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To the Editor of the People's Advocate.

Sir,—I perceive by the Herald, of the week be- fore last, that the settlement of the long agitated question of Steam Communication with England is still to experience failure and delay. Perhaps there is no instance on record of so important an object being attained at the expense of so tedious a procrastination, considering the practicability of the means and the certainty of success. The re- sult has proved one thing,however, which, in fact, has been frequently proved before, viz., that there is no reliance to be placed on the declarations of the Colonial Office. Every promise, both by that office, and those who bask in its sunshine, in the matter of Steam Communication, has proved to be as worthless and visionary as the consequent de- lusions and disappointments have been bitter.

Let us see how the question stands. Three dif- ferent routes have been proposed, the Indian, the Cape of Good Hope, and the Panama. The first would make either Port Essington or New South Wales the first to receive the mails ; the second South Australia ; and the third New Zealand. The question then is, Which of the three shall be adopted ? This has been the fulerum of all the oscillation of the Imperial government. That Government has failed to see its way in the most humble particulars—it has obstinately remained in darkness in the midst of light, notwithstanding that nearly the whole colonial empire, backed by a powerful influence at home, has frequently dis- cussed, and as frequently declared in favour of the Indian line, the Government alone has shown no sign of sensibility other than that of impenetrable ignorance or listless imbecility. That petty jealou- sies should arise among the colonies is a thing to be expected, seeing that each is equally ambitious of the priority in the reception of the mails ; but for any government to suffer itself to be swayed by such jealousies, is a dereliction of duty both absurd and unjust. The fact being certain that, whatever may be the issue on this point, complete satisfaction cannot be given.

In the opinion of all reasonable people, the only data which can be legitimately considered in de- termining the route to be adopted, are the number of the countries to be connected, the amount of their population, the value of their commerce, the shortness of the distance, the smoothness of the water, and the facilities for coaling—advantages which pertain only to the Indian line. With the two or three countries on the Cape and Panama lines we have little or no commercial or passenger intercourse, the travelling on either route being almost an uninterrupted sail across the roughest oceans, for which steamers of immense burden and expense would be required, while on the other hand the Indian route, passing as it does through Bass' Straits, the Eastern Archipelago, the Indian Ocean, and the Red Sea, having smooth water nearly the whole of the way, and abundant places for coaling, would connect the following important countries of Europe, Asia, and Africa, viz.:— Gibraltar, Malta, the Ionian Islands, Aden, the Mauritius, Seychelles, Bengal, Madras, Bombay, Ceylon, Penang, Malacca, and Singapore, the population of which, including that of Australasia and New Zealand, together with the total amount of their revenues and shipping, and the value of their commerce, as computed by Mr. R. M. Mar-   tin, as follows :—

Popolation.. {White . . . . 103,174,326

Population.. {Coloured . . . 433,100

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103,607,426 Revenue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .£20,132,435

Commerce.. {Imports . . . . £24,125,327

Commerce.. {Exports . . . . 29,039,094

Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . £53.164,421

Shipping.. {Inwards . . . . 2,228,333} tons. Shipping.. {outwards . . . . 2,115,599} tons.

Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,343,932

Besides this, the total value of property annually created is £322,600,000, and the value of the moveable and immoveable property £2,196,250,000. The amount of Australasian shipping, according to the above, is to the whole amount of shipping as 11·3 to 100 ; and the value of the Australasian commerce, to the value of the whole commerce, as 11.4 to 100. The amount of population, large as

it may appear, does not include a vast proportion of the coloured race, accurate returns in some cases being wanted. It is quite sufficient to know, however, that, confined within an area of territory, of less than two millions square miles, a population of more than one hundred and three millions human beings exist, and are daily engaged in converting to the uses of man the greatest and richest treasures of the four continents and islands over which they extend. Here is a trade greater far than any that could possibly arise on the Cape and Panama lines, in value upwards of fifty-three millions pounds sterling, and awaiting only the application of steam to render its blessings acces- sible to the whole human race. The advantages would be felt as much by England as by her co- lonies. Steam communication would give to the colonies a unity and compactness which they have never yet enjoyed, and thus add in a tenfold de- gree to the power and influence of that empire upon which it is boasted the sun never sets.

