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RURAL INTERESTS

DOWN SOUTH-WEST. SETTLEMENTS OF INTEREST. No. 13.

(By 'Canntore').

A Profitable Small Holding.

If some of me St. GeorgeVterrace 'ex- perts' who decry the policy of putting men on small holdings in the South-West would no and Ascertain for -themselves

che true facts of the case, they might rary their ©pinions. If they follow tHts course I would advise a visit to the pro* petty of Mr. S. J. Moulton, eibuated about two miles from Bridgetown, and titey will -see there something which pror.es beyond doubt thai isuecess en be obtained on a small holding. The land is subdivided into many small paddocks of a few acres each, which is the great secret of success fin connection with farms of this nature. In 1822, off a field of five acres, which had -been treated with a bag of bone-super', to the acre. -he har vested 20 tons of hay, and in 1923 a aix ncire paddock yielded 18 tons. He -has also a fire-acre orchard where itbe trees are eleven years old, ami which has been ell worked. The trees bear evidence of this, as they are splendidly grown and highly productive. In the previous year 1.200 cases of fruit was picked from this orchard. Mr. {Moulton also -started dairying last June, and has several very nice Jersey cows' en ids farm. He dried off the herd in December, and prior to that month his monthly cheques for cream from tie Bunbary butter factory averaged between £20 and £26. Added to this tiie family w«re kept in batter and mirk, and several neighbours,' -were cup plied with tihe latter commodity. The cows were cot given' any feed other than what they obtained in the fickle, which were chiefly under sub. clover.

Another Successful Settler. Fire mjles out from Bridgetown, on the Mamjimap-road, if yon- turn to the ieft and travel for some distance alonj a branch track, it will bring yon to the fine residence of Mr. Alfred Culien. He settled on this land 25 yean ago, and mainly by his own labour has developed a farm which is a (fine testimony to his abiMes and energy. All of the wood work in connection with bis home be at tended to himself, and the rooms are pan elled with polished native timbers, the river banksia being prominent among them; He also made all «f Ms furniture, and one could not visa for anything btC ter. Near the house there is an orch ard etmtaSning 30 acres of export apples and four acres of pears, and Mir. Oullen estimates that his fruit crop next year will give him between 6,000 and 7,000 cases. There are altogether 900 acres ?n -ilia farm, all of which- has been ring barked, and 150 acres is cleared. Mr. Culien,' is a great believer in pigrais hyg, and riins about 70 head of Berk shares and Middle Yorkshires. He is convinced, and rightly, too,- an my opinion, that to farm successfully pigs must be kept. He grows a big area of field peas for them, aad states that although -they fatten well on this crop, it is'neeefesary to give a change -of diet occasionally. Forty-six of the pigs on the farm at 'the time of my visit, aome ol which would turn the scale at 1121b, wore to be forwarded. to market in a few days, and the oldest of them would then be four months and three weeks, while others would' be just four monies. Mt Culien says 'that althoguh pigs ore a pay. able proposition, they must be kept full, and never allowed to get' hungry. The sows also most be veil fed when suckling their litters, which as all sound advice. Bigiit brood sows were feeding in a~ pad dock near by, and these, I was informed, were living chiefly, and doing w«U, on windfall and rejected apples. In most oi the orchards throughout Siis growing centre apples could Ae tseen'on the ground under the trees in thousands, but at was not the case on tMs property. The orch ard was clear of fatten fruit, and what Had not been fed to -the pigs were in bags, awaiting their turn. Mr. Cuflen in alec a strong believer an growing early feed for his sheep, such as rape and oats, and several carefully tilled ptddocks wen sown in readiness for tie first rains.

Manjimup. Before reaching Manjimnp the road passes the Balgarup Timber Mills, which is a typical logging settlement with its streets of weatherboard cottages, and there seemed to be plenty of movement tare. The country is all carrying heavy timber, most of which is jarrah and karri, and this extends for. many miles farther south. Manjimup lies between the Bal garup and Jarnadup mills, and - -with group* settlements* developing in; .the neighbourhood this centre must grow considerably in importance in course of time. Some of the banks have recog nised this fact already, and have opened branches there, while the solid nature nf the buildings ,-being erected indicate* that' there is something more permanent behind the settlement titan what the forest lands provide. There are .many stone 'buildings in the town, and occasion ally a tiled roof shows against the dense b:mk of green foliage provided by the forest lands, which adds to the attrac tiveness of the settlement. And then, on the rising ground near the recreation reserve is one of the daintiest of churches, designed by Messrs. Bales. and Cohen, to t-e met with in the State. When one looks at this beantifnl little structure, and . the church at Collie, the fact is appreciated that these archi tects are introducing a type of buildings into the country districts which must have an influence on the artistic ' im provement of. rural settlements. At Manjhnup (Mr. E. H. Fauckner, the Dis trict Superintendent of Group Settle ments over the Manjimup-NorAcliffa area, placed his services at our disposal for a run to NorthcHffe and back.

