of attack, but their entry may Btill be opposed from the banks of the Chorok. Through the Chorok Valley, from Artvin to Batoum, their march, may also be impeded. Tho further course of bombarding the city from the harbour 13 also open to the Russians, bnt it is un likely that they will have recourse to such a proceeding except under the pressure of special emergency. In addition to the large number of Russian troops between Hossoban andOuzerghetti a strong detach ment of sappers and miners i3 quartered at Erzeroum. which it is stated is destined to proceed to Artvin. It is therefore pro bable that the main attack of the Russians will be through the Chorok Valley. Sis weeks ago, when the Berlin Congress was sitting, the war fever among the Lazi was culminating, and at that time there were no less than 33,000 Lazis and Georgians 'ready to muster at a given signal at any point to wh-ch they may be directed to proceed by their local chiefs.' That signal ha3 now been given. The armed population are assembling, and our telegrams this morning announce the approaching evacuation of Batoum by its Turkish garrison. As a whole the people, and especially the Lazis, are courageous and warlike. They are, moreover, wild and barbarous, and amongst them, it is said, the rifle is rarely laid aside, and the knife and pistol never. It may prove to be an easy matter for the Russian forces to fight their way from Artvin to Batoum, and they may even succeed in forcing a road through the heights f o the north ; but they will then be face to face with another difficulty — that of restoring quiet in the province — which it is to be feared will only be effected at the cost of a war of extermination. There is little room to hope that any of the des-red objects can be attained by Russia by pacific mean3 ; but in view of the almost endless strife for which the outbreak of hostilities will give the signal, and the desperate measures which must eventually be adopted unle33 the people recognise the futility of pro longing their resistance, it is to be hoped that these means will be sedulously resorted to. Ixteecoloniai. Railway. — 5JV. Ward's motion in favour of an intercolonial railway from Adelaide across the Murray Bridge to the Victorian Barder was rejected by a veiy large majority on Wednesday. This result was no doubt owing in part to the action of the Government in moving au amendment in favour of a line to Kairne. In adopting this course the Ministry are certainly open to the charge of inconsistency which was brought against them by Mr. Fowler. If tho Nairne lino is intended as part of a railway to tho Bonier, and this it no doubt will prove t - be, the amendment i3 counter to the ex pressed policy of the Government ; and i it is intended only as a local line it is really not relevant to Mr. Ward's motion. However, in such a matter most members look rather to the practical end attained than to the consistency of the means by which it . is reached. It will be a decided advantage to have a railway to the hills, and those who advocate a through line to the Victorian Border will welcome it as an instalment of the Lirger undertaking. One significant feature in the debate was the indication it afforded of the growing popularity of the suggested line to Wentworth. In the meantime, however, whether tb.13 last named undertaking is carried out or not it will be a decided step in advance to have secured railway communica tion to the hills. Mr. Ward's motion having been negatived and the amend ment carried, the Bill for the line to Nairne was brought in and read the first time. The action of Mr. Ward on Wednesday afternoon was simply incomprehensible, and such as will not be likely to increase his in iluence in the House. He stated his case veiy fully and effectively in intro ducing the debate, and it was of course only reasonable that he should reply at its close. He had no hope, however, as he said, of carrying his motion. That being the case we cannot imagine why he should have deemed it necessary to occupy considerably more than an hour in treating the House to a wearisome repetition of parts of his first speech, to select poetical extracts, and to such a string of rambling platitudes as have not often been compressed in one oratorical effort The member for Gum: racha can generally speak effectively ; but a few more exhibitions of a persistent determination to weary th1 members such as he gave on Wednesday will certainly entitle him to rank as on j of the greatest bore3 in tho House, and will also endanger his title to the claim which he makes to be regarded as one of those liberal and advanced statesmen who have the misfortune to be in advance of the times. Mails per AcoxeiGrA.— In other columns we publish a brieE summary of the news that h«s- transpired since the departure of theP.i O. Company's 5 s. Tanjore oa Thursday last ; and as the mails per Aconcagua do not close until coon, to-day ample opportunity 13 given for posting newpipers to is morning. Copies of the Rtgistcr with the summary of no ws can be had at this office. . . KxECcnvB Corxcn.. — His Excellency the Administrator held a Coancil on Wednriday. at which three Ministers were present. Ths Hox. J. Coltox. — Wo regret to leirn ?fhafc the Hon. J. Colton, MJE*., who was travel ling In the North for the benefit of his health, has been compelled to return to his residence at Hackney, owing to a severe attack of erysipelas. We Iearited on enquiry last evening that the hon. gentleman was progressing as well as could be expected considering the nature of the compliant. The Postal xiro Tei^graphic Confhsbxch. — We publish this morning a special telegram giving particulars of the Conference held yester day by Messrs. Berry, Burns, and Morgan, the representative* of the colonies of Victoria, New South Wales, and South Australia, ou the question of the tuture postal and cable con tracts. Colonel Glover, the representative of the Eastern Extension Telegraph Company, was present daring a portion of the time. The sitting is adjourned until Friday, when sub stantive resolutions on the various questions under consideration will be given. Hoibfast Bat Railway.— A meeting of the citizens of Adelaide will be held this evening at the Town Hall, to give them the opportunity of deciding whether they are willing to grant the concession of a large portion of the Park Lands as asked for by tha Holdfast Bay Bail way Bill. Chamber of MAjrcFAcrcRBs— Mr. S. Higgs, F.GJ3., will lecture this evening before the Chamber of Manufactures oa 'Mining and Mines.' Wkstees Acstbaluv Telegraph. — This telegraph line is interrupted beyond Eyre's Bandnatch.

