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The Courier.

SATURDAY, MAY 7, 1831.

Arrived on Tuesday the 3d. instant, the

bark Gambia 214 tons, B. Ireland, com- mander, from the Mauritius 9th March, with a cargo of sugar and other goods. Passenger, H. Hoskins, esq.

Arrived on Monday the 2d inst. the ship Eliza, 342 tons, John Weddell, esq. com- mander, from London 28th August, Swan river 17th April, with a general cargo of goods, passengers Mr. and Mrs. Gaunt and 4 children, Miss Hudson, Miss Connoll, Miss Jackson, Mr. Green, Mr, Anderson, Mr. and Mrs. Wright and 2 children, Mr. Fen- ning, Mr. Hudson, Mr. Drewall, Mr. Hum- pelby and 2 children, Mr. and Mrs. Lacey and 4 children, Mr. Starkey, Mr. Firth, Messrs. Wilkinson, Trig, Forward, Boston, Walker, Hill, Tennyson, Price, Norton.

The ship Burrell had dropped down the Tamar, to take in wood and water on her way to London.

The only arrivals at Launceston last week were the Friendship and the Fanny from Cir- cular head, passengers E. Curr, esq. and

Mr. Whitesides.

The schooner Resolution, Capt. Lancey, which sailed from Launceston on the 14th   April, with a cargo for Sydney, has had the misfortune to lose both her masts, the fore-   mast suddenly falling overboard and drag- ging the mainmast with it. Capt. Lancey afterwards managed by hoisting a small sail, to conduct her to Circular head, where with the aid of Mr. Curr, he erected jury masts, and has returned to George town. She is now undergoing repair by the owner Mr. Griffiths, which was not expected to occupy more than a week. No lives, we are happy to say, were lost in the accident, and the cargo is uninjured.

The cargo of the Gambia consists of 3561 bags of sugar, 8 chaldron of coals, bar iron and other goods.

The Eliza, besides an assorted cargo of goods from London, for Messrs. J. Swan, W. Cook, Marzetti, G. W. Eldridge, E. Wright, R. Pybus, James Wilson, brings 11 merino sheep for Mr. M. Gaunt.

Cargo of the Merope.

800 bags wheat shipped by Mr. W. Kim- berley, 740 do. Mr. J. Dean, 653 do. Mr. W. Forbes, 252 do. Mr. J. Cassidy, 82 do. Mr. Nathaniel Elliott, 50 do. Mr. W. Kear- ney, 170 do. Mr. J. Espie, 43 do. flour Mr. J. T. Gellibrand, 30 tons, 15 casks potatoes, Capt. Briggs, &c ; total of wheat 2747 bags, containing 7802 bushels.

Passengers — Mrs. Briggs and servant, Ensign Pratt, 63rd regt. for the benefit of his health, Mr. Wm. M'Rae, Mr. Francis Lawless, brother of the Irish orator, and Mr. John Parnell, formerly of the Tea tree brush, and late of Macquarie street.

The price of wheat continues much the same as our former quotations, though some considerable quantities have been brought by Mr. Walker at the Wharf during the week, as low as 4s. 6d. a bushel. The fa- cility of loading and unloading the boats generally enables that gentleman to buy at a small quotation below the general price of

the market.

The sale of government horses by Mr. Collicott, on Wednesday, went off well, se- veral of the poor old creatures who had done a great deal of public work fetching 20/. and upwards. At a sale of a similar kind of about 40 horses at Sydney lately by Mr. Prichard, the whole proceed did not amount

to 30/.

London price current 25th Nov. 1830, — Sperm oil 85/. per tun, black whale do. 61/.

seal do. 55/. to 60/.

Considerable quantities of hay have been brought to town during the week, and the price has suffered a small depression. Bar- ley continues to fetch 5s. 6d. a bushel from

the brewers.  

A singular narrative appears in the Laun- ceston Advertiser, copied from one of the Sydney papers of the two ships Edward, Capt. Gilbert, and the York, Capt. Leary, which had sailed in company from Sydney on their voyage to Batavia. The York had a detachment of the 57th. regiment on board, and all that we can collect from the story is, that between Moreton bay and Port

Macquarie, Captain Leary changed his pur- pose, and veering round prepared to go the   course through Bass's straits, leaving Capt.

