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THE IRON FOUNDRIES OF ADELAIDE
Ironfounding fa one of the oldest of our colonial industries. It took root in the very early stages of our history; and if it has not- advanced in propor tion to the general progress of South Australia, it
is gratifying to know that it now occupies a-very creditable position in the catalogue of local manu factures. Castings from the ponderous machinery used in mines to the most ingenious and elegant ornaments may now be obtained without difficulty in the colony. The absence of protection has not paralyzed this branch of industry ; and although some of those who pursue it are to be found in the Protectionist ranks, they content themselves with taking very moderate views of the limit of State interference. They are not led astray by the cry that a heavier tax on a few articles, and the removal of imposts from otnett, will keep the revenue up to its present standard, when the object of such a tariff is to exclude those articles placed under a speciall disability. We have pleasure in publishing the subjoined particulars respecting the operations of our principal founders. We hare purposely ab stained from entering into other branches of the iron trade further than was requisite to render this account intelligible and congruous. Mr. G. Wyatt's Foundry, North-terrace. If anyone wishes to gain a good idea of the foundry works of South Australia it will be his wisdom to visit the establishment of Mr. George Wyatt. North-terrace. It is not merely that Mr. Wyatt takes a leading place in the particular branch of industry with wbich his name has been so long associated, but he has premises which stand high hi comparison with those of other firms in the trade. It seems characteristic of many of our manufacturers to rest content with the tumble down erections of a quarter of a century ago. la the early days of the colony they were probably quite up to the times, but the march of improve ment has thrown them notably into the shade. Adelaide people have evidently tittle faith in the showy side of trade. They are content to plod on quietly, having little ambition to keep up appearances, and less to compel attention. But there is a medium in these things, and Mr. Wyatt is now discovering the advantage of having respect to that fact. Since the year 1S12 the name of Wyatt, father and son, has been known in con nection with foundry operations. At first they occupied a place in Grenfell-street, but of lata years they have had premises opposite the railway sheds. In our list of building improvements for lSbY appeared a short account of the factory erected to supersede the less pretentious edifice, which had been outgrown by tho requirements of the busi ness. The design throughout was that of the pro prietor himself, who has plainly made good use of his experience, and of his acquaintance with the principles of architecture. The total depth is 212 feet, and the breadth representing the frontage to North-terrace is 28 feet. There is also plentiful provision in the shape of windows and doors both for light and ventilation, and for expediting the workmen engaged in the several departments. The first compartment is the fitting shop, 90 feet in length, which is furnished with machinery arranged in excellent order. There are in it two powerful drilling-machines, besides planing, screwing, and shearing machines. There is, moreover, a gigantic lathe for forming screws, weighing altogether about seven tons. The bed alone has a weight of five tons, and is the only part of the apparatus not made by the owner. All of this machinery, besides other items yet to be mentioned, is driven by an eight-horse engine. The centre of the building contains the smithy. One of the most prominent articles here is a ponderous steam-hammer, made by Mr. Wyatt from the descriptions and diagrams given in a scientific periodical. JU weight is 11 cwt , and with a fall of two feet it is able to exert upon any substance placed under it a force equal to about two tons. It has faggotted and welded several shafts six inches square, and on one occa sion it performed the same duty for a shaft of eight inches round. Here also are a punching and ulate-bendipe machine. There are in all four forges, which, with the cupola, a large furnace accommodating a charge of 30 cwL and capable of supplying food for a casting of four tous, are all supplied with the blast from one of Lloyd's fans. This, when at full work, makes no less than LSOJ revolution) per minute. The blast acting upon the cupola passes along the pipes a distance of SO feet. Space has been left for a second furnace, which may be conveniently constructed whenever it is needed. The foundry proper is a splendid room, SO feet long ami 20 feet high, thoroughly lit with gas. In it there is a travelling crane, with action in both directions, capable of lifting a weight of 10 or 11 tons. The casting proper is all done here by means of loam, the moulten liquid being poured into the moulds from a huge ladle. The drying-room is a sort of oven built outside, but opening into the foundry. Its dimensious are 16 feet by 9, and it is heated by means of a furnace at one end. The loam-moulds are borne in and out on a truck travelling upon rails. There is now being cast a new piston for the steamer Coorong, 33 inches in diameter. A visit alone cannot convey much idea of ths magnitude of the works carried on, and although at present there are no specially large castings being turned out, those lying about are sufficiently massive to afford a very favourable idea of the resources of the establishment. The heaviest piece of work that has been executed was a hydraulic woolptcss for Messrs. Stilling & Co., weighing seven tons. It has been found to suit admirably. It is seldom that a week