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1 correction by doug.butler - Show corrections

THE VINTAGE OF 18^8.

We are at length m a position to give an approximate statement of the result of the vintage for the season of 1877-8, which a glance at the figures below will show to be exceed

ingly cheering. Indeed, a new and prosperous en appears to have set in for the vignerons of South Australia, who have long been straggling agaicst difficulties so grave u to prevent what, with our eminently suitable soil and climate, should be one of the leading industries of the colony from taking anything like the place which properly belong* to it. Slowly, but iurely, the art of treating our native wines is being perfected, and gradually the not altogether unfounded prejudice against the use of wines from our own vineyards is being broken down. The manufacture of the product of South Australian vineyards into wholesome and palatable wines is falling into fewer hands. These are large vignerons themselves, who purchase the grapes from smaller growers in their vicinity, and by proper blending and judicious treatment are now producing wines of which we have no cause to feel ashamed, and which whilst growing in favour in their own bind are also becoming more widely known and better appreciated yearly -in places beyond our boundaries, with which a large and growing export trade is now being carried on. In the case of Victoria only is there a falling off in the quantity of wine exported, the decrease being due to the now almost prohibitive duty which the wisdom, or rather unwisdom, of the Victorian legislators has placed upon all wines imported into that colony ; but to make up for this New Zealand and Queensland are becoming larger consumers. One of the latest evils against which the South Australian vine-growing industry haa Luul to contend has been iujurious climatic influences and the disease caused in a great measure thereby — Oidium Tuckerii. Lastyeir from these causes theyield, which had promU?d to be a bountiful one, fell off to such an extent as to reduce the amount of wine manufactured to about 200,000 gallons— something like a third of what it should have been. This year we are glad to find that there has been a marked increase. Out of seventy circulars which we eent out forty replies have been re ceived. This is a larger number o£ answers than was returned last year, bus it is somewhat disheartening to fiud that the interest felt by a large proportion of wine growers in what is for the benefit of their busi ness is so small that they will uot take the trouble to fill up and return the stamped circular which we forwarded. Every winegrower iu the coIodv whoso address was known to us hit bad a circular posted to him; we shall be happy to hear from any who may not have received circulars, and if they. will send their addresses the usual form will be forwarded to them next season, from the replies to h md we flnd that oidium is on tha decline and his done little injury to the last vintage, although this result b due more to the effect of the dry season than to the extent or completeness of the remedial measures taken to prevent it-, spreading. As is usually the case the oidiarn where it has shown itself has almost invariably been noticed first in the Vcrdeilhos and Black Haxbnrgs, which vines seein most susceptible to its ravages, though some growers speak of its ax^pearance in a mild form amongst other vinw. There can be little doubt that the most effective way of dealing with this disease will be to either root out the vines most liable to it, or, as that involves a considerable loss of time, probably cutting them down ta the stocks and regrafting with hardier varieties will be found as efficacious. As owners of vineyards mast now be convinced of the value of their grapss eitiier to manufacture themselves or to soil to luge purchasers, it will be well for them to take steps to thoroughly eradicate a pest which may otherwise cling to the vines for years, and must affeot the quantity and quality of the wine produced. As a proof of the increasing value of wine-grapes it may be mentioned that fruit for which two years igo £2 j er ton was the highest market price, £tS per ton lms been readily obtained this vintage. It is also a cause for much satisfaction to find that the dreaded scourge, Phylloxera Testatrix, his not made its appearance. All the correspon dents concur iu saying that they have perceive 3 no siges of this complaint, but it will ba well for them to keep a watchful eye on their viues in order to detect any symptoms of its approach. Now that they know from the dearly-bought experience of their neighbours what fearful havoc it makes in any vineyard in which it gains a footing, our vignerons will show very small regard for their own interests if they do not do all in their power to prevent it? introduction and b-ke prompt and vigo rov.s measures for its immediate, suppression *bculd it unfortunately make its appearance. Cui lit Leg the info.