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THE PRIMARY PRODUCER
Farming, Pastoral and Fruit Section
The emphatic success resulting; from the có-órleration of Bureau-united pr!-' mary producers and the Department of Agriculture at Sorell on Saturday draws attention afresh to the informed and progressive spirit animating agriculture in Tasmania at present, and makes plain th*-- effective contribution that is being rendered by the Bureau itself in giving to farming activity modern knowledge and power. That there should be ready to the hand of the department organ-
ised groups of tho more progressively I disposed farmers in most districts of agricultural consequence is clearly a great gain as regards the ready dissem- ination of knowledge based on the re- sults of proved experiment.
The necessity for intelligent and hroad-visionod union among those who are dependent for their.livelihood upon I heir yearly agricultural endeavour, and on the successful marketing of its out- put, is in turn obvious. In an economic ' system which permits of the manufac-
turer overcoming uny profit-making by easy recourso to an acquiescent Tariff Hoard, and which by its Arbitration Court Awards eases the way of asso- ciated artisans accustomed to convince it that rising costs of living make the weekly wage insufficient for living pur- pose», circumstances themselves demon- strate that primary producers, called upon to pay the tariff protected manu- facturer's actual cost of production, and tr> meet the labour demands of the Court protected artisans, are in a position re- latively both helpless and hopeless unless by organised strength they secure to themselves equitable treatment and pro- portionate equality of opportunity,
FARMING'S UNITED OUTLOOK.
The Bureau, concentrating upon prac- ticable means of strengthening farming's efficiency and productivity, serves an in . valuable purpose in giving to agriculture
both a united voice and a high lovel standard of marketing quality ' and method.. In conjunction with the De- partment of Agriculture and with the steadily Increasing number of Individual producers realising the effectiveness of its co-operative strength, it is render- ing its, essential contribution to the stabilising and Improvement of Tas- mania's position.
BUREAU'S FARM GAINS.
Among ? producer-benéfitlng achieve mente to its*credit stands the legislation to permit of tho forming of co-operative trading organisations, and extension of the functions <>f the Agricultural Bank to cover rural credits. It has Its stand- ing commltteéê for all the major agric- ultural industries which continually pass thé industries, their conditions and needs under practical review. In conjunction with the Fruit Advisory Board it deals actively with the problems of fruit pro- duction and disposal. It has been in- strumental in the establishment of a Tasmanian branch of the Commonwealth Pig Council whose purpose is to develop and stabilise the pig industry in Aus- tralia, and has created thc Potato Mar- keting Board now with its own full-time executive officer. It has rendered a service of far-reaching conséquence in promoting the recent successful tour of New Zealand by a representativo party of Tasmanian farmers, and'has laid the foundation of an export meat Industry by securing the establishment ot the Meat Board Which, for itself, must now -lecide on the most promising line of advance. To tho entire problem ot quality production and profitable mar- keting the Bureau addresses itself and is destined to play an ever-increasing part in the State's agricultura) develop- ment and in rendering agricultural pro- ducers articulate and Influential In pro- portion to their dominating contribution to Stato progress generally. ?
BUREAU SECRETARIES FOR-
GATHER. ; .
By reason of these considerations, particular Interest attaches to tho spe- cial gathering of bureau secretaries from all partë of tho State/to be held at Laun- ceston on Thursday and ' Friday next, when it is anticipated that upwards of SO branch representatives will assemble. The opening assembly on Thursday will be largely of a social nature; thc Bureau men will dine together under the chair-, manshlp of tho president of the Bureau (Mr. H. Ashton "Warner), . who will de- liver an address ot welcoriic. The toast ot "Agriculture'' will be.proposed by Mr. J. .T. Waldron, of Ringarooma, and the observations of tho proposer and the res- ponder (Mr. R. W. "\Vin3pear) are. ex- pected to traverse essential aspects of the present-day position of agriculture and agriculturists. Mr. T. C. Loosmore, of Scottsdale, will propose tho toast of "Tho Agricultural Bureau bf Tasmania," to which Mtv C. A. Thorneycroft ' will reply. Opportunity will, he taken at tho gathering to extend good wishes to Mr. A. C. Foster, who is to take up Sydrfey duties on behalf of the Potato Marketing Board. The chairman will propose .the health of the departing officer' and other members will support. "The Executive/' proposediby Slr. A. H. Weedon, a Tamar Bureau secretary, will be responded to
by Hie chairman.