Abbtval of tttb Excellency the Govebsor — The Lasitania passed Cape Borda at 3 o'clock on Wednesday afternoon, and reached the Sema phore at about midsighL Hi* Excellency and Lady Jervois and family have arrived all well His Honor tha Chief Justice (Mr. S. J. Way) and Captain Haggard, we understand, proceeded to the Semaphore last night in order to be in readiness to welcome His Excellency imme diately on his arrival. The Ministry will go by spfcial train at 9 o'clock this morning to the Semaphore, -where the Governor Alas grave will be waiting to convey them to the Lusitania, and also to take the viceregal pai ty to the Port, where a train will be at the wharf ready to brinj them direct to town. His Excellency will reach the Ade laide Bailway Station at noon to-day. The Lusitania was detained by very bad weather at the 'Cape for fiVe days. She has nevertheless admirably kept np her rate of speed, the actual time of her steaming having been 38 days 18 hours. Thb EnrcATios Bill.— Mr. Kees attempted to obtain some information from the Govern ment on Wednesday as to the time when they would bring down the new clauses in the Educa tion Bill, but tho Premier cleverly raised a laugh against him, and did not give the hon member much satisfaction. When the question was first raised, Mr. Boucaut replied thai; be had a new clause in his pocket, bat he had not had time to read it, and he urged that the Government should not be unduly hurried in this matter when they had others of equal importance to deal with. : The Minister o' Education with characteristic politeness followed up the statement of his chief by saying that the Government were most anxious to proceed with the matter. Mr. Kees then explained that b2 was anxious to know when the measure would come on, because he would probably be out of town for a week or a fortnight, and he thought that for his personal convenience the Treasurer might give him some assurance. Mr. Boucaut was equal to the occasion, and imme diately declared, amid the lead laughter of the Hoase, that if the hon. member put it aa a matter of courtesy be would not bring on the Bill for a fortnight. This attempt to press on the consideration of the matter was not a success. Thb Pobt-eoad. — On Wednesday a deputa tion representing the Municipalities principally interested in the proper maintenance of the Port-road waited on the Commissioner of Public Works (Hon. G. 0. Hawker), and urged the necessity of a further grant being made in order to put the road in an efficient state of repair. They pointed out that it would always remain in an unsatisfactory condition unless come special provision were made with regard to it, and suggested that it1 should be taken from the jurisdiction of the Central Road Board and placed under a special Board. The Commis sioner said the traffic had increased so enor mously on the Port-road that in his opinion it would h*ve to be treated entirely separate from other roads. He promised to recommend that the matter should be taken in hand this session, so that the necessary stone might be obtained at a time when the road would bear the traffic-, and not as during the past season when it had cut up the road. : Cost aitd Accommodation of Public Schools. — Mr. Parsons will move in the Assembly next Wednesday for the production of a return show ing— '1. The cost of the public schools, in cluding sites, at each of the following places:— Wallaroo Mines, Moonta, Moonta Mines, Burra, Gawler, Knpunda, Willanga, and Port Adelaide. 2. The number of scholars each school can accommodate. 3. The total cost of the teaching staff of each school, including head masters and mistresses and pupil teachers. 4. What number of scholars attended each school during the month of July last.' Passkjjgebs fbb thb Acoscaqua.