-nwtion supplied to us by our various correspondent*, the results arrived* at slow that the produce of the 37 vineyards of , wbi'.-h we hare inf ormatiou where wins h*s been manufactured this year is more than double that of 1877, and c marked increase ou that of: the ja-evious year. The actual area of vines in bearicg does not appear to have increased to any very great degree. We only hear of about 150 acres now in bearing from' which a crop was not gathered in 1S77-8; but many are intending to plant during the forth-, comic g season. In 10 northern, vineyards the yield of 1878-7 was 80,000 gallons, this year it is 164,200 gallons— increase, 75,200 gallons. Iu five vineyards on the plains to the west and wulh-wcst of the city the year's manufacture for 1876-7 was 43,600 gallons; this season* is 85, 100 —increase, 42,500. la 13 vineyards on tha plains to the eastward of the city and on the foothills of the Mount Lofty Bauge the vintage of 1376-7 gave 57,300 gallons ; that just past returns 133,800 gallons — an increase of 73,500 gallons. Nine vineyards in the hilly dis tricts to the east and south of Adelaide produced in 1879-7 16,200 gallons, and this year have vielded 29,750 gn.llor.s- an increase of 13,550 gallons. Totals— 1876-7, 206,100 gallons; 1877-5, 415«$50 gallons; increase of the vintage of 1877-S over that of 1876-7, 209,750 gallons. The following are the abstracts of the various replies to our circulars :— Messrs. Salter & Sons, of the Saltram Vine yard, Anguton, state that the oidinrn wag not so prevalent during the past season an in that pre ceding, and that little injury resulted. la the season of 1S76-7 they had 40 acres under vines. This year they have 46, and have increased their projection from 11,000. to 21,000 gallons. Messrs. Salter are manufacturers of full-bodied wine, growing principally Shiraz or Sherry grapes. They supply us with the following ad ditional information, which we are very glad to publish: — 'The prospect* of the vignerons a few weeks before the vintage were not at all encouraging, but the seasonable rains which fell a short time before and during the vintage im proved the crop preatly, and nearly all vineyards yielded more than their owners anticipated. Vinegrowing'ln this district is decidedly on the increase, as many are planting vineyard's, not with a view to' making wine themselves, but with the intention of sellirg their pr«-dace to tlie large vignerons and distillers. Prices for prapes this season were the same as last, viz , from £4 to £6 per ton delivered. During the past year we have planted six acres of vineyard with white wine grapes. 'We have also been compelled to add to our cellarage. The audition ccrsists of a cellar 60 feet long dt 21 feet wide.r Messrs. Smith & Sons say that oidium has been hardly noticeable with them. and was only seen in a table grape, the Black Hamburg. They consider that the disease is naturally dying out The rain did little damage, but in some vineyards it increased the crop. Their average wine yield is about 20.000 gallon*. In 1876-7 it was only 17,000, bat this season it has reached

35,600 gallons. They have had 40 urea under crop, but have now increased their vineyard by 20 acre*, from which they got a first crop this season. The vines grown are principally Shiraz, Frontignac, Mataro, and sherry. Messrs. Smith add : — ' The crop of grapes this year in most vineyards has been very good. We have bought about 95 tons ourselves, and have given from £5 to £6 per ton for best sorts. There are many in our neighbourhood going to plant tnis season, because they see it pays. The cause of many failures in winegrowing in years gone by has been through planting in bad soil3 and bad situations, and also planting too close. la a dry soil and climate like ours we ought to give vines and all other trees plenty of room. We have 20 acres planted 15 feet by 6 ; this will give tho roots plenty of room to go in search of food, allow the sun and air to get between them, and alto facilitate the working among them.' _ Mr. B. Seppelt, of SeppeltsSeld, has had n« oidium, nor has the rain done him any harm. He baa made this year S5.000 gallons as