Another European War Possible
ITALY AND THE ALBANIAN MURDERS. AN EXACT PARALLEL OF SARAJEVO. DETERMINED STAND OF MUSSOLINI THE NAVY SEIZES THE ISLAND OF CORFU. TERMS CONSIDERED "ARBITRARY AND HARSE" PROPOSED APPEAL TO LEAGUE OF NATIONS. "From the Australian Press Association. The strong action of Signer Mussolini, in respect to the murder of the Italian delegates on the Greco-Albanian Border Commission, has caused great consternation in Europe, The demands of Italy on Greece are described by some English papers as being "arbi trary and harsh," and the seizure of the island of Corfu, by the Italian navy, though described by Mussolini as "peaceable and temporary," is regarded with dismay, and as likely to lead to a terrible war in the Balkans, which will finally cast Europe into the cauldron of anarchy and destruction. Greece, which has agreed to concede some of the Italian de mands, objects to other terms, which she considers humiliating, and she has decided to appeal to the arbitrament of the League of Nations. This appeal is being supported by Great Britain, and the hope is expressed that Signor Mussolini will not proceed to the cruel extremity of war, especially as no proof is available that the murders were com mitted by Greeks. The outrages, however, occurred in Greek territory, and the Greek Government sent a prompt expression of regret, and an offer of indemnity. LONDON, August 31.
Italy handed over a Note at 5 o'clock on Friday, announcing to the Greek Govern- ment that Italian troops had occupied Corfu at 4 o'clock. The measure was in-
tended as a peaceful and temporary measure. Italy at the same time delivered an ultimatum giving Greece only five hours grace in which to reply. Italy having refused Greece's offer of an indemnity without the fulfillment of other
conditions, the Greek Government have appealed to the League of Nations. Britain and France are both taking, steps at Borne and Athens to secure a peaceful settlement. France is recom- mending Greece to pay full reparations. Indemnity of £500,000 "Impossible." Thee Greek reply to the Allies states that there is no justification for Italy's aaser tion that the Greek Government is respon- sible for the recent massacres in Albania. The Government, it says, took all pos sible measures of safety for the mission. In two Notes they called the attention of
the Albanian Government to the presence of Albanian brigand bands. Nevertheless, the Government are taking into consideration the fact that the crime was committed in Greek territory against citizens of a friendly Power, and BCTse. with modifications to the demand for an expression of full regret, a State memorial service, a salute of the Italian fiag and military honors to the victims. The reply adds that it is impossible to accept the demands of capital punishment for those responsible and an indemnity of 500,000 or an enquiry in the presence of the Italian military attache, but Greece will willingly accept Italian assistance in carrying out the investigations. The Greek Government are prepared to accord a just indemnity to the families of the victims. Appeal to be Resisted. ROME August 31. It is authoritatively stated that the Greek attempt to make the Janina crime an international question will be resisted by Signor Mussolini who will content that the matter concerns only Greece and Italy. The "Messagero" is reliably informed that the Greek consent to pay the required in- demnity and to the request for a modifica- tion of the flag-saluting demand, are offi cially regarded as absolutely unsatisiac- tory". It adds that Greece is endeavoring to bring about British intervention for the purpose of retarding the development of Italian action. Greek Flag Insulted. ATHENS, August 31. Greece will protest against the anti- Greek demonstrations in Italy and demand satisfaction for the insult to the Greek flag at Trieste. Martial Law. The Creek Government have proclaimed martial law throughout Greece. Satisfaction Offered. PARIS. September 1. The "Journal des Debits'' states that Greece has offered Italy a considerable measure of satisfaction therefore the affair ought to be rapidly settled. The hope is expressed that Signor Mussolini will not follow the example of the dnal
monarchy in 1914 in their treatment of Serbia, over the Sarajevo assassination. Italy Very Determined. ROME, August 31. Signor Mussolini read the Greek reply to Cabinet, and characterised it as un- acceptable. Signor Mussolini then detailed the measures to be adopted, and the Cabinet approved his decisions. Tie Albanian Legation announces that the Jugo-Slav comifcad.iie have sent an ultimatum to the International Cbr-i'nis fion dc-lKnitinjr th<? boundary ol A">aniu an.] Ju?o-Ssa.via to en^eod work forth with. A!S>ania lias sent a protest to ths ajnhassadors' conference. An Unconfirmed Report. "I! Seeo!o"" ("Mi^anl declares that thi Ita?an squadron is already on its way to the Piraeus, and is now manoeuvring off Cane Taranto. together -with Jtalian air sniiadnrms. The report is not confirmed eiSevrtiere. Alternative Too Strong. _ _ l/yXTiOS. Aura*. Mi i Jhe I>aiy Chronic]=>V diplonvst'c cor- I r<?=T>onJent states:— There i? a mo 4. daSnite feeling i n oScial erc!e? that ItaVa alternative to Greece jis too t?trong'y worded. There is no evidence to show whether the Al banians or Creeks perpetrated the out j rase, bat a* the erim s iraa committed on Greek ?jil Greece has done the right th:n? M forth arith espreasin; regret and order ing an enquiry without delay. If the member* or the Greek Government had themseii'iK committed the murders the Ila^ an Note couM '(?oarceH' hare been more drastic. The last tiling Greece Kinte is tn fall out with other nations, bnt laly iis demanding tVit Greece to all intents and virjx>-ses snail insult her own 6ag. A things stand. Italy -will not oarrv the back .inir even of her allies. The threats of naval attacks onir strengthen t!i" feeing that she is going beyond all just demands. Italy would be ill advised to take any definite action before the League of Ntft:on? has> deh'verei its opinion. Dreadful Conflict Risked. The "Daily Espressr"' lobhyjst says:— The Greco-ItaHan crisis baa oe | Burned an ominous outlook, owng |to /the Italian seizure of Corfu.