— The fol lowing passengers are booked to leave the colony by the Aconcagua, which leaves the Semaphore for England on Thursday, August 15 : — Second cabin — Miss Ada Hill, aud Mr. J. W. March Steerage— Mr. T. Polwarth, Mrs. H. Hogwood and infant. Miss M. A. Thompson, and Mrs. Levy and three children, and eleven in the open berths. Adelaide and Subcbbjm Crickbtckq Asso ciation. — At a well-attended meeting of cricketers, held at the Stag Inn on Wednesday evening, the' following resolution was unani mously carried:— 'That a Committee be ap pointed to take steps to procure the Adelaide and Suburban Cricketing Association the right of forming an Oval on the Park Lands.' A Sorrn Austbaltas STmEXT rx Esolaxd. —Another South Australian has been distin guishing himself in England. We refer to Mr. Alfred E. Wigg, son of Mr. Edgar S. Wigg, of this city, who is studying medicine at the London University College Hospital. At the end of the winter session he went in for the examinations ia medicine and clinical medi cine, aud was successful in carrying off the silver medal in medicine and the first certificate in clinical medicine, being one mark behind the winner of the ' Fellowes' ' Silver Medal. Mr. Wigg was a pupil of Mr. John L. Young, to whose teaching so many South Australians are indebted for the high positions they now occupy. Adelaidb and Glknelo Railway. — We have received the following from Mr. B. Boothby, Manager of this railway: — 'At yesterday's meeting of the Directors of the Adelaide, Glenelg, and Suburban Railway Company, Limited, it was resolved to lay a second line of rails from South-terrace, Adelaide, to Miller's Corner, Glenelg, in the event of the Holdfast Bay Bailway Company's Bill being rejected.' Cora cil of Education.— This Council a few days ago decided to make the new schools in Flinders-street east the City Model School*, and to change the name of the present City Model Schools into 'The Grote-street Model and Practising Schools.' They also offered to give the present head teachers of the Grote »treet institution similar appointments in the City Model Schools at the same salary as now received by them. The teachers declined the honour implied in the change, and some of the members of the Council expressed their surprise at this decision. At a special meeting oa Wednesday, August 14, the Coancil agreed to consider the matter in Committee. Mr. Eailow called attention to the fact that two students holding scholarships under the Council hid omitted mathematics from their course of studies. It is quiie competent for them to do so as students at the University; but the Council decided to ask them to state reasons why they should not take up mathematics. A minute from the Minister was read, reversing his previous decision as to .the site of the new Keilli School. He now finally decided that it should be erected in the township, though the returns indicate that there is only one child of a school-going age there, and that a site much more convenient to the majority of children in the district had been recommended by the Presi dent and approved by the Council. The Minister said he took the full responsibility of his act upon rimseif, as he had had a mass of statistics on the subject laid before him. He said he diJ not thick it necessary to trouble the Council with these. Coxmbkcial Bank. — The following geatie raen were nominated for the positioa of Directors of the Commercial Back,bai declined to stand :— Messrs. K. B. Smith, M. Salom, W. Johnston, T. Good, and E. T. Smith. Enquiries having been very general as to the voting at the election for Directors and Auditors on Tuesday, we publish the particulars for general inform i tion: — Direcvors — Messrs. J. Bick, 20,540; R. A.Tarlton, 19,730; A. Tennant, 16.05J ; W. A. Grant, 15,535 ; J. C. Vereo, 15.455 ; E. Spiaur. 10,300; W. Parkin, 4,935: C. Fisher, 4,010 ; G. Wilcox, 2,620; and Field, 1,395. Auditors— Messrs. W. S. Douglas, 10,785 ; J. Storrie, 8,(33-3 : J. F. Yuill, 8,42a; F. Xason, 5,740; W. L Ware, 4,365; W. D. Hewer, 2,935; W. S. Whitington, 2,435; G. S. Price, 2i250; D Kekwick, 1,550 j J. Adamson, Jan., l.lSO ; and W.J.FullartoD, 140. The Pionesb Colonist of Victoria. — Our Victorian telegrams record the death of Mr. Edward Henty, who first went to the neigh bouring colony of Victoria in 1832, subsequently settling at Portland two years afterwards. Mr. Henty was born in 1810, and in the latter part of 1831 went to Tasmania, he being then 21 years of age. Twelve months later he sailed into Spencer's Gulf, aad visited Port Lincoln in the Thistle. On returning from this voyage he called in and saw the Portland country, which so pleased him that in 1S34 he came back and settled there, obtaining regular supplies of she -p, fruit trees, and other requisites from Tasmania. He was the first who ever turned the soil of the colonv with the plough, and in the early days had some trouble with the natives, bat never had to fire on them. With his brothers he since occupied the fin« country in the Wanaon Diafarict. He died of heart disease and dropsy.