agiiast 30,000 to 40,000— his usual average hitherto. In 1876-7 he had 62 acres under vines ; now he lias 82 acres, the principal descriptions being Blanquette and Mataro. Mr. Seppelt adds the following remarks: — 'I had opportunities of inspecting most of the small vineyards in this neighbourhood, but could detect nothing of oidium this year, nor any sign of phylloxera. The prospects at the commencement of the season were such as to promise a bountiful harvest, but owing to the very dry weather settiDg in the yield was not nearly so large aa expected; yet the average yield can be con sidered about one-third better than last season. I have now 82 acres planted (all 10 x 10), and got a first crop this season, namely, from about 30 acres of Blanquette, the yield being nearly 40 tons. I intend again planting 20 to 30 acres. Most of the wine made by me is made from purchased grapes. I have 60 acres at South Rhine, and also bought a large quantity of grapes at Payneham, near Adelaide, this year, making the wine at Mr. Quick's, the total quantity made at the three places and intended for wine only being 85,000 gallons, as stated in the return.'' Writing from the vineyard attached to the Sevechills College, the Rev. S. Karlinger says that the oidium did very little harm last season ; but he had heard complaints of its ravages from small growers in the neighbourhood. In the College vineyard sulphur was used with good effect on the .Reisling and Verdeilho affected. No signs of phylloxera have appeared. The Brothers have 26 acres under vines this year — an increase on that formerly reported. This year they manufactured about 6,000 gallons. Mr. F. bis WincJwl, of Buchsfelde, says oidium was prevalent in his neighbourhood; but the injury therefrom was not very great. Tokay vines were worst affected ; but no remedies.so far as he is aware, were used. The March rains spoiled a good deal of the crop. His usual average vintage is between 1,500 and 2,000 gallons ; bat this year he has manufactured only 1,200. This, however, is a marked improvement on the season before, when, owing to the rains, he made no wine at all. The acreage under cultivation is about the same as last year. Mr. W. Jacob, of Moorooroo, says he had very little oidium this year, and Yerdeilhosouly were injuriously affected. Sulphur was tried, with what result is not stated. He has 20 a-res under vines — Reisling, Verdeilho, Carbenet, and Shiraz. The vineyard has cot been added to during the last season. Mr. Jacob says he has made be tween 5,000 and 6,000 gallons of wine this year. Mr. J. W. Richman, of Watervale, has not heard of the oidium being in his neighbourhood at all this year. The rain had done his vineyard no injury, but the dry weather in the early part cf the season caused a light crop, so that it only produced 9,000 instead of 13,000 gallons. He has 75 acres under vines, principally Grenache, Mataro, Reisling, White Spanish, and Shiraz. Mr. J. Gilbert, of Pewsey Vale, says the oidium was rather prevalent with him, though its effect on the crop was slight. As usual the Ver deilhos and table grapes were much diseased. Vines which in the season 1870-7 were v/orst affected were this season nearly free, whilst ethers which were scarcely touched last soisjd were very bad this. He has 18 acres uuder crop and made 7,900 gallons this year as agaiust (J,000 last year. His vines are .'principally Carbenet, Shiraz, Celling, and Verdeilho. Mr. J. Gramp, of Rowland's Flat, has had no oiuiimi. Hi» vines suffered from waut of rain, and he therefore made 2,000 instead of 3,000 gallons this season. He grows Mataro, 'Pedro Xirnenes, and Muscatel. Mr. A. Shannon, of Truro, had oidium slightly in his vineyard, but the vines did not suSer irom it to any perceptible degree, aud the rain did a little mischief. Hot wiuds were most troublesome and reduced his yield from about U 00 gallons to 300. He has 10 acres under vires — Shiraz, Frontignac, and 3ilab-xo. Mr. J. Wingate, a. small grower, of Gawler River, sajs he has seen no oidium amongst his vines. He usually sells his grape crop, which consists of Shiraz, Tokay, and Madeira. Sir. T. Hardy, of Banks! Je Vineyard, says he has iiad oidium, but it came too late to do mush damrge to the crop. He has an idea that it help- d to rot the grapea after the heavy rains in April. As usual, the Verdeilhos sLosved it first and Buffered most. No remedy was used at Bankside, - but at Tintara, his other vineyard, where he discovered oidium in tl:o Carignans, they were sulphured freely, and the timely use of this remedy saved the crop. Mr. Hardy goes