passes without 1 i casting of 30 cwt. or two tons being required. The loam employed is obtained from the rear of the Government Domain, but the supply threatens to fall short of the demand. The coal-dust used as a facing for the sand in casting is prepared by means of a grindjng-mill, consisting of a pair of heavy rollers rotating in a large pan. Previously a small machine like a flattened globe— first intro duced into the colony by Mr. Wyatt, havioK been fashioned by him after the model of liurdam'a patent in Melbourne— was used, but it was found not to perform its woik with sufficient rapidity, and was therefore thrown aside. lu the yard are stationel a large single-arm crane for loading, and a set of sheer legs, which may be employed for the same purpose, or in breaking up old castings which are too bulty for the hammer. This latter operation is performed by means of a solid ball, half a ton in weight, wbich is made to fall from a great elevation ou to the iron below. We were shown a bevil wheel of 35 cwt., which hail done service in the dredge at the Port Bince 1851 or 1S55. It is worthy of remark that this and the fellow-wheel made by Mr. Wyatt have been in use for all those years, whereas the articles brought out from England in two months succumbed to the strain brought to bear upon them. An order was executed a week or twu ago for a wheel to replace that now condemned to the melting-pot. As a rule about seven tons of iron 13 cast weekly at this foundry. The chief dependence is placed on mine work, some of which is of great magnitude. But in addition to this there are also castings of miscellaneous descriptions, including wrought iron girders for the Post-Office, bridge work for the Central ttoad Board, cylinders, wheels of every size and shape. In the utting-room machinery of vast bulk is operated upon, and in the trimming room it is all put in excellent condition. The planing, boring, shaping, bending, and twisting of iron are accomplished with the greatest ease and exactness, and' all the appliances of a first-rate workshop are at hand. There are at present 27 men engaged, and Mr. Wyatt's practical Knowledge of the several branches of the trade enables him personally to superintend the whole, lie occupies in all about two-thirds of an acre, some on the west and some on the east side of Victoria-street. On the latter are situated his offices, and here also he keeps his stores of coal and coke. He has had numerous contracts from public bodies, and on hia merits has achieved a good position in the trade.
Messes. Ellis & CnrrrLEBOBonoH's Foundbt, HlNDLKY-STBBET. Closely identified with the history of Hindley strecc is the establishment which now claims Messrs. Ellis & Chittleborough as proprietors. To old colonists the foundry of Messrs. Horwood and Sons is closely associated with the records of manufacturing industry in South Austialia. For many years it has been recognised as a sort of trig-point in the western part of the city, from which to take bearing3 and calculate distances. As early as 1839 Mr. Horwood the elder started the business which, after passing through two or three bands, has now fallen to the present holders. The appearance presented by the premises from the street is not such as to invite further inspec tion. There is a neat but by no means pretentious cottage, a mass of broken iron and remnants of all kinds, a huge stand like a gipsy tripod, and beyond a wilder ness of heterogeneous sheds and buildings, which when examined are found to form busy Workshops wherein fully 30 persons, men and boys, find their livelihood. The quantity of land covered u little short of an acre, but the fact that a cen Biderable comer of it is left waste, or is merely encumbered with cast-aside article?, for which much less costly storeroom might be discovered, speaks rather emphatically as to the depreciated rvalue of property in this part of the town. The TjStfe tripod-stand is technically known under the name of sheer-legs, and it is used for elevating an iron globe 12 cwt. in weight As soon as this has been raised 10 the utmost limit, it is let loose, and falls with a tremendous force upon any substances placed below it. Large castings are broken up by it without difficulty, and sometimes half-ton lumps of iron are made to fly hither and thither under its
influence. Proceeding to the fittintr-room-a long apart ment pretty well crowded with machinery of all deaenptions-the first article that attracts notice is a Bcrew-cutting-machine capable of putting a thread on bolts Ii inches in diameter, and now busily employed in performing work for the Port Adelaide Lighthouse. Next comes a very useful implement known as a planing-machine, which is Urge enough to operate on a plate of iron six feet long by two feet six inches in width. Then there is a self-acting lathe, the peculiar province of which is to turn or cut screws of whatever sire or length is required. After wards follows a drilling-machine, and a shaping and slotting machine. This latter u a decidedly pretty contrivance. It can be made to work circu larly, horizontally, perpendicularly, or in whatever direction the operator wishes, and the work it turns out is well worth admiring. Other lathes used in turning and for other mecha nical processes are next brought to view. The face - plates used for affixing wheels come next in order, and at the extreme end of the room (which, it should be mentioned, is prin cipally appropriated for the use of those engaged in steam-engine and millwright wotk\ is an engine of sir or seven horse-power. The shafts attached to this is 40 or 50 feet long, and works the whole of the machinery used on the premises. Outside, we make the acquaintance of a punching and shearing machine, which pierces or shapes off iron tive eights of an inch thick almost as