PRINCIPAL NEWS ITEMS OF ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF PUBLICATION.
THE MARCH OF EVENTS. An Historical Summary.
SOME time before January 5, 1833, Charles Macfaull sat at a desk in his home in Adelaide-terrace and fashioned the first few words of those that the colonists were to read as 'The Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal.'
One can picture him dipping his quill, poising it, giving his side-whiskers a reflective tug perhaps, and then setting in motion a stream of ink which was to flow for one hundred years, at first falteringly, at most a nervous little trickle, but gradually to gather volume and to swell to such size and constancy as could not be denied. Through the century it has eddied and coursed in consort with the life about it, its surface a mirror for the happenings, large and small, which form the history of Western Australia. As we journey back over the stream we can pick out the varied milestones in the progress of the State, and these are here tabulated, providing a unique historical summary.
1833. ALBANY.— On September 13, Sir Richard Spencer, the first Government Resident of King George's Sound, arrived at Albany, which then had a population of 17, in addition to a few soldiers. CURRENCY.— The Agricultural Society formed the Swan River Barter Society. Each member was allowed 50 promissory notes, of a face value of £1 each, and each agreed to accept notes in lieu of cash. DEPRESSION.— Settlers were brought close to starvation. By the beginning of September it was found necessary, to ration foodstuffs and until the arrival of several ships later in the year the settlers were reduced practically to a famine diet. A bountiful harvest at the end of the year brought, a return to normal conditions. EXPLORATION.— Ensign Dale and Dr. Collie made journeys to the King George's Sound district and J. G. Bussell made a careful examination of the Vasse district, which resulted in the profitable settle ment of that part of the Colony. FARMING.— The area under crop was about 600 acres. MANUFACTURES.— For the first time, kangaroo skins were tanned and made into boots. MILLS.— Mr. Henry Willey Reveley's mill, the first built in Perth (on the site of the present Technical College), com menced grinding in February. It cost £1,000 to erect. A few months later Mr. Samuel Kingsford erected a mill in the immediate neighbourhood, facing Mill- street. In June, Mr. William Kernot Shenton established a mill at Point Belches. South Perth, near the site of the mill that stands to-day. NEW TOWNS.-The townsites of Northam and Newcastle (Toodyay) were surveyed. RACING.— The first horse race in the Colony was held on October 2 at South Beach, about 1½ miles from Fremantle. ROADS.— In January the first made roadway in the Colony from the town to Mr. Eliza, was in the course of construc tion. SHIPPING.— During the year 21 vessels arrived at Fremantle from foreign parts, bringing 73 passengers. 'THE WEST AUSTRALIAN.'-On January 5 'The Perth Gazette and West ern Australian Journal,' the forerunner of 'The West Australian' was first issued. TIMBER— In March, Mr. J. H. Monger moved from the vicinity of the lake which bore his name and started the first tim ber yard at Mt. Eliza. WHALING.— A whaling station was started at Albany early in the year by Messrs. Lukin and Steel, of Perth. 1834. AGRICULTURAL SHOW.— The first Agricultural Show was held on November 7, in the neighbourhood of Guildford, being in the nature of a cattle exhibition and picnic. It was under the auspices of the Agricultural Society, the oldest institution in the Colony, having been founded in July, 1831. There were very few exhibits. FERRIES.— Ferries were established at Fremantle, Preston Point, Mt. Eliza and Guildford in January, and tolls levied. An earlier ferry was in existence at PresJ ton Point in January, 1833. MAILS.— The Legislative Council passed an Act establishing a Postal Department. NATIVES.— Battle of Pinjarra.— The natives of the Murray district having been very troublesome for some time, having attacked the mill at South Perth on April 24. A punitive expedition under the Governor (Sir James Stirling), number ing 25 settlers, mounted police and sol diers, left Perth on October 27. On the following day, near Pinjarra, an encoun ter took place, in which the Superinten dent of Police (Captain Ellis) was fatally wounded and Constable P. Heffron was slightly wounded. Of the natives, ten men, three women and one child were killed. NOTE ISSUE.— Because of a shortage of specie, £1 notes were issued from the Commissariat Office in January. PARLIAMENT.— By an Act passed this year it was provided that the Legislative Council, hitherto comprised of Govern ment officers, should be increased by four unofficial members, nominated by the Government. The sittings were from this year opened to the public. The unofficial members were not appointed until 1839. PINJARRA.— The townsite of Pinjarra was fixed. RACING.-At a meeting held at the Stag's Head Inn. Fremantle on March 19 it was decided to form the Fremantle Race Club to hold horse races twice a year. A course was cleared in April. On March 20 the first trotting race held in the Colony took place on the Fremantle race course between a horse belonging to Capt. Erskine and one belonging to Mr. Wil liam Samson. RELIGION.— The Perth Chapel was opened on June 22. UNEMPLOYMENT.— In October there was the first reference to unemployment, in the Albany district. Working men complained that they could not obtain employment and work was found for them on street construction. WOOL.— A shipment of 7,585lb. of wool valued at £758 was sent to Eng land. Wool was the State's first export, a small consignment having been for warded to London in 1832. Since 1834, the export has been continuous. 1835. ESTIMATES. — In January the Gover nor laid before the Legislative Council estimates of receipts and expenditures for the year, the first document of its kind in the colony. MAILS.— On January 31 Mr. Charles Macfaull was appointed first official Post- master at Perth, and Mr. M. J. Bateman the first at Fremantle. Both had been unofficial postmasters since about 1832. MIGRATION.— By the end of the year immigration had entirely ceased, due to lack of interest on the part of the great London companies. MILLS.— In October, the Governor (Sir James Stirling), at the request of Mr. W. K. Shenton, laid the foundation stone of a windmill at Point Belches, South Perth, to replace the original one, which had proved inadequate. The mill then con structed is the picturesque building that stands to-day. SEALING.— Sealskins valued at £500 were exported from Albany. SETTLEMENT.- This year was notable for an assessment of the value of land and the improvements in the Colony, and of the number of live stock. The amount represented nearly £250 000. There were 7,158 head of stock, including 5,138 sheep. About 1,800 acres were under crop, and 50 bales of wool were sent to London. YORK.— In July, the first town allot ments at York were sold to Messrs. Bland and Trimmer. 1836. BREWERY.— A brewery— the Albion was established in Perth in January. COMMUNICATIONS.-A road between Perth and Albany was surveyed by Mr. A Hillman. COURTS.— A courthouse, erected at Perth at the cost of £700, was completed in December. EXPLORATION.- An offer by Captain George Grey to the Secretary of State for the Colonies (Lord Glenelg to conduct an expedition to the country north of Perth that Dampier and Captain King
(1819) had described, was accepted. H.M.S. Beagle was commissioned by the Imperial Government to carry out a coastal survey and to bring Captain Grey as far as the Cape of Good Hope, where a schooner was to be chartered. The Moore River was discovered by Mr. George Fletcher Moore, and excellent pastoral country in the vicinity was opened up. GUILDFORD.— The boundaries of the townsite of Guildford were fixed. PASTORAL INDUSTRY.— The develop ment of the pastoral industry commenced, and the Colony depended on it until the period of gold discoveries and the extension of the wheat lands. PERTH.— A fire on January 19 destroyed he last of the rush huts erected by the soldiers of the 63rd Reg. on the Barrack Square (opposite the present Government Gardens). A few of the first rush huts built in 1829 still remained on the outskirts of the town. RELIGION.— In July the first missionary arrived in the Colony— Dr. Louis Giusti niani, who was sent out by the Western Australian Missionary Society (formed in England in 1835, and afterwards known as the Colonial Church Society). The so ciety had selected Guildford as the scene of its work, and Giustiniani's first work was the erection of a church at Guildford and the forming of a native mission at Middle Swan. The church stood in the graveyard at East Guildford, at the east end of the present Grammar, School Chapel. The foundation-stone was laid in Septem ber, and the building was opened for divine worship towards the end of the year. This was the first church in the Colony. It has long since been demolished. SHIPPING.— The first sea-going craft built in the Colony, the Lady Stirling, was launched at Fremantle in. May. TIMBER.— The first export of timber took place,, consisting of 200 tons for the British Admiralty. WHEAT.— Contracts were accepted by the Imperial Commissariat Department for the delivery at Perth of 1,200 bushels of wheat, at 12/ a bushel. A cargo of wheat was sent to New South Wales, where there was a severe drought. 1837. BANKING.— The Bank of Western Aus tralia commenced business at Perth on June 1, with a nominal capital of £10,000, only 25 per cent. of the capital being called up. Small deposits were received on the Savings Bank principle, on which interest at 5 per cent, was allowed. Mr. George Leake was chairman of directors. BUSSELTON.— Busselton was surveyed, and the first lot was sold to Mr. Chapman. COURTS.— On January 2 the Court of Quarter Sessions, hitherto held at Fre mantle, was held for the first time at Perth in the then recently erected courthouse. The building, now the Arbitration Court, still stands. EXPLORATION.-Captain Grey's party landed at High Bluff Point, in Port George the Fourth in the schooner Lynheer, from Cape Town, on December 3, and walked to Hanover Bay. On December 9 the British flag was hoisted, and the little party 'went through the ceremony of tak ing possession of the territory in the name of Her Majesty and her heirs for ever.' SETTLEMENT.— The number of persons in the Colony, about 2,000, was only 263 more than in 1831. The value of their property was £200,000, providing an annual accumulation of capital of £72,000. The number of sheep was over 16,000, and wheat production was greater than consumption. TRANSPORT.— In March direct com munication by road between Perth and King George's Sound ,was opened. WHALING.— On June 10 the first whale caught near Cockburn Sound, off Carnac, was landed, guns being fired at Fremantle to celebrate the memorable event. With this capture the Fremantle Whaling Com pany began operations. (Long before this American whalers were frequent visitors to West Australian waters, particularly off the south coast). In August the com pany began excavations for a whaling tun nel under the Round House Gaol, at Ar thur's Head, Fremantle, to facilitate the transport of whale oil and merchandise between Bather's Bay and the town. Whales frequently came into Fremantle Harbour at certain periods of the year, and for many years whaling was a staple local industry. Oil and whalebone valued at £3,000 were exported from Fremantle and Albany this year. American whalers obtained whalebone and oil valued at £30,000. 1838. EXPLORATION.— The Fitzroy and Adelaide rivers (Kimberley district) were discovered by H.M.S. Beagle. Captain Grey penetrated the Kimberley country in the neighbourhood of the Prince Regent River. At the conclusion of his expedition he set sail for the Isle of France, having rejoined the Beagle. GOVERNOR.— The administration as Governor of Sir James Stirling closed at the end of the year. PERTH. — On June 15 an Act was passed vesting the control of the town of Perth in a body of trustees consisting of justices of the peace resident in town, and owners of allotments held in fee simple. The first accurate plan of Perth with street names, prepared by Mr. Alfred Hillman under the direction of the Surveyor-General, was issued, Newcastle-street forming one boun dary of the town. POLICE.— Mr. George Douglas was ap pointed the first police constable of the Murray District, at a salary of £10 a year. RELIGION.— Dr. Giustiniani left the Colony in February, greatly disliked. The Rev. William Mitchell succeeded him, arriving in August. One of his first works was the completion of the Guildford Church, followed by the erection of new churches at Middle Swan and Upper Swan the latter being still in existence. An Independent Chapel was started at Guild ford. ROTTNEST.— A native prison was estab lished at Rottnest. SETTLEMENT.-There were 2,501 acres under crop in the Colony, the wheat yield being 22,104 bushels. There were 16,816 sheep, the value of wool exported being £1,935. VACCINE. — In September vaccine mat ter was introduced into the Colony for the first time. WHALING.-The Whaling Tunnel at Arthur s Head, Fremantle, was completed in January. The Perth Whaling Company ceased operations in February. 1839. CRICKET.— In April the youths of the town and district of Guildford formed a cricket club, the second in the Colony. On Easter Eve the first inter-club match took place, Perth beating Guildford by '40 odd runs.' EXPLORATION.-Captain Grey, in ex ploration between Shark Bay and Perth discovered the Gascoyne, Irwin and other rivers, and the Victoria Plains between February 17 and April 21. On the jour uey, one man died and one became half demented. Grey had also explored most of the country between Leschenault and the Williams River in January. GOVERNOR— The new Governor, Mr. William Hutt, arived at Fremantle on January 2. Governor Stirling sailed on January 6. MAILS.— A Post Office was established at Guildford in July. Mr. Abraham Jones being appointed postmaster. NATIVES.— Messrs. G. Burrow and C. Symmons were appointed instructors of natives in the Colony by the Imperial Government. Native schools werp estab lished the first being under the care of the Wesleyan Church. PARLIAMENT.— On January 3 Gover nor Hutt put into operation the plan ap proved by the Home authorities five years
before, and nominated four unofficial mem bers — Messrs. William Locke Brockman, George Leake, Thomas Peel and William Tanner— to the Legislative Council for the duration of their residence in the Col ony. The official members numbered five, who were also members of the Executive Council. PERTH.— On April 14 an Act was passed empowering the Trustees of Perth (ap pointed by the Act of 1838) to make an assessment for the improvement of the town. RELIGION.— The foundation stone of the Rev. Mitchell's Anglican Church at Upper Swan was laid on October 31. RESERVES.— The reserve known for many years as the Old Recreation Ground, now Wellington Square, in Wellington- street, East Perth, was proclaimed as a reserve for public recreation. It was our first reserve proclaimed for that purpose, For years the principal annual cricket match was played there, the day being made a gala occasion. SHEEP.— Mr. J. Harris travelled a flock of sheep from Perth to the Albany dis trict, and Mr. John Hassell stocked land in the Kendenup district with sheep from the Eastern States. Thus the pastoral industry of an area of country several hun dred miles long and extending inland about 50 miles, was more or less established. THEATRE.— On July 9 the first theatri cal entertainment in the Colony took place, plays by amateur performers being staged at Leeder's Hotel, Perth. 1840. AUSTRALIND.— The West Australian Company was formed in London in May to effect a settlement at Australind, on Leschenault inlet. It was the second large colonising experiment in the Colony, and like that of Thomas Peel, it failed within three years of its inception. CAUSEWAY.— On November 2 the first pile was driven of the old Perth Causeway. EDUCATION.— A grammar school was opened in Perth. EXPLORATION.— On January 31 Ed ward John Eyre commenced the expedition from South Australia to Perth along the coastline, which has placed him among the immortals. In the forties also, A. C. Gregory accomplished a journey to Shark Bay and a long eastern trip. H.M.S. Beagle surveyed the Houtman Abrolhos Islands. EXPORTS.— In January the vessel Shep herd left Fremantle for London, being the first ship laden wholly with West Aus tralian produce. LONDON AGENTS.-- At a public meeting held in Perth in April, Sir James Stirling and Messrs. W. Hutt and T. Bland were appointed agents to watch the Colony's affairs in London. MIGRATION.--The Legislative Council set aside £1,500 for the purpose of obtain ing labour from England. Youths from the Parkhurst reformatory were sent to the Colony by the British Government. POLICE.-- Mr. John Chipper, the first police constable employed on a fixed wage in Perth, was appointed in May at a salary of £20 a year. RELIGION.— The foundation stone of a Wesleyan Chapel was laid at Fremantle by Governor Hutt. This building in Can tonment-street is still standing, but has been enlarged and is now used as the church hall and Sunday school. A church at Middle Swan was opened on November 29. Shortly afterwards the church at Upper Swan (still standing) was opened. 1841 BANKING.— In May the Bank of West ern Australia was bought out by the Bank of Australasia, which started a branch in Perth. Many of the sharehold ers of the Bank of Western Australia were opposed to the transfer, and they insti tuted the Western Australian Bank, which commenced business in Perth on June 23, and for 86 years played a dominant part, in the finances of Western Australia. It amalgamated with the Bank of New South Wales in 1927. BUNBURY.— In February, the townsite of Bunbury was surveyed. EXPLORATION.— John Baxter, ex plorer, the companion of Eyre, was killed by natives on April 29 at a spot on the Bight 130 miles south-east of the present town of Zanthus. Eyre completed the journey to Albany in company with a native boy, arriving on July 27, six months after leaving Adelaide. MAILS.— On June 23 a weekly mail be tween Guildford and York, and an over land monthly mail to King George's Sound, were established. PERTH.— The Act of 1838 was repealed and an Act for the improvement of towns in the Colony was passed on Sep tember 23, under which the first chair man and committee of the Town Trust of Perth were elected, about four months later. The plan of Perth was revised. POLICE.— Two native constables, Dob bin and Tonquin, were appointed at Upper Swan, on a daily ration of flour. If there was peace in the land, their measure of flour was full. If there was any out rage, they got nothing. RELIGION.