| The situation Is regarded wrth anxiety, but the Brit:sh Governaient are not without hops that Signor Mussolini will eventually alyjiv the dispute to be settled by arbitration. Great Brita:n will csrlainlv enpport Greece's application to
I the League of Nations and ha= already i *?at instructions to that effect to the j Br:tish de?eg.ites at Geneva. Government quarters regret Signor Mussolini's action. The "Daily Express" says:—ltaly ecems to force Greeoi into a complete fulfilment of 6'ff nor Mus=olini:6 arbitrary and harsh terms. i The first act of aggression hae already been taken in the seizure of Corfu. The war flames are being ?famed. Tf the mat ter -were confined to Greece and Italy there might be hope of adjustment, bnt. unfortunately, the incident is an exact '? parallel of the Sarajevo affair which; started the last war. : I
yif?(f Victor ESmtaamxcl of Italy.
I King George of Greece. j
The result may inflame the Balkans and cause a dreadful war the end of which so one can see. The hopes and prayers ' of everyone most be that even at the last minute of the eleventh hour war may be ?verted. If not. Enrope will be cast finally j into the cauldron of destruction and i anarchy. The Occupation of Corfu. ROME, September 1. During an anti-Greek demonstration at Milan the crowd tore down the coat ol arms from the Greek Consulate. The "Giornale d'ltalla" saya these de monstrations are out of p'.ace and must not occur. In Athens the Italian Lega- | tion advised the Greek Government at : noon that the Greek Note -was un93t:sfac- j tory, and that at 5 o'clock in ultimatum ; would be handed over, but the occupa- j tion of Corfu, which was announced a? 4 o'clock on Saturday, ie causing great ' indignation. I The King of Italy is returning -to Rome j from his summer residence immediate!}", j The occupation of Corfu, jrbieh id : officially confirmed, is the direct con ?equence of the unfavorable reply from Greece. An Act of War. The fact that the occupation <£ Corfu was -not accomplished withont opposition is BOgsested by the Athens communique, ( ?which states that the Governor of Corfu i declined to accede- to the Italian request: to occupy the Island, whereupon the: troops were landed. The fleet bombarded the police station and the school, wiricii was set on fire. A number of casual ties are reported. Italians to be Beady to Fight. Tie Italians in London have received orders from the secretary of their lega tion to hold themselves in readiness for army service during the 'next five days, "when it will be known whether they will be wanted or not. Tie -correspondent of Hie "Daily Ex press" in Athens, save:—The news of the occupation of Oorfn reached Athene before ttte-iiinoiiiiccsnenl that the Italian ulti matum dispatched at noon had given Greece 4Sie five boms' grace from 5 o'clock. Nobody in Athena beKeved that Italy .woofel-oenrandt a. warlike act until Creese had definlteJy rejected the Italian demands Martial- law was declared to-day after a | great patriot* demonstration. The people hope the Government's appeal to the j League of Nations will prevent a ?rax, but' the; fail to see from what wuree the I League will derive any force in the dis- I pate. British Greatly Perturbed. ! Official circles in London are gravely! perturbed at the turn of erects, but it is impossible to give the view of the Bri tish Government on Italy's action in the absence of Mr. Baldwin nad Lord Cnrzon. The plans of Lord Curzon are imohanfied. He does not return to London ' before the middle of next week. The Bri- ; tirti view remains that the question mart be left