Mr. BorcAvr's Bbt.— Mr. Boncaut's offer to refer the financial matters upon which he and the ex-Treasurer were at variance to the arbitra tion of Mr. Tomkinson formed the subject of a short but lively discussion in the Assembly on Wednesday. Mr. Bray called attention to the challenge thrown down by the hon. gentleman as being one which was disrespectfnl to the House as tending to remove the decision of questions of finance from them to an outsider. He asked if it was really true that Mr. Boacaut had thrown down the gauntlet in the way alleged, and humorously suggested that if the question was to be submitted to the Bank Manager named the Hon. Lavington Glyde should assist the Premier in stating a case, or that the House should decide upon a case in Committee of the whole and agree to abide by the result of the arbitration. Mr. Boucaut replied that he was so confused and over whelmed by the denunciations of the hoa. member that he was not in a frame of mind to answer the question offhand, and that he must request that notice be given. Mr. Boss followed, acknowledging that he had accepted the chal lenge ; but he now suggested that the matter should be referred to a Commission, as it was one which vitally affected the credit of the colony. Mr. Carr having expressed his disin clination to refer anything to the gentleman chosen as the referee, whom he described as ' Dictator Tomkinson,* Mr. Glyde wound up tber'ebite by stating that he would positively decline to assist the Treasurer in stating a case, as he was in doubt whether either of them alto gether understood what they meant— a state ment which caused great amusement at the expense of both the present and the late Trea surer. Mr. Bray then gave notice of his question, in framing the reply to which the Treasurer will have congenial exercise for his ingenuity. Thb Post Swuto Bridge.— We are informed this bridge was successfully swung early on Wednesday, August 14. Steam was got np about half-past 12 a m., and when the water and gas pipes were disconnected, the bridge swung. The ease with which the operation of swinging was performed may be best imagined from the fact that on returning the swing part to itn usual place some time was spent in adjusting it so as to meet the rails of the fixed portion. From the experiments it is evident that no less than two men will be required to swing the bridge. When all the preliminaries are arranged, there must be some one to attend to the engines, and a person in the gallery to direct the movements, besides workmen to disconnect Eipes. Although we believe the control of the ridge has not yet been handed over to any body, it is said that the Marine Board will hive charge of it. A formal opening of the bri Ire in the presence of the Governor, Sir W. Jeryois, is talked of. Pbopbbtt Sale.— Messrs. W. Wadham & Co. sold on Wednesday, August 14, by order of the Liquidator, the Hamlin Freehold Gold Sections, together with 228 acres of agricultural and pastoral land in the Hundred of Para Wirra and the mining plant, for £610. The building sites at the corner of Wakefield-street and the East Park Lands were withdrawn at £12 per foot. The Christian BnoraBB3' Schools.— We have been requested to mention that the foun {?ition-stone of the residence and schools for the Christian Brothers will be laid this morning at 11 a.m. As the schools and charitable institu tions conducted by the Christian Brothers are popular aad liberally supported by all classes, not only in Europe but also in America and in several of the Australian Colonies, it is hoped that the people of South Australia will not be b?ckward in aiding the establishment of a branch of this Society in Adelaide. Donations, amounting in tie aggregate to over £4C0, bvra, we understand, been already promised. Mr. E. Bayer is architect for the buildings. Supposed Case of Infanticide. — The City Coroner (Mr. T. Ward, J J.) will hold an in quest at the Destitute Asylum this morning to ascertain the means by which a female infant, the child of Lucy McNeil, came by its death. The mother is a young girl in the service of Mr. J. D.irling, juil, of Hutt-street, and the dead body of the infant was found by the police (to whom information had been given) in her box. Consolidated Fund. — Mr. Carr has given notice that he will move in Committee in the House of Assembly on Wednesday, August 28 : — ' That the Chairman be directed to move — 'That leave be given to bring in a Bill pro viding that all taxes, imposts, rates, duties, rents of Crown lands and moneys received from the sale of the same, and all proceeds of loans or money otherwise raised for the public service, or received by the Treasurer from any source whatever, shall be paid into and form one Con solidated Fund, which Fund shall only be ex pended under the authority of and in pursu ance of the provisions of an Appropriation Act passed by the Parliament of this province, and which Appropriation Act shall be originated in the House of Assembly, and may be rejected, but not altered or amended, by the Legislative Council.' ' On Wednesday next Mr. Ross will ask for the production of a memorandum on the introduction and management of the Victorian Consolidated Fund by Mr. Gudeman, of the Victorian Treasury. ', White's Rooms.