on to say: — ' I hfcve not perceived any signs of phylloxera vastatrix, and having lately seen the effects of it on the Geelong vineyards do not wnnt to see it here. The rain has done mischief to the crop, but not to the extent one might have expected. My vines are well sheltered with foliage above a-ad open below. I usually manufacture about 50,000 gnllons, except last year, when it fell off to £5.000. I have made fully 60,000 gallons here at Bankside and at my country place this year. I have purchased grapes largely as usual, and generally the vineyards I have taken have turned out from a third to one-half more than last year. I grow only the Shiraz for wine and Muscat for rcisins at Bankside. At Tintara I have Car beret, Shiraz, Mataro, Doradilla, and a white grape that the late Dr. Kelly brought from France, named the Sauvignon Blanc. It is a i very shy bearer, bnt produces a fine wine, and ! will yet prove a valuable acquisition.' Sir. J. D. Holbrook, of Wilford Vineyard,' Undenlale, says he noticed oidium at the close of thn summer in the Verdeilhos, but does not! thick much harm was done by it. His usual nverasre wine manufacture from his own vine-; yard is about 7,000 gallons, bat last year he only inade 8,500 gallons. ?Thisseasonthetotaiqaaatiry ', manufactured by him was 12,000 gallons. In; 187--7 be had 23 acres, but nine acres were not: in f nil bearing. This year he had a full crop! froai all his vines. Doradilk. Verdeilho, and Mu.-cat for white wine, with Shiraz for red win', are tbe sorts principally cultivated by him.; Mr. Holbrook further adds:—'Ia addition to the rf- plies to your circular I wish to make a few rf marks upon the present vintage, which has I bslieve b«en by far the wett3st I have kno^n during an experience of 25 years. At one time we were very careful to cat the grapes in March, before the rains usually set in, and I remember my first vintage, which was put into a lO-t^llon keg, resulted in a very fair vinegar; but year by year we gaiued experience, and often' paid dearly for it, and now I think it will be generally allowed that there is plenty of wine made here that is a credit to the country. I began to cut grapss this year on the 2nd of April and have not quite finished yet. The must was lower at that date than I have known for some yesrs, 1-105 sp. gr., which will mike a thin dry wine, a wholesome summer beverage for hale and hesrty men. A fortnight later the must had increased in density to 1*115 s.g. There is a peculiarity about this wine, which is that it stands at 1050 ».g. tc-day after being in cask a fortnight, and promises to make a sweet wice. I am cutting a block of Shiraz cow — about 5 acres. The grapes are quite sound, but look like half-dried raisins, from which I am making a liqueur wine. The must stands at 1150 s.g. I think I should have lost nearly the whole of these grapes had I not at tlie commencement of the heavy rains taken the precaution to cut back the shoots well with hedge shears, and thin out by hand the leaves to expose them to the sun and wind. This plan has answered well, and I thiak the produce will be about one-third less in quantity than what it should have be^n judging by Indi cations at the beginning of the vintage. I have come to the conclusion that we need not fear a wet season half so much as I imagined, providing the vines are cot too crowded, and care taken to thia the foliige upon tho« vines thathave of necessity to be left late. My vine* are planted 9 ft. x 6 ft., and hid I to p!*mt sgtin upon good land I would plant 10 x 8, which in addition to other advantages wouid admit of cress cultivatisn where trellising was not in tended.' Mr. Richard Normal, cf Bankside, has had the oidium amongst his vines, but so late in the season that it did little harm. He has eight acres of vines, for the most part Sbir&z, from which he last year manufactured only 2,100 gallons, whiht this year the same vineyard has prodaced 5,100 gallons. The Hon. J. Crozier says of his Oaklands vineyard that he has been free from oidium, but bis crops suffered from the continuous dry hot weather to the extent of one-fcorth of the yield. The rain when it came did good. He has rnimi fsctured 3,500 gallons this year as against 1^00