to the League of Nations. Colonel Amcrv, -who is at present ?oin? to Malta, is believed to have conferred trrtW Mr. Baldwin ?t Aix les Bains yartenlay. : Official Italian circles in London d*!are that Hie League is not entitled to inter vene in a question of Italian honor a.nd prestige. Furthermore, there ia no ques tion that Corfu is a neutral zinc. eince ! the Allies used the island during the Great War. Appeal to the League. M. Politas. in Geneva, has handed to the Secretary of the League of Nations, the Greek Note asking for intervention in te dispute with Italy. . A Severe Strain. j ' The "Dafly Telegraphs diplomatic cor respondent sajs:—The Italian action in ; Corfu certainly constitutes a crave breach of international law, to which Oreot Bri tain cannot remain indifferent. Under article 2 of the Treaty of Marcn 29. 18G4, it was declared that the islands of Corfu and ,Pavo should enjoy perpetual nee- i traiar. I' hinted yesterday that Itaiy was credited with harboring secret designs on Corfu._ but I refused to believe that such a sinister motive was behind the Italian indignation over the assassination?. The occupation, -however, is norw an .ic oomplished fact, and the almost inevitable result 'frill be to place a very serious f train upon international relations, and even on Anglo-Italian relation?. Great Brita'ji could riot afford to remain indifferent to the foreign occupation of Corfu, first be cause she is one of the guarantors of its neutrality, and second'y because Corfu is a ntrateeic -position which may be eawiy misused by any but a small Power. By its ?seizure. Signor Mneso'ini is in effort chal lenging an iternationa! settlement of s-'guai importance to British sea poxer. as also to the military security of Greece and Albania and -^erbia, for 6erbia cannot fail to crasp that the ultimate objective of raeh an oocupatrinn wanM be contrary to her vital interests. Sis-nor Mussjiini is creating for his errantry a future as peril ous as that created for the Austro-Han parian monarchy (by its ultimatum to S?rhla. Nor is this all. Italy by t^e occu pation of Corfu has already defied the Leasue of Nations, and there !b no need to noint out that a conflagration on? started yould spread to the whole of Donnblan Europe, -wiiere tne ex-Allies and the ex-enemies, for instance—^Bul^arLT and Hun2arr—mipht quickly become involved ?nd amiwoi'ed. A Dangerous Expedient. The "Daily Ttelraraph" rwrards the Greek reply as adeqii-ite, and it pro ceeds. —TiVe have been loth to tJr'nk tb=rc wna any arriere ppneee behind ttie Italian Note, but "the occupation of Corfu, even tfaouzh it prove but momentary, is ominous when one remembers that ten years airo the Corfu channel nenred pro minently in tjhe rival rlaitns of Italy and Greece at the tfme of the Treaty of Lon don. By their present action the Italian Government are enlanrin^r tlie bounds of the quarrel in the most danserou? nay. The "Moraine Post" says, apart from tlie treaty of 18W. it is obvious that the occupation of Corfu, ivit'i its hidi stra tegic impor+'ice in the Mediterranean, is an affair that roust eeriouslv perturb every Power with a. Meditetrranean fleet. It is impossible to dismiss a sense of dis quietude and a desire for explanation? and assurances in the face of such a startling development. Tlie "TWtminstr Gazette" f=ays=:—lf ?ic vor Mussolini has evidence tliat the Greel; Covernm?it ?re re^vmsJble for rh? >nur dprs he should produce it at the proper pace. which 19 before the Leaiue of Na tions. .The "Daily Herald says:—Tin';: v= rialnly a test case for the League of Rations.