— The foundation stone of the Anglican Church, Perth, was laid by Governor Hutt on January 1, and on Janu ary 10 the Rev. Mitchell's Anglican Church at Upper Swan was opened for service. RIVER STEAMERS.— On November 18 a company was formed to establish a river steamboat service. SETTLEMENT.— The Parkfield, with nearly 100 settlers and immigrants, reached Koombana Bay on March 18 for the set tlement of Australind, at Leschenault, under the auspices of the Western Aus tralian Company, a British concern. 1842. CAUSEWAY.— In January a bridle path was opened on the Causeway for pedestrians and horsemen. Toll gates were placed at each end. JETTIES:— The Mill-street Jetty, known as Stone Jetty, was opened, and on No vember 7. William-street, or Steamer Jetty, was opened. Tolls were levied for the use of all Perth jetties. Barrack-street, or Cole's Jetty, was opened earlier. Stone Jetty was so named because stone, quar ried from Pt. Resolution, was unloaded there from punts, and Steamer Jetty be cause the first river steamers plied to and from the jetty. Cole's Jetty was named after the first chairman of the Perth City Council (Mr. Henry Laroche Cole), who arrived in the Colony in 1829, and built and owned the United Service Tavern. MAILS. — A regular mail service be tween settlements of the Colony was in augurated on April 6, a daily service be tween Perth and Fremantle coming into operation. MINING.— The history of mining in Western Australia began with the discov ery of the Waneranooka copper lode at Northampton, by Thomas Mason, a shep herd. PERTH TOWN TRUST.— On February 8, under the provisions of the 1841 Act. Mr. W. B. Andrews was elected the first chairman of the Perth Town Trust, and George Leake, James Purkis, Peter Brown, W. H. Drake, and Richard Jones were elected members of the trust committee. On February 11 the Town Trust levied its first rate of £1 on each owner of property, on the north side of Hay-street, and 10/ on each other resident, for the purposes of making footpaths in Hay-street. Tolls were the trust's chief source of income. RELIGION.— The Wesleyan Church, Perth, was opened on January 1. The foundation stone of St. John's Anglican Church in the then King's-square, Fre mantle, was laid by Governor Hutt on April 6. ROTTNEST.— The foundation stone of a lighthouse at Rottnest was laid on Janu ary 21 by the Superintendent of Public Works (Mr. H. Trigg). SETTLEMENT.— The Diadem arrived at Koombana Bay with 180 passengers for the Australind settlement. The Vineyard Society was formed to promote the cul ture of the vine and the olive. The area of land under grain crops wa9 3,047 acres. SHEEP.— The number of sheep in the Colony passed the 60,000 mark. 1843. AUSTRALIND.— All sales of land at Australind were stopped. CAUSEWAY.— In May the Causeway was completed and opened for general traf fic. DEPRESSION.— A severe period of de pression affected the Colony, due to a number of causes, chief of which were the high interest rates charged on bor rowed money, the fall in commodity prices, the scarcity of labour and the unsatisfac tory land regulations. MIGRATION.— The Success arrived on March 22, having on board 134 immigrants and the Advocate-General (Mr. G. F. Moore) . MILLS.— Early in November Mr. W. Cowan's sawmill at Guildford commenced operations. RELIGION.— On December 8 the Very Rev. J. Brady arrived in Perth with the Rev. J. T. Jorstan and a catechist on the vessel Water Witch from Adelaide via King George's Sound to minister to the Roman Catholic communities at Perth, Fremantle and Australind. The first ser vice was held on December 10. SHEEP.— A shipment of sheep to Mau ritius realised 28/ a head. TIMBER.— Samples of timber were sent to London resulting in the inception of a small export trade.
1844. DEPRESSION.— The depression per isted and strict Governmental economies were observed. The labour shortage con inued. EXPLORATION.— Lieut. Helpman, in he schooner Champion, journeyed to Gan heaume Bay, at the mouth of the Mur hison River, and reported good stock country. EXPORTS.— The first shipment to India of horses bred in the Colony left Fremantle in June, and cattle and horses were ex ported to Mauritius, satisfactory prices being obtained. MILLS.— A flour and sawmill 'propelled by steam' was successfully started at Guild ord by Mr. Cowan, who purchased the plant of the Perth Steam Mills and formed the W.A. Steam Saw and Flour Mills, the old wind and water mills having for the most part been superseded by the early forties. MURDER.— The first execution of a white person in Western Australia took place at Fremantle on April 6. He was John Gavan (15), who had come from the Parkhurst Reformatory, England, and was employed at Pollard's farm, Dandalup, where, on February 21, he brutally mur lered George Pollard (18) in his sleep. Gavan was hanged about ten yards to the left of the Round House, and the body was suspended in chains. RELIGION.— On January 16 the foun dation stone of the Roman Catholic chapel was laid. The plans provided for an ex tension of the original building later. Land grants to the Catholic Church were made by Governor Hutt. RACING.— On June 1, the first race meeting in Perth was held, either at the Limekilns, beyond Subiaco, or where Queen's Gardens now stand. STOCK MARKET.— A stock market was established at Guildford. 1845. DEPRESSION.— The condition of the Colony grew worse. Settlers commenced leaving and the Bank of Australasia with drew its branch from the Colony. EXPLORATION.— An excursion down the Blackwood River was made by the Assistant Surveyor (Mr. A. C. Gregory). EXPORT.— Sandalwood and copper: The first shipment of sandalwood from the Colony (four tons) was sent overseas from Fremantle in December. The first con signment of copper ore left the Colony, to be smelted in Wales. RELIGION.-On January 22, St. George's Church, Perth (Anglican) was opened for public worship. Father Brady was consecrated Roman Catholic Bishop of Perth at Rome. RESERVES.—On June 10, Stirling Square, now called Government Gardens, was set apart as a public garden. STEAMER.—The first steam vessel, H.M.S. Driver, visited Fremantle in De cember. The novel sight caused the look- out man to mistake her for a ship on fire. TIMBER.—A contract was made with the Admirality. to supply 400 tons of jarrah for use in the dockyards. 1846. COAL.— A discovery of coal at the Mur ray River was reported in July. The first mining company in the Colony, the West ern Australian Mining Company, was or ganised in September to prospect for coal. It dissolved in 1850 after working the Murray River deposits. Coal was also dis covered on the Irwin River. CONDITION OF COLONY.— A slow but appreciable improvement in the condition of affairs became evident, although the depression was byno means over. State finances showed a surplus (£335) for the first time. EXPORTS.— In January the vessel Uni corn left Fremantle with the largest cargo of West Australian produce that had so far been exported, consisting mainly of wool, timber, and whale oil. The foun dations were laid of an export trade in sandalwood to China and Ceylon. GOVERNOR.—Govenor Hutt left the Colony on February 19 and was succeeded by Lieut --Colonial Andrew Clarke. NEW NORCIA.—On February 16, Dom Joseph Serra and Dom Rosendo Salvado, Spanish Benedictine priests, left Perth for the Victoria Plains to establish a mission, and founded a settlement at Batgi Batgi, about five miles north of the present site of New Norcia. It failed owing to financial difficulties. Later the site was shifted. RELIGION.— The first Congregational Church was opened in Perth. A missionary expedition, organised by the Right Rever end John Brady, who had been to Rome, arrived at Fremantle on January 8. SHIPPING.—Three vessels built of jarrah were launched at Fremantle, the largest being capable of carrying 300 tons. An ordinance was passed repealing the pilotage dues, and the ports of the Colony were made free to the ships of the world. 1847. COMMUNICATIONS— The General Roads Trust was abolished and a Central Board of Works substituted, to construct and maintain roads throughout the Col ony. CONDITION OF COLONY.— The affairs of the Colony improved greatly, owing to the development of its resources and there was surplus for the year of £821. EXPORT.—Guano from the Abrolhos Is lands was first exported. GOVERNOR.-Governor Clarke died on February 11, and Lieut.-Colonel F. C. Irwin, who had arrived in command of the 63rd Regiment, on H.M.S. Sulphur, in 1829, succeeded him. Though he as sumed the title of Governor, his appoint ment was never confirmed. LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL.— The num ber of official members of the Legislative Council was increased by the appointment of the Collector of Customs (Mr. H. C. Sutherland). MINING.— Zinc ore, of low value, was obtained from a shaft at Kelmscott. Lit tle further mining investigation was done for some years. NEW NORCIA.— On April 28, Doms Serra and Salvado took possession of a new monastery in the Maura-Maura valley. It was built voluntarily by tradesmen, and was named New Norcia, after St. Bene dict's birthplace, Norcia, in Italy. On March 1, the foundation stone was laid, the medal of. St. Benedict being placed beneath it. On December 8, St. Mary's orphanage and school for native children was opened. 1848. EDUCATION.— Mr. John Fairbairn opened the first school at Pinjarra (near the bridge), under the regulations formu lated by the Government. Eleven schools were in operation in the Colony, the total enrolment being 444. EXPLORATION:— In this year and 1849 the Surveyor-General (Mr. John Septimus Roe) traversed much of the country be tween Perth and Albany, and extended his journey eastward beyond Esperance. FRUIT.— There were 114 acres under vines- and 10 acres under olives. GOVERNOR WOUNDED.— Governor Fitzgerald, who succeeded Lieut.-Colonel Irwin in August, was speared and wounded by natives at Northampton in December. MINING.— Between September and No vember, copper and lead were discovered in the Champion Bay district by Messrs. A. C., F. T., and C. Gregory. Lead ore was discovered on the lower Murchison River, at what became the Geraldine mine. The settlement of the Geraldton and the Champion Bay district followed. POPULATION.— The first systematic census of the Colony was taken by the Registrar-General (Mr. G. F. Stone) There were 4,622 residents in the Colony (2,900 adults— 2,818 males and 1,804 fe males). RACING.— The first race meeting was held on the site of the present Ascot course, Perth. 1849. CHAMPION BAY DISTRICT.— Messrs Burgess and Drummqnd took up pastoral leases in the Champion Bay district and beccme the pioneers of a flourishing pas toral settlement. The Geraldine copper mine was started and proved very profit able. It was the first successful mine in the Colony. CONVICTS.— Settlers, despairing of overcoming the labour problem after 20 years of struggling, petitioned the Secre tary of State for Colonies to make the Colony a penal settlement. The British Government acceded with alacrity and an Order in Council to that effect was pub lished in Perth on November 6. For 18 years the Colony was a penal settle ment. EXPLORATION.— In February J. S Roe returned to Perth after having ex plored 1,800 miles of country. FREMANTLE.— Efforts were made to remove the bar at the mouth of the Swan River, without success. It was nearly 50 years before any but, small vessels could enter the river. MAILS.—Natives were employed as lett er carriers thruoughout country districts. 1850. CONVIC'TS.— The Scindian arrived at Fremantle from England on June 1 with the first batch of convicts and also a guard of 50 pensioners and 138 women and chil dren. GERALDTON.-The nucleus of the township of Geraldton, named after the
Governor, was surveyed, and the first town lots were sold in June. MIGRATION.— The Sophia arrived on July 26 with about 300 immigrants. PERTH.— The minimum price of Perth town lots was fixed by the Lands Depart ment in June, as follows:— In St. George's terrace ard Adelaide-terrace and along the waterside, £22 each; in Hay-street, £17; in back streets, £12. RELIGION —The Church of England in the Colony was made an Archdeaconry, under the control of the Bishop of Ade laide. WHEAT —The area of wheat cropped was 4,416 acres. 1851. CONDITION OF COLONY.— Assisted by the introduction of convicts, the Col ony commenced an era of prosperity. The Mermaid, Pyrenees and Minden brought 803 convicts and 268 free persons to the Colony. FREMANTLE PRISON.— On May 16 the construction of the Fremantle Prison was commenced with convict labour. Con victs were also employed in constructing other public buildings and roads. LIGHTHOUSES.— Lighthouses at Ar trur's Head and Rottnest Island, com menced in the previous year, were com pleted. MINING .— In October copper was dis covered at the Geraldine mine. PARLIAMENT.— On March 13 the Im perial Act empowering Western Australia to establish a Legislative Council was pro claimed in the Colony. PEARLING.— Lieut. Helpman returned from Shark Bay with some pearls, and a Perth firm was given the exclusive right to dredge for pearl shell. WHEAT.— The consumption of grain exceeded production, and wheat was im ported from England. 1852. CONVICTS.— During the year 491 con victs arrived, makine a total of 1,469 since June, 1850. In addition 381 free immi grants arrived. EXPORT.— Wine was exported for the first time. MAILS.—In July, the Royal Mail S.N. Company's Australian landed the first mail at Albany. It took two horses 6½ days to carry the mail to Perth. RACING.— The Western Australian Turf Club came into being. SHIPPING.— In August, the Chusan, the first P. and O. steamer to visit Aus tralian waters, arrived from Singapore. 1853. COMMERCE.— On May 11 a Chamber of Commerce was inaugurated. CONVICTS.— 1,129 convicts arrived. Various buildings, including a lunatic asy lum, and a pensioners' depot, were con structed and progress was made with the bridges along the Albany-road. GOLD.— Rich gold specimens were found east of York, but the finders were unable later to locate the places where the dis coveries were made. MINING.— The Geraldine Mining Com pany exported 55 tons of pig lead. 1854. CENSUS.— On September 30, the second census of the Colony was taken. Popula tion, 11,743 (7,779 males , and 3,964 fe males). EXPLORATION.— Mr. R. Austin, start ing from Buckland's farm, Mombekine, near Northam, made a long and perilous journey to what afterwards became the Murchison goldfields. In the late fifties A. Gregory penetrated to the south-eastern corner of the Kimberleys. and F. Gregory, his brother, traversed much of the country inland from Carnarvon. POLICE.— During the year the nucleus of a detective force was established in Perth. Detective-Sergeant Hogan being placed in charge. POSTAGE.—The first postage stamps were issued (the black penny stamp) . TIMBER.— The first timber mill of any size was erected, by Mr. Harry Yelverton, at Quindalup. near Busselton. 1855. BANKING.— The Government Savings Bank was opened on June 22. EXPLORATION— In 1855 and 1856 A. C. Gregory made an expedition from the Northern Territory along Sturt Creek to Lake Termination, in the north-west of Western Australia, and thence to his camp on the Victoria River, south of the Kimberley goldfield, discovering the Deni son Plains. GOVERNOR.— Captain (afterwards Sir) Arthur Edward Kennedy succeeded Cap tain Fitzgerald as Governor of the Colony. MINING:— Towards the end of the year high-grade copper ore was discovered on the Bowes River, and the property was purchased by the Wanerenooka Mining Company. It proved a successful proposi tion. RIVER STEAMER— The steamer Les Trois Amis commenced running on the Swan, from Fremantle to Perth, in March. It was the first steamer to run on the river. 1856. BANKING.— The Government Savings Bank was closed in June. DEFICIT— A deficit of £14,305 caused the Government to institute economies and to impose additional taxation, prin cipally through the Customs. MAIL STEAMERS.— In October, a con tract was entered into between the Home Government and the P. and O. Company for direct service with the Australasian Colonies, calling at Albany. PERTH A CITY.—An Anglican bishop rie was established in Western Australia, Perth being constituted a cathedral city by letters patent, and 'thereafter to be called the City of Perth.' The Right Rev. Matthew Blagden Hale, who had been Archdeacon of Adelaide, was nominated to be the first Bishop of Western Aus tralia by Bishop Short, of Adelaide. Arch deacon Hale arrived in Perth in July, but left for London at the end of the year. 1857. BISHOP HALE— In March, Arch- deacon Matthew Blagden Hale was con secrated, while visiting London, the first Bishop of W.A. EXPLORATION— Mr. F. T. Gregory completed the survey of the hitherto un examined portions of the Murchison River. STEAMERS.— In January the s.s. Pio neer, a steamer built of local timber, com menced to make trips to Guildford. In February the steamer Lady Stirling was launched at Fremantle. 1858. EDUCATION: Bishop's School.— The Cloisters, in St. George's-terrace, was opened on June 28 as Bishop Hale's School, Bishop Hale having returned to the Colony from England this year. It was the first secondary school in the State. Bishop Hale bore the expense of the institution. EXPLORATION— Mr. F. T. Gregory explored the Shark Bay and Gascoyne River districts. PERTH CITY COUNCIL— On Novem ber 30 the Perth Town Trust was dis solved and on December 10 the first meet ing of the Perth City Council was held, there being six councillors. Cr. H. L. Cole was the first chairman. 1859. CENSUS.— On December 31 the third census of the Colony was taken. Popu lation, 14,837 (9,522 males, and 5,315 fe males). GOVERNMENT HOUSE.— On March 17 the foundation stone of the present Gov ernment House was laid. MINING.— Further copper and lead mines were opened up in the Champion Bay district. RELIGION.— The Congregation Church was established in the Colony. 1860. CONVICTS— A total of 5,509 convicts had arrived and building, bridges and roads to the value of over £50,000 had been completed, or were in the course of construction. Among the works were the Fremantle gaol (part of the present gaol), the present Government House, costing £18,000, a new gaol at Perth (on the site of the present Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery), country con vict and invalid depots, various police stations, courts, and jetties; the permanent laying out of the Perth-Fremantle-road, and the draining into the river at Claise brook of a large swampy lake at the back of Perth (on which the Central Railway Station now stands). NEWCASTLE.— The townsite of New castle was marked out in August. WATER SUPPLY.— A fountain which is still in existence erected over a per manent spring and well below Mt. Eliza, opposite the Narrows, was opened by Governor Kennedy. This spring and another on the site of the present Techni cal School were Perth's first public water supplies.