Gilbert, who was experienced in the course   by Torres' straits to proceed on his way. The

latter gentleman, however, fancied that he   saw symptoms of piracy on board the York as she was steering away, and returning to

Sydney made affidavit to that effect.  

A small steam-vessel of about 30 tons,   called the Surprise, is now constructing at

Sydney.  

By the last accounts the price of wheat   at Sydney was 5s. a bushel for the best sorts,   and as low as 4s. for the inferior kinds. The   weavel however had began to commit serious

ravages among the stock in the granaries.  

The Mermaid, Captain Henniker, sailed from Port Louis with a cargo for London in

the end of January last.  

The bark Integrity, Capt. Ord, sailed   from the Mauritius with a cargo for Sydney  

at the same time as the Gambia for this

place.    

The non-arrival of the Bombay, and the  

absence of all intelligence respecting her had occasioned considerable uneasiness to the

parties concerned at Calcutta.  

The ship Cornwallis continues to make   constant trips between the Cape and Swan River, importing sheep, cattle and horses, which fetch a very good remunerating price, and are paid for in ready money.

The ship James Pattison performed the voyage from Swan River in the S. W. mon- soon in three weeks, and was only seven weeks at sea from Hobart-town to Madras.

The water mill now erecting at Launces- ton by Mr Walker, is one of the best that has been imported to the colony. It was originally sent out for the use of the govern- ment at St. Helena, but not being suited to the capabilities of the stream it was sent on to Calcutta, from whence it found its way hither. The wheel is of cast iron, and is 40 feet in diameter. The stream which is conducted from the cascade to drive it, brings the pure water within 500 yards of the town of Launceston, near Mr. Barnes's brewery, to a point from which it may with

much ease be fed all over the town.

The duty levied on Mauritius sugar at the Cape of Good Hope, was formerly 10 per cent. while that on the produce of the West India Islands was only 3¼. They have late- ly been put on a footing of equality.

About 200 horses are annually exported from the Cape to the Mauritius, in value at the point of export of about 4,500/. About half that number has latterly been exported to Swan river. Working oxen are however most in demand at the latter infant colony.

The bulk of the potatoes exported hence to Swan river by the Eagle, were sold, we learn, at from 30 to 35s. a cwt. but they were bought up chiefly for seed. The dif- ferent speculations by the Eagle would ap- pear to have answered extremely well.  

Among the other symptoms of improve- ment in Hobart-town, we have some pleasure in pointing out the praiseworthy rope manu- factory of Mr. David Ramsay at the top of Melville-street. By his new machinery he is now enabled to make ropes and hawsers 160 yards in length and upwards of 3 inches in

diameter.

In 1758, a trial was made on a small fri- gate, of the effect of coppering the bottom, and though it was found to answer com- pletely, and is the method now generally in use, the practice was not extended beyond   the one solitary experiment for nearly 20 years afterwards. It is now customary to cover the bottoms of ships entirely with plates of copper, and it is found that while at sea the copper remains perfectly bright, without shells or weeds attaching themselves to it. It is commonly supposed that the poisonous quality of the copper is the cause of its cleanness ; and though it may have some effect, it is certainly not alone suffici- ent to prevent the adhesion of animal and vegetable substances, for when ships are laid up for a long time in harbours, the copper is much covered with weeds and shells. It appears to us that the brightness of the cop- per is chiefly owing to the oxidation of the metal and the removal of the oxide as fast as it is formed, by the friction of the water as the ship sails. Thus the copper soon wears out, which, on the score of economy is a se- rious evil. Sir Humphry Davy ascertained the chemical properties of substances are much affected by their state of electricity. If a piece of sheet copper be immersed in di-

lute nitric acid, it is acted upon and decom- poses the acid, or, in other words, is dissol- ved ; but if the natural state of its electri- city be changed from positive to negative by the voltaic battery, the acid has no longer any effect upon it.

" As we are to have steam-boats, and that without a doubt, to proceed to India direct, the communication will be very rapid. My friend, and the great engineer, Captain Trevi- thick, is in treaty at this moment with the Government to fit their packets to all parts of the world ; the grand secret is found out ; the necessary power to propel a vessel of 200 tons can be put into a very small com- pass, consequently the great difficulty of carrying the necessary quantity of coals, is   entirely removed. By this new invention, a vessel can he made to carry double the quan- tity of coals that would be required to make the voyage to India, and back, as the con- sumption is not one-eighth part of what is

now used.