in the season ol 1876-7. Twelve acres of his vineyard, which consists of 13 acres in all, is only now coming into full bearing. Tbe vines grown are Pedro Ximenes, Palomino Blanco, Sweetwater, for white, and Grenache, Shiraz, Mataro, Carignan, and Tinto, for red wine. Mr. Crozier further says.— 'I believe that winemaking is now beginning to be looked upon with more favour, and will pay if proper atten tion is paid to its manufacture. It appears to be getting into the hands of persons who under stand it and make it a trade. I have been told tLat a person who had a vineyard in this neigh bourhood destroyed the greater portion of It. This year from five acres be sold the grapes for £120. He is sorry that he destroyed any, and now thinkg of planting more. Distillers and wine-makers have been buying quantities of grapes and giving good prices, and many who have destroyed their vineyards may find they have made a mistake.' Mr. J. Gillard, of Silvania Vineyard, Norwood, says the oidium was noticed in the Verdeilhos, but was not bad. Suphuring had a salutary effect. The rain had done very little mischief. He usually manufactures from 10,000 to 12,000 gallons, and this season has made considerably over his average, having purchased about 50 tons of grapes. Hi3 principal grapes are Frontignac, Matnro, Shiraz, and Madeira. Mr. II. C. Quick, Harden, reports that oidium made its appearance iu his neighbourhood early in tbe ttason and again later on. It attacked the young wood, particularly the grafted vines of the Verdeilhos, Black Hamburg, and Frontignac varieties. In each case the hydro-sulph»te of lime, for making which we have twice given the recipe, was used with the best effect, and so little damage was done. As Mr. Quick's vine yard is so situated as to be particularly liable to the oidium this resalt must be considered most satisfactory. For years the produce of hu vines has been on the decrease owing to this pest, but is tow improving. In the season of 1876-7 he made only l,C00 gallons. This year he has manu factured 2,000 gallons from his own grapes, though he had 1} acres less under vines. Ho has also made 20,000 gallons from purchased froit. His vines are principally Shiraz, Grenache, Sweetwater, Morilioc, and Muscatel. Messrs. John Holms k Son, of Magill-rosd, have had no dUeise this season, nor had the rains done them any injury. They have pro duced 16,000 gallons of wine from their own grapes. They had 42 acres under vines last season, and put in six azres more in 1S77, which of course are not yet in bearing. They culti vate principally Mataro, and also Grenache and Shiraz. Sir Thomas Elder's manager has noticed the oidicm amongst his Verdeilnos, but not to any very damaging extent. Last year he only made 2,800 gallons, but this year has manufactured 5,300 gallons. He has 17 acres in bearing, consisting of Madeira, Doradilla, Gouais, Pedro Ximenes, Verdeilho, Shiraz, Malbec, Mataro, Grenache, and Black Portugal. The manager for Mrs. White, of Rosefield Vine yard, Fullarton, has seen no oidium in his neigh bourhood this year, but the rain caused a loss of about 500 gallons. The average yield from the 29 acres of which the vineyard consists is 6,000 gallons. This year it has reached 8,000. The vines are Pedro Ximenes, Doradilla, Palomino Blanco, Temprano, Ferasles Colora, Molar Negro, and Frontigsac. M. Penfold & Co. say that they had oidium to some extent in their viueyard amongst the Ver deilhos. but that the effect on the crop wes scrrcely noticeable. They intend to cut them back and graft with other vines. Their manu facture of wine this years was 21,000 gallons as against 6,500 produced in the previous season. They have about 60 acres under vines, prin cipally Mataro, Grenache, Pedro Ximenes, and Tokay. Messrs. Clark k Crompton, of Stonyfell, have this year had the oidium for the first time in their Carignans. It came late in the season, and so did not affect the yield, but the rain compelled tliem to gather prematurely. They have made 6.000 gallons this season — a lar ^e in i rease en that of 187G-7. They have 35 acres r landed with Mnscat, Mataro, Sercial, Doradilla, and Black Portugal. Mr. S. Davenport, of Burnside, says he is not aware of the existence of oidium in his imme diate neighbourhood this year, nor has the rain done any niischitf. He usually manufac tures from 3,000 to 5,000 gallons, the quantity increasing as the vineyard matures. The pro duce this year is 5,500 from 25 acres, 10 acres of which are cow coming into full bearing. He has 15 acres of Sercial and 10 of mixed Verdeilho, Scyras, Carignsn, Gouais. Mataro, and Grenache. Mr. Davenport abo supplies some interesting in formation relating to the density of his must, the amount of saccharine contained, and the attenuation, which we are unable to give, as it would require to be put in tabulated form. Mr. W. P. Auld, of Auldana, has had oidium in Ids Verdeilhos, aud sulphured them, but without effect. He