Through Jarnadup and Pemberton. Near the Jarnadup mills there are three group settlements — 25, S and 9. The latter is a group composed of ex lumpers, and last season they had 30 icres under potatoes, but the rain failed for once in a lifetime, and only two tons to the acre was 'harvested — a very try ing experience right at the commence ment of operations. No. 8 Group cat show- a return of SO children, .winch is a record for the State, and here also 30 acres were under potatoes, with the same result. Six miles from Pemberton there are properties on both sides of the road owned by Messrs. P. Collins and P. Kingston, 'which give a 'good indication of what may be expected of this class of country when these far Southern groups are developed. Mr. Collins hra been growing fruit trees for 14 years on his holding, and his 12 acres of planta tion are an object lesson in careful work ing, ?while on the other side of the ro:wl Mr. Kingston has a two-year-old orch ard, which is full of promise. The country here could not 'have been seen to worse advantage. The average rain fall is 48 inches iper annum, and duripg the summer months the settlers generally depend upon a fall of an inch per month, but there had been no rain since Sept ember, with the exception of two or three light showers. It is through this country that the sweet smelling borqnia flourishewj in its native state, and giant trees tower above these graceful flower ing -shrubs. Near Pemberton there are the relics of an old flour mill inhere Mr. Pemberton Walcott grew -wheat 50 years ago on the surrounding country and ground the .produce into flour; but it was regrettable to find that all this country had gone back to Nature. Mr. Walcott evidently found that it uras -l class of land totally unsui'ted for wheat production, and did not proceed with his venture. Pemberton. This town was decked out in it* holi day gad) when we passed through ot IDaster Saturday, and people were pour ing iuto tie main street from ail direc tions in every form of conveyance, motor trucks forming a very considerable .part. It is liere that two of the State saw mills are established on the banks of Big Brook, and there is a magnificent area of timber country to work over. There i« a -big proportion of karri here, and associated with the mills there is an extensive powedlising plant for the treatment of railway sleepers and other timber likely to be brought into contact with the ravages of white ants. Just past the town is the farm of -Messrs. Thompson Bros., who are dairying in conjunction with their other branches of industry, and it was satisfactory to see that even in this part of the country, where there is usually such a reliable summer rain fall they have erected a silo. They also go in extensively for the cultivation of root and green summer crops in addition to top-dressing their permanent pais tures. Wonderful Pear Trees. When Mr. Edward Brockman, a son of. one of the -first settlers-on. the Swu-

made his trek South-West in company with Mettrs. Pemberton Walcott and DX3onrt7 Lefroyia. search of land, it ie ?aid that it ww only the flooded condi tion of the Warren Biver that stooped Dim going, right through to the Southern )eeen. H« pitched H» e«ap on the task of the stream, cad hw son, Mr. W. L. Brockman la now living in the old tome which was built 60 years ago. At Warren House the parents reared a ftm r of 11 children, including Mr. Hugh Brockmu. of Buscelton, end there are signs in the walls of the building which indseat* that Additions were made to the original structure to meet the require ments of the growing family. la the gardes are three pear trees which were grown from pips brought in an enrelope rom Tasmania 60 years ago by Mr*. [oldswortby, who is still living ia the State. Two of these tree*, -wluch are of the same variety, are much bigger then tbe third; the topmost branches are quite 60 feet high, and the trunks hare a circumference of 10 feet Last year (r. Brocbnaa marketed tare* Una of fruit from the two trees— a record which ihould be hard to beat

The NortadWa Greaas. ?In motoring -through the towns and groups further north I heard several stories about the hope less condition the . people ia tbe NorthcHffe Group' Area would be in dur ing the winter, -as- the road from Pem berton wouM be impassable, and these settlers would be cut off from supplies for six months. The position was so bad in fact that the local storekeeper had made arrangements to lay in a suf ficient stock to meet these difficulties. As a matter of fact, it 'is one of the best roads in the Sooth-West, and there were about 300 men from tbe PubHc Works Department constructing branch roads to the groups during the time of my 'visit At thatvtim* 14 groups had been formed in the Nortbdiffe Area, with an average of 20 families on each, and each group bad an average of about 40 children, making «n approximate total of 1,120 souls. The town site of North cliffe was surveyed in November last, and when they were submitted -to auction in March the average upset price for cor ner blocks 'was. £18, and for others £16. The highest price paid for a quarter-acre block was £46. The Norttacfiffe Trad ing Co. were the first on the scene with a store, and erected; extensive premises, but corn-plaints were made in regard to prieee. and another store was opened at Easter. Up to this time some of the settlers sent their orders to the city, but there was so protection for this property at tbe Pemberton railway station, which is at present the terminus, and a lot of pilfering w« taking place. The sur veys' have been made for tbe extension of the railwaT to Northcliffe, and when this fe done the position will be greatly im proved. A temporary hospital baa been established in one of the staff cottages, where Charge Ifurse Hedley and Nurse Williams look after tbe comfort of the sick, but permanent quarters are being erected- & little further away from' the main town. There have been difficul ties, too, /in regard to meat supplies. I saw a bag of meat arrive on one group which was aEve with maggots. This had to be buried, and! it meant.no meat for these settlers for three days. An application bas now been made to tbe Lands Department for a special lease of a slaughter house, and then a butcher shop will be erected in the town. At the time of my visit the Northcliffe Trading Co. was bringing 500 loaves of bread a day from Manjimup by motor truck, a distance of 40 miles, but the bricks w«re'then on the ground for the building of a bakery. It will be seen from -this that the town is gradually de reloping, and a lot of the inconveniences associated with pioneering a district win soon be overcome. As these groups have been formed at comparatively recent dates no great progress has yet been made, 'but there were then about 100 acres cleared ready for the (plough. Fifty acres of this were to be sown -with sub dowr, and the burr and manure were in readiness. On most of the groups the settlers had their garden plots fenced, and they are supplied with whale guano at a moderate coot for use on their kit chen gardens. Each group is supplied with a garden plough for breaking' up these cultivations, and every settler may obtain wire netting for the establishment of Bcmltry runs; ? ? '' '

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