" This you can tell your friends as a piece   of news, having seen it tried, I can vouch

for the truth.

" In the interim, for your guidance, I will merely say that the cost of these engines

is not much more than half the cost of the   common engine now used. — LETTER FROM

LONDON."  

The noted pirate Aaron Smith has been  

apprehended at Batavia, and his vessel

seized.     The Jaseur, Capt. Lyons, arrived at Port   Louis on the 24th December. Passenger,   A. A. Frankland, esq.  

— 000 —

By the arrival of the Eliza from Swan Ri-  

ver, we are happy to hear more favourable  

accounts of that infant settlement. The ori- ginal grants of Colonel Lautour and others   had been purchased by more provident set-  

tlers who were doing well. On one of these purchased grants in particular about 40   miles above Perth some very good crops of   wheat, hay and lucern had been reaped and   the soil promised to turn out ultimately as   well as could be wished. A canal of about 300 yards in length was cutting by Govern-   ment across the neck of land a little above Perth, which besides avoiding the tedious  

circuit of 3 or 4 miles of a bend of the   river, would enable boats of almost any bur- den to avoid the shallows and to proceed   without interruption from 50 to 60 miles   along the vale of a beautiful country.  

It was fully expected at Swan River that the Attwick would bring out the new char- ter, for the colony. At present, from the want of all courts of requests and duly au-   thorised magistrates benches, the greatest disregard of the common obligations of life prevailed. The new settlement at Augusta, near Cape Lewin was succeeding well.

As a proof that many of the first preju- dices raised against the new colony of Swan river were unfounded, we may state, that in disproof of the report that the soil around Perth and Freemantle was nothing but an immense bank of sand, and that holes had been dug several yards deep, shewing nothing but interminable strata of sand, we are happy to state, that the subsoil of clay has been dug up at a small distance from the surface, and a brick kiln commenced working, from which excellent bricks are sold at 30s. a thousand, and many good buildings are already erect-

ed in Perth.

The dysentery continued among the inha- bitants of Perth, but the inactivity was la- mentably conspicuous of many of the per- sons who had emigrated from London, who remained in the town totally unfit for the ar-   duous task of settling in a new country like that. The Attwick was daily expected with a large number of settlers from London.  

The press and types exported from this place by the Eagle, were likely to prove a good speculation, a coalition having been formed with the editor of the Western Aus- tralia Manuscript Gazette formerly publish- ed. The first number of the new work was published the day before the Eliza sailed, but a copy unfortunately did not get on

board.  

We have much pleasure in contradicting on the most correct authority the report of the existence of bushrangers at Swan river. One man had been apprehended under sus- picious circumstances, and brought on to this place in the Eliza, under the impression of his being a runaway prisoner, but on its appearing that he had concluded the period of his sentence he was set at liberty. The natives also are universally of the most peaceable character.

Capt. Bannister, brother in-law of our As- sistant Commissary General, who has ex- plored the country at Swan river, beyond Darling's range, gives the most flattering ac- count of the soil and country — and many of the more recent settlers had located them- selves there.

The accounts from Swan river mention the appearance of crime in that infant settle- ment. A young settler has eloped with an old settler's wife ; both are ordered off by

the Governor. Some sailors have left their

ships and commenced bushrangers. — India

Gazette.

On Thursday morning, His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor, accompanied by Colonel Logan of the 63d, Charles Arthur, esq. Aide-de Camp, and Henry Arthur, esq. left Hobart town, on a tour to the other side of the island.      

An inquest was held on Monday before J. H. Moore, esq., Coroner, on the body of John Smith, a ticket of leave man, but lat- terly of intemperate habits, who dropped down dead in the Police court yard while waiting for his pass to proceed up the coun-

try.

We were mistaken in stating last week, that the Gazette would in future be publish- ed at 12 o'clock on Friday. By the new post office arrangements, it has not been found necessary to make any alteration in the hour of publishing that journal.  

A new code of regulations for the Supreme court has been promulgated by his Honour

the Chief Justice.