The Murderers of Tellini. The correspondent of the 'Sunoay Ex press" at Sofia .?ays: —It is reported that the mnrde—>rs of General Tellini were j commanded by officers of the Greek re serves. It is alleged that a memoer of , the delegation was tortured before he xas ! billed. Many Albanian bands are pre paring to arena the murder, and to de fend in blood the delimitation decision. It Greece refuses satisfaction the bands will taie action. There i= tlanner there- i fore of an outbreak of civil war. which roiprht ea.-i!y be transferred to ilace donia. In replying to a Xote from the Conference of Ambassadors, the Greet Governmentt has agreed to hoki an enquiry into the massacre, which they de clare -Kill be conducted vigorously. Greece has also stated that it is prepared to ac cept in advance any-reparations demanded by the Conference of Amba-^adors. Much interest is felt in British quar ter,* in repard to the French view of the Duration; This is not at present clear, v- . 2t i*5 t that ***'?? is an occasion which A nelo-French solidarity might have a most useful and most calmjnz efiect. Lord Cureon has arrived in Paris, and he bad an interview with M. Paincare, w-hich lasted for twenty minutes. ' j The Feeling in Athens. i ATHENS. September 1. '' iae French, and British representatives nave received instructions resardina- the representations to the Greek Government. It is announced from -Tancna that Vjbania has reinforced the Greco-Albanian Iron tier guards er.a lias prohibited tbe pas sage across the frontier. A Greek courier | carrying the Delimitation Commission pipers was prevented from pasa: n=. Telegraphic communication between Corfu and Athens was cut at 7 o'clock on- Friday evening. It fa averted that the Italians bombarded the forts denuded of guna fn accordance with the Florence Convention, although the Italians -were in- ?? fonnea that -the forts were inhabited by , refugee orphans. The number of the latter ?rho srere killed is variously re ported an from seven to fifteen. The Governor of Corfu and ten officers were detained on an Italian warship. The rarrisra of the island, which numbered LS> retired to the interior. M. Gonatas declared last night that no reply would be sent to the second Italian Note. Greece wouid awajt the decis-jon of the Leaenc of Notions. Greece protested to tbe Powers against the bombardment ol unfortified forte and the killing of refugees as a .violation of international law. Greek Warship Fired At. An Italian <?übniarine in the Gulf of Goumenitza fired at the Greek eteamer Georgiofl and sprightly damaged her. — Center. A Hornet's Nest. PABJS, September 1. Th<? French newspapes to-day are nnani iroas in dedaim? that the Italo-Greek dis ;ute onncems Greece and Italy only a?4 J?at France mnst remann a. silent spectator though the "Echo de Paris." which re narks that tie British opinion is less . alia than tbe French, say* the situation sill become serous if the Britiiph G-Trarn- ! ment intervene. "Le Journal" beAieves ;he demand for reparations to Italy sriE j lot cn<l the affair, for Uie Balkans remain I formidable hornets' nest.—Renter. No Threat of War. Lord Cnraon interrupted his core at Bognolles. which he left ?to-day for Paris, | in route for London, where he fe expected j to-morrow. it the public sittinfj of the Conn-cfl of :he Ixa^ne of Nations at Gonera this nornins; the Secretary-General airoaiin'eed he ro?eiTit of documents concerning the Ltalo-Greek dispute wfciicb. are most ur rent. The C-Junefl will consider til em. Jreece a^ph'ed for the Ijeapue"* interven tion under articles, twelve and fifteen of bhe covenant. SBgnor Salandra, the Italian member of die Council, declared that no hinjr in Italy's attitude was regardable as i threat of war urajer article twelve. The 3oundl met in the afternoon to consider jie documents.—Renter. Italy and British Opinion. SOME, September 1. Surprise is expressed at the and-ItaSan. of the British press in respect to 'he Itnlo-Greek cri?as in vios" of Ttilv'a traditional friendship to Great Britain- The newspapers declare that the only way to prevent dangerous complications in the Balkans, whirti the British press fears, is For Britain to persuade Greece to give j ?atisfuefcion. The newspapers compare the , friendly attitude of the French prera to the hostility of tie Britash. j The Greek warships at Pbaleron Slave I SKi^ht refaie a; tSaJamis. I A semi-offiriaj statement Gays that the Albanian Prefecture at irrirooastro. as a rasa-It of an enquiry onto the massacre of the Italian mMTon, has issued a report statin; that the T?ad traversed "oy the missi-in was barred by po<s cat fx>rm the neiahfwrins: forw=ts. in Italian profe^so-r, who travelled with the Albanian deksi/ tson, whiA ?^s an hour ahead of the ftaliaji delesat^. racd he sanr a party frf Glreek soMiers foUins trees near the scene of the crime. The forest ranger ?ave eim'lar esridmee. Admiral Solan, who conHn?nds the troops m Corfu, bar; issued a procls-Tja-tjon to fl'2 is'andws iv ihich he declares that the octitpatio!. was necessitated by " oa.rliarou3 ni'irirT>" ar;ii i; not an .ici'of war, bui rimplv a manifestation of Italy"* inflex ible t)-i to n'.itaiii reparation. Tie ?.ccn piti-"n will loraain "tenrporary snd i*ace tul" nciess tin- attitude of tbe i-=..icOers oblig'SJ fjecial measures to 'c 'akea to protect the Italian troops.