— White's Rooms were fairly patronised on Wednesday evening, August 14, when Eainford's Ghost and Petite Comedy Company made their third appearance before the public. The previous evenings programme wss repeated and passed off very successfully, the rapid transformations in the Phantom Christy Minstrels being exceedingly good. The per formance concladed withjthe comedy, 'The Haunted House.' Hauley Bridge and Balaelava Kailwat. — A public meeting was held at Mr. Thomas Bartlett's stockyards, Dalkey, on the 12th inst. to consider the advantages of the resurvey on the Hamley BridgeandBalaklavalineof railway near tEe stockyards over the original site on Section No. 92, Hundred of Dalkey. The following proposition was carried: — 'That this meeting considers if a station is to be erected at or near the stockyards that the site on Section No. 92 is the most suitable for the public in general, as eight (8) roads lead to that civ-en point, v hereas if taken half (£) mile south of that it will be in the opinion of this meeting a very great dis advantage to the public in general or those likely to use the station.' A deputation of gentlemen was appointed to wait upon the Commissioner of Public Works to know whether a station is to be erected at the stock yard.', and if eo the reason why the site tas been al.ered. A vote of thanks to the Chairman closed an orderly meeting. Concbbt at the BtTBBA. — A concert was given in the Burra Institute on Tuesday even ing, August 13, by the members of the Burra Musical Union, &c, the proceeds of which were devoted t* the reduction of the debt on the Institute. The programme was a lengthy and varied one, consisting of choruses, glees, duets, songs, &c, by the members. The three first choruses — 'Where art thou, beam of light,' ' O, who will o'er tho downs with me,' and 'Oberon' — were rendered with precision, and the performance reflected credit on the con ductor and pianist, who must have had a task of no ordinary magnitude to bring the raw material to such a pitch in so short a period. The fourth chorus — ' May Day' — cannot be spoken of so highly; the parts not being well together, and the pitch of tho voices being flat as compared with the piano. The glees, songs, ic., wcro duly appreciated by the audience, but the dnet, ' The Minute Gun at Sea,' by Messrs. Phillips and Clark, was given in first-class style. The front seats were densely packed, and there must have been at least £12 to hand over to the Institute. Stdnet Univehsity.— Recently a deputation waited upon the Hon. Joseph Leary, Minister of Justice in ^Sydney asking for an additional endowment for the Sydney University to the extent of £5,000, and they stated that with this aid the University would gain over and above what is at present taught : — ' ' 1. Instruction in Mental Philosophy, Law, History, and English Literature. 2. Ail the education necessary for the Medical Profession. 3. A complete course of Natural Philosophy, coupled with Mechanics and Engineering. 4. The addition of Organic Chemistry and Metallurgy to the Chemical Scbocl; and 5. Biology (including Animal and Vegetable Physiology). The Senate would then be in a position to establish a Faculty of Science, as in the London University, giving the degrees of Bachelor of Science and Doctor of Scipnce. Degrees in Medicine also could then be conferred on those who had received their education on the spot.' It was explained also that there were upwards of 25 of our youth now in England studying for the medical pro fession, and it wa» pointed out by Dr Renwick that the Prince Alfred Hospital and the Sydney Infirmary should be quite sufficient to provide the necessary instruction in medical science to colonial students. Mr. Leary said he woald place the statements of the deputation before tie Government a.t the earliest moment, feeling Htt 'e doibt that they woaid grant the request.' ,

The Fibb at Pond & Company's Vinkgab Factobt. — On Wednesday morning, August 14, Mr. T. Ward, J.P., the City Coroner, held an enquiry at the Elephaat and Castle Hotel into the circumstances attending the fire which partially destroyed Messrs. Pond i Co.'s Vinegar Factory, West-terrace, on August 13. Messrs. 5. Higgs and R. E. Tapley watched the pro reediDgs on behalf of the Senth Australian Insurance Company, Mr. J, T. Fitch, jun., was Foreman of the Jury. Alfred Poud, oue of the inn, stated that his wife aroused him about 1.30 i.m. on Tuesday, saying the brewery was on fire, mdMrs. Pond went for the foreman of the works while he was getting up. Witness saw Retl So. 3 coming along Gilbert-street as he went to :he factory. The brewing-room appeared to he m fire. The building, which belonged to Prim rose k Co., was insured for £-300, and the machi nery, stock-in-trade, &c, for £925. Estimated ±e less at £1.000, including the building. Was last inside the premises about 4 p.m. on 3Ion lay, and everything appeared safe. Had no idea where the fire began, and knew nothing of its irigin. The men sometimes smoked on the premises at dinner time, but were very iaref uL Was crippled, and could not go over :he brewery in consequence. Did not think any person in the neighbourhood owed him ill-wilL Sever heard any threat used. The roam where .he fire was supposed to have broken out con ained three toes of sugar, three or four bushels -f black malt, apd two vats holding liquid inder fermentation. There was nearly always l fire in the stove in the I ermentiijg-room. The itove was bricked all round and shut up. It ras quite safe. The stove was lighted by emoviEg fire from the furnace below and :arryiog it upstairs in a tin. Coal was burnt n the store. By the Jury— There was nothing :hat would ignite spontaneously in the room. 8y Mr. Higgs — The temperature of tke fer neniing-room did not reach beyond 90° or 92°. Fosephine Pond, wife of the last witness, stated :hat about 130 a.m. she was awakened by a loise, axd then saw a flash of light, which aused her to get up and run outside, where she net a policeman. The top of the brewery on ;he south side was in a blaze. Gave the alarm. ?oold not say anything as to the origin of the ire. Never heard any threats to lead to sus picion. There was nothing inflammable in the ?com upstairs. William Fisher Whitehouse, foreman to Messrs. Pond & Co., stated that Mrs. Pond aroused him and said the brewery was on ire, and he went immediately to the spot. Che top part of the building was on fire, and a reel was playing water upon it. The whole of .he top was in a blaze. Had no idea how it )egau. Left the premises about 9.45 on Monday light. Made up the fire in the fennenting room, and left it all cuvered safely. Everything vas safe when he left. It was his duty to look tfter the room and the fire. Made the fire up to ast till.6 o'clock on Tuesday morning. Usually parried 'the fire up in a tin bucket from the 'umace. Did not drop any hot ashes on the loor. Never saw sparks come out of the flue. Che fermenting-room contained sugar and black ni. It. Did not keep any greasy rags upstairs. SVhen the fire was reduced Mr. Pond asked him f he knew anything about it, and if the place itras all safe when he kf t it. By a Juror — Had i lighted candle when he made up the fire in ths itove. Brought the candle downstairs and put t out. There were no dampers to the itove. There was an elbow in the pipe, sut no bags or other articles were put on it. Sever saw the elbow get red hot. The tem perature of the room was never more than 92°. 