We had the pleasure the other day, to take a short walk as far as the Government garden in the Paddock, and were much gra- tified at the great improvement since our last visit. A piece of rich land on the bank on the further side of the rivulet of about 3 acres, had been cleared and trenched, and added to the former extent of the garden, which now comprises an area of nearly 15 acres. By the careful and judicious manage- ment of Mr. Davidson, the superintendent, a large accession has been made to the flora of the place, by raising numerous exotics from the seeds which different gentlemen who had arrived in the colony during the former year had brought with them and pre- sented to the colony. Among them, we ob- served some elegant plants from the Cape and India, and also from South America. We shall endeavour in some of our early numbers, or in our little annual volume for next year, to give a descriptive catalogue, with some drawings of these interesting spe- cimens. The bees lately imported by Dr. Wilson, we were glad to observe, were thriv- ing well, and had completely filled an addi- tion lately made to the hive. The working bees may sometimes be seen as far as Ho- bart town and even New town, being attract- ed no doubt by the fresh water.

We would wish to give a friendly caution to the Publicans generally to comply without loss of time with that condition of the Per- mit act, which requires a quarterly return of liquors received and sold, as we learn that certain persons in the hope of obtaining a share of the penalty are making themselves busy in laying informations on the subject before the police.

Now that an improved arrangement is making in the Post-office, we trust the Go- vernment will not omit the necessary exten- sion on the by-roads leading to districts which though originally remote and thinly inhabited, are now populous, and labouring under great inconvenience from the difficulty of communication. Thus at present there is no post goes beyond Bothwell, whereas the route should be extended at least as far as the Shannon, now the centre of a very im- portant district, and many other parts of the

colony are similarly situated. If a little ad- ditional attention were given to this point, the circulation of the newspaper press would be increased at least 10 or 20 per cent. Many respectable members of the communi- ty have been compelled to abandon the subscriptions to the different journals solely on account of the difficulty of obtaining them from the want of the necessary by-

posts.

We have of late had our attention fre- quently called to the imprudent haste with which some of our horsemen and gig riders drive along, not only the open road but through the streets of the town. More es- pecially on a Sunday, the danger to the more humble pedestrians is sometimes most im- minent. If these persons have no regard to their own safety, they might at least pay some deference to the sacred institution of the Sabbath, and move along with more sub-

dued speed and mercy to the helpless ani-

mals.

The number of houses now erecting in Launceston, is greater than ever was known at any former period.

We regret to observe that the health of Lord William Bentinck, the Governor Gene-

ral of India, was such, as to oblige him to   undertake a voyage and journey to the cool- er and more healthy regions of the hills by

the way of Simla.

One of the most destructive earthquakes that has ever visited the earth has lately oc- curred in China about 200 miles to the south of Pekin. The Canton Register states the loss of life at the lowest computation at one million. No less than 12 large towns or cities were involved in the awful catastro- phe, and the Emperor was moved to tears when the melancholy news reached him. A flood with terrible hail showers accompa-

nied the earthquake.

A dreadful earthquake has occurred at Guatemala, by which almost all the build- ings of that capital, with the exception of the cathedral, were destroyed. On account of many of the latter buildings that were severely shaken, and had but partially tum- bled down, the government had been obliged   to shut up the streets, to prevent the people from running the risk of the tottering walls and towers falling upon them. The nuns of Santa Clara had been driven from the con- vent, and taken up their abode in the open fields. Nothing could be more lamentable than the situation of the place altogether, the public funds exhausted, and the people impoverished as they were by the civil wars. The Government, says the Philadelphia Ga- zette, can do nothing, the edifices which adorned the city can never be repaired, the rank grass will cover them, and they will become the habitation of the owl, whose cries will mingle with our own lamentations over the accumulated calamities of a city   worthy of another fate. This misfortune must necessarily augment the poverty and the emigration of the people, and the two Guatalamas will only be the doleful objects of the curiosity of the traveller that may come to meditate among their ruins.

A letter from Simla states that M. Cosmo di Koros had returned there from Kunaor, with a large stock of materials in Thibetan literature. He has, it appears, completed a Dictionary and Grammar of that language, which have cost him about three years in- tense study and labour. We have not heard exactly what his ulterior views are.

Monsr. Victor Jacquemont, the French Naturalist, passed about a month at Simla, after having visited the whole of the Chinese and Ludak frontiers, reached Bekhur in the former territory, and spent two months north of Dunker in the latter. It is supposed, that he has made some interesting discove- ries in the bed of the Sutlej. He had made enormous collections of Botanical and Geo-

logical specimens, and intended, if practica- ble, to pass to Cashmere.  