intends to root out sush *-s are diseased. The produce of his vineyard was up io the average, about 18,000 gallons. Mr. Auld has 103 acres under vines, namely, Shiraz, Mataro, Carbenet, Malbec, Palomino Blanco, Don-dilla, Muscatel, Crystal, Tokay, and Ver deilho. Mr. W. Clark, of Norwood, had the oidium amongst his vines, but not to the same extent as on former years. He has about eight acres under vines— Grenache, Black Portugal, Mitaro, VcriU:ilho,and Shiraz — from which h« this year sold 44 tons of grapes. Mr. D.' F. Shaw, the manager of Sirs. Bake r's Morialta Vineyard, says small patches of that vineyard have been badly affected, particularly in the Sweetwaters. No remedy was used. From the eight acres of Mataro and Sweetwater he has made 650 gallons of wine this season Mr. B. W. Wright, of Home Park Vineyard, Mscill, says he has not been troubled with oidicm at any time, but the rain has prevented some of his crop from ripening. His average quantity of wine is about 10,000 gallons. This year it will be about 8,000, and in addition he has made about 5 tons of raisins. In 1876-7 he bad 34 acres bearing ; tbis year S7 acres. He has 40 nores in all, bat some are not yet bearing. Mr. Wright supplies the following additional -emarks: — 'The vintage of 1876-7 was very wet. I lest at least half from mould, occa sioned by the almost tropical growth of grass among the vines, by which the sun and a.ir were excluded. I found it almost impossible to gather the bunches; the graphs were so rotten that they fell directly the bunches were - touched. At first these were shaken off as useless, and the bunches cut with such grapes only as remained on thera^ Finding that soon there would be none I examined the rotten grapes, and fouud the skins only affected. I then placed boxes and baskets under the vines, and tapping the plants shook the fruit sff. Mouldy grapes were removed from these (they were always in bunches not loose) and tbe wine made was fouud jast as good as from perfect grapes. ' The saeeharome ter steed very low lest year, and this owing to the quantity of moisture absorbed by the fruit (not more' than half that of former years), and it has consequently been difficult to maintain a high standard. I consider last year and this the two worst years I have had. - This season Ihave constructed a raisin-drying-machine capable of holding three tons of grapes at a time, which I can dry in three days. I consider it a sncces5, and as I now know how to manage then1, and have succeeded in such a bad season as this, I am encouraged in the hope that a good season, with the ordinary warm dry weather, m*\y give me a good return for my heavy expenditure. Whilst on the subject of wine, I consider a gTeat injustice is inflicted on tbtse colonies by Great Britain and by the eolonicsTon each other by tlie continued imposi tion of duties which amount to a robbery for tbe purpose of extorting from certain classes » revenue which should be equally contributed. There can be no reason why England sbonld lower tbe standard cf wine to suit France and Gennauy only. As regards these colonies, tbere should be no duties inflicted on them that are not indicted on Ireland. There a perfectly free interchange of produce is allowed with Erigland, and as distance of ocpan dividing the places can make ro difference, if Ireland is to be con siJered an integral part of Great Britain and to fce free, so ought we. I mention this because 1 havo not heard the ar^iment brought forward before; and whilst at this time Eaglmd expects us to arise against her enerniesjshesho-ild be made to ucderstard there is reciprocity that gho*ild exist, which she is gradually and surely breaking.' Mr. G. F. Ind, of Paradise, says he has not had oidinm to any extent, the vines affected being Verdeilhos, Tokay, and Gouais. His remedy is to cut down and graft with plants not liable to tbe disease. He has made 4,000 gallocs of wine, and expected 2,00') cases of grapes this year. He has 20 acres pl-inted with Dorsdilla, Mnscat, Frontignac, Shiraz, Dolsetti, end Mataro. Mr. H. Iicde, of Rnndle- street, distiller and winemaker, has manufactured about 4,000 gallons of wine this season from purchased grapf s. Mr. F. R. Hunt, Hahndorf, has been singularly unfortunate, as he his not gathered even a bunch of grapes from his 11 acres of vices, the whole having been destroyed by frosts in November; and Mr. Watkins, of Sunning Hill, has been almost in like evil case, as his crop was thrice damaged by frosts and ten acre s totally destroyed. The grapes from the remaining eight acres wero sold to Mr. Linda.