2-ould not get the room up to a higher tempera ;ure with the stove in question, although the ire was made up to last to 6 a.m. Did not mderstand much about stoves. Crowded the itove as much' as possible on Monday night with rah No person watched the premises, although l fire was kept there all night. Locked up and xx-k the keys to Mr. Pond's on Monday night By Mr. Higgs — There were no heating-pipes wnnected witn. the stove. The vats were about L8 inches or 2 feet from the stove. They had ;wo sheets of tin around them. Had known the itove to get red hot on the top. It might have 3een red hot on the night or morning of the ire. The stove only held about a bucketful of mis. John Cunningham, constable, deposed iat he was on West-terrace when he nsticed ie fire about 1.30 a.m., and gave toe alarm. Che top part of the Vinegar Factory was in lames all round. Went to Pond's honse, and net Mrs. Pond in her nightdress. She was very iicited, and said, 'The brewery is on fire.' Che Coroner, in summing up, remarked upon the langerous proximity of the wooden vats to the itove, which was allowed to burn all night mwatched. The Jury, after a brief considera tion, found — 'That there is no evidence to ihow how the fire originated.' They added the following rider : — w The Jury are of opinion that :lie stove-pipe as used is very dangerous, being io close to the wood and vats, and the chimney -f the furnace is not high enough and should 1 ave a proper spark-catcher.' Freh Education.— The following petition, igned by 1,116 persons, was presented to the louse of Assembly on Wednesday by Mr. irichauff: — 'That your petitioners have read vith much pain thtt one of the honourable nembers of the District of Wallaroo (Mr. Charles Simeon Hare) has tabled a notice of notion, for consideration by members of the Souse of Assembly on Wednesday, August 7, hat school fees in connection with the public education of the colony should be abolished. Chat your petitioners object to the motion 5eing passed for the following reasons: — 1. Secause the system already provides for the iducation of the poor. 2. That a very great imount for educational purposes is already &ken out of the public funds, and from which imount we derive no benefit whatever. 3. Be sause in the event of free public schools being istablished we shall be bound by our consciences ind the traditions of our Church to continue iur denominational schools. 4. That such a slause would tend to pauperize the people and ntroduce an element of Socialism highly unde irable for the best interests of the colony, and hat compulsory education does not necessarily :ntail free education — a fact f ally admitted by he English code now in active operation. -. We consider it would be a gross injustice hat in a country where liberty of conscience is me of the fundamental principles of govern nent we should be compelled to contribute so argely towards the maintenance of a system of iducation whose aim is to eradicate all religious raining whatever ont of the schools, and that his secularism will not only exclude the read ng of the Bible, but will also prohibit even he mentioning of the name of GoA — a system if education subversive of Christianity and lisgraceful to a nation professing Christian irinciples. That in consideration of the fore going reasons and in fairness to a large number if the inhabitants of this dependency of the Jritish Empire your petitioners would respect ully pray your Honourable House to reject the notion now tabled for yonr consideration.' Che petition is largely but not entirely signed -y German colonists. Grazing Land in Nobthsbn Tebeitobt. — 3n Tuesday, August 13, Messrs. Powers, Ruther brd, & Co. offered in Melbourne, under instruc ions from Messrs. R. Travers and A. W. Sergison, 23,000 square miles of grazing country n the Northern Territory of South Australia: rat cotwithstanding the glowing description of he auctioneers, who pictured the land as being ichly grassed, and well watered by running leeks and large rivers— the latter perfectly xesh and navigable by large vessels for some iistance — none of the country was sold. The Goat Nctsancb.— An attempt is being nade to effectually rid the Alberton and Qaeens :own District of what is commonly known ;here as the goat nuisance. Over a dozen jersons have been fined at the Port Adelaide Police Court for offences under the District Councils By-laws in reference to these animals, md as the police have been instructed to prosecute on these matters there is a hope that :he nuisance will be speedily put an end to. School on Southebn Tobzb's Pexinscla. —On Tuesday Mr. Ross will enquire of the ilinister of Education whether it is the inten sion of the Government to erect a schoolhoiise it or near the junction of the Port Victoria and iloonta and Yorketown main roads. Thb Semaphore Lure. — Two incidents lectured on Wednesday, August 14, which ihow the necessity for great cire bjing jxerciseti in running the trains at a high, rate jf speed between the Port and the Semaphore. Fhe train on one occasion was stopped because i loaded wigon was not able to get off the iine in St. Vinceut-street quickly enough, and m the other it was slowed to allow a trolly to ;et oS the line in time. As the drivers of ths vehicles were said to be unaware of the ipproach of Lue trains, it should be mentioned that since the operation of the new time-table jo bell has been rung while the train has been passing through tha frequented thoroughfares. Leave of Ab«hnce— In the Assembly to-day Sir. Bosworth will move that ten days' ievre of ibaence be granted to Mr. Bright on account of irgent private business. The hon. member intends to leave for Melbourne by the steamer South Australian this afternoon.