1861. DEFICIT.— The deficit for the year was £13,826. EXPLORATION.— Surveyor F. T. Greg ory's exploration expedition landed at Nickol Bay in May and explored the country between the Fortescue and De Grey Rivers. GOLD. — Parties prospected the Darling Ranges for gold. Mr. Panton found gold-bearing quartz specimens near Nor tham. MILITARY. — An ordinance was passed by the Legislative Council providing for a Volunteer and Defence Force. By September a company of 64 men had been raised in Perth, a company of 70 at Fre mantle, and others followed at Guildford, Pinjarra and Vasse, and York. SUPREME COURT.— An ordinance was issued in June creating a Supreme Court for the Colony and appointing Mr. (after wards Sir) Archibald Paull Burt the first Chief Justice, with Mr. G. F. Stone At torney-General, and Mr. A. H. Stone Master of the Court. 1862. FLOUR.— The first flour was exported from the Colony. GOVERNOR.— Governor Kennedy's term of office expired. He was succeeded by Dr. John Stephen Hampton, who arrived in the Colony in February. MONEY ORDERS. In February a money order office was opened in connec tion with the Post Office Department. PEARLING.— Pearl shell valued at £250 was exported. 1863. BANKING.— The Post Office Savings Bank was established in September. BARRACKS.— The pensioners' barracks at the west end of St. George's-terrace, to house time-expired Imperial soldiers, who were sent out as guards to the con victs, were commenced. BRIDGES.— The North Fremantle traffic bridge was commenced with convict la bour. EXPLORATION.— Messrs. C. C. Hunt and Ridley landed at De Grey River and explored the country touched on by Mr. F. T. Gregory. , From May 7 to July 31 Mr. Henry Maxwell Lefroy led an expedition east of York, seeking pas toral land. He was partially successful. The expedition traversed a large por tion of the present Coolgardie goldfield. GERALDTON.— The first jetty at Ger aldton was built. NORTH-WEST— Mr. Walter Padbury pioneered the pastoral industry in the North-West. On May 5, with Mr. John Wellard he made his way inland. A settlement was established on the De Grey River in June and other settlers fol lowed. On July 27 the site for the home stead of the first sheep station in the North-West was chosen on the western channel of the De Grey River by Charles Nairn, Walter Padbury's manager. The first white woman in the North-West was Mrs. John Withnell (nee Emma May Hancock), who was born at Beverley in 1842, and who, with her husband, landed at Cossack soon after the first settlers and made camp on a hill near Roebourne, which they called Mt. Welcome. By the end of the year there were three runs of 100.000 acres each beinc stocked. RELIGION.— The Roman Catholic Cathedral was completed. 1864. BUNBURY.— The first jetty at Bun bury was built. EXPLORATION.— Mr. C. C. Hunt, seeking pastoral land east of York, which he left on July 10, passed over the site of what is now Coolgardie, and named Hampton Plains. GOYERN^reXT; HOUSE — 'Hie present Government H''se was * crinipleted:r ''. NORTH-WEST.^In August- the first wool-clip from' the ' North-West-«ven bales— nrrived at Fremantle. V PERTH— The City of Perth was divided into three 'wards. ^^FTom December 5 the Chairman -of the 'PCTtK-'Citaf'. Council was electeH bv.the';ratepayeMi.\i-i-Bef6re that he was elected bjr members ; of the coun cil. * ? - ' '-. ' ' -:v ' ' ?? ''??? ''--'? '???.' ' ' ^ RELIGION.— 1?ie Trinity Congrega tional Chnreh, Perth, was opened for pub hie worship in' September. 1865. EDUCATION.— Bishop Hale's School was succeeded by the Church of England Collejriate School. 4 EXBLORATION.— In June, Captain E. A. Delisser, a squatter, penetrated- -J the south-east. corner of. the colony. from South Australia, and reported on, the salt-bush country/ ''',* 'o;i ';''?'?, NORTH-WEST.^-jIndividuai settlers established themselves in the North-West, and by the end of the year the prospects of the pastoral settlement were assured. 3,000,000 acres being held, under lease, stocked by 15,000 sheep, 300 cattle an- 120 horses. 1866. BARRACKS.— The Pensioners Barracks at the top end of. 8 1. George's-terrace were completed in April. , . BRIDGES.— The North Fremantle traf fic bridge was opened for traffic in 'No vember. ; ' EXPLORATION.— From January 10 to February 28, Assistant Surveyor James Cpwle explored beyond Broome, being the first to explore the south-western cor ner of the Kimberleys. Mr. E. T. Hooley opened up an overland stock route from Geraldton to Nickol Bay, taking 2,000 sherp of which 'he 'lost only eight. 1867. NEWNORCIA.— New-Norcia was made ', an Abbey NulUuii, with charge over a de finite area. J ' NORTH-WEST— Pastoral settlements in the North-West aggregating over 1,000,000 .acres were abandoned,' owing to the difficulties of settlers, but over 2,000,000 acres were taken up afresh, making the total under leasehold at the end of the year 5,805,000 acres. ' ' RELIGION.— The foundation stone of the present-Weslevan; Church, at the cor ner of Hay and William streets, was laid on October 24. ..' ? REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT. — After 28 years of agitation by the colon ists for adtne form of .representative gov ernment, the Secretary of State (the Duke of Buckingham) signified the assent of the Crown' to a proposal by the Legislative Council to appoint non-official members equal in number to the official members, with a tenure, limited to three years. As a result of a public meeting in October it was arranged that the people should themselves elect the unofficial members, six in number. By the first Parliament ary -election held in the Colony five were elected, the Champion Bay settlers refus ing to choose a representative. Governor Hampton chose one for them, and the eix names were forwarded to England for the approval of the Secretary of State in December. , . TOWN HALL.— The corner stone of the Town Hall was laid by Governor Hampton on May 24. 1868. CONVICTS.— The convict system ceased, 9,721 convicts having arrived. The last vessel to arrive with convicts, the Hougou mont. reached Fremantle on January 10. COLONY'S CONDITION.— The popula tion at the close, of the year was about 24.000. There were 50.014 acres under crop. Flour and grain exports for the year totalled £21,367. and the total exports were valued at £192.636: -while the value of the imports amounted to £225.614. The income of the Colony was £99.498, and the expenditure £89.726. The Colony was free from public debt. GOVERNOR.— Governor Hampton re signed in November and left the Colony. The Commandant (Lieut.-Col. Bruce) acted as Administrator. REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT. — On July 7 an Order-in-Council was passed appointing the six elected repre sentatives members of the Legislative Council for a period of three years. 1869. BUSSELTON— A jetty was built at Busselton. - EXPLORATIOX.^ohn Forrest, at th« age of 22, made his first exploring trip. As a surveyor in the service of the Gov ernment he led an expedition eastwards from Perth and returned to Newcastle, travelling over 2,000 miles in 113 days. On the journey he named Lake Barlee and Mounts Ida, Malcolm. Margaret am) Leonora. He obtained a reliable survey of a district hitherto unknown, but failed to solve the mystery of the disappearance of the explorer Leichardt, the main objec-: of the trip. GOLD. — Traces of gold were discovered at North Dandalup. GOVET'XOR.— The, new Governor, Frederick A. Wel-l arrived on September 30. ROYAL VISIT.— The . Duke of Edin burgh landed at Fremantle on February 3. I and remained in the Colony four days, during which there w&s much feasting and rejoicing TELEGRAPH: Firet in Colony. M-ssrs. Edmund Stirling and Cummins, at their own expense, erected a telegraph line between Perth and Fremantle, and
1 pened it for public business on June 21. t was the first telegrspn line in the olony. The Government later took it rer. t 1870. t CENSUS.— The fourth census of the C olony was takon showing the population, a i be 25,084. t DROUGHT. — A shrinkage in income re ulted from the drought, causing Govern- t lental economies to be effected. A general c xpansion of trade counteracted the de- 1 ression in soms measure. I EXPLORATlON.-pJohn Forrest led a 1 arty, including his brother Alexander J 'ori-cit, which left Perth on March 30 on t he memorable overland trip to Adelaide -? y way of Eucla. They reached Adelaide n August 27. The party 'returned to 'crth by sea, arriving on September 27. MILITARY.— A mounted troop, the j Jnion Troop of Mounted Volunteers, was i irpaniscd in Perth. i REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT - NTRODUCED.— On May 23 Governor , Veld introduced in the Legislative Couu- ] il a Bill to provide for a Council of 18. if whom 12 were to hs elected, throe to ;e nominated by the Governor, aud three ' o be official members — the Colonial Secre- 1 ;ary, the Surveyor-General, and the Attor ley-General. The Bill was passed on June I, and the writs for the new Council were ssued on July 18. There were 10 elec oral districts, Perth and Fremantle being entitled to two representatives each. The Sections were held in October and No rember, and the new Council, the first Legislative Council under Representative jovernment in Western Australia net for the first time on De ?ember 5, L. S. Leake being ?lected Speaker, and J. G. C. Carr, Chair nan of Committees. J. G. Lee Steere was the accepted Leader of the Opposition. RELIGION.— The Weslcyan Church was opened for Divine service on April 8. TELEGRAPHS.— In May the old Legis lative Council passed a resolution authorbs ing the construction* of telegraph line* be tween Perth and Albany. Bunbury, York, ind Newcastle. The work was undertaken bv a private company. *T0WN HALL. — The Town Hall was npened and presented to the citizens, of Perth by Governor Weld on June 1. 1871. EDUCATION: Compulsory Attendance. —The Elementary Education Act was passed by the Legislative Council in De cember, and remained in operation until 1895. Children between the ages of six and 14 years, living -within three miles of a school, 'were required to attend.. The Central Board of Education was estab lished, as well as district boards. There were then 63 Government schools in the Colony, with an average attendance ot 1,644. ' EXPLORATION.— Alexander Forrest led a small party from Perth eastwards beyond, what is now known . as Kalgoorlie, returning ,'_via Esperance, having covered '600 miles, and discovered some good country. *. MUNICIPALITIES.— In January the Municipal Institutions Act was passed, proclaiming Perth, Fremantle, Guildford, Albany, Bunbury. Busselton. Geraldton and York municipalities. On January 6 the first meeting of the Perth City. Coun cil after its incorporation was held in the Town Hall. Prior to that, council meet ings had been held in the Mechanics In stitute, now the Agricultural Bank prem ises. ; .' .' i POPULATION.-rThe,, population * of Perth was 4,500,- and of the: Colony 25,500. PUBLIC WORKS.— The first Loan B31 passed by the new. Legislative Council' in December, authorised the raisins of £160,000, later reduced by the Colonial Secretary .to £35.000. for building railways, purchasing telegraph lines and other pub 1CRAILWAYS.— The First Line: The first railway in the Colony, 12 miles in length, from Lockeville jetty, near Vasse, to \opa nup. in the timber forest, was built by the Western Australian Timber Co. It was opened ? in December. In the' same ; month engineers were engaged. to survey a railway from Geraldton to Northampton. TELEGRAPHS.— The first posts of the Eastern Districts telegraph line were placed at Perth on February 13, at York on March 14. and at Northam on March 18. Telegraphic communication between Perth and Guildford was opened on De cember 23. . 1872^ , - FLOUR^— Messrs.- John Stephen Haley and Crowther- shipped to London by the barque_Jvy_50 tons, oLsflk-dressed _flonr from a mill at Greenough' erectea'by~Mr. Maley, the first mill in the. colony in which, silk-dressinK machinery was used. GOLD.— Samples of quartz from/ Kelm- scott, Newcastle and Baylup were found to contain traces of gold, and the Rock ingham Bay Mining Co. found traces of the metal at Serpentine. RAILW AYS.— Messrs. Mason, Bird and Co., who had a timber concession in the Darling Rsjiges, constructed a railway from Canning to ' Rockinghain,, and,.\on February 8, openeda 'private' tramway, nine miles in length, from Canning to the jar rah forests. ?? -rT^r ?ivTT'k,. TELEGRAPHS.— The telegraphs lines between Perth and Albany; Bunbum York aud Newcastle were completed. The hne to Newcastle was opened for businss on February 8, and the line to Albany on December 26. From the public works loan £12.000 was applied to the purchase of the lines by the Government, and arrange ments were made for rapid extensions ot the system. - .-.'. r lBi O.'-' --is'----:*- ;- 1--...*-^ EXPLORATION.— William Christie Gosse (from South Australia) examined the Tomlrinson, Cavenagh and Barrow Ranges. Major P- Egerton Warburton led an expedition from Alice Springs .to the De Grey station between April 15 *nd January lli_1874. . . GOLD.— The Legislative Council devoted £1,500 for the purpose of gold prospecting, .and a private party found specimens at ^RA&WAYS AND TELEGRAPHS.-A further amount of £100,000 was authorised for railway and telegraphic construction, the first portion being raised in Melbourne in 1874, and the iecond shortly; afterwards. It was wholly applied to railway and tele ^REPRESrENTATIVE GOVERNMENT. —In July a Bill was passed by the Legis lative 'Council to increase the numDerof the Council to 21, by the creation of two new constituencies, and the addition ot another nominated member. The Bill was assented to in 1874. STREET LIGHTING.— In June the nrst step towards lighting the streets of Perth was taken, lamp posts being erected in Hav-street and Howick-street (now tne eastern end of Hay-street) to carry oil lamps. 1874. EXPLORATION.— John and Alexander Forrest led a party from Perth on March 18 to the Murchison river, thence into the Kimberleys and overland to the Peake telegraph station (South Australia) and Adelaide, which was reached on November EXPORTS. — Exports exceeded imports and financial stability appeared assured. Wool to. the value of £215,624 was ex ported. ' , GOLD.— A quartz-crushing battery was erected at Fremantle to crush specimens GOVERNOR.— Governor Weld left the Colony in December to take up ah ap pointment as Governor of Tasmania, and was succeeded by Mr. (later Sir) William Robinson. RAILWAYS.— The first sod of the first Government railway ni the Colony, from Geraldton to Northampton, was turned by Governor Weld on October 22 RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT SOUGHT.^-Out of discussions on tarill matters the question of responsible Govern ment arose and became the burning ques tion of the moment. TELEGRAPHS.— Telegraphic communi cation with Geraldton, via Newcastle, was established on May 13. 1875. AUSTRALIND.— A commencement was made with the winding up of the Wes tern Australian Company (the -promoters of the ill-fated Australind settlement). EXPLORATION.— Ernest Giles, at his third attempt, travelled overland from South Australia to Perth which be reached on November 18, returning safely. GOVERNOR.— Mr. (later Sir) William Cleaver Francis Robinson, the new Gov ernor, arrived at Fremantle on January TELEGRAPHS.— On January 1, Gov ernor Weld installed the first pole of the overland telegraph line between Albany and Eucla, at Albany. 1876. EDUCATION.— The Church of England Collegiate Sc-ho.*! closed. The High School Act was passed. PERTH.— i he number of city wards was increased to four. The/population of the town was 4.003. and there were 300 houses. TELEGRAPHS.— A telegraph station at Esperance was1 opened by Mr. Horace Stirling. v