clean and deftly as ordinary scissors would cut a sheet of paper. This machine is of incalculable value in all boiler and girder work, as it reduces the plates to a proper size and shape without an effort. In the foundry, which is a capacious room, two furnaces stand. One holds a charge of 30 cwt , and the other of about twotons. The fan from which they derivetheirblast is far from being on the silent principle, as any one who is accustomed to pass the premises regu larly can avouch. There is a drying-room attached to the foundry, and the heat is imparted from a fire kindled on the iloor-a plan which has its dis advantages, as a deal of litter in the shape of ashes is created. In one room the clay or loam is fashioned into cores by being placed in moulds, and tightly packed so as to give it consistency. The coal usea for facing is brought into its pul verized state by being violently agitated in a circular iron box with three loose balls inside. The dd* thus formed is needed to prevent the boiling mciil from adhering to the loam mould into which it is poured. The effect of this is to render the loam oraand. which at first is of a yellowish colour, perfectly Wack. After being, used several times, it cemt to bo of nine to the founder, but is much
sought after to mix with mortar in pointing buildings. , In the smiths' department only four fires are at present at work. Although the shed in which they are situated is not fireproof, and does not boast of any architectural elegance, it has the merit 0! being spacious. The pattern-room b located above the, fitting-room, and is a very menagerie of curiosities. Here are represented in wood articles of all conceivable forms and dimensions. There are the brackets for tho Post-Oilice lamps, bearings for shafts, screw* for screw piles, buffers for loco motives, &c., railway rolling-stock, tirebars, pcrews, wheels, and taps of the most excruciating shapes, arms, legs, and bodies, fans, boilers, and governor balls. Here one stumbles upon the British lion, and his formidable antagonist, with all the para phernalia of Britannia's coat of arms, of course turns up. The mind is bewildered with the profu sion of designs, and a tidy little rummaging the property-man must often have to discover some tiny wheel or some fancied bolt amidst a confused heap of wheels, bolts, nuts, screws, circles, squares, pentagons, hexagons, and polagons, for brass and iron castings. Descending once more we were shown 3 massive plate-bender weighing some three tons, and com prising three huge rollers six feet and a half long, and varying in diameter from eight or nine up to eleven inches. They are capable of giving the requisite curve to an iron plate of any thickness. Among the outside exhibits is a considerable heap of scrap iron, waiting to take its turn in the fusing-pot It is found necessary to mix some new nig iron with it on the ground of its being too fine. Material which has been cast frequently becomes almost as impregnable as steeL We saw also one of the chills used for the wheels of the railwav rolling stock (for be it remembered that Messrs. Ellis and Chittleborough do all the castings for the railway department). The object of these chills in casting work is to cool the liquid iron when it is brought into contact with it, and harden it so as to give it something of the nature of steeL In the foundry there is a large lifting-crane, furnished with a long arm extending out horizontally, upon which a diminutive crane moves backwards and forwards, and is found to be of great utility in adjusting the position of weights. The castings now being made include city gas-lamps, the whole of which have been supplied from this establish ment, ironwork for the contractor for the new conservatory in the Botanic Garden, and brackets for the new Post-Office ball. It will be recollected that the elegant palisading which surrounds the dress circle in the Theatre .Royal was cast in this foundry, and we have been assured that it was no light t isk to obtain the pattern for the very tasteful palisades enclosing the -*tage boxes. A large number of the girders required by the Central Road Board were also turned out from the establishment. It may likewise be stated that the firm have been engaged in making half- ton screws for the Port lighthouse. One novelty has lately been intro duced in the sbape of boot-lasts, which are cast in two separate parts, and are preferred to wood lasts where pegs or nails are used in the boot soles. The greatest successes, however, have been achieved in the engineering line. Immense masses of metal have been moulded in this department, ami certain alterations in progress in the machinery of the Kennedy indicate how extensive are the capa bilities of the foundry. The engines are aitout 40 horse-power, and it has been found necessary to provide new girders caps, &c, in order to facilitate certain changes which are projected in the position of the machinery. Formerly it was all above deck: but now the boilers and DOrtions
of the other works will be below the deck line. The manager in the engineering department is Mr. Miller, who, in conjunction with Mr. Hor wood, took out a patent for certain improvements in the construction of the rack wool-press. This invention has lately been credited to the foreman at Mr. Peacock's factory; but it differs entirely from the proposal of that gentleman, being worked with screws instead of pinions. The patent applies to the other colonies; out it has been purchased from the proprietors by Fulton, in Melbourne, who pays, a royalty for the privilege of making use of it. Messrs. Ellis & Chittleborough have made an experimental attempt to extract the native iron from its ores, and have succeeded; but their opera tions have not been on a large enough scale to be of any general utility.