There are now three daily newspapers pub- lished in Calcutta, namely, the Bengal Hur- karu, the John Bull, and the India Ga-

zette.

A magnificent specimen of the Giraffe which had been brought to Calcutta from Egypt, has been shipped off on board the Lady M'Naghten, for London. It is a male and is 12 feet eight inches high, being more than two feet taller than that which lately died belonging to his late Majesty, which was 10 feet 6 inches. The only one at pre- sent alive in Europe is the one in the Jardin des plantes, at Paris, which is much inferior to the present one in stature. It is not ge- nerally known that this elegant creature has the singular power of enlongating its tongue to the length of 18 or 20 inches, a faculty not extended to the camel or dromedary. Some of the human race by practice would seem to have partially acquired a similar power. The New Zealanders before battle as a token of defiance to their enemies, fre- quently extend their tongue an inch, and even two inches below the chin, giving their tattooed countenances a most horrible as- pect.

There appears a curious inconsistency in the report of the Verulam academy at Cal-   cutta, in which the visiters and examiners express their satisfaction at the entire omis- sion of Latin and Greek in the studies of the school, at the same time that Dr. Robert Tytler, who was one of the examiners, in a speech in his usual energetic way, dwelt par- ticularly on the obligations which as a pa- rent he owed to the school for the proficien- cy of his son, (a fine lad whom our readers will recollect at Hobart town during the trial of Chevalier Dillon, of the Research)   who after passing from the master's care, and being sent to Edinburgh for the prose- cution of his education had obtained the first classical prize at the High school. Our friends in India, (that country, the peculiar region of oriental learned languages) may

be assured that if the study of Latin and Greek be entirely banished from their schools, the march of intellect will be arrest- ed, throughout their populous land, in the room of which worse than Vandal darkness will speedily succeed.    

Among the deaths in India, we have to add that of Dr. Breton, the eminent Secretary to the Medical Board.  

The celebrated oriental scholar, Professor Neumaun of Munich, is now in China engag- ed on a translation of the metaphysics of Chuhi, the commentator of Confucius.

Rammohun Roy, one of the most influen- tial and distinguished native gentlemen in In- dia, has gone on a visit to England, and many speculations were afloat as to the purpose of his journey.

A sanatorium experiment had been made with some success of sending the invalid ser- vants of the government in Bengal, to a place

in the mountains called Churra. The tem-

perature ranged from 60 to 67 degrees, and most of the sick who had been able to under- go the fatiguing journey to it had recover-

ed.

H.M. colonial bark Anne, from Ceylon, was at Singapore in Nov. last, endeavouring to raise recruits for the Ceylon rifle brigade,

which from the time that island has been in

possession of the Dutch, has been composed of natives of the Eastern Archipelago, princi- pally Javanese. A detachment of the 58th regt. was on board to protect the vessel.

The mention of Ceylon puts us in mind of

a memorable circumstance in the late visit of our blind friend, Mr. Holman, to that coun- try. Elephant hunting, it is well known, is one of the grand employments of the enter- prising in that island, and nothing would satisfy Mr. Holman, while there, but joining in one of those dangerous expeditious, which he did with success, coming off triumphant. The chase is indeed most dangerous, especi- ally to a blind person, (and Mr. Holman is probably the first and last blind person that will ever undertake it), for the elephant when irritated or attacked is most savage and re- vengeful, and the animal is vulnerable only in one part of his body, namely, in a small point under the eye.

On the 17th. of the 5th. moon, being her Majesty the Empress's birth-day, at 5 o'clock in the morning, all the civil and military offi- cers in the city of Canton, great and small, dressed in their dragon robes, repaired to the Imperial longevity — ten thousand years' hall — and performed the grand thrice kneeling, nine times knocking brow against the ground, Court ceremony. The official gentlemen wore the dragon dress the whole day, and no penal cases were attended to in the law courts. (Canton red slip newspaper).

Last St. Andrew's day was kept up with great spirit by the leal and true in Calcutta ;

Sir John Grant of Rothiemurchus in the chair.

A writer in the India Gazette, signing himself Rifle, concludes a long letter on these colonies with the following words :— " I am sure that the rough maritime manners   of the whale slaying Van Diemenians will ne- ver suit a gentle Indian. Botany bay is his proper sphere. I should not like to encoun- ter the Vans myself, though no milksop."