1877. CABS— The Perth City Council gave he first permit for a cab stand. GOVERNOR.— Governor Kennedy's first erm of office ended. In April Major Sneral Sir Harry St. George Ordw« ppointed to succeed him. and arrived in. he Colony in November. - TELEGRAPHS.-Perth was brought in 0 touch with the outside wfjfj***? ompletition of the overland telegraph to tocla on December 8, the first mess ages S despatched and received on ^ Decem ^?9. Eucla was already connected with Ldelaide, and Adelaide with London The elegraph line to Beverley was opened m December 7. 1878. AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY.-The Swan Agricultural Society, which, froni its nception as the agricultural society held ts shows at various places at Perth ana Suildford (mostly at Woodbndge), ac mired the Woodbridge ground as its own iroperty and until 1905 its annual show tvas held on that ground. EDUCATION.— High School Opened.— rhe Perth High School was opened -by Sovernor Ord on March 1, following the . passage of the High School Act. It was Brst housed in the old home of Mr. George Raudell, and then transferred to the hospital buildings erected on the east side of George-street for the Pensioners' Barracks, where it remained for many $reare. POPULATION.— The population of the colony w.is 28,166. TELEGRAPHS.— The telegraph line to Northampton was opened on April 5. 1879. DEVELOPMENT— The area of land under licence was 37,000,000 acres. EXPLORATION.— Kimberley Pastoral Country Discovered. — Alexander Forrest led an expedition from the De Grey River station on February 25 to Daly Waters (Northern Territory), where he arrived in )ctober, after great privations. The pas toral industry received an immense im petus from his discovery -of the Kimber ley pastoral country and a new era in the development of the Colony com menced. DEPRESSION.— The colony was faced with a depression and Customs duties were imposed to help swell the revenues. NAVAL DEFENCE.— The first naval defence force, the Fremantle Naval Volun teers, was raised. RACING.— The Metropolitan Handicap, Western Australia's principal horse race, was instituted. It was called the Perth Cup from 1887 onwards. ' RAILWAYS.— The first Government railway in the Colony, from Geraldton to Northampton (35 miles), was opened for traffic on July 26. The first sod of the Fremantle-Perth-Gufldford line was turned by Governor Ord on June '3, at a .spot adjacent to the William-street crossing. The* contract for the work was- lefc=-to' Mr.' John Robb. of Adelaide, for £74,591. 1880. COBB'S COACHES.— Cpbb and Co's coaches were introduced into the State, tinder Government subsidy, for inland mail and passenger services. GOVERNOR.— On April 10, Sir Wil liam Robinson began his. second term of' office, succeeding Governor Ord. He proved very popular. He succeeded -in wiping out a deficit of £80,000, leaving a balance of £32,000. in the Treasury, when his second term ended in 1883.,. ?. ► ? . - KIMBERLEYS PIONEERED.— Mr. George Paterson took the first flock of sheep to the Kimberley's. Starting in November, he overlanded 1,500 sheep from Beagle Bay, the landing place chosen, to Yeeda station on the Fitzrov river, south of Derby, the 100-mile journey taking six months. ? Soon there were a number of flourishing stations alone the Fitzroy. MAYOR OF PERTH.— On September 8. Mr. George Shenton~b-came. the first Mayor of Perth, succeedingx31r.vrS.JiH. Parker, the last chairmM-of;-the«.Perth City Council. '*' 'JT^T v . MILITARY.— The Enrolled;. 'Pensioner Force was disbanded and thV Enrolled Guard was formed. - v. ?? RELIGION.— The foundation ston» «f St. George's Cathedral was laid on Nov ember 2 by Governor Robinson. 1881. CENSUS.-^-Ori April 3, the fifth census taken in the Colony showed that the population waB 29,708 (17,062 males and 12,646 females). . GOLD. — Phil Satmders and Adam' Johns found gold in the ^East— Kimberley*. Saunders telegraphed to the WJL Govern ment from Yam Creek (South Australia), ? that he had found gold on the Ord river, but not in payable quantities. He thought payable gold would be found there. ?-.-.-.--. RAILWAYS.— On Msfrcti 1, the Fre mantle-Perth-Guildf ord railway was' for mally opened by Governor Robinson. The total cost of construction, exclusive of surveys, was £127,935. ...In.^ts .first .year it earned a profit of X105rin ipite.of .ihe competition of the river steamers.' «It. was decided to extend the line to^ Gold low's Well and thence ,to;JXgrE. and; the contract- was let in December.-^L ? ROYAL VISIT.— Prince Georee (the present* King) and Prince Albert Victor arrived at Albany on May 16. by H.M.S. Bacchante, the vessel having put in for repairs. They remained until June 10. 1882. GOLD.— A small nugget (14dwt.) was found between Cossack an&,:Roebourne by Alexander McRae and' JEch'Sel ' Durack found colours 'of gold near Hall's Creek. KIMBERLEYS.— The first -cattle ? for the East Kimberleys left' Queensland ;to travel overland . in February; for Messrs. Panton and Osborne. LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL.— The mem bership of the Legislative Council was raised to 24, eight to be nominated, the Gascoyne electoral district being added. RAILWAYS.— J. Wrightfs .tender for £53,043 for the construction of the second section of the eastern railway from, Guild ford to Chidlow's Well was acceptedl TELEGRAPHS.— The construction of a telegraph line from Geraldton, to Roe bourne was authorised out' of^loan funds and the contract let to Messrs. J. and W. Bateman. It connected Shark Bay, the Gascoyne, Ashburton and Fortescue dis tricts with Perth. 1883. EXPLORATION.— Mr. John Forrest led a surveying j»arty, including the Gov ernment Geologist (Mr. E. T. Hardman) through the Kimberley district. Messrs. W. J. O'Donnell and W: Carr-Boyd, starting from the overland telegraph line, crossed the State in the direction of Roe bourne. FREMANTLE.— Fremantle became a Corporation, and in September the first Mayor was elected (Mr. B. C. Wood). GOVERNOR.— Sir William Robinson's second term of office expired. He left the Colony and was succeeded by Mr. (later Sir) Frederick Napier Broome, who arrived in June. RAILWAYS.— In March, work was commenced on the Guildford-Chidlow's Well section of the eastern railway, and the tender for the next section to York was let to Edmund Kcane for £105.312. 1884. EXPLORATION.— Mr. H. F. Johnston, accompanied by the Government Geologist and others continued the surveys of the Kimberleys, several miles of waterways being discovered, including Hall's Creek. KIMBERLEYS.— First cattle arrive.— The cattle driven overland from Queens land by Mr. N. Buchanan for Messrs. Osborne and Panton arrived in August, 1,500 having been lost out of 6.Q00. RAILWAYS.^The Guildford-Chidlow's Well section of the railway was opened on March IL the actual cost being £95.940. Mr. Anthony Hordern's offer, on .behalf of a syndicate, to construct, equip and maintain a railway from Bever ley to Albany, on the land-grant system, was accepted, and the contract sismed on October 25. Mr. Hordern formed the Western Australian Land Company in London to take over the work. 1885. COAL GAS. — Coal pas was first manu factured in Perth and sold for lightinc purposes by the Perth Gas Co.- . ?' GOLD.— Kimberley Ficld^Di&cW^red.— In August the first payable '''goldfield in the Colony was discovered — the Kimberley field, previously prospected by Phil Saun ders and others. In ' August, Messrs Charlie Hall and Jack Slattery and a party collected about 10 ounces on the Elvire, Ord and Margaret Rivers in that area, and obtained a Government reward of £500. A rush to the field ensued. RAILWAYS.— On June 29. the East ern railway was opened to York. The contract for the York-Beverley section had been let in April to Mr. Edmund Keane for £59.878. TELEGRAPHS.-On October l;the tele sraph line from Geraldton to Rbebourue was opened, and from Roebourne to Cos sack on November 17. (Continued on Next Page.)
PRINCIPAL NEWS ITEMS OF ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF PtlBUCATlON.
, . (Continued from Page 55.) : 1886. CONVICTS.-The convict establishment 'Was abandoned, rind the few remaining convicts handed over to the control of the Colonial Government. GOLD.— Rush to Kimberleyn.— General , ? excitement throughout Australia was * caused by the nev.s of the Kimberley gold '? dfse6veri« and a rush set in. The field vria proclaimed in May. A new port. ttrndbam, was established on Cambridge Gulf, and Government officials Btationed , there: By the end of the year 2.000 men ?were on the field. In August, the- first Goldfields Act was passed. The first '? reef, the Jackson, at Hall's Creek, was . opened up in September. Mr. C. D i- Price was appointed the first Warden. *?? LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL.— By the ad ?' dition of the Kimberley electorate,- the membership of the Legislative Council ''Was increased to 26. nine being nominated RAILWAYS.— In February the first «od - o£ 'the Geraldton-Greenough line was '?turned. In August the York-Beverley section of the railway was opened. On October 20 the first sod of ''^the Beverley-Albany line was turned. A '',, line from Spencer's Brook to Northam was constructed and opened in October. A ;?? contract was signed with Mr. John Wad ' dington for the construction, on the land syatem, of a line from Guildford to Walka way, southern termintfg of the Govern '', ment line from. Geraldton. The contract was -let to Mr. Edmund Keane for about ? £1,000,000. ';,. STREET LIGHTING.— The first street -j ftag lamp was erected and lighted near :- the- Perth Town Hall,' inaugurating the 'lighting of the streets with gas. ;? 1887.' , -- GOLD.— YHKarn Field Discovered.-H. . Anstey found an outcrop of gold at Lnke ...Deborah, Yilgarn. B. N. Colreavy dis covered a reef nt Golden Valley, 30 miles to the south, and W. J. Parker found good indications at Parker's Range. Th» caused a mild rush. Further reefs to the south and east were struck by Riseley and others, representatives of the Phoenix Co., who named their principal find. 30 y. mile* east of Golden Valley., Southern Cross. The Kimberley field was de veloped.. By the middle of June, 34 quartz claims had been registered. GOVERNMENT HOUSE.— The old Government; House, erected in the early thirties, was removed to make place for gardens in the- new Government House 'grounds. *??? MILITARY.— The Enrolled Guard par aded for the last time on March 31. POLICE STATION.r-A police station and -Magistrate's Court were built in Bar - tack-street. - They are now the fndiis =?? tries ahd'Tonrfet office. % ' '^OSJ!.., .OFFICE.— A bungalow buildint Bousing the- post office and the old milj ' tary—barracka and armoury situated be -f twee*n the Treasury buildings and the Lands Office was removed and a new General ,Post. Office, now the Treasury pay office, was built facing St. George'ster race. RACING.— The first Perth Cup was (tun. RAILWAYS.-rWork was started on a failway line from Clackline to Newcastle (Toodyay). .The line from Geraldton to Greepoughj-'.Qnd a tramway from Roe bourne to Cossacks were built and opened. WbrkVori the4 Guildford-Walkaway (Mid land):railw'ay-Uhe-wae suspended for want of capital. .,',.' TELEPHONES.— The Perth telephone exchange was opened. 1888. ,. CABLES.— The Colonial Office arranged ^.irith the Eastern Extension Company to extend its cable system from Banjoewangi «, (Java) to Broomei. r.-_ EDUCATION.— The Central Board of Education compelled teachers to obtain ?*? certificates of competency. ^.GOLD.— Pjlbara Field Discovered.— The *. .Government spent £1,000 on Water, con servation in the Yilgarn area, and on Octo * Tier 1. the district was proclaimed a gold is FeId; A ^d named Jim Withnell and his brother found gold in a stone at Mallina. ,7fr miles east of Roebourrie, and the Mal *. liha and Pedawah reefs were discovered. ,.-,A rich alluvial find was made at Pilbara, which was proclaimed a goldfield on Oc tober 1. *i . PASTORAL' .DEVELOPMENT.— Ther*. s»t«1efS'5 2;iOO,00Ot sheep and 95,800 Attle, ^41,400 horses and 25,000 pigs in the Colony. ?* ' Mainly^eWinft *o ' the opening up of. the ^North-West and Kimberley districts the .- number of sheep had doubled in the preced ing decade. There were 20,000 cattle itf ?' the Kimberleys. rl RAELWAYS.-The Clackline-Newcastle (Toodyay) railway line was opened for ?.. traffic in January. Mr. Hordern's contract ^ to .build the Great Southern railway was transferred to the Western Australian ? Land Co. by the Legislative Coun cil In 'April, but clauses in the '. original eontfaqt relating to immigration r- Were 'deleted. The contract was secured by , Millir1 Brothers, of Melbourne, who com ' merie'ed work at both ends of the proposed - line. i. RESPONSIBLE GOVERNME^T.