The main husiness of tho gathering will be transacted at the Bureau head office in Launceston on Friday. Among the subjects ' to recëlve special con- sideration are:- . ."
' Fundamentals for .success (Mr. C. L. Gillios, Senior Agronomist, Department of Agriculture).
Secretaries'- troubles and how they can be overcome.. .
The size, of branches - and . dates of - meetings.. ., ?..
The Agricultural Department exten- sion service and its function's ; (Mr. E. R. Hudson, Superintendent of Extension Services)..
Bureau programmés.: . . . How can Bureau membership-be in-
?The programme on Friday will call for three sessions, and an active day will bo participated in by all attending. The two days' rally, it ls to be anticipated, will be made the prelude to a State-wide drive for increased Bureau membership.
SORELL DISTRICT . Mixed Farming Area
Local Spirit of Progress
". .The Sorell district has long been fam
led alike for its'grain growing quality and tor its output of well conditioned fat lambs. A comparatively dry area (its rainfall average is about 21 inches an fnually), lt has to depend upon prompt and sound farming methods to ensure desired results. The district's equable climate on tho other hand gives to-it a feed advantage not enjoyed to the same extent by more rigorous districts, and the township's sale-yards are. a picture at seasons of the year when yards else- where are but indifferently filled.
The Southdown Leicester cross -is generally favoured locally for lamb pro- duction, and with the lapse in wool values there is still further concentra- tion on this form of farm output. In- creased yield here, as elsewhere, is re- cognised to he the district's principal requirement, and with the good fortune of an active resident officer of the De- partment of Agriculture in Mr. C. A. Holland to advise and supervise, for- ward steps are being taken to secure that end. The practice of sowing red clover with grain crops for stubble feed is taking firm hold. Farmers are quick to realise the three-fold advantage of a follow-up feed crop that itself provides a clover crop in the following year, and at the same time builds up the soil by admixture of nitrogen and humus for the next succeeding grain sowing.
Dairying In turn is making encourag- ing strides in tho district, among pro- minent herds being those of Colonel Blacklow with an Ayrshire and Frlesian strength of some 120 head, and Messrs. Arthur Wagner and G. Richardson with some 40 and 30 milking cows each. The morning and evening yield from these and other sources makes an Important contribution to Hobart's needed milk supply. There is room In the district for an expansion of winter dairying, pro- vided that, by thorough planning, the necessary abundance ot balanced fend Is forthcoming. Topdressing' Is augment- ing the supplies of meadow hay, and with October-sown mangolds and maize, together with autumn-sown Italian rye grass and red clover for temporary pas- ture, as well as wisely furnished ensil- age stores, there should be nothing In the way of considerably increased local milk production' at a time "of . the year when, In other areas, greater difficulty is experienced in carrying stock over the period preceding- the natural spring growth on well topdressed pasture and grass land.
Sorell dairymen are alive to the fact that the most payable dairying proposl-. tion ls the cow that calves in the autumn and ls kept in full milk"flow for the ensuing ten months as against the spring calver, whose yield, too often, under a loss well managed farming sys- tem, is allowed to fall to pieces when th* late autumn and winter season sets in.
DISTRICT'S HORSE STANDARD.