The question as to what colony should be fa- voured with the priority in the receipt of the mails, is easily decided. No one can reasonably deny, provided it be convenient otherwise, that the dis- tinction, if such it can be called, should be con- ferred on the oldest, the wealthiest, and most im- portant colony. Let us see, then, if these condi- tions pertain to New South Wales. I have taken some trouble to analyse the statistics from which I have quoted, and find, among other things, that the relative value of each colony's commerce, in proportion to the total value of the traffic on the proposed line, is as follows :—

That of New South Wales, as 6· 2 to 100

" Port Phillip, " 1· 5 " " S. Australia, " 1· 2 " " W. Australia, " 0·18 " " V. Diemen's L., " 2· 2 " " N. Zealand, " 0·12 "

. . . . . . . . 11· 4

By the foregoing, it appears that the marine trade of New South Wales is nearly three times more valuable than that of any other Australian colony. This would constitute a sufficient claim to the fa- vour of a prior reception of the mails, even if there were no other reasons. But New South Wales has still further claims. She is the oldest colony by fifteen years ; her population is greater than that of any of her competitors, in the ratio of 10 to 3·6 ; her property, moveable and otherwise, is more valuable in the ratio of 10 to 3 ; and her consump- tion of British manufactures larger, by 15s. per head, than that of any of the forty colonies of Great Britain, the consumption per head for New South Wales being about £7 10s.

The Herald informs us that we are now to have steam communication via the Isthmus of Panama, and expresses an opinion that the New Zealand Company has had something to do in the matter. Whether this latter is true or otherwise, we have not sufficient evidence to prove, but I must cer- tainly say it looks like truth. No one can doubt the Colonial Office influence of the New Zealand Company. If any one does, let him turn to the history of New Zealand, and inquire whence has arisen the misgovernment of that unfortunate country—let him ask what influence it was that first brought the colony to bankruptcy, and then extorted money from the British treasury to save it from utter ruin—let him ask what influence it was that recently obtained from the British govern- ment a loan of thousands of pounds to resuscitate a confessedly insolvent and useless company—nay, let him enquire into the causes of the war which has deluged the land with blood, and prostrated for years what little prosperity it ever enjoyed ; in these and all other points of view, he will find abundant reason to suspect the influence of the New Zealand Company.

The fact that New Zealand would be the first to receive the mails, is no doubt the only reason which could actuate the New Zealand Company to seek the adaption of the Panama line, for it is quite as destitute of advantage as that via the Cape of Good Hope. They may indeed imagine that the proxi- mity of the gold diggings may be made available by means of steam, in the disposal of their waste lands ; or, as the Herald insinuates, they may have an eye to business in the hope of eventually inducing the Government to remove the capital to Port Nicholson as being more convenient for a terminus. But whatever the reasons may be, un- less they tend to the general good, I hope the colonies will not suffer themselves to be pilfered of their rights with impunity—that they will make an effort at vindication should the report prove true, and demand for themselves a fair share of the benefits of a measure which, if properly and impartially applied, will do more to strengthen and regenerate the colonial empire than anything

that has ever yet been attempted.


The Wheat Market.—Wheat is again down. The millers, having purchased just enough to keep themselves going at a tolerably high price, ceased to buy, except in small quantities as before. It still, however, keeps up pretty fairly, considering that the supplies are principally new grain. We have no doubt that it must eventually go up ; it is doing so gradually in all the other colonies, and must do so here. The fact of a scarcity, or more properly speaking a short crop, all over the colo- nies, is now established. This must, even inde- pendent of the Californian market, operate for a rise ; combined with it, there can be no rational doubt on the subject.—Hobart Town Adv. Mar. 5.

FUNERAL OF THE LATE CAPT. STANLEY, R N. —We extract from the People's Advocate, of March 16, the following brief account of the in- terment of this lamented officer, whose untimely decease has cast a gloom over the large circle of friends who knew and appreciated his value. The service has lost a zealous assistant by his death. "His funeral, which took place yesterday, at half- past two o'clock, attracted thousands of spectators to the different headlands near the harbour, com- manding a view of the men-of-war, and the course of the procession, which was from the Rattlesnake to the North Shore, and thence to the burying ground, near St. Leonard's, where the body was interred. The boats of the Meander, Rattlesnake, and Bramble, the Customs and Police boats, to- gether with about a hundred others, produced a very interesting effect, as the mournful procession pulled up to the landing place, the colours of the shipping being hoisted half-mast high, and the big guns of the Meander firing at intervals of a minute. At the landing of the North Shore, a strong detachment of the 11th regiment presented arms, and accompanied the mourners to the church, the regiment and Meander bands playing alter- nately the most solemn music, the whole produc- ing, as it passed through the forest, the most affecting and interesting spectacle that can well be imagined. Prayers were read, and the funeral service conducted by the Rev. Mr. King, of St. Phillip's, and the Rev. Mr. Clarke, of St. Leo- nard's ; and when the body was lowered into its final resting place in the forest churchyard, the sorrow of many brave hearts and tender friends did not terminate with the usual discharges of musketry which announced the closing scene—the junction of dust unto dust."