G&ixe Telbgsaxs. — From the late telegrams published in the Indian papers, the following, under date of July 16, is given (by the Argus) as a summary of the treaty signed at Berlin : — ' The treaty contains 64 articles, and provides for a provisional Russian Administration and Russian occupation of Bulgaria by 50,000 men, the same t* terminate in nine months. As regards the Bulgarian fortresses, they are to be razed to the grouLd in one jear. A European Commission will organise Eastern Ktimelia. Austria will occupy and administer Bosnia and Herzegovina, but the term of occupation is not filed. Roumauia, Servia, aud Monte negro obtain independence, the tribute pay able to the Porte being capitalized. Strvia, Montenegro, and Bulgaria pay a quota of the Turkish debt. The 1'orte engages strictly to apply to Crete the Constitutional Law of 166S, and the fullest religious liberty is enjoined everywhere. With respect to Armenia, the Porte cedes with Batoum, Kars, and Ardahan the territory between the former and the Riisso Turkish frontier, and a curved line drawn from M»gria!os on the Black Sea, including Olti, Eardus, and Kajismau, to the Ivusso-Turktsh frontier, excluding Bayazid and the Alashgerd Valley. Ihe Treaties of 1S58 and 1871 to be maintained except where the Berlin Treaty modifies them.' From the diplomatic correspondence of the Foreign Office ou the cession of Cyprus, it appears that the assignment of Cyprus to England was suggested by Sir A. 11. Layard. The island is to remain part of Turkey, the surplus revenue to be paid to the Sultan; and when Batoum, Kars, and Ardahan are restored to Turkey, England will withdraw from Cyprus. An ex tensive fire at Mandalay (Rangoon) destroyed 4J50 houses, including those of several queens and princes. No livts were lost. The steamer Europa, homeward bound from Bombay, sank after collision with the Staffa. The crew and passengers were all saved, and landed at FerroL Thb Daklinq News. — The neighbouring colonies of Victoria and South Australia (says the Jl'eiilicorth Telegraph) appear to be alive to the importance of securing the Darling trade, and each, from its own point of view, argues in favour of the scheme of attaching Wentworth, which is considered by each colony as a terminus for operations. The advantage, however, which Victoria possesses is that its borders are within a stone's throw of the town, and if the scheme is carried out we shsdl witness the spectacle of a Victorian township immediately opposite a New South Wales town. ,One advantage will be enjoyed, by the inhabitants, inasmuch as they will have an opportunity of testing the cheap ness or dearness of those articles which enter into their daily consumption, and which, although Victoria is clogged by a protec tive tariff— from the enterprise of its merchants and the facility of importing goods — that colony, it is stated, can sell more cheaply than its more favoured neigh boars. But why does our own Government neglect to open out the colony, and why instead of this large and important district with its thou sands of bales of exported wool finding an outlet as it does now in South Australia, are not means afforded to have the shipment or sale of this wool at Sydney ? In nearly every discussion on the facilities of trade as affecting the Darling, Adelaide is ^practically looked upon as the metropolis, and unquestionably in the present state of things it can scarcely be otherwise. The South Australian merchants and its steamers take advantage of every favourable opening to increase its trade; and it is no wonder that such efforts are met with the hearty support of the population of every township oh the river, aud generally the sqaatters find it to their interest to take advantage of the communication thus opened up, and which they find to their benefit. We are sure that our own Government need only be wakened up to the necessity of fostering every industry through its extended boundaries, and if our merchants and shippers found thaS means were afforded of for warding and receiving goods from Sydney direct, the colony would be enriched to thii extent. There can be no reason to donbt bnt that supplies for the district wQl be obtained where the transit is not rendered impossible by dis tance and want of means to open out communi cation from the metropolis of New South Wales and its furthest limits. It is an anomnly to find in our midst Police Magistrates, bankers, attorneys, surveyors, Custom-House officers, and other officials in direct communication with Sydney, whilst at the same time the business operations, carried on to an immense extent, are diverted. Rainfall at Mount Gastdieh. — During Saturday night and up till yesterday (says the South-Eastern Star