Mr. C. B. Young has had no oidium in bis Kanmantoo Vineymrd this year, where he has about 35 acres of Mataro and Shirac vines, being an increase of five acres upon last year. He has made bis average quantity, 4,500 gallons, this season. Mr. Young also supplies the following notes, which we cordially endors* : — u It is my decided opinion that the winegrowing interest has taken a turn for the better, and that for the future it will not be the uuproS table occupation it has hitherto proved. The consumption of wine has rapidly increased in the colony, and the wines generally are of a irore decided and better quality. Popular pre judice against home-grown wines has very much abated. It is very important, however, that the wines should get into the hands of persons qualified to deal with them judiciously in the cellar, and by proper blending and filling put them before the public in good condition, and according to some well-known aud appreciable tjpe. Without this they never can come into general use in the colony or find a market out side it.' Mr. John Friaby, Manager of the Clarendon Vineyard, says the oidium did a good deal of harm to his crop, which also suffered severely from a frost in November. The Verdeilho and Sercial were most affected by the disease, but received much benefit from a. liberal dressing with sulphur. He bas S3 acres under vines, and has this year manufactured about 6,000 gallons. The principal grapes grown are Palomino Blanco and Grenache. Mr. M. H. Douglas, of Happy Valley, reports t'aat oidium was rather more common than usual in his neghbourhood in the earlier part of tha season. He finds it difficult to state the amount of the injury resulting, as from the excessive heat the crops must in any case have been small. Its ravages were confined almost exclusively to the Verdeilhos. His usual manufacture is between 8,000 and 9,000 gallops, but from the causes indicated the yield this year was only about 5,500. At the season of 1376-7 he had i8 acres of vines iu bearing, &nd this year has 48 acres, the principal sorts being Verdeilho, Tokay, Beisling, Shiraz, Mataro, Carignan, and Grenache. Mr. G. Manning, Noarlnnga, says the oidium was in his Verdeilhos this year, but the damage done was not worth speaking about. The rain caused him to lose at least 300 gallons. His average manufacture is between 5,000 and 6,000, and this year he has made 5,800 gallons, thus — cf Shiraz and Malbec 2.S00, of Carbenet 600, and of Grenache and Mataro 2,400. He lias 30 acres under vines, which are in full bearing. In a footnote Mr. Manning says: — ' This last year our best-quality grapes turned out far better as to quantity than the common sorts. If they had been all Shiraz vines we should have made close on 10,000 gallons. Grenache vines with us have been far below average crop for the last three years.' Mr. B.H. Babbage, of St. Mary's, says he had the oidium in his vineyard for the second time this year, but not badly, amongst the Verdeilhos and Black Portugal, causing a loss of about 100 gallons. The vines in a younger vineyard were qaite free. He usually produces 3,000 to 4,000 gallons. This year he has manufactured about 5,500 gallons, including that from grapes pur- chased from an adjoining vineyard. He has 25 acres planted with Verdeilho, Grenache, Mataro, Carignan, Black Portugal, Shiraz, Doradilla, Temprano, and Belas Blanco. Mr. F. Potts, of Langhorne's Creek, reports that the oidium was in his Verdeilhos, but was not half so bad as in the two preceding seisons. The raia also did much mischief. He has 30 acres planted with Shiraz, Palomino Blanco, and Verdeilho, bnt the vineyard has been nn pruned and untended for seven years. He made this season 2,500 gallons, bnt at one time his vines produced as much as 16,000 gallons. Mr. W. Eeynell, of Reynella, say* the oidium made its appearance in bis vineyard too late to work much harm, but a frost on November 9 tcok more than