PRESBYTERIAN MINISTRY.—The following is a   list of candidates for the ministry who have ar- rived under the auspices of Dr. Lang :—Mr. W. Ridley, A.B., of the University of London, Fel- sted, Essex ; Mr. M. Goethe, of Coblentz, on the Rhine, recently engaged in tuition in Brussels ; Mr. David Blair, of the North of Ireland, recently of Southampton ; Mr. Walter Robb, of the Uni- versity of Edinburgh, Greenlaw, Scotland ; Mr. W. H. Carey, of Calcutta, a grandson of the late Rev. Dr. Carey, of that city ; Mr. Lorenzo Lodge, of London ; Mr. Joseph Fillingham, of York ; Mr. Patrick Fitzgerald, of Musselburgh, Scotland ; Mr. H. Reeve, Ryde, Isle of Wight ; Mr. W. F. Jervis, Guernsey, late of Exeter ; Mr. Ebenezer Hooker, Exeter ; Mr. James Antrobus, Bolton, Lancashire ; Mr. Andrew Henderson, Kirkaldy,

Scotland ; Mr. John Langley, Bridgnorth, Eng- land ; Mr. John Knibbs, Bridgnorth ; Mr. G. H. Williams, Kingsland, London ; Mr. James Brown, Beaminster, England ; Mr. John Betts ; Mr. David Tinning, Carlisle, England ; Mr. Samuel F. Whitehead, London ; Mr. John McGibbon, Glasgow, Scotland ; Mr. James T. Carter, Lon-

don.—S. M. Herald.