Mb. A. Jones's Foundbt. Bank-stbket. Mr. A. Jones (formerly Pappin & Jones) carries on the business of the late firm in the new and commodious premises recently erected in Bank-street The entrance leads into the turning and erecting shop, 100 feet long and about 20 feet broad, in which the fitting together of steam engines and other machinery, as well as the finer' work generally belonging to the trade, is carried on. The first object that attracts attention is the large steam planing-machine. which it may be judged u of substantial construction wheu it is known that it will plane a piece of iron 2 feet 6 inches in width, of any depth, up to 25 feet 6 inches, and to the length of b' or 7 feet. It is constructed on the self-acting principle with all the appliances, by which the tool is shifted along the plate from one side to the other, as it accom plishes its arduous work. There is also another smaller planing-machine, to be used by hands in jobs requiring only a limited power. Further down we come to what is termed a self -acting screw-cutting lathe, a beautiful machine, used, as its name implies, for making screws of iron, such as those used for wool and hay presses. Some idea of its capabilities may be formed from the circuinstwce that it is capable of turning a screw out of a plain iron rod. from one and a half inches to twelve inches in thickness, and of any length up to eight feet. The largest that has ever been actually produced was eight inches in thickness, and in this, as in the previously-mentioned machine, the self-acting principle is introduced, so that the work requires very little beside watching. There are no less than four other lathes of varying size and descriptions, but all self-acting, as well as some smaller ones worked by hand. They have also a machine for screwing bolts and nuts, driven by steam power, und capable of threading screws and bolts from half-inch to two inches, by which the work is done in a very short time compared to what is required to complete them by hand. Of drilling-machines there are three, worked by steam, besides smaller ones for hand use, and these enable the proprietor to drill holes from a quarter-inch up to six inches in diameter, the only labour necessary being to ht the tool of the required size into one or other of the stocks, slip the band on to the wheel, when a plate of say half an inch thickness is pierced with the greatest ease. Where simple punching is required, that may be accomplished in a much smaller space of time by a pundring-machiue of half a ton weight, manufactured on the premises after the pattern of an English machine wuich had been broken. Combined with this is also a plate cutting-machiae, the two being ingeniously worked without loss of power by being so contrived that the block which has the knife on the top has the punch underneath. These meet the ed-cea of a standing knife and circular hole, by which means iron plates three-eighths of an inch thick are soon cut and punched with as little difficulty as a shoe maker would punch a piece of leather; and this may also be done in 8-inch iron, and in all sizes up to seven-eighths of an inch. The knife itself is three-eighths of an inch thickness, being of course steel, as b also the punch. The foundry proper is situated at the rear of the fittinn-shnn. nml ennsists of two rooms together
55 feet long by about 20 feet wide, nooreu witn a mixture of sand and coal-dust used for moulding purposes. In a recess is the cupola or melting furnace, capable of running out from 25 to 30 cwt of metal per hour, together with other appliances necessary to casting. An important branch of Mr. Jones's business is that of boiler and girder making, for which he has a large number of appliances. We were informed that last year troui 25 to 30 tons of boilers were turned out, and there is now in course of execution an order for four iron girders, 3b' feet Ionp, to be used in the new Post Office. The bending of the plates for boilers is accomplished by their being passed between three rollers, two underneath and one on top, and when they are required very much curved a? for the insides of boilers, they have to be previously heated in a large oven, which has been built for the purpose. This is placed at one end of what is called the boiler-shed, which also contains the forges. These, of which there are altogether five, as well as the cupola furnaces, are blown by the fan blast, which, as well as all the other ma chinery, except a few small hand implements, is worked by steam, the engine being an eight-horse, beam action. The proprietor is at the present tune making up a small engine for a new steam boat, in course of building for Messrs. Tonkin and Fuller, of Milang, intended for the Murray trade. The establishment appears to be replete with the appliances nec-ssary to enable him to turn out quickly and efficiently all kinds of engines, from three up to 30 honse-power, in a short space of time; the other departments also being equally complete. Adjoining the fitting-shop at the side are a model-shop, where a steam and foot lathe are tttpt for making the models required in casting, &c.. and also a blacksmith's shop, fitted with forges and other things necessary for the conduct of the blacksmith s portion of the business. The number of men at present employed is 16. besides which there are ten boys, most of whom are apprenticed; but in the busy season we under stand a much larger number are engaged. The proprietor receives valuable aid ftom his sons, John and Henry, who have the superintendence of the fitting department and the foundry respectively. In the latter we witnessed on Thurs day the casting of one of two large cylinders, 6 ft high by 2 ft 6 in. across, to be used in the con struction of the Wakeh'eld Bridge. This establish ment has been in existence for about 14 years.