Now however desirous we may be to welcome ' the gentle Indian' to our homely colony, we hope our countrymen will strive still more than they already do, to deserve the epithet of ' whale-slaying' to which Bo- tany bay, contrary to Mr. Rifle's conclusion,  

is far more entitled. Injustice to him, how- ever, we must say, that we have not yet   found any of his countrymen such milksops   as would be afraid to encounter us ; neither  

did we know till he told us that " our rough maritime manners" formed such a contrast     to the ' proper sphere' of Botany bay.  

The editor of the Edinburgh Observer, (Sir Walter Scott,) speaks thus indignantly on the existing law of libel :—  

" At this moment, if a man is mad enough in England, to tell a thief that he was born to be hanged, that is a libel, and will suffer the penalty of a lie. The petty larcenist goes off in indignant honesty to his attorney !  

an oath is made out in the legal jargon, of the

abominable malice and falsehood of such an

imputation ; an information goes, in due course, into court, and an individual with a wig upon his head instructs the jury that justification cannot be entertained, and com- pensation must be awarded ! — Is this a state of things to be continued ? Either the press must be supported, or it must be dumb. Either the tongue of the public must be pro- tected in its office, or we may as well tear it out at once by the roots."

The Governor of the Bahama islands has removed a Mr. Lees, one of the Legislative Council, from his seat at the Council Board, and superseded some magistrates for impro- per conduct towards some slaves, the pro- perty of Lord Rolle, to whom Mr. Lees is agent.

The Duke of Orleans has granted a pen- sion of 500 francs from his privy purse to M. Rouget Delisle, the author of the famous Marseillaise song.

—000—

" Am I now asked how government is to promote energy and elevation of moral prin-  

cipal ? I answer, not by making the various virtues matters of legislation, not by preach- ing morals, not by establishing religion ; for   these are not its appropriate functions. It is to serve the cause of spiritual freedom, not   by teaching or persuasion, but by action ;    

that is, by tightly conforming itself, in all its measures, to the moral or Christian law ; by the most public and solemn manifestations of reference for right, for justice, for the ge- neral zeal, for the principles of virtue. Go- vernment is the most conspicuous of human institutions, and were moral rectitude written on its front, stamped conspicuously on all its ?ciations, an immense power would be

added to pure principle in the breasts of in-  

dividuals. — Channing's last Sermon.

" To be more particular, a government     may, and should, ennoble the mind of the     citizen, by continuity holding up to him the   idea of the General Good. This idea should   be impressed in characters of light on all le-   gislation ; and a government directing itself  

resolutely and steadily to this end, becomes     a minister of virtue. It teaches the citizen   to attach a sanctity to the public weal, car- ries him beyond selfish regards, nourishes magnanimity, and the purpose of sacrificing himself, as far as virtue will allow, to the commonwealth. On the other hand, a go- vernment which wields its power for selfish interests, which sacrifices the many to a few or the state to a party, becomes a public preacher of crime, taints the mind of the ci-

tizen, does its utmost to make him base and venal, and prepares him by its example, to sell or betray that public interest for which he should be ready to die, — Ibid.

Dr. Channing's appearance out of the pul- pit is not prepossessing. He is below the middle stature, and of the slightest possible frame. Constant illness of late years has re- duced even his natural proportions, and when seen in the street, wrapped with a shrinking closeness from the air, and pursu- ing his way with the irresolute step and the subdued countenance of an invalid, it is diffi- cult to reconcile his appearance with the pro- digious energy of his writings. In the pul- pit he is another man. The cloud of anxiety passes from his face as he rises. The con- tracted expression ordinarily visible about his mouth gives place to a detailed and se- rene calmness. His fine eye expands and brightens, and the whole character of his face is one of the most pure and elevated hu- manity. — American paper.

The vigorous beauty of his style is too

well known and admired to be more than al- luded to, but a mere reader can have little idea of its effect when heard from the writ-   er's own lips. His emphasis and cadence are very peculiar. His tones seem the most simple effort of articulation ; but he has a way of lingering on what we can only express by calling it the crisis of a sentence, and of giving a depth and richness to the forcible word, which yield an exquisite satisfaction to the ear, not easily described. You sit and listen, as it might be to music. As the scho- lar and philosopher of a land hitherto taunt- ed with its poverty of genius, the name of Channing will be writ in illuminated letters on our page in history, and read with glad- ness and admiration by those who come after

us. — Ibid.