TICKETS-OF-LEAVE.—The undermentioned pri- soners of the Crown (per Mounstuart Elphin- stone ) obtained tickets-of-leave for the district of Moreton Bay since the last day of publication :— Anderson William (I), Adams Henry, Anstey Richard, Adams Henry, Anderson William (2)— Butterfield George, Bradshaw William, Brandon Richard, Barrymore James, Benyon William, Bromley Samuel, alias George Kirkham, Barge John, Brickell John, Bunn Henry, Butler John, Bleasdale John, Brown John, Brown Thomas, Brickett Enos, Bartlett John, Bruton Frederick, Brassington Samuel, Bright William, Beston Fre- derick, Bailey Charles William, Begley Thomas, Brockie John, Brown Alexander, alias Browning, Brennan John, Church Thomas, Cooper Ralph, Chant James, Cooper John, Cooper Isaac, Clarke Patrick, Cannon Thomas, Chick John, Crack Ri- chard, Cummins Daniel, Cotterill John, Cheadle Charles, Clarke Robert, Christie James, Dud- deridge James Robert, Davis John, Davis William, Diehl James, Drummond Alexander, Eldridge Robert, Evans Henry, Elliott Griffith, Ellis Tho- mas, Earley James—Flaxman Charles, Francis William, Febbutt William, Felthouse James, Fiel- der William—Gates Thomas, Griffiths Edward, Goulden John, Gerry John, Gilbert George, Gray John, alias John Bugden, Gough Edwin—Heath William, Hatton John, Harding John, Hughan Robert, Harrison Ralph, Heil Carl August, Hock- ing John, Hughes Thomas, Hutchins Francis, Hepton Henry, Hart Benjamin, Hughes William, Hannant Jeremiah, Humby John Cross, Har- borne James, Holland James, Hughes John, Howie Robert, Heaton Samuel—Jones William, Jones John, Johnson Thomas James, Jenkins William, Jones James, James William—Kendall James, Kirby William, Kirk Robert, Kelly James— Lloyd William, Lawrence John, Lambert Spencer, Livermore Thomas, Lingard Ellis, Lambert James, Long William, Lace Thomas, Lee Charles, Lyon Robert, Lynch Peter, Leighton Alexander—Mas- kell Richard, Moore Henry, Muires John, Mill- stead Josiah, Marshall Charles, Millwater Thomas,     McConvill William, Mullen Peter, Mackay John, Morton Charles, Morton George, Miller James, Milner Richard, McGill Robert, McIntyre Duncan, McGraham Peter, McIntosh Hawthorn, Martin James, Millar Elliot, McLeod Daniel—Nason John —Noott John—Probert, Edward, Potter Henry, Punter John, Podmore Andrew, Pickering William, Potter William, Parker John, Pinner Robert, Pal- lant William, Pitt William, Pilling James—Ro- bertson John, Ryle Christopher, Roberts Isaac, Riley William, Rands James, Richards William, Rushton Thomas, Rooney John, Ridyard John, Rudkin Thomas, Riches William, Redman Fre- derick, Reid Peter, Robinson George—Simmons Emanuel, Sadler Henry (1), Smith George, Smith William, Sharp John, Sullivan Dennis, Smith William, Sales James, Snell William, Searle Cor- nelius, Stephens Joseph, Saker John, Smith John, Smith Samuel, Silvester George, Sadler Henry, Sherring John, Skelton Thomas, Shirley Charles, Saville Thomas, Smith James, Stewart James, Stewart James, Sheehane David, Smith John— Tindall John, alias Mapton, Thacker Abraham, Torrens William, alias William Brillen, Taylor George, Tomlin William, Tomlin Isaac, Thacker Reuben,Thomas George, Tebbutt William, Thomp- son George, Thomas George, Thompson Mathew, Tidd Matthew, Tannocks John—Vincent Samuel Wilson Henry, Ward Able, Williams William, White Henry Frederick, Wheeler Charles, Walker Christopher, Woods John, Wallacroft George Estabrook, Whittle William, William George Ralph, Winter-Anthony, Williams John, Wood John, Walsh Martin, Wish John, Walker Wil- liam, Walker James, Wood Thomas, Williams John, Westiff Samuel, White George, Wright John, Williams Joseph, Ward John, Whitworth Luke, Wilson David, alias Mathew Baillie, Wotherspoon William, alias Cowley — Yardley James, Young John.—In the absence of the Prin. Sup. of Con- victs,—-THOMAS RYAN, Chief Clerk.—Prin. Sup. of Con. Office, Sydney, 11th March, 1850.—

Government Gazette.

THE ALPACA.—It seems pretty well agreed that the introduction of the alpaca into this country would be of importance, second only to that of our fine woolled sheep. There are vast districts either wholly unsuited to the latter, or where, from the abundance of scrub, they find much difficulty in grazing ; while the difficulties of shepherding are such as to render it almost impossible to pay that attention to the flocks absolutely necessary in a perfect system of sheep-farming. These tracts would well suit the alpaca, a browsing full as much as a grazing animal, and which, from its stature, would be far, more readily observed among the scrub than the sheep. Many waste tracts, espe- cially sandy land, abound with one or two plants greedily eaten by sheep and cattle while young., when the ground is burned, but which soon be- come unavailable to the farmer from the rapid growth of the surrounding scrub. The long legged alpaca could obtain them without difficulty, and, from its habits of living upon shrubs, would no doubt eat them at a period of growth when they were distasteful to the graminivorous animals. The wool too of the alpaca is becoming of more importance every day, and is rapidly extending to the manufacture of various articles of dress, com- bining lightness, durability, and a peculiar silky gloss, which has made it supersede silk in many instances. Several attempts have been made, or rather spoken of, to introduce this valuable ani- mal. Among others, his Excellency wrote to Ad- miral Hornby, father of Lady Denison, command- ing on the Chilli station, requesting that, should any man-of-war belonging to the station come hither, he would send some up ; but none have ar- rived, in consequence of the increased activity re- quired along the American coast and the islands of the Pacific. Our own trade direct with Chili   or Peru is nothing ; but it might be possible for some of the vessels trading to San Francisco to procure a few, by means of vessels from Chili, there being a considerable communication between San Francisco and Valparaiso. We think the hint worth attending to, as no doubt it would be a pro- fitable investment. —Hobart Town Advertiser.