half his crop. He has about 20 acres of Malbec, Shiraz, and Carbenet, but this year has made only 1,500 gallons from his own grapes, and the same quantity from purchased fruit. Mr. A. Wood..pf Yankalilla, says the oidium was not so bad this season as in those two which preceded it, but he bas heard that it has appeared in »ther vineyards iu his neighbour hood for the first time this year. The Verdeilho, Grenache, and Mataro have been most affected from the first of these he has had no return for three years. He usually mikes from 1,000 to 1,500 galls, from the five or six acres which be bas in bearing, but this year has made ouly 800 galls^ as he delayed the vintage until May 1, having found that the later he gathers his grapes ?he better will be the quality of the wine, i bough the quantity may be lessened. The grapes principally grown by him are Carbenet, Sauvignoo, Verdeilho, Grenache, Mataro, Scyras, Pedro Ximenes, and a few Doradilla. Speaking of oidium and its treatment, Mr. Woods says: — ~ I have used no remedies other than keeping the fruit-producing branches as near the surface as possible. Plants that stand high, or iu low positions, or on trellises are most affected. I have found th&t the same sorts iu tbe same situations headed down to within a few inches of the surface, and kept well open in the centre, allowing the bearing part of the vine to grow as close to the ground as possible (provided always that it is out of the reach of the splash of dirt caused by rain) are less affected by oidium. In this way they will mature hotter and the per fection of the fruit will be greater. On the other hand the higher the fruit is from the soil the more watery, acid, and flavourless it will be, and it would seem also more liable to blight and oiuium.' Mr. E. J. Hector, of Langhorne's Creek, slys be has had a little oidium, which with him his diminished gradually for the last three seasons. He has made as much as 15,000 gallons, and could make 10,000 now, but savs that as there ia no sale for wine at remunerative prices, he has turned pigs into his vineyard far several years. It is a grievous pity that the product of 36 acres of good vines should be put to such a purpose. Mr. Hector adds, as a footnote : — ' Owing to our fiscal system the Legislature prefeis to collect a large and easily-obtained revenue through Customs duties on spirits and licences from public-houses to any other mode. The consequence is that the vinegrowing interest has been surrounded by nnmerons restrictions as to the sale of wines and the making and dis posal of brandy, which have had the effect of discouraging the growers to such an extent that after vainly attempting to remove the restric tions upon their industry tkey have found it better to abandon the making of wine .ind turn their attention to pursuits whi;h are not dis couraged by the State.' Mr. E.W. Schneider, of Hahndorf, has hit! the oiiUuin in his vineyard, but the h-rm it did was light compared with the damage done by the frost, which killed a great number of vine*, or at . least stripped them of leaves and fruit. ' The rain too also had worked much mischief in his; neighbourhood. The vines most affected with him were Black Hamburg, Tinto, Gouiis, ' Tokay, and Muscat. He tried no remedy last I season but intends to do so during the coming one, and will inform u* of the result of liia experiments. One thousand gallons is all the wine he has been able to mwiufacture this year. Mr. A. G. Downer, the new proprietor of Monalta Vineyard, writes in answer tt oar I circular: — ' I purchased Mr. Andrews's Monaltt Estate about the end of last year. There are about 17 acres of vineyard. The vines hid not been pruned with the exception of a few. I made no wine, the crop being little more than enough for home use. A large proportion of the vines is affected by oidium, bntthere are no signs of phylloxera.''

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