of August 13) very heavy showers have fallen with the prospect of a con tinuance of heavy weather. From Saturday till 9 o'clock yesterday morning the registered rain fall was O'StK), or a little more than three quarters of an inch. Waixaboo Jetty. — The Wallaroo Times, writing on August 14, says : — 'As we notified in a previous issue, there appeared in the Gazette of August 1 a call for tenders for the erection of a jetty at Wallaroo, but the advertisement has since been withdrawn. It seems tolerably clear, therefore, that unless some active steps are taken by the residents in the district on the subject that this work, which is so essential to the well-being and advancement of Wallaroo, runs a very good chance of being shelved for an indefinite period. We are of opinion, therefore, that the combined action on the part of the Corporations of Kadina and Wallaroo, which was only prevented from taking effect by tha insertion of the advertisement alluded to, should be resumed at once, and no pains spated to urge upon the Government, either by a deputation or otherwise, the absolute necessity that exists for the work being commenced as soon as possible, as any lengthened delay in its construction cannot but have a very detrimental effect on the interests of the towns.' Meeting at Maxlala. — A public meeting was held in the Mallalla Council Chamber on Monday, August 12, to consider the desirability of having railway communication from Port Wakeficld to Salisbury, the establishment of a second mail, and other local matters. The Chairman of the District Council, Mr. Marsh man, J.P-- presided. Mr. Jas. Phillips said he thought they stood a good chan:e of hiving the railway as proposed, and suggested that Gawler should be the terminus. He thought the influence brought to bear from Gawler would be great. Mr. Lindsay, J.P., spoke strongly in favour of the proposed railway, and stated that Messrs. Hill & Co. intended to put on more horses, &c, to secure the passenger traffic from Wakefield. He thought that a point in favour of the line. Mr. Treloar referred in favourable terms to the idea of a deputation waiting upon the Commissioner of Public Works, if possible to be 500 strong. The Chairman, Mr. Marshman, thought they should decide which route the line should take. Some persons spoke ia favour of Gawler. Messrs. Treloar, Sutton, and Lindsay thought Salisbury would be the better terminus. Mr. Lindsay proposed — ' That we adhere to the old route, and leave the Commis sioner to decide whether it should go to Salis bury or Smithfield.' The motion was seconded by Mr. Vawser, and carried unanimously. Mr. Lindsay proposed — 'That all present form a Committee to co-operate with other places to get up the deputation.' Carried. Some dis cussion then took place as to the establishing a second daily mail. It was thought that if the township were allowed telegraphic communica tion they could do without a second duly mail. It was resolved — ' That Messrs. Churches and Schirmer see Mr. Bartlett, and get his price for a mail from Wasleys, and that a memorial be sent to the Postmaster-GeneraL' A Com mittee meeting was afterwards held, at which Mr. Lindsay took the chair. The Chairman said it was for them to conclude whether they should decide to communicate with Port Wake field, and let them do so with the Peninsula or sot. The meeting thought they should act direct themselves. Mr. Marsh made a long statement in favour of the railway. Mr. Sutton I roposed — ' That we should communicate with ihe Peninsula district.'' Mr. Vawser seconded. Carried. Resolved—' That Mr. Fisher and Mr. Smith be Secretaries to the Committee, and » rite to the Mayors of those towns and to the Chairmen of the District Councils interested to tend deputations to Adelaide to meet them on a day to be communicated to them.' Ebratoi — The Spbejo Handicap. — Mr. R. Barr Smith is the owner of Vulcan, and not Sir Sir Thomas Elder, as stated on Wednesday in our list of weights for the Spring Handicap. POLLTSG-FIACB AT SxiSLISQ EAST.— Mr. Stokes intends taking action in the House of Assembly next Wednesday witha view to the declaration of a polling-pUce at Stirling E«t. A Modern General. — They siy (according to the World) Uiat Lord Napier has 3 habit of never divulging his plans to his staff until the laf-t monwtit. He has smart ofneers around him, bnt they have to be extra smart to carry out orders given at the least possible notice. There is a story of one of them asking him a few hours before the usual time where he meant to pitch hi* camp, to which he replied gravely —'Some generals are slaves to their staff; seme staSs are slaves to their generals. / prefer the latter?

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