Messrs. J. Mellor & Sons* Fouhdrt, Frajjklix-street. The foundry business forms but a small branch of the comprehensive operations conducted at the factory of Messrs. J. Mellor & Sons. The premises of the firm are spread over a space of more than two acres, while a block of land exceeding an acre is available on the other side of the road for future extensions. We shall leave for another notice the very complete arrangements for carrying on the work connected with the making of agricultural machinery, and confine our attention to that branch which has been Drominently held in view in the present article. The foundry is situated at the rear of the new buildings, which nave been in the occu pation of the firm for a period of seven years. A commencement was made about four years ago, and the new industry has answered bo well that it is intended to devote increased attention to it The erection itself is about 45 feet long by 25 wide. In the centre is a small crane-lift of the ordinary construction, and at one corner is the cupola, which, as it stands, will accommodate a charge of 30 cwt, the capacity of which might, with a little manipulation, be very largely magnified. The blast is communicated to it from one of Lloyd's fans worked from a shaft connected with the engines. This, however, forms a very insignificant part of the work performed by steam-power. There are two engines, the one of 10 horse-power, the other of 10, the more powerful one being supplied .with a double cylinder. There are also two boilers which have a totally distinct action, although by the simple opening of a pair of valves the steam-power may be amalgamated. When at full work the engines set in motion |by means of shafts, one 90 feet the other 37 feet 5 inches long, about 50 machines. A double blast is brought to bear upon the cupola, and one advantage arising from this is that it enables colonial coke to be used. It is not uutil the charged furnace has been lighted for about a couple of hours that the fan is made to play upon it. Twenty minutes under its influence com pletes the work of fusion, and as Boon as the trap at the bottom is opened the seething incan descent liquid gushes forth. It is received in a ladle, and poured into the moulds, which have to be heavily weighted in order to prevent the gases which are driven off from forcing them out of shape When we visited Messrs. Mellor's foundry the workmen were engaged in the smaller castings, such as barrow and scarifier wheels and stands for palwading. The largest casting yet made is a fly-wtfeel weighing ltf cwt; but the firm will be necessitated to enlarge their views, as they have been, successful i/x obtaining from % Cental
Road Board a contract for providing about 200 tons of screw-piles and girders, which ill involve a considerable amount of foundry work. The principal works executed hive been screwbacks, 6 cwt. each, for the Post-Office arch ways, barrow-wheels for the men employed at the Mount Muirhead swamps, the ornamented tops to grave palisades, cast-iron stands, or rests, for palisades, to serve instead of cut stone, the frame work of the patent cornscreens, the wheels and other portions of Kell's scarifiers, and centres for rake- wheels, of which 21 can be thrown off in a couple of hours. All these work* are of the greatest utility in the factory. There are seven fires at work in the new forge, and two in the old one may be used on an emergency. Without trenching at length upon the agricultural implement branch, it may be mentioned that amongst the most serviceable machines at hand is Bolton's black smith, or the quadruple hammer. Steps are being taken to erect a steam-hammer, weight 3 cwt, fall 16 inches, in place of the cam hammer which has hitherto been in use. The cylinder and other appointments are now in course of construction. Messrs. Mellor are now able, with the con veniences at their disposal, to undersell the im porter in many articles, and to send into the market implements which may be depended upon. They have also given evidence at the Agricultural ShowBX-f their ability to produce ornamental work of a very intricate character, and we were shown a few choice specimens of their skill A small brass founding furnace has been used by them for some time, aad this also has proved a great saving. The total number of workmen employed is 3u, ive of whom devote their attention to the foundry business.
