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THE SITUATION OF THE NEW COLONY. [CONTINUED FROM OUR LAST.] The situation proposed for the Colony, is that part of the main land of Australia, which lies between the 132nd and 141st degrees of East Longitude, together with the Islands on the coast. The distance to which the colonial territory shall extend into the interior, will form a subject for future arrangement. This part of the South coast was discovered by Captain Flinders of His Majesty's Ship Investigator. The survey however, he ac- knowledges to be far from complete; and it seems extraordinary, that so large an arm of the sea as Spencer's Gulf, should never have been deemed worthy of further consideration, and that instructions respecting it should ne- ver have been given to Officers since employed on the surveying duty. As respects the coast from Fowler's Bay to Coffin's Bay, the only information that can be obtained will be found in the following ex- tracts from Captain Flinders' Voyage, Vol. 1 page 109, et passim. "FOWLER'S BAY is open to three points of the compass, South, East by South, and East South East; and it was evident from plants growing close to the water side, that a swell capable of injuring a vessel at anchor, was seldom if ever thrown into it." "PETREL BAY, in the island of St. Francis affords excellent shelter for two or three ships; there was no rise of the tide sufficient to be worthy of notice, here nor in Fowler's Bay." "At the entrance of DENIAL BAY, besides quantities of grass and branches of trees, or " Notwithstanding, this transaction was again made one of the charges by Lieutenant General Darling against Capt Robinson before the General Court Martial, but not proved. I, This man subsequently received from General Darling, his discharge, a pension, and a grant of land.
bushes floating in the water, there was a num- ber of long gauze-winged insects topping about the surface, such as frequent fresh water lakes and swamps; good anchorage was found in six fathoms off the beach on the north side of the western or smallest island." " On the north side of Point Brown the shore formed a large open Bay, into which we hauled up as much as the wind would permit, but the water having shoaled to five fathoms, and not perceiving any inlet, we bore away Westward along the land. The number of Smokes rising from the shores of this wide, open place, induced me to give it the name of SMOKY BAY." "There being much refuse from the shore, as well as sea weed floating about, hopes of finding a river were entertained; the depth had diminished from nineteen to seven fathoms, and the water was much discoloured in streaks at less than a mile from the ship. Smokes were rising in three different places, but the wind being unfavourable, and seeing no opening sufficiently large to admit the In- vestigator, I gave up the further examination of this place and called it STREAKY BAY." "My examination was tolerably minute to be done wholly in a ship, but much still re- mained, which boats would best accomplish, to make the survey complete, especially in the bays of the main land. No more than a general examination was prescribed by my instructions at this time; I therefore left the minute parts for a second visit, when the ship would be accompanied by the Lady Nelson tender." From events to be found recorded in Flinder's narrative, the anticipated second visit never took place. Little mention is made of ANXIOUS BAY, as it was passed during the night, in a state of great anxiety, in consequence of a strong southwest-wind; but the ship having gained considerably in working to windward, good anchorage was found in seven fathoms close under Waldegrave's Islands Nothing attrac- ted notice, till the arrival at Coffin's Bay, with the exception of seeing smokes, and in some cases, natives along the line of coast. The HARBOURS and anchorages which will command the earliest attention, are Coffin's Bay, Memory Cove, Port Lincoln, Hardwick, and Nepean Bays. COFFIN's BAY affords shelter from all winds; the discolured appearance of the water pre- vented its complete examination, but seemed to justify the belief, that a considerable stream of water ran into it. The shores rise quickly from the beach to hills covered with wood, and as much smoke and two parties of natives were seen, it is evident there exists a facility of obtaining fresh water, and that there must be fertile soil in the neighbourhood. In MEMORY COVE is excellent anchorage for a few ships in ten fathoms close to the shore. Recent traces of natives and kanga- roos were every where visible, affording proof that fresh water must be near, although the attempts of Captain Flinders to discover it were fruitless. The vallies are described as fertile, but the tops of the hills rocky and barren, with trees of the genus Eucalyptus scattered over them. Fish was procured in great abundance. The harbour of PORT LINCOLN is one of the finest in the known world, very extensive, perfectly land-locked, and may be approached without fear at all times and seasons. Wood is abundant for all purposes, and an ample supply of fresh water is to be obtained by digging to the depth of three feet. Captain Flinders, it is true, found no constant run of fresh water, but this may be accounted for, partly by his having.at once obtained a suffi- ciensupply by digging at the head of the port, within one hundred yards of the beach; partly, from his being dispirited by the loss of his master and boat's crew; and partly, from the different parties that left the ship, having con- fined their excursions to the sea shore, in hopes of finding the remains of their messmates. As means of defence, nature seems to have planted Boston Island, and the Bicker Isles, to command the entrance to the port. The soundings are regular from ten to three and a half fathoms, in which depth Captain Flinders anchored at the head of the port, within half a mile of the shore. The length of the harbour is about eight miles, preserving an average width, from two to three miles, to the head of the port, where it contracts to about one mile and three quar- ters with three fathoms water close to the shore. SPALDING COVE with a sandy beach at the head, is capable of sheltering a fleet of ships, if the depth should be sufficient to re- ceive them, which it appeared to be; wood was not wanting there, but no stream of water could be distinguished." (Australian Direc- tory, Vol 1, page 53). Captain Flinders remarks, that the excellence of the harbour seems to invite the establishment of a colony at PORT LINCOLN, while he cannot speak as to the soil. Information, however, has been obtained from a gentleman who accompanied the expedition, who states that the soil round Sleaford Mere was found to be of a superior quality: and it must be remembered that, for the reasons before named, this was the only spot examined not immediately contigu- ous to the sea shore. The fact of natives and kangaroos being numerous here, evidences there being no want either of fresh water or of fertile land. Some portions of the country are described as swamps; a kind of land the agriculturist would not despise if he possessed the means of draining it, while other por- tions were found thickly clothed with timber or brushwood, indications certainly of good soil. Where Captain Flinders caused the fresh water pits to be dug, the soil was moist and at the depth of three feet below the sur- face, a stratum of whitish clay was fount, on penetrating which water flowed in, which was found perfectly sweet. Captain Baudin with the French expedition visited the port in 1802, anti again in 1803; the following are extracts from a work entitled "Voyage de decouverte aux terres Australes," by M. Peron, the naturalist who accompanied the expedition. (To be continued)