-In '? January a despatch was received from the ^'Imperial Government agreeing to the ;.; principle of responsible Government, and the matter Decame a burning question in ^West Australian political life. The Consti tution Bill was introduced in the Legisla tive Council on October 19, and passed ita r second, reading in November by 13 votes to ?,,,9. In December the Council wan dissolved in order that the Bill might go before the ''? TELEPHONES.— The Fremantle tele ? phone exchange was opened. »?''? TIN.— Tin was discovered by Mr. Stin . ton at Greenbushes, in a gully near the -^Blackwood River. V'''-' '.'''' 1889. ^CABLES.— The Banjoewangi to Broome W'eablff'syitem was opentd in February. COAL.— Mr. David Hay discovered coal at Collie., There had been earlier reports of its existence there. A company was formed by him. in Bunbury, but failed to find a workable seam, and operation* were abandoned. „ GOLD.— Rush to Pilbara: Ashburton Field Discovered.— A rush to the Pilbara r. goldfield set in. the. excitement extending .„ beyond W A. Syndicates were formed in, Melbourne and other centres. The chief .; centre .of the eoldfields jvas called Marble ;^Bar. Rich alluvial deposits were also found oh the Afmburton. GOyERNOR.-The Governor (Sir r Frederick Napier Broome) returned to London in December, leaving Sir Malcolm Frasrr as Administrator. ;:, LIBRARY.— The Public Library m St. ir-George's-terrace was opened on January 26 ;? The building was on the north side of St . George's-terrace, a little west of the pre * sent A.M.P. buildings. *? RAILWAYS.— The Great Southern line was opened to traffic on June I. ;. RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT.-In ^January the Legislative Council elections ...were held and disclosed a decisive vote i.:in favour of Responsible Government. The ??- Constitution Bill was again introduced in the State House, and the third reading was J agreed- to on April 5. The- Enabling Bill c was shelved in the British House of Com mons, and a vigorous campaign failed to : -forceits passage this year. In December a 'delegation left Perth for England in the interests of the Colony. W-- SOUTHERN CROSS— Companies were 3- formed at Perth, Fremantle and Ad- laide _ to work lodes of gold in Southern Cross *»and-a mining township developed. t.« TELEGRAPHS.— The northern tele graph line was continued to Derby. ~\ WATER SUPPLY.— Perth's first per w.Bianent water supply was the result of an arrangement between the municipality and U-the City of Perth Waterworks Co.. an .^agreement being signed on October 21. .jf'it provided for the construction of the ^Victoria Reservoir on Munday Brook in %Jtho Darling Ranges, a 12in. mam to Mt. Eliza (17 miles), where a service reservoir r;Twa.£htb be constructed, and for reticula _ilion.- pipes. 1890. ?-.'?? CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— The ' Ptrth ' Chamber* of Commerce, with Sir ^George Shenton. M.L.C., as first president MttirasT. iormed. GOLD: Yalgoo Field Discovered: Kim ?' berley's Decline— Gold was found at Yuin .^station, iu the Nanenrrang Hi!l9, lead ing to the opening of the Ynljioo field By 'the end. of the year the Golden Crown '£'was the only mine paying on the Kimber ley field. The Little Hero nugget (400oz.) ''Was found on the Coongan River. .'- GOVERNOR.— In October Sir William Robinson was appointed Governor for his third term. _ ; RAILWAYS.— The Albany-Denmark ?'- line was completed and work on the Guild - ford-Walkflway (Midland) line was re sumed, with the assistance of English capi .. tal. There were 430 miles of completed '! lines in th'« Colony. RESPONSIBLE GOVERNIIEXT.Tht *' First Legislative Assembly.— The Enab * ling Bill, empowering the Queen to assent r'to the Constitution Bill, passed by the ,,. Legislative Council, was introduced in the ,'. pouite e£ Commona in February, and, after
vigorous efforts by the West Austrnimn delegates, passed its third reading on July 4. The House of Lords offered little opposition and the Royal assent was given on July 25. The establishment of a Legis lative Council and Assembly (the former of 15 members, to be nominated at first, and the latter to consist of 30 elected members) was provided for. On October 21 the Constitution Act was proclaimed. The first elections were held in December, and on Dccrmber 22 Mr. John Forrest was commissioned to form the first Mini stry, which was stvorn in on December 29. The next clay the two Houses of Parlia ment were sworn in, Sir' Thomas Cock burn-Campbell being appointed Presidenl of the Legislative Council, and Sir J. G. Lee Steere elected Speaker of the Legis lative Assembly. ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY —The Agricultural Society was granted Royal letters patent. WHEAT.— The area of wheat cropped ivas 33 820 acres, yielding 407,380 bushels. WATER SUPPLY.— The Perth Water R7orks were commenced in February. 1891. FIRST PARLIAMENT OPENED.r rhe first Parliament under Responsible government was opened by Sir William Robinson on January 20 in the old Legis ative Council chambers in St. George's :errace, in the present Agricultural De -artment The Assembly met in the pre lent Commonwealth Savings Bank build ngs in Hay-street. GOLD: Murchison Field Discovered.— tlessrs. J. F. Connolly and Douglas re -orted the discovery of alluvial gold in he Murchison district and received a Gov rnment reward. The field was fefoclaimed in September 4. Rich discoveries at Cue ;nd Lake Austin were made. POPULATION.-The sixth census of he State, taken in April, showed the topulation to be 49,782 (20,807 miles and 9,075 females. RAILWAYS.— The 'construction of the tfortham-Southerh Cross line was ap -roved. The Midland line was opened as nr as Gingin on April 9. The Bunbury Railway Act was passed. WATER SUPPLY.— Water frqni the Victoria Reservoir was supplied to the Hount Eliza reservoir, and to the City if Perth, for the first time, in October. ' 1892. AGBNT-GENERAL.-In February Sir Halcolm Fraser was appointed, the- first |kgent-General for Western Australia in joiidon. '. ' ? COAL.— Further boring for coal was car ied out at Collie by a Government party vith inconclusive results. FREMANTLE HARBOUR WORKS. Che report1 of the Engineer-in-Chief (Mr. 1. Y. O'Connor) on the Fremantle Har iout works1 proposal was approved and in November 16 operations were com nenced, Lady Robinson tipping' the first oad. ' '' ' ?''??? -???? ? - : . ? *'. . ' GOLD: Discovery at Coolgardie— In fuly Messrs. Arthur Barley and John ford discovered alluvial gold on what ;hey named Fly Flat, Coolgardie. In Sep :etnber they discovered the reef which Micame famous and on September 1? Bay ey brought the news that thrilled the ?ontinent .to Southern Croai. ,; . MUSEUM.— The original museum col ection, instituted in I860 by CapUin J. 5. Roe, was, purchased by the Government 'rom the Swan River Mechanics' Institute ind amalgamated with the Government ?eological collection as a West Australian nuseum of a general scientific character. RAILWAYS.^On September 7 the con Tact for the construction of, the railway rom Northam to Southern Cross was let. TELEGRAPHS.— In February the tele traph line to Southern Cross was opened. EDUCATION^-By an Act uf Parh« nent educational affairs were placed under :he control of a tespbnsible Minister. ? GOLD: Coblgardie Rush and Kalgoorlie Jiacoveriee.— Falls of rain resulted in an ither rush to Coolgardie, and bf the end -f June there were 2,000 men scattered -vcr the field. Rushes to Goongarrie. Mount Youle and Lake Lefroy oa the same ield had taken place in May. While on :heir way to Mqunt Youle. Hannan and ?lannigan found gold at the foot of Mount Charlotte (Kalgoorlie), and on June 17 la'nnan applied at Coolgardie for a, re gard claim. Within' a week 750 men were nrospeetinit around Hannan's find. In Oc ober Messrs. Frost (discoverer of Goon ^rrie) and Bonner discovered Siberia, and t disastrous rush followed. The Dundas ield was proclaimed in August. ' JETTY.— The railway jetty at Geraldton ras built. PARLIAMENT: Elective Legislative Council.— On October 13 the Constitution \ct Amendment Act was passed, provid ng for a fully elective Legislative Council if 21 members, and three new seats in he Assembly for the Goldfields— Pilbara, filgarn and Nannine being the new con tituencies. ; Elections ,. for the , Assembly rere held in June, - and - for the Council n July, 'Sir John Forrest being returned Premier; ??' :. ?' :'''t '.'?'}' .- ? POPULATION.— The population is reased by over 6.000. . . ' - RAILWAYS.— The railway from Perth o Bunbury was opened on September 8. nd from Boyanup to Minninup on Novem ler 16. On March 19 the contract for the feraldton-Mullewa line was let. TELEGRAPHS.— In January the tele raph line to Wyndham, 2,125 miles from 'erth, was opened. ^ ?????? '?','??'?, ... . ? ' vi894.;-\' ;.?v:v \ AGRICULTURAL BANKv- The Agn ultural Bank Act was passed in Novem COOLGARDIE A MUNICIPALITY.— loolgardie was proclaimed a municipality a July, Mr. J. Shaw being the first EDUCATION— The Christian Brothers 'ollege. Perth, was founded in a' small iuilding on the present' site. ? GOLD ' DISCOVERIES.— TKrquRhout be year there were constant reports oi lore or less sensational gold finds in the iastern dietrict. Among them were Alt. ack«on. Bardoc, Kurnalpi, Bulong, Kan wna and Broad Arrow. The great sensa ious were the discoveries of the fabulously ich Londonderry and Wealth of Nations lines, and of the Menzies district. POPULATION.— The population, in reased by 17,008, bringing it up to 82,014. RABBITS.— Rabbits were first reported d be approaching the Wert . Australian order from iSouth Australia in large umbers. ? ? '? RAILWAYS.— The railway to Southent Iross was opened in July, the Midland ne in November, and the GeraldtonMul jwa line oji November 21. The new Perth aiJway station was completed on March. 5. TELEGRAPHS.— The telegraph line ras extended from Southern Cross to looigardie and Kalgoorlie in November. 1895. AGRICULTURAL liANK.— The Agn uitural Bauk, under Mr. William 1'aiei on, comuieiiced operations with a casual it £10U,UUU borrowed troni the State Sav ngs Uank. EDUCATION.— 'late aid for denomiua ional schools waa auolished by the Educa .ion Act in December. The Church of ilngland Grammar School was started vitb seven pupils in February, in a spate ?ocm in Mr. Charles Harper's home, iVoodbndge, East Guildford which is low the preparatory school. GOLD. — In February a valuable find was nade at Niagara, north-cast of Menries. jy Messrs. Doolette and Notthmor'e, and ;he North Coolgardie field was proclaime«i GOVERNOR.— Sir William Robinson eft for England in March. Sir Alesaii ler Onslow acted as Administrator uiitii L)ecember, when the new Governor, tsii [ierard Smith, arrived. KALGOORLIE A MUNICIPALITY. tialpoorlie wns proclaimed a municipality n May, Mr. John Watson beinjr elected t« first Mayor. MILITAKY.-The partially-paid volun :eers (militia) system was introduced. MUSEUil.— The control of the Museum ivas transferred to the Public Library jommittee. The committee formed the mcleus of an Art gallery within the Museum. RAILWAYS— On June 18 the. contract 'or the construction to the Southern Crons 2ool«rardie railway was let. and for the Slullewa-Cne line in December. In De :ember the Boynuup-Bussclton line was jpened. 1896. GOLD.— The North-Enst Coolgardip Knlgoorlie) field was proclaimed, and rold was found at various other centres. A reef was found at Dandalup. GOLDFIELDS WATER SCHEME— The Engineer-in-Chief brought forward a scheme for damming the Helena River :iear Mundaring to provide Coolgardie with ivater In September Parliament author sed a loan of £2.500.000 for the scheme. MINT— The foundation stone of the Royal Mint was laid by Sir John Forrest -n September 23. fc ... PARLIAMENT.— Constitution ! Act: A Constitution Act Amendment Bill was -
assented to on October 8, giving ad ditional representation in both Houses to the Goldfields. POPULATION.— The population in creased by 36,000 to a total of 137,796. Perth, Fremantle, Coolgardie, Kalgoorlie and Menzies were crowded, accommodation beinn difficult to obtain. RAILWAYS.— The Eastern railway reached Coolgardie on March 23 and Kal goorlie on September 8. The Mahogany Creek deviation was built in July. TJie Great Southern railway from Albany to Beverley was purchased by the Government from the West Australian Land Com pany, with their other property, for '£1.000.000 in DecemberT Contracts for the Donny brook-Bridgetown, and the. Collie lines were let. TELEGRAPHS.— Telegraphic communi cation with Kurnalpi, Mt. Magnet, Yal goo. Dundag, Mallina and Pilbara. and with Eucla, via Coolgardie, was estab lished. WATER SUPPLY,— In July the Gov ernment purchased the Perth Waterworks for £180.000. 1897. BUNBURY— The breakwater at Bun bury was commenced on April 27. COAL.— A Government patty started operations on the Collie coalfield. EDUCATION.— Scotch College: Scotch College ? was founded early in the year, work commencing in the old Shearer Hall, Beaufort-street; in February.' ESPERANCE.— The Esperance Jetty was completed. ' ? - ? \, » s .? ? FEDERATION.-^Ten representatives of this State, headed' by Sir Johib, Krrest, attended the Federal. Conventions held in Adelaide in March, and Sydney in Sep tember. '' '?? ? ? ' - ??' FREMANTLE HARBOUR.-On M.y 4 the W.A.S.N. Co.'s steamer Sultan (1^70 tons) steamed into the new harbour at Fremantle and discharged at the wharf. On October 8, p.s: . Cornwall (5^00 tons gross), drawing 19 feet, and .430 feet long, berthed at South Quay. LIBRARY.— The first section of the present buildings of the Public Library. Museum and Art Gallery was commenced. MARKETS.— The Perth City Markets were opened oh September 1. 'PERTH.— The number of City Msards wa« increased to five. . ;?.]':?'' , RAILWAYS.— On June 28 the. duplica tion of the Fremantle-Goildford railway wa» completed. The Mullewa-Cue line was opened for traffic on April 2O.1 ^Con tracts for the ? Mensiet Mil Greenhills lines were lett The Government v took over the Gremt Southern line on January 8. -..:??:' „ TELEGRAPHS.— The telegraph line to Lawlers wa« opened. .'