—Beater. Not an Act of War. LONDON. Sept^'nlioT I An official communique announces that the occupation of Corfu is not in tended as an act of war, but as a safeguard of prestige and to obtain cue reparation. Italy -hopes that Greece will not take artion likely to modify the peace ful nature of the measure. The forejroina; notice has in no wise allayed the anxiety in London, xhere the "ntesi; development i.*? a para'i*?!. "to the Ruhr occupation. Outspoken editorials re pard it as a further swift step in the. direction of thp dirturliauco of peace. The papers most friendly to Italy fear that Minor Mussolini has binned his bolts. They hope lie ivi'J listen to -wiser counsels at the eleventh hour. Several otliera frankly regard the more as the logical d? velopmeiit of the Imperialist ideas which Piftnor Mns#o]:ni has long chcri-sbcl. The newspapers of all shades of opinion cm ]ih:ii?i.-=<- tlie violation of two international instruments, thus embroiling other Powers. First, the iiiternlitional agreement of 18K5, to s"hieh Italy te a signatory in ?maran'-eeins the perpetual neutralit.y ot f'orfn, and secordlv, the article of the League of Nations covenant forbidding a memlipr to ensaze in warlike operations with annthT mom'brr under the penalty of osirvism. An authoritatnv etatcmrnt of the British ofiViai vnew is lacking in the absence of Mr. Baldwin and Lord Curzon. There ''-= a similar r<?t;cenre in France, al though the consensus of Paris new^papena strnnsly oppose Sicnor Mussolini's actios. Stock Exchange Opinion. I/'oyd's underwrit<TS ysterday, before news of the occupation *"a? known, did bu^ines* at ts-onty-five suineas ncr centum against an outbreak of Ita.lo-Greek war 1? -fore December 31. Greek Ministry Resigns. Tln> co:re?pondent of tJie "Sunday Ex press" at Athens says the Government have fallen, and M. Zainiis has been asked to form a Ministry. Italy and the Leagne. The most significant fact at the Cesgue of Nation; issembU- was that Sirnor Salandra statr-d that be had no peimis sion to discuss the ni-itter before council. The delay will allow the Italian Govern ment to justify themselves in not allow ing S'jrnor Salandra to espialn A); the <1 ycinfion cenrrmi on the suddennpss of Italy's action. It is expected that the council :vi!l reafisemb'e on Tuesday. Deaths at Corfu. An official Italian message says as Corfu did not surrender -within the time limit the Italian squadron after blank shots fired ? fc^- rounds o-' lisht pins. They kilied or wounded a i!n*en Greek citi/.cn^ !>?ca:;?" he- aullmiitifv; dij nut rcmo'.v l-lie liopi;!.-it:o!i i;i spile of'the wainin^ of fcquadron. Sigoor Mufleoliui baa tele-
graphed to all the Powers and to tie League ol Nations explaining Italy's cae- Gtmeral Siroonetti at Corfu has ordered a complete censorship. The Italian admiral hru; prohibited Gre?k vessels from passing throngh the Strait of Otranto, and also between Corfu ?""! the Creek mainland. A Eeport Denied. The Greek report that the British 3Te<tt terranean squadron had been ordered to \ the lonian Islands is without ioaadation. ; —Keuter. League of Nations Discussion. GEXEVA, September L The Council of the League of Nations (Viscount Ishii presiding) privately dis ciused Greece's appeal. The Greek re presentative (M. Politis) was present as a. member of the Council. A unanimous resolution was passed agreeing to a short adjournment for tl.e examination of the question. Th? fervent hope was ex pressed that Italy and Greece tn the ? meanwhile would not commit any act ?which wouH aggravate the situation.— ! Keuter. j Corfu and the Ruhr. 1 PARIS. September 2. The French Foreign Office emphasises the impossibility of comparing France's independent action with Italy's, action in Corfu. It declares that the Treaty of Versailles permits France to enter" the Kuhr. i A Cordial Conversation. j PARIS. September 2. i French quarters declare thai the conver sation between Lord Curzon and 5L Poin care was most cordial. They dealt with the European situation ceneraily, without spe cial reference to the Oreco-Italian crisis. ] Official reports from liome deny the re- j port of the imminent occupation of Samos and Crete by the Italian troops. I A tseini-oliicia! announcement says Ad miral Simonetti, oommandinc in the Lower Adriatic, has been appointed Governor of Corfu.—Renter. Signor Salandra HI. The correspondent of the "Daily Tol-J- Craph" at Geneva says:—The twenty-^i\th ? session of the Lea/rue of Nations CounWl opened to-day. All the members were pro sent except Slgnor Saiaudra (Itals), who lEis absent Ujronch iii<li?p.i?ition." It is hoped Siinor Salandra ffiH be able to attend on Saturday. ?lien thp nuestion ivi!! be raised of the League Uiking u?i the Greco-Italirm dispute. In vien- of arrii.!,-!; 11 and 12, the Leajrue mu.-t act, un'.es.-- in the meantime Greece and Italy reach a ; satisfactory settlement. !