MINING INTELLIGENCE. — In pursuance of a notice, some few gentlemen interested in deve- loping the minerals of the colony met at the Royal Hotel, when, after some specimens which strongly indicated the presence of metallic ores had been exhibited, Dr. Hope, Messrs. Patterson, Poulton, Wallace, and Dalton, were appointed to inspect the ground whence the specimens were procured, and draw out a report to submit to a public meeting on the subject, which meeting is appointed for Thursday (this day), at 3 o'clock, at the Royal Hotel.— Geelong Intelligencer,

March 1.

THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN GOLD COMPANY.— Only 400 out of the 1600 shares offered to the

public having been taken, the original proprietors

have determined to withdraw the property and manage it on their own account. In a fit of liberality not quite common in these days, they have determined to return the amount of deposits

in full.—South Australian,

THE CHOLERA IN LONDON.—The cholera has, in broad numbers, cost the rate payers of the metropolis, for medical attendance, medicine, fu- nerals, &c., £200,000, besides an annual cost for some years to come, at the least, of from £15,000 to £20,000, for the maintenance of the widows and orphans of those now no more.— Observer.

IMPORTANT AND REMARKABLE INVENTION.— Mr. M. Smith Salter, of this city, has just obtained a patent for an invention which, it is believed, is destined to have a most important influence upon the useful arts of life, and the industry of the country and the world. It is a new method of making iron, direct from the ore with anthracite or bituminous coal, by a single process, By means of this invention, Mr. S. proposes to make wrought iron at a cost of 25 to 30 dollers per ton

—at least half the usual cost. His furnace has three chambers, one above the other, and all ac- tuated by the same fire. The upper chamber is used for deoxidising the ore-impurites, such as sulpher,&c, being carried off at a low temperature ; the middle chamber for fluxing and working, and the lower chamber for reducing and finishing. The metal is taken from the last named to the hammer or squeezers. The whole time occupied in this process, from the time ore is put into the furnace until finished by the hammer, is only two hours ! We understand that one of his furnaces is now in operation in Boonton, in Morris Co. We have a specimen of iron from it, which is pronounced to be of the very best description. Perhaps a more important invention—if fuller experiments should verify present anticipations—has not been intro- duced for many years. Its effect upon the pro- duction and consumption of iron must be immense. Newark, (N.J.) Advertiser, Oct. 15.

AN AMERICAN RIFLE MATCH.—There had been several matches that morning, but they were over before we arrived on tbe ground. There was one, however, still going on, of rather a singular character, and which had already been nearly of a week's standing. At a distance of from seventy five to a hundred yards from where the parties stood, were two black cocks, pacing about in an enclosure which left them exposed on the side to- wards the competitors At these two men were firing as fast as they could load, and, as it ap- peared to me, at random, as the cocks got off with impunity. On my observing to Mr. D—— that, although I was no " crack shot," I thought I could kill one of them at the first fire, he smiled, and directed my attention to their tails. One indeed had scarcely any tail left, unless two solitary feathers deserved the appelation. On closer in- spection, I found a white line drawn in chalk or paint on either side of the tail of each, close to the body of the bird, and each party taking a bird, the bet was to be won by him who first shot the tail off his, up to the line in question, and without inflicting the slightest wound upon its possessor. They were to fire as often as they pleased, during a certain hour each day, until the bet was decided. One of the competitors had been very success- ful, and had accomplished his object on the third day's trial, with the exception of the two feathers already alluded to, which, having had a wide gap created between them, seemed to baffle all his efforts to dislodge them. What the issue was I cannot say, for at the close of that day's trial it remained undecided.—Mackay's Western World.

HINTS TO A COLONIAL SECRETARY AT DOWN- ING STREET.—" Your long acquaintance with the provinces, and familiar intercourse with the people," said he, " must have made you quite at home on all colonial topics " " I thought so oncet," sais I, " but 1 don't think so now no more, Sir." " Why, how Is that ?" sais' he, " Why, Sir," said I," you can hold a book so near your eyes as not to be able to read a word of it ; hold it off further and get the right focus, and you can read beautiful. Now,   the right distance to see a colony, and know all about it, is England. Three Thousand miles is the right focus for a spy-glass. A man livin' here, and who never was out of England, knows twice as much about the provinces as I do." " Oh you are joking," sais he. " Not a bit," sais I, " I find folks here that not only know everything about them countries, but have no doubts upon any matter, and ask no questions ; in fact, they not not only more than me, but more than the people themselves do, what they want. It's curious, but it's a fact."—Sam Slick.