Mb. W. Ptbds'8 Fobhdby, HnroiJEr-sTBKEr. Mr. William PybusV one of the 'oldest oundries in the colony, it haying been started in 1840, is at the west end of Hindley-street, where the proprietor has carried on business far a number of years; but since the construction of the Port Railway that portion of the city has certainly not progressed, and it is his intention to obtain premises nearer the centre of business. Mr. Pybus does a large trade in the way of tombstone railings and other castings of a similar description, having a number of the former complete and fitted up in the yard at the time of our visit, and others in course of completion. Amongst these may be mentioned a communion rail which has just been cast for the Draper Memorial Church, together with other articles of a similar description for the same edifice. The foundry is a building about 20 feet wide by about 60 feet long, with two cupola furnaces at one end. These consist of sheet iron cylinders rounded at the bottom and lined with nine inches of firebrick. The largest will carry three tons and the other about a ton and a half of metaL Adjoining the furnaces is a sort of oven-room for drying the cores— the inside models used in cylindrical and other hollow castings— previous to then* being used. The whole floor of the foundry is composed of sand and coal dust, four or five feet deep, which is essential in casting operations; and there are also, at particular spots, pits of a depth of eight and ten feet filled with the same material for bulky articles. Another shop, 20 feet long by about 12 broad, adjoins the former one, and in this the castings are finished up by having the rough edges knocked off and filed, and the other portions ? rushed and cleaned. The fitting-shop is rather larger than the foundry —17 feet in width— and contains several lathes, drilling, and punching machines, &c, the heavier of which are so constructed that they may be used by means of either steam or hand power, and thus the expense of the engine is saved when there is not a large amount of work in hand. At one end of the fitting-room are erected the two principal forges, a third being placed near the foundry. The engine is of fire horse-power, horizontal action, and turns a fan for supplying the furnaces with air, the number of revolutions being brought up by triplicate movement to 1,200 in a minute. The pattern-room— 26 feet long by about GO— contains a number of shelves, exhibiting patterns of flanges, cogwheels, milling machinery of all descriptions, and a host of articles of endless variety, which have been made for castings executed on the establishment Mr. Pybus has now only seven men at work, but he informs us that at
unes ne nas nau as many as ou in me various branches. Mr. Stbapp'8 Fouxdbt, Ccbbih street. For seven years Mr. Strapp has been carrying on operations in a quiet way in Currie-street, a little to the east end of Light-square. He has made no attempt to force a business, hut has succeeded in obtaining work enough to keep him fully em ployed. His premises now include a large en gineer's room, 40 feet by; 22, a foundry 40 feet by 20, an extensive blacksmith's shed 50 feet long, besides several smaller erections. He has a neat oscillating steam-engine of three horse-power, which drives a silent fan, and can also be made to set in motion a lathe, planing machine, &c. The whole of the fittings of the engine were made in the establishment. The boiler, a multitubular, is bund to answer well. There are in all three lathes. The largest a self-acting screw-cutter, is driven by steam, and is capable of turning out a screw 14 feet long by 14 inches in diameter. The others are smaller, and are worked by the foot The planing machine is adapted for iron, 7 feet by 2 feet 1, and acts very smoothly and satisfactorily. There are also a drilling and a shaping machine. Mr. Strapps has three cupola furnaces, able to take in a charge of from seven to ten cwt. each, or thereabouts. At the time of our visit he was very busily occupied in executing an order for 100 doziu ploughshares. Ten men were employed in this opera tion, and as many as a hundred shares were being moulded hourly, The cores formed from the fine yellow clay before spoken of as being obtained behind the Government Domain are placed upon chills, over which are fitted the boxes containing the sand in which the shape of the article has been formed. The boiling metal taken from the small furnace is then poured in and left for a minute or two to cool. The sand is afterwards knocked off. and the new-made share carried away to cool at leisure. Besides this branch of casting, which, we believe, is quite new to the colony, Mr. Strapp executes the framework used by Mr. Simpson in oven-makinR, and a large variety of castings used in the trade, the wooden patterns for which are displayed on the walls and in other portions of the building. He is also engaged at present in making a large press for stamping medals to replace the one used for the iiukeof Edinburgh medals which succumbed to the hard work exacted from it. The smithy is very roomy, and the buildings generally are of a better descrip tion than those of some larger establishments. In the foundry a travelling crane is erected, which proves of vast utility in economizing labour. The number of permanent hands attached to the factory is not large, but the.woik performed is admitted to be of a high class.