After the trial of Cooper and Earl at the Quarter Sessions on Friday last, who were found guilty, Peter Rush, (who formerly kept the Hope and Anchor public house,) was found guilty of stealing five logs of fire wood, value 1s. 6d. and sentenced to be im- prisoned six months and kept to hard labour.

The Court in passing sentence wished it to   be publicly known that the offence of steal- ing fire wood from any located lands sub- jects the offender to transportation, and that in future a sentence of transportation will be passed upon any one convicted of such an offence. On Saturday Mary Morris was tried upon two indictments — one for steal- ing a gown, and the other for stealing two gowns, and was found guilty on both, and sentenced to 7 years transportation on each, the second to commence after the expiration

of the first.

James Dodds was found guilty of stealing a pair of trowsers and a waistcoat — 7 years transportation.

John Gidney was found guilty of stealing a hat, and was sentenced to 6 months im- prisonment and hard labour, to commence after the expiration of a former sentence.

On Thursday James Robinson was found guilty of an assault and shooting a constable. Sentence 12 months imprisonment and hard labour. Robinson's gun went off by acci- dent, but it was in a scuffle or affray, and though Robinson did not intend to shoot the constable, yet it having gone off in an affray constituted the assault.

John Cassidy was convicted of stealing wearing apparel, the property of Mrs. Morrisey — 7 years transportation.

Edward Burns was convicted of stealing a log of wood the property of the crown — 7 years transportation.  

The following are the facts connected with the

late differences between the Chinese Government and the American merchantmen at Canton :—

Terranovia was an Italian sailor on board an American ship lying at Whampoa as a receptacle   for Opium. A Chinese woman happened to be on board a boat lying alongside the vessel, and a dis-     pute appears to have arisen between her and Ter-     ranovia about purchasing something, accompanied     apparently with an intention of injustice on her   part, for it is alleged that she had received the   money and was rowing off without giving the equiva-

lent contracted for. Terranovia, seeing this, threw     a sharp pointed Spanish olive-jar at her which pe-       

netrated through her hat, cut her head, and by its  

force knocked her overboard. She was killed or  

drowned, but it does not appear that there was     any intention to commit murder on the part of the   seaman. The Captain of the American ship put  

him in irons, and the body was examined by a   Chinese officer in the presence of the American Consul, attended by a number of Americans. A trial was attempted on board the ship, and although its forms were a perfect mockery, yet every body was convinced that Terranovia caused the woman's death, and the Chinese Government  

demanded that he should be delivered up to them.        

This was refused ; the request was reiterated, and      

again refused : and finally the Chinese stopped the whole American trade, this state of things con- tinued for three weeks, when on the promise of   the Chinese that he should have a fair and open trial they were permitted without resistance to to take him out of the ship. His trial, with closed   doors, continued for two or three days, and at last he was induced to give his attestation, by af- fixing his mark, to a paper criminating himself. This determined his fate. He was ignorant of what awaited him till he was fixed to a cross and strangled. His body was delivered to the Ameri- can Consul for interment, but no remonstrance was addressed to the Chinese Government either by

the American Consul or Government ; although the former', it is said, resigned his Consulship part-

ly on this account.    

Upon this the editor of the Indian Gazette has  

the following very sensible and just remark :—     The ground, however, which we would take in     any future similar case — a ground which the Ame- rican Consul appears to have overlooked in the   case of Terranovia and which the Americans ap-   

pear still to overlook, if we may judge from a let-   ter of one of that nation, which we republished   yesterday from the Canton Register — is that the Chinese are not entitled to the rights and privi-   leges of international law, because they do not   grant its benefits to others. They treat all foreign- ers as barbarians. They exclude them from all

their ports except one. They never address them  

officially as equals, but always as inferiors ; and in a thousand forms treat them with contumely. To   concede to such a people however numerous or     powerful, the international rights which civilized   states concede to each other, is not an act of   right and justice, but of folly and imbecility. To  

submit, as the American Government instructs its

citizens to to do, to the laws of the country they   may visit, is a duty only when that country treats   foreigners on the broad and just principles of equality. In overlooking this distinction, the

American Consul failed, not in the obedience he   owed to the orders of his Government, but in the     higher duty he owed to humanity and justice : but   in committing this oversight he was guilty of no   greater fault than the English Commander, who   in the same way delivered up his gunner to the Chinese for trial, and with the same fatal result.

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