? . ZOOLOGICAL' GARDEN8.-Tbe 'Zoo logical Gardens at South Perth were,in stituted through the efforts of Sir Win-, throp Hackett. ?= ? . ?? ? i : ?: BUTTER FACTORX.-rThe first batter factory m the Colony was started at Bub Selton in November. ? ?? COAL.— In November Mr. H. M. Deacon took a lease of the Collie Coal Mine, from the Government, the mine consisting of a single inclined shaft. During the first year 790 tons of coal were raised. EDUCATION.— A Bill providing for free education was introduced in the Legis lative Assembly in July. In the absence of a University, extension lectures were given, and. certificate examinations held in this State by the Adelaide University Extension committee, formed, this year. FREMANTLE HARBOUR.-The fiwt mail steamer, the Norddeutscher Lloyd vessel Prjnz Regent Luitpold berthed in the new harbour on February 23 and the !*f*«Eriedrich der Grtsse, of the same line, 10,500 tons, and drawing 23 feet of water, berthed on October 30. lNSTlTyTIONS.-In December the building of the Victoria Institute and In dustrial School for the Blind, at Mayland*. iras commenced. A fund of £2.700 was subscribed towards the establishment of the Children^ Hospital. A Labour Bureau J»« started by the Government. Whitbv Fain Asylum was built on June 20. ThV foundation-stone of the present Literary rnstitute building was laid by Sir John Forrest. ? .. . RABBITS.— Reports of serious invasions nf rabbits were received from the Eucla district. ? ?.. ' ?. ', ?' ',':i; ..:v ' .;.5;x . RAILWAYS.— Railway lines to Boulder Kanowna, Menzies. Bridgetown, CollieCar iiff. and Greenhflls were completed; TELEGRAPHS.-The Peak - HiT telei ?fraph line was completed. | .'.... ^^,.,;^';ii^^V,,^??--:;:X^ .:^- ,ARBlTRATION.-tne tndltttriaY ; Con- Mliation.and Arbitration Act was passed. BOER WAR.-The first West Australian ?ortinsrent. numbering 120. and cemmanded l-y Major H. G. Moore. R.A.. left Albany »n November 7 on the s.s. Medic for the Boer War. CHAMBER OF MANUFACTURES.-A chamber of Manufactures of Western Aus tralirt was formed on May 19. EDUCATION.-The C.E. Grammar school moved to its present site at Guild Ford. On April 4 the first annual confer ence of the State School Teachers' Associa tion was held. The Public Education Act. jrovidintr for compulsory and free educa tion in 8tate schools, came into forte in [fctober. . ? ? FREMANTLE HARBOUR.-The first ?rarship.to berth -in Fremantle Harbour. EIJU.S. Royal Arthur, arrived from 8ydney -n June 14. ' ?... '- :' ?'-,,- ?.'?*:? ???.:'. '???-- ?-?-.???/? MINT— The Perth branch of the Royal Hint was opened on June 21. ?*? ?'.'.-; ;':'V PARLIAMENT.— Ther membership 1 of he Legislative Council was increased- to », and that of the Assembly to 5fi. by i Redistributions' of ? Seats Bill. SEPARATION:— On December 13 a sepa ?atikt meeting was held at Coolgardie. and ;he Reform League was formed. The novement was a strong one. The gold ields, resenting the delay of the' State Government in putting the Federation pro posals to the people, decided to break away xom the State and ioin the Federation. SNOWSTORMS.-On July 12 snow itorms occurred1 in' ['the Sonth-West. . . TRAMS.— The fii*t s-vl nf »b«- Hay-street iramline was turned on January 30, and :he first trams ran on September 24 to' rhomas-street. In Jajiuary #ffers were nvited for a combined electric light and ramwayn service for Fremantle. T TRADE UNION CONGRESS.-On Aprii 1 th? first Trade Union Congress in West ;rn Austrnlia iras held at Coolgardie. TIN. — Rich 'di***«vf ries of tin were made n the Pilbara- difetrct in April. WOMEN'S FRANCHISE.-On August .7 the Legislative Council declared infav mr of extendine the franchise to women. * BOER WAR.— The second contingent eft Fromantle on February 2 on the trm'is )ort Surrey for the. Boer War. and in the ;ame month the Bushmen's Corps -was brmed. Up. to 1902 one infantry'nnd nine nnnnted units left this State, making ; in ill 64 officers and 1.167 other ranks, with 1.179 horses. There /were, 40 men' killed n action, and 86 died of wounds. One (Vest Australian. Lieut. Belir in' Octu'Ber. 1901. wai» awarded the Victoria Cross. On February 9. 1900. West .Australians went nto action) for the first time at Siingers 'ontein. FEDERATION.— The Separation mqve nent grew, and a conference was held- at Kalgoorlie on Januarv 3. On March 17 a petition Tom the Eastern Gjldfields . Re- form League, praying that the goldfields -e allowed to form a new colony, wai for warded to the Governnr for transmission to the Queen. ? It was sinned bv 27,700 roklfie'ds residents. ;and Albany a^ked to oc included. On April 27 the Secretary of State for the Colonies (Mr. J. Ch'smber nin) cabled to the State Government urg ing it to at once join the Federation anil pointing out the danaer of the Goldfield.' ^ceding frpm the State and joining the Federation on their own account. The Premier (Sir John Forrest) renlied that in Enabling Bill nroviiiine for the submis sion of tlie Commonwealth Bill ? to -the electors would go beforp Parliament on May 17 The Enablina Bill was passed by the Legislative Council on June 7. aud a rlate for the referendum fixed.. The Aus tralian Commonwealth Bill r-asse;i the Bri tish Parliament and received the Royal a s- j«-nt on Julv 9 On Jnlv 31 the Federation Kvfeienduin vote was taken in the Colony. M.SOO vntine in fnvnur of Federation and 10.601 acninft. the aoldnelds majority in favour bein-r 24.5000. On December 2 the first Oovernor-Oenera! elect (Earl Hont toun) reached FremantFe on the H.M.S Victoria en route to Sydney. On Decem ber 24 Sir John Forrest accepted the r.ort rolio of Postmaster-General in the first Federal Ministry. FREMAXTLK HARBOllt.-On AujinM 13 the H.M.S. Ormiw. the first English homeward-bound mail stonmer to bertl. at Frcmantle. arrived. .On September 12 tho P. and O. Company's R.M.S. Himalaya, the first outward-bound Enclisb mai' steamer to berth in the harbour, reached Fremantle. . ,_ GOVERNOR.— The Governor (Sir Ger ard Smith) and Lady Smith left the Colony on March 22. the Chief Justice (Sir Alex ander Onslow) being sworn in as Adminis trator. KINEMA.— A short kinema film was ia cluded in a vaudeville show in the open-air
cardens now occupied by riis Majestv's Theatre. It was the first shown in Perth. LIGHTHOUSE.— The lighthouse oh the north-east end of Rottnest was lighted for the -first time on September 1. PARLIAMENT.— In December a Bill was passed providing for the payment of members. RAILWAYS.— There were 1,632 miles of railways in the State. ROTTNEST CABLE.— On February 6 the submarine cable connecting Rottnest with the mainland was laid. TRAMS.— The tramway system was ex tended, to Subiaco on January 6, and to Highjrate Hill on September 26. WHEAT.— There were 74,308 acres under wheat-in the State, yielding 774,653 bushels. 1901. COMMONWEALTH ESTABLISHED. On January 1 the Commonwealth of Aus tralia was established. CABLE.— On October 30 Perth and South Africa were connected bv cable FEDERAL ELECTIONS.-The first Federal elections were held in this. State on March 29. Elected for Senate: Messrs. Staniforth Smith. A. P. Matheson G F Pearce. U. De Lajgie. E. A. Harney, and N. K. Ewing. House of Representatives: Sir John Forrest (unopposed) and Messrs J. W. Kirwan, J.M. Fowler. E. 'Solomon, and vH: Mahoh. - . GO^ERNOR.-^Sir Arthur1 Lawley ar rived at Albany on the Royal yacht Ophir, and ; was sworn .'in. as Governor at Perth on Slav 1. MILITARY.-r-The Commonwealth -took over the 'military administration. ' ? s - PARLIAMENT;— Five Ministries suc ceeded one another in office. Sir John Forrest resigned -the Premiership on Feb ruary 12. and the Ministries of Messrs. George Throssell. George Leake, A.- E. Morgans, and the second -Ministry of Mr. George . Leake followed. *' . - POPULATION —The :'. seventh' , census taken in March showed the population of the Colony to be 184,124 (112,875 males. and 71,249 femalesH : . RAILWAYS— A ?? survey of the trans Australian railway route was madeinllay In July Mn C. Y. O'Connor. reported to the Federal. Parliament that the.hhe wojuld cost £4,400.000. but would speedily pay expenses. A State railway strike lasting a week occurred in* July. Railways were removed from the control of the Public Works Department, and a separate port folio was created: ROYAL VISIT.-^Returning from .the opening of the Federal Parliament, their Royal Highnesses the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York (the present King and Queen) arrived at Albany and came to Perth by train. ? arriving on July 21. On July 26 they sailed from Fremantle after naming the Victoria Quay. King's Park; and May Drive, laying the founda tion stones of the South African Soldiers* Memorial and the new Mnseum. -nd 'per forming ; other ^functions., .. s..-r ./ ''. iiddLGARDlE WATEiR SCHEME.— The interim report of . the.- Cbolgardie Water Scheme. Select Committee was pre sented to Parliament on February 17. The water v from the scheme reached Northam in April. ' -' . '.''' ??''' ?;'?' ''' ??;?' COURT8.-^On June -2 the Governor (Sir Arthur Lawley): laid- the foundation stone of the Supreme Court buildings on the site of anold courthouse, which bad been demolished. - . GO VERNOR.— The Governor , (Sir Arthur Lawley)- was appointed to .: 'i be Lieut.'Governor of ^he Transvaal andivitb Lady Lawley left the State on August 14. HARBOUR TRUST.— By the Harbour Trust Act the Fremantle Harbour wib placed under the control of five commis sioners. - . KINEMA.— Signor Spencer, who was killed in sensational circumstances, in America in 1931, provided the first or ganised kinema programme in Perth. They were followed by Leonard's Picture* shown in conjunction with CorrickV Vaudeville in' Queen's Hall (flow - Hoyt* Regent). V- :- ?'???'?:? , ?,??';.?'? ?: '' --.?.-- MOTOR CAR— The first motor car was- imported to the State. . . Up to lOOf there were no motor car registrations ha ,the City Council rtvord*. ' ' PARLIAMENT HOUSE.— The founda tion stone of the present Parliament House was laid on July 21 by Sir Arthur Lawley. PREMIER.— The .Premier, Mr. G. Leake, died on June 24 and Mr. (later Sir) Walter James succeeded him in office. RAEL.WAY8-— The Menxies-Leonora line was opened ott June 20. ....??.?*.-.? - -RABBIT PROOF PBNCE8— Rabbits Utving- inyadfd .Jthe whea* belt in huge numbers, the 'Government decided o^ the ambitious plan of erecting a rabbit proof fence across the State to keep the in vaders back. . - Contracts were let and work was commenced from the railway at Burracoppin and Starvation Boat Har bour, between Esperance and Ravens thorpe on the south coast. The work on this, the No. 1 Rabbit Proof Fence, was eventually taken over by the Public Works Department, and the fence, 1.139 miles long: with wells at 20rmiIe intervals wns completed, reaching the sea on the 90 mile Beach nortli of Pt. Hedland. . - ?l-:-:'^;;-;.-l903.- ;? /; ' FRUIT.— First Shipment: A trial ship ment- of frnit. was exported. - ? . GOLD.— The year was the peak year for gold production— 2.064,801 ounces, valued at £8,770,719, being produced. GOLDFIELDS WATER SCHEME.— On January 24 Sir John Forrest opened the Goldfields Water Supply at Kalgoorlie and Coolxardie. . . ; . ; ? ?-.-; u« '.'. . - \ iCK)VERNOR.^Admi™r MSiV- Freaerick George Denham Bedford, the new Gover nor, and 'Lady ' Bedford, 'arrived on March 24. / x ' LIBRARY.— The present Public Library was opened. f LIGHTHOUSE.— A new ?lighthouse at Bnnbury was opened on October 19. RABBIT-PROOF FENCES.-Before the NoJ 1 fence was completed it became evi dent that the rabbits. had , moved west too fast -for the fence-buildere/ A* second fenee^the' No; 2 Rabbit-proof .Fence, lo the ' west of the. 'first. . stretching 743 . miles from. Port. Anne, west of Hopetoun; on the south coast, and sweeping in a' wide rbiigh arc tp join the_No. 1 fence at Gum Creek, on the Nannine-Wiluna-road, was decided on. Fence-building was carried on until completed in 1907, .. RAILWAYS.— The States' Enpineersin Chief recommended the construction of: the Trans.-Australian Railway, with a 4ft. 8 Jin. inuice to cort £4.559.000. '. ' SUPREifE COURT.^The present Supreme Court buildings' were opened. ,: ;?;,,.::' S,S 1904.'.: '? .?' -:-' '? . EDUCATIONi-Scotcu r College was. transferred ?to ' its present: buildings. LABOUR GOVERNMENT.-The first Labour Government,, led by Mr. Daglish. succeeded. Mr. Wa'ter James'« ministry in office in August.. RAILWAYS.— The Railwajr Workshops were removed from Fremantle to Mid land Junction in December in a few day*.. UNIVERSITY -The University Endow ment. Tnist-wae created and vested with 4.000 acres of endowment lands in the metropolitan area. -as well as some'coUri try- Woicks. ', 1905. AGRICULTURE.— A. definite policy ot agricultural development was propounded. POLICE COURTS-In May the Police Courts, loqk-up and allied buildings at the corner of Roe and Beaufort strerts wero completed. -?*?? ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. — The Agricultural Society's ground - at Clpremorit was completed at a cost, of £12.000 and on October 31. November I. and 2. the Society's first show on the. new 2rou'tl was' held. TRAMS.— The first trams were run in Fremantls. v 1906. AGRICULTURE— The capital of the Agricultural Bank stood at £1,000.000. Ballofcnf; ' for agr-cnltural blocks was abolished and a Land Board of three members wns appointed to .decide be ' tween the various applicants. PAKLIAMKNT.— In May. Mr. (later Sir) Newton Moore's Government suc cwded Mr. Rason's Liberal Ministry in office. . TARIFF.— The special tariff reductions hitherto made to W.A. by the Federal Government, ceased. 1907. CONDITION OF THE STATE.-A period of retrogression from prosperity commenced. RABBIT-PROOF FKNCE.— The last sec tion of the State's RabLit-proof fence* was completed. -A third fence had been found necessary. It rnn from the No. 2 fence. 30 miles north of Yal^oo. due west to the coast. 12 miles south of the mouth of the Murcbisnn river, and is 171 miles lonp. RAILWAYS.— The RavensthorpeHope toun railway was commenced, and the Katanning-Kojonup line opened on April 10. WIRELESS.— Marine wireless was used for the first time in Australian waters on the Nf.D.L. steamer Bremen. WOOL.— The wool clip was 18,508,50) 1b. from 3,684^74 sheep. ?
1908. CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL.--)n June 27, after 11 vears of effort to raise money for a Children's Hospital, the foundation Btone of the building was laid by Governor Bedford. MUSEUM— A special wing was added to the Museum to house the Art section of the collection. RAILWAY.— The GreenhillsQuairad ing railway was opened on April 24. 1909. AGRICULTURE.— Wheat export on any considerable scale did not commence until this year, when the value of the wheat exported was £129,000. The area under wheat crop for the season 19084)9 was 285,000 acres yielding 2,460,000 bushels. For the 1909-10 season therd were 449,000 acres under crop, yielding 5,602,000 bushel* (Acreage under hay of all kinds, 1909-10* was 159.000). Apples were first exported to - England. ? EDUCATION.— Central schools were established, in the more densely, -populated areas. ?? - ?-?-'?' GOVERNOR.— Governor Bedford re signed his office in April and. was suc ceeded by Sir Gerald Strickland on May 31. RAILWATS.— The RavensthorpeHope toun, the' Narrogin-'Wickepin and the Cool gardie^Norsenian -railways were opened in February. ' ' .: . ' ' ' JBALLOON ASCENT.-iAn ascent jin a balloon, was. made in Perth on- Aprfl 19. BANK -NOTES— Commonwealth' Bank Notes were /first issued. EDUCATION.— The present technical School was opened on April 19. . '? - HORSE RACING.^-The West Austra lian Trotting Association was formed. , IMMIGRATION.— An Immigration and Tourist Bureau was ° established. ' ' NAVAL DEFENCE.— A reserve force of naval militia was recruited at Fremantle. PARLIAMENT.— Mr. Frank * Wilson'* Ministry succeeded Mrt N. Moore'a in office. ??'.''? ' ' STREET LIGHTING.— An electric light on Thomas-street Bridge iras -one of the first street electric lights in the State. UNIVERSITY.— In September a Royal Commission reported that the time 'was opportune for the' establishment, of a Uni versity. ' ... '' '? . ': ' '?''' ?? - . .-???;? ^r\: ::.-.. i9^t^ ;..;:.:... /; 'v. ? EDUCATION.— Perth Modern School was opened on February^.. ' ' LIQUOR CONTROL.— The Licensing Act now in force came into operation. MILITARY.-Compulsory military train ing was introduced throughout the Com monwealth.' ' NAVAL DEFENCE.— Under the univer sal training regulations, an active naval reserve was established. PARLIAMENT.— Mr! John Scaddan's Labour. Government succeeded. Mr. Frank Wilson's' Ministry in office.' : POPULATION.— The eighth census of the State showed the population to be 282.114 (161,565 males and 129.649 females). POSTAGE.— Penny postage came into operation throughout the Empire on May 1 PUBLIC LIBRARY.— The Public Lib rary. Museum and Art Gallery were in corporated trader a body of -trustees of which Sir Win throp Hackett was the first president; — ? UNTVERSriT.^-An Act to establish njcorporate and endow the University of Western Australia was passed. : 1912. ^FERRIES.— The Government purchased ss3s -inaatv*- r-« -« ??* .MATERNITY BONUS.-The maternity bqnus system first operated. ^JOCIAL LEGISLATION.^ThevWork enT Homesjegislafion was passed by Pap. liament. The Saturday naif-holiday was extended to most activities. TRADES HALL.-The Trades. Hall. B^ort^tt^et^was opened on April 20. UNrVERSITY.--)n February 13 the °wt University Senate was nominated by the Government. Seven professors 'and three lecturers were appointed. ;. \ . 1913..' ' . ?,..';? v^'v ? GOVERNOR.-Sir Gerald Strickland was succeeded in office on March 17 by Sjr.;Harry Barren. *? :v ; ? --?? ???-?- «-- '-- RAILWAYS: r Trans- AustralUn.-Th* first sod of the tr«n»- Australian railway was turned, at Kalgoorlie 6n February 12 by.thej¥mejlihister (Mr. A. Fisher). STATE SAW MILLS.-The State S*w Mills commenced operations. TRAMS.— On July 1 the Government assumed control of the metropolitan tram way system. ? .. UNTVERSITY.-On February -21 the Convocation of the University was for mally declared to be in existence (60 mem bers) and on March 31 the staff, aug mented b*y an additional professor, began their lectures in the temporary buildings to Irwin-street— ramshackle Btructures, the office section of which had been trans ported from -Coolgardie. ;.' . WHALING.-Modern whaling open, tions were first commenced in : coastal waters by Norwegian companies with bases at 'Point Cloates and Albany. ;-.. .'???' .'? -^.1914. ,;-. ? ' ':-; : Agriculture.— Nearly aooo,ooo acres of agricultural land had been disposed of and- the area under crop' was' 1.867.547 acres. '-' The Narrogin ' Farm Schbol was establtthed. : The wheat areas experienced the only 'drought' in their Wstbry. Already suffering from the burden of the war. the trading community was So adversely af fected by the drought that emergency legislation was introduced, and the Indus tries Assistance Board was set up early in the following year. * ' ? CRAWLEY BATHS.— The municipal baths at Crawley ; were officially, opened on February 7.. ? / . ' .'?-: '.: , ? FRUIT EXPORT.— Shipments of fruit for- the 1914 season, toUUed 33361 centals, of a value of £46.417.' ?'' ?'.??---'-' ' GREAT WAR.-iBritam entered the Great War on August. 4, and on August 10 recruiting for the Australian.' Imperial Forces began, the First -Division sailing from Albany on November =1 for fnrtho; training in Egypt. Between- 1914-18. 32.028 West Australians,-: of -whom .-8,042 were native born, enlisted and were included in 29 units. The first ~West Australian troops went into camp at Blackboy Hill on August 17 and the first complete unit of the 11th Battalion left 'with the convoy from Albany. General officers' rank was attained ; by six* West Australians', ami Lieutenant-General Sir Talbot Hpbbs com manded the Australian .Corps in France during portion of.1918-19: Victoria Crosses were conferred on 11 West Australians About 6.000 \Vest Australians were killed or '.'died of wounds, and the total- West Australian casualties were about 17.000. KINDERGARTEN;— The first Perth free kindergarten and playground waB opened. -* MEAT WORKS.— The' construction of the Wyndham Meat Works was started. PERTH.— The amalgamation of UK North Perth and Leederville wards with Perth nave effect to the longcontem plated plan for a Greater Perth, and in creased tlie number of wards, in the city to seven RELIGION: Archbishopric Established —The Anglican Province of Western Aus tralia was formed and Dr. C. O. L. Rile- was appointed the first Anglican* Arch bishop of Perth. The Church of England Grammar School -chapel was completed. TELEPHOXES.-In October the auto matic system of telephone switching was introduced in Perth. TROTTING: Night Meetings.— Night trotting races under electric - light were held for the first time in Australia at the W.A.C.A. gronnd. 1915. GREAT WAR.— On April 25 West Australian troops, with other men of the Australian and Sew Zealand Army Corps, came into conflict with the enemy for the first t:me in the now historic iandiug at Gallipoli. On December 19 the Peninsula was evacuated. During the campaign West. Australian casualties numbered 2;500 officers and men! Lieut. Hup. Throssfll was the first West Australian to be awarded the Victoria Cross in »he Great War, for gallantry at Hill 60, -on August 29. . POST OFFICE.— On October 8, the foundation etone of the General ?ost Office in Forrest-place was laid. RAILWAY.— The Brookton-Kunjin railway was opened on April 28. 1916. AGRICULTURE.— The Industries As sistance Board's operations were taken over by the Agricultural Bank. Brauchep of the Agricultural Bank wer? opened at Noriham. Bunbury, Geraldton, Katanmnt;. Jfarrogin. Kellerberrin, Bruce Rock and Kuntmoppm. CEMETERY.— Interments in the East Perth cemetery were wholly discontinued after Mny 18. GREAT WAR.— Australian. troops landed in France in March and June and suffered heavy casualties in the .winter
fighting around Pozieres. One West Aus tralian unit— the 51st Battalion— was al most wiped out. LIOUOR CONTROL.-The 'Nine to Nine' liquor law came into operation on January 10. PARLIAMENT.— In July Mr. Scad dan's Government was replaced by' Mr Frank Wilson's Nationalist Government. WHALING.— Owing to the war, whaling operations ceased, 4,000 whales having been secured since 1913. 1917. GOVERNORi— On . April 12, Sir Wil liam Grey .Ellison Macartney, who suc ceeded Sir ' Harry Barron as Governor . arrived in .the State. PARLIAMENT.— In June, Mr. Wil son's Government was succeeded by a National-Country Party combination led by Mr. (later Sir) Henry Leffoy. PERTH.--Vict6ria Park entered tbe Greater Perth amalgamation on November 1, and Monger's Lake was included in the city boundaries. .The inclusion of Victoria Park increased ' the number of wards to eight. ..'.'-* RAILWAY.— The trans-Australian rail way (no** known as the Great Western line) was. opened on November 16. A month earlier Sir John Forrest travelled from Adelaide to Perth over the line in three days. . ? STREET LIGHTING.— The City. Coun cil commenced installing electric lights in Perth, in addition to the gas lamps. WOOL.— 6,209,856. sheep were 6born for a total clip of 38,294,093 pounds. 19J8. J , v ARMISTICE.— Hostilities in the Great War ceased when the Armistice was signed on November 11. '? EDUCATION. — Correspondence classes were established by the Education Depart ment in the interests of children in the outback. ? -: ? GREATER PERTH.— The Lime kilt* estate, and the' neighbouring University endowment lands, were included in Greater Perth, and a road to City Beach wa^ opened. _i^l_ '? MOTOR VEHICLES.— 2,538 motor ve hicles were registered in the State. REPATRIATION.— The Discharged Soldiers' Settlement Bill was passed,. and schemes for absorbing discharged soldiei* in industry were, formulated. . r.- ?.;;- ? 1W ???.;? . '?? , AEROPLANES.-rrThe first modern aero plane was flown in this State by Major Norman Breajley. ? v : ?,'?.-'? GOLD.— The discovery of rich: formations on Hampton Plains s»ye a temporary im petus to the golct-mming industry; --'-In- dustrial troubles occurred on the -Golden MUe: ? ...???-??.?? -. . .: *1-\;.:. ?;;; GREAT WAR.— Germany: signed the Peace of Versailles, ending the Great War The last overseas military service of Wear Australian troops was performed by. 'the 10th Light Horse,- who assisted in suppress ing a . evolufonary outbreak in , Upper. MEAT WORKS.— The Wyndham Meat Works commenced operations. PARLIAMENT.-^ April Mr. Lefroy's Government was succeeded by Mr. (later Sir) Hal Colebatcb's- Government, which lasted onl) one month, being, succeeded b- a Nationalist-Country Party Government led by Mr. (later Sir) James Mitchell, on May 17. ..--?-? ? SOLDIERS and LAND SETTLEMENT. — The Repatriation Scheme was vigorously pushed on, under Mr. James- Mitchell. Agricultural development was assisted by the creation of a Discharged Soldiers Land Settlement Board, formed to under take the. work of settling large numbers vf ex-soldiers on the land. --,,.'- TRAFFIC ACT.— The great increase of motor, traffic led to the need for stricter control, and the Traffic Act wa* pa»sed. WHEAT. — The area under wheat at'tht dose of. the year was 1,146,103 acres. ./ -.--? ^vgffl. ; ? y.:: r GOLD.— The gold mining industry de clined. Hampton Plains falling to come up to expectations. - ' GOVERNOR.-On April 9 Sir Francis Alexander Newdigate de Newdegate suc ceeded Sir Ellison Macartney as Governor. ' HIGH SCHOOL.— The boarding school' section of the Perth High School was trans ferred from George-street to a new building erected on the same site as the day school section in Wilson-street. - IMMIGRATION SCHEME.— Under ? the Immigration' Overseas Settlement scheme immtgrants were encouraged to come to the State frcta Great' Britain. A ^group set tlement scheme was mooted, v.-. ' ':, ? NORTH-WEST.— The Department of the North- West was created. -? PRINCE OF WALES.-The Prince of Wales visited the State, Perth being strik ingly decorated by day and night in honour of the occasion. The Royal train was over turned accidentally in tbe South-Wert, the Prince escaping without injury. . SOLDIERS and LAND SETTLEMENT —Some thousands of toidiers were settled on the land under tbe' Soldiers Land Set tlement Scheme, and the. scheme was farthered in subsequent years. -' WOOL.— The* first Perth Wool Sales -pubb*c auction) were held on December 6. ? ? '?'??????_ 192K ^ ?;. .-'?' AVIATION.— Commercial aviation was established in Western Australia, the Com monwealth , Government . having decided to subsidise aerial mail services. WlA. Air ways. Ltd.. promoted by Major N. Brear Ify, obtained the first contract for a' ser vice, between Geraldton and North-West ports as far as Broome. The machine used on the initial flight: crashed near Carnar von. Lieut. Fawcett and Pilot Broad being killed. ? ? .'- . -. IMMIGRATION and GROUP SETTLR IfENTS.— Thi» Government inaugurated a scheme of group settlements in the South West, under which prospective settlers, mainly from Great Britain, but including local settlers, were to be engaged to work virgin lands, with the idea of having hold ings allotted in -turn to individual mem bers of the group.- -the married men to be given the first opportunity of acquiring a farm. Under the system, groups were assured of a livelihood during the prepara tory unproductive period. The first group of 20 settlers, composed of Australians and migrants, commenced work at Manji mup~ in March. Late in 1920 the Prime Min'ster bad invited the State Premiers to submit proposals for encouraging immi gration on broad Imperial lines, financial assistance from the Federal and British Governments being promised. Sir James Mitchell was the only State Premier to take advantage' of the' offer. He submit ted his Group Settlement Scheme, andjate in the' year a comprehensive State scheme was formulated It was based on an exfen sion of the original group settlement idea, and was intended to' provide -f At the intro duction of 25.000 immigrants from Great Britain annually. It-'seciired the' support of the Federal Government. During the year a _ large.. number of migrants. chiefl\ ex-rerviee men. arrived in the State. POPULATION.-rThe ninth census of the State showed the population to be 332^732 (177.278 males and -155.454 females); metro politan orea 154.873. ? STREET LIGHTING.— The Citv Coun cil resolved to substitute electric for gau lamps in the city streets. In October the !?as lamps in Hay-street were replaced* by elec»r:cslsimps. WHEAT YIELD:— The 1921-22 harvest vielded 13.904.721 bushels, an average of 10.4 bushels an acre. .. ? WOMAN LEGISLATOR.- At the Legis 'ative Assembly elections in March Mrs ?Tames Cowan was- -elected. She was the first woman member of Parliament in Aus tralia 1922. COTTON.— A small fettlement for the purpose of cotton growing was established near Derby. IMMIGRATION and GROUP SETTLE MENTS.— The Group Settlement Scheme was vigorously proceeded with 39 new set tlemen.ts being opened, bringing the total up to 47. with 867 individual land holders and 2.160 dependants. Under the Soldier Settlement- Scheme 4.39S soldiers had been placed on the land. The most important event of the year was the definite launch ing of the Government's scheme of com prehensive settlement by the introduction of a steady rtreani of migrants from Great Britain. In March the Premier. Sir Jam** Mitchell, visited England and negotiated an agreement with the British Govern ment for the introduction of 75.000 immi grants within three years. The scheme had already been endorsed by tbe Federal Government and financial assistance pro mised. The three-party agreement provided for the interest charges on a loan of £6.000.000. to be raised for the purpose to be borne in equal shares for five years by the three Governments. Up to the end of the year 4.369 State-aided migrants had arrived, iu addition to 2.100 migrants who came at their own expense. In December the Government cabled to the Agent General in London to arrange to send 1.000 married mierants monthly. KIMBERLEYS.— The northern portion of the Kimberleys was examined by Mr W. R. Easton. MEAT WORKS,- Wyndham Meat Works reopened after being closed throughout 1921.
STREET LIGHTING.— Tie substitution of electric .'.lighting Jor £as lighting in the Streets was completed in 'August. . WHALING.— A local company acquired the whaling property and equipment at Point Cloates: - ' . \ WHEAT POOL— A voluntary Wheat Pool superseded, the State Wheat Pool, control passing -from the Government to the growers. The 1922-23 harvest yielded 13,857.432 bushels. 1923. AGRICULTURAL and PASTORAL DE VELOPMENT.— The progress inland set tlement, and. the increase in agricultural and piistoral production was mainta.ir.M. A record wheat harvest of 18J920.271 bushels was produced in tbe 1923-1924 sea son. *? ' - ? ? COTTON.^-Cotton was grown in the North-West for the first time, three tons being exported. - ?'? IMMIGRATION aid GROUP' SETTLE MENT.— The policy of immigration aud group settlement was ' actively proceeded with. Migrants arriving, during the year numbered 9,500 (6,640 being assisted, 1,000 nominate and the remainder at their own expense). Ninety-six, groups had ?beeri*res tablished by the end of the: year. INDUSTRY;-There was. a slight re vival in the mining industry.,'. A steel works was established at Basscndean LIQUOR CO,NTR0L:-The Licences Re duction Board commericed to', function, and ordered the. closure of imany; hotels. POST OFFICE;— The Hew General 'Post Office in F.orrest-place was ; completed 'and opened, '; ? RAILWAYS.-Jtfany -new. railways, mostly 'through J Group Settlement areas, were authorised. ... WHALING.— Wealing operations off J6ur coasts were suspended; '_. ;' v , WOOLLEN MILLS.— The ' construction of the Albany -Woollen and Worsted MUbj was commenced.' ' »-?- ' ?' '* ??!????»? ? '. ;?? .::;.-i924L ;??./.;'-'.:..:; BROADCASTING.-The * .first- ^adio broadcast. waB «iven: in the State. DEFICIT.— The State deficit for. theyear ended on June 30 was -£229,15*. - u GERALDTON; H^RibiOR,-TJWrk was begun'1 on the ' improved ' harbour at ? Geiald ton GOVERNOR.— Colonel Sir William Campion succeeded Sir Francis Newdegate as Governor in June. . EMIGRATION and GROUP' SETTLE MENT.— During the year 6,715 .assisted migrants and 2.353 who; paid the full- fare, arrived in the State. An additional 31 group settlements were 'esta'bHslie'd, bring ing the total to 127 groups. theTpopulation of the group areas being' 9.000. served by 41 new schools^ three hospitals, and havraz 1^50 hew- honsefij-: 25.000 'acres -.hr# been' cleared, nearly half of it being under crop DfDUSTRlALf-;The 44ihour ' ' working week., was extended - to 'i cover the Public Works Department.- *? The flVbrkers' Com pensation' Act was passed; . ? '? . PAHLIAME'NT:— Sir ;James:,;ifitchen's Government was defeated at -the' March elections, and was succeeded by Mr. Philip Collier's Labour Government ion:. April 17 POPULATION.— The State's -population increased by. 10.309. ' ?' RADIO.— On June 4 the radio broad-, easting ? studio 6WF was opened by the Premier (Mr. P^ ? Collier). ' : TIMBER BXPORT RECORD.-- Timber valued at £lw967i713. a* State record, was exported' in 1923-24. - ' A WHEAT HARVEST.— A . fresh record was. set for wheat production; the 1924-25 harvest vieldine 23.887 J97 bushels; averag ing 12.8 bushels an acre. A record oats harvest, of 4.241.074 bushels, an average of 13.3 bushels an acre, was also obtained The record oats harvest stood for five years, and has only been' beaten once, in 1929-30. The bay yield of 448,525 tons is the third highest on record. ? .- ARBITRATION.— The Arbitration Act provided for the appointment,' of a per manent-President of -the.' Arbitration Court with the qualifications of a Su preme Court judge.: ? The Court was em powered to determine the basic wage an nually. ? , -? .-. ?-..'--- :-, .;.- COMPULSORY VOTING^CompuIsory voting provisions operated for the' first time, at the Federal elections' in De cember.'- ?'?'.' .'.;?-'? -...,-'.?',. .':.?'? .. ...,-.- 'T ? C^S^C^^TWV^^Sjiipeon^tty. Cossack, was demolisbed by a cyclone, j v GOLD.— A- strong company was floated in London [to : acquire ' a' group' of leases at Wiluna. '? ; ? ??? ? ' ?-. *, '??*?-. IMMIGRATiON ; AND , '- - ? '' GROUP SETTLEMENT— A new migration and settlement agreement between the State, Federal and British Governments was ratified. During the year 4,000 assisted and nominated .English migrants arrived in the State. Eight new .' CTOups were established. Partial piece-work, in . place of daily sustenance paid to settlers, came into operation. V ? . .- *?' ??'? ? . ONSLOW AND : BEADON.-^A concrete jetty at .Pt,,. Beadon: Onflow, . was com pleted juia * all the . buildings of. the old township: of Onslow were moved to Bendon. ?? - . .--.??? r» , STATE DISABTLmES COMMISSION : —A Royal Comminion to inquire - into .' the State's financial disabilities under- Fede ration was appointed by the Common wealth Government,- and* as a. result a yearly grant to this State of' £450,000 was approved. . ':.' ' TOWN HALL SITE;— Efforts to: decide on «..«ew- eite for the Perth- Town Hall having failed, after a «pirited controversy, extensive alterations were ' made to -the old building/ and the municipal offices and Council Chambers .were 'moved ?, -'to Mur ray-street on July 3. ?., ??' -??' ; 1. - ^UNIVERSITY.— The departments of biology -and geology of -the University were ??moved, to Crawley. ?? ' ; ' WHEAT.— The boundaries of the wheat belt, spread jBtill,. further : inland ,.^and dur ing the year the first/shipment of. wheat from Esperahce. 18.000 « baas, was -loaded by a^Germap.anxiliary'ieailing' Vessel:' * WHALING:— Whaling Operations were again undertaken with highly satisfactory results. ..'is', ,???? '? ?= ?'?? ?'» s- ??' ^WOOLLEN MILLS.— Tie' -? -Albany Woollen Mills were 6pene4*,'orrr February' .; ' '?';.;;? '192B..;: ,' ?/ .t , ARBITRATION ? C0URT^-A perman ent 'President of the Arbitration Court i^f; President Dwyer) was appointed With hw, colleagues he' undertook the fix ing of the basic '.wage:. for the State. In d'StfI2iiMnB:*strat*s were alsa* 'appointed CATHEDRAL.-The foundation stone J? J?*% ^ew St^' Ma^' Roman- Catholic Cathedral, on the old .site.;rwas laid on April 25. ' --, ^ r ? . ????? ?„ GERALDTON HARBOUR.-^An island nK^^S .^as c^P^ted n't* Geraldton ,tSS^1G5AT/0N andvGRpim SETTLE ?MJ-NT.— No fresh groups .. were . estab lished but the stocking of the existin« ones with dairy cows .proceeded. As^ aisted and. nominated migrants numberim 4,000 arrived in 'the State. ' ' ' MITRESK.-Tbe Mnresk, Agricultural College was opened .in 'September ROAD. CON'fi*'-RTTC'rioN,_rj nder an agreement between the State and Fede ral Parliaments, a five-year Toad con struction, plan was entered into; irivolv ing an expenditure of £3.360X00. ,a second nve-year sehpdule to be eubniitted -at ' he end of that period. The first year's ex-' penditure. involved the pending : of £404,000 on developmental- roads, £138000 roadT r° a6d -^S.OOO on arterial ™SpTE'S PROGRESS:-New records in knd settlement and developnient^-ere set There was a record wheat harvert «f 31.000.000 bushels for 19262t.ma^eTcom mercial. and industrial stability, and an increasing measure of public confidence 1927. AGENT-GEXERAL.-Mr W C Anc w,n left for London to teke up 'his a& ^m«#5»A thi ?State r-r^,L1A-)IEN^'i-Th'? Collier ' Labour 28 wheat harvest yielded 36.370.000 bush els, thp highest in the Commonwealth that season.- It was also the peak year ™ Production. Exclusive of grapes. i,ouu.ouo bushels were grown; 526,000 case* of apples were exported to the English markets and 53.000 cases to the Eastern htates. Sheep shorn numbered 8.447.4S0 » fx?0^1 clip of 59.346.4141b. of wool. RAILWAYS.— The extension of the loolgardie-Norseman railway to Esperancp was completed; making a 'total of 3,918 miles of State-owned lines. Operations for nA'l?rTshowefl a P^fit of £34.500. ROYAL VISIT.-Their Royal High nesses the Duke and Duchess of York, visited the State STATE'S PROGRESS.— The year was one. of steady progress and great activity m tnlustry and conlmefce. Land settle ment was pushed further . forward, large areas being brought under crop. WEST AUSTRALIAN BANK.— Th? West Australian Bank, after 86 years of lXIsten,ce was absorbed by the Bank of New South- Wales. . . , . ,
1928. FINANCES.— Per ? capita payments rere abolished to the States, and a new 'inancial Agreement with the Common realth was approved by the people at & eferendum taken in November. FORESTS.— Reservations made during he .year, brought the area of prime timber —ests set aside as State forests to 2,000,000 cres, out of 3,000.000 aimed at. GROUP SETTLEMENTS.— The gronp ettlement areas in the South-West prom jed to develop into rich dairying dis ricts. Larpe quantities of butter we5e ?-aniifa'ct:'red at various factories in the louth-West.. PASTORAL INDUSTRY.— At the be inning of the year there were 8.447,000 heep in the State. . RAILWAYS.— Railway mileage _in the Jtate increased from 3.918 to 3,9//, and everal hew lines were under construction n tbe wheat belt. There was again m irofit on the year's running expenses. TRADE:— The Stated adverse trade .alance decreased to' £46,858. compared rith £3,224,104 in the previouB year. WHEAT.— The wheat harvest for the 928-29 season was 33,790,000 bushels, fegoliations were, entered into with the federal and British GbvernmentB for the opening up of new wheat lands east of Southern Cross, towards the Gooleardie Ssperance line, and east of the Wongan Ells line, in the. Lakes -pastoral area, Members of the Federal Development and Migration Commission inspected-the area. Authority to spend up to £150,000 for pre iminary work, including water aupplies, ?oads and surveying railway routes, was dven by the Federal and British Govern 'entS 1929. AVIATION.— In June the. PerthAde aide air service, operated by.WjA. Air rays, Ltd., was inaugurated. The com jany operates the largest aerial service n the Southern Hemisphere. CENTENARY.— Throughout, the year the. State's hundredth anniversary was :eCIvtc nONOURS^Perthliwas declared iLord Mayoralty ^y theMunfc-Mr. »). i-. Franklin being the' first Lord ?Mayor. Fre nantJe was granted the status of * city. KINEMA.— On April 6 'talkier' were introduced to Perth. .Ofher theatres soon ifterwards installed sound equipment, and the silent film passed out of., favour. 1IARKETS.— The Metropolitan Markets in Wellington-Btreet, West' Perth, were opened on June 14.- ' - .- ? PRODUCTION RECORDS.— Tbe wheat yield of 39,000.000 bushels far, the 1929 30 season was the highest in Australia, the apple crop was a record, and. wool, timber and mineral production figures were ex-. ceptionally high. There were 19,000 acres of orchards and 5,000 acres of vines in bearing; 318,000 gallons of wine Were pro duced; 8,666,4001b: :6Jt.l)utter_ was .made in tbe various butter-factories and nearly 750,0001b. of honey was produced. 1 UNIVERSITY.— On^April 23 the de dicatory stone of 'the University buildings was laid. ? ? ?????: i93(^j . AVIATION.— The KorUi-WeSt air null and passenger service' was extended . to Wyndham. . ,..,-_ .,-...-? DEPRESSION.— A period of econoaiie depression commenced in- the State, b common with the rest of the worldV JGQLD.^The expectation, of a gold bonus, led to increased Activity ' in tbe gold-mining industry, prospectors also be ing, busy. An era of comparative pros perity returned to Kalgoorlie and Boulder. PARLIAMENT.— In April. Mr. Collier's Labour Government was defeated at the elections, arid a new/ Ministry with Sir James Mitchell at its head was formed. ' RADIO.— On l^rch 19, the first 'B' class broadcasting station in the State, 6ML, was openedl ' RECORD -PRODUCTION.— A record wheat harvest for the 1930-31 season. .of' 53.504:600 bushels 'was obtained., sheep in the State' reached the record number of 9^83,000, and- the wool-clip amounted to 71^542.000lb. Prices ior wheat and wool reached . record low ? levels. ; * TELEPHONES.— In. June, Carrier Wave Telephony was introduced to Wes tern Australia, first being employed be tween. Perth and Albany. - On December 19 'the -first conversation over the East West line, employing the . system took place. ' UNEMPLOYMENT.— Unemployment figures rose rapidly, and a camp for: un employed men- was opened- at Blackboy Hill, where 5,000 single men were soon Housed;/ Sustenance - was granted '- to ? all unemployed mep' and relief -works;: were,' started. '.aU oyer the.tState.:, ?;'- ?'''?'';''' -'. -l«|ii?V. ' ' . BULK HANDLING EXPERIMENT.— ' Experiments in bulk-handling of wheat were -carried out in five country centMS,1 with satisfactory results. . BUTTER AND MILK.-^ Butter produc tion expanded greatly and the tinned milk industry, was established. ? Butter pro duced amounted to 8,606,4001b., the SUte ^:i&A^mmom **? ^ ?** EXPORT.-TheVe was a considerable development in. the frozen pork and lamb ?arport trade. 930.0001b; and 2,137.0001b. re *Pectively being shipped overseas. . . .. 9PLI-v7Th-e^e was increasing activity in the gold-mining industry. A gold: bonus n £1 an ounce, speedily reduced to 10/, tras granted by the Commonwealth Go eernment on all gold produced In excess ' »f the previous year's total. The. Golden Eagle nugget (l,135oz. 5dwt.)— the rich ist ^unearthed in. the States-was found oy. Mr. Jim Larcombe at Larkinville in lanuary, and a rush ensued to the field, £ S5L P6*61*^ °ut. During the year ^0^572 £ne ounces of gold -were produced in the State. GOVERNOR.— Early in the year tbe Governor (Sir William Campion) resigned ^is office, having held the post since 1924 No new appointment has yet been made Mr. (later Sir) John Northmore, Chief ''K&S'a. ?2! appointed Administrator. -IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE! Steps were taken to inaugurate a system itic drainage and, irrigation scheme cowr ine. tbe dairying districts around Harver. Waroona and Collie. Waroona Wdr nu built, and 2.800 acres of land were broucht under irrigation at Harvey. » j POPULATION.-The estimated popula ^n »f t|? 8tate at .the end of thV-sar Iras 421.457. compared with 420,608 in the previous year ^PREMIERS' PLAN.-An alarming eon iition manifested itself in national hnances. There were mounting deficit!, Falling revenue and a great increase in unemployment. Realising the necessity for concerted action, the State Premiers and representatives of the Federal Government met m Melbourne in May and formn latied the. historic Premiers' Plan. The Pt 2«waB baseii on an all-round reduction of 20 -per cent, in adjustable Government expenditure, including wages, pensions and emolmnents, reduction of interest rate*. the conversion of internal public debts, en thp basis of a 22J per cent, reduction of interest, relief in respect of private mort gages and the raising of additional * Fede ral and State revenue. A Financial Emer gency Act embodving these measures, and in addition providing for cuts in award rates and wages, subject to the sanction of the Arbitration Court, was passed by tbe State Parliament in Jnly. STATE SAVINGS BANK.— The Pre mier deemed it advisable to transfer the State Savings Bank to the Commonwealth Bank, and tbe State Savings Bank Trans fer Bill was passed. TRADE.— There were heavy decreases, in imports as a result of the . growth of a tariff barrier and tbe ''raising of the exchange rates on London.- There was an increnee in the volume of exports and for the year there was substantial bal ance of trade in the State's favour. WHEAT.— The wheat harvest was over 40.000.000 bushels, for which the growers received a bounty of 4Jd. a bushel from the Federal Government. 1932. BULK HANDL1NG.-A Bill to provide for the institution of bulk handling nf wheat was defeated in the Assembly i£ December, although the trustees of the Wbea5, p.°o1 were permitted to carry on with their voluntary scheme for conduct 'ng^sy^eni of bulk handling. SECESSION.-Secession from the Com monwealth had been urged by a section nf the community for a considerable time, it being held that the State suffered un duly onerous debilities under Federa tion. In December a Referendum BilL providing for the taking of a referendum nn the secession question was passed by TELEPHONES.-On April 4 a telephone call between Perth and London was suc wssJnlly made, and later in tbe year calls nGSf ™afe between Perth and Dublin, Bedford (Massachusetts) and Java Test calls were successfully made to all' parts of the world. Transmission is by land me to Sydney whence it is sent bv beam wireless to Rugby. England, and omK? wd there t0 the various parts i HNi!Vn^?SITT--^OnrTAprn W the Hac kett. buildings at the University. Crawler, were opened bv Miss Patricia Hackett VICE-REGAL.-Sir John XrtbWe waB appointed Ideut.-Govenior,