Horses.are of good stamp in the Sorell country. Travellers of stallions have tho businesslike gumption to offer spe- cial prizes for the progeny of their own horses at the district's agricultural show, and in this and in other ways the standard is kept high. At the show held on Saturday, lino animals were On view. Plough teams were ot good quality, marr red only by a degree of unevenness in matching as regarded stablematcs pull- ing together. Of a fine bunch of draught mares the pick, Mr. B. W. Phillip's (Sorell), four-year-old brown mare Bell, repeated her success of the year pre- vious. In thc draught gelding group' Slr. E. L. Kingston's Prince, a five-year old dark bay, stood out from every angle as a, horso of grand quality. : His Water- loo owner, scoring second In the draught mare class also, well upheld his distrlot reputation. Mr. D. C. Lewis, ot Cam- bridge, was runner-up in this section, with'an" upstanding well-proportioned entry, and with his well-named Black Prince in. the two-year-old class carried oft premiership honours. .This hand- some, well-carrying youngster won as a yearling at Sorell Show a year ago, as well as at-Richmond and Hobart, and with a Hobart two-year-old blue l-lbbon in 'his stable, and the same Sorell awarded distinction, has made a fine showing pa his five appearances. Even so, ho was closely challenged by a mas- sive and well-balanced light bay brought forward by Mr. A. Bryan, ot Bream Creek, and only fine points awarded after prolonged close Inspection on the part of the Judges decided the-Issue. Mr. George Wright's Coral's Premier was the ono heavy stallion to put in an appear- ance, and of his foals, Mr. A. L. Allan by's unnamed colt secured tho award In his class. The filly decision went to Mr. D. A. Hean, who promptly gave to his successful, entry the show ground christening of Beaut.
Tractors, in view of the average size of Sorell district holdings, are riot com- mon, and with such excellence of team strength are unlikely to be generally installed. '
? , GOOD-LOOKING PEARS
A VARIETY IDENTIFIED.
A Petchey's Bay correspondent for- wards samples of a large showy pear, a glowing red in colour, picked from thu bottom .limbs of a tree of the Doyenne du Cornice variety growing in his orchard. The name of the stranger vai-iety ls asked for.
The: pears forwarded "aro interesting In that they recall the 'hew "pear variety or- iginally raised some ten years ago by Mr. A, B. Robin, of Nuriootpa, South Australia, and subsequently grown on a commercial scale Iii the Victorian, nur- series of Mr. C. A. Nobelius. Some of the trees'were planted in Northern Tas- manian orchards and lt is evident that a sample tree.of. the new variety was planted in the orchard at Pétchey's Bay. At some period of its growth the tree has bêéri 'severely cut back and re- worked to its present Doyenne du Cornice variety.. . The-fruit-of the original tree has made its appearance on wood of the first planking, ..The name of the pear now reasserting itself is Corona. Re- sembling but not equalling Williams's Bon Chretien in flavour, but with bet- ter keeping quality, lt has yet failed to fulfil Its. promise, ot becoming a leading export variety. In appearance lt Is a strikingly handsome fruit type.
NOTES FROM MIDLANDS
Reaping the Corn
Grain Average Report*
100 Bushels to Acre
(From Our Midland«. Reporter.);.
Threshing machines are now operating in »many parts of the Midlands. As an
tielpated, the reports that ? are coming '
to hand indicate that the crops on the \ whole are yielding well up to expecta- ¡ tions based on a most favourable sea- . son. Many farmers have established '? new records on their properties, and the number of bushels of grain obtained to
the acre in-numerous instances have .
been more than satisfactory. In a few ¡
cases, however, the presence of an ab- normal quantity of straw in the crops has upset calculations, and farmers who
have had such an experience have found . that their yield has not been quite as big ', as at first anticipated. Rare success has been achieved by Mr. James Emery with
a six-acre crop which he grew on Mr. , Rex O'Kelly's Ellsmere property at Jericho, for the paddock rendered him
the phenomenal yield of 100 bushels of ! "White Giant oats to the acre.
A review of the reports gathered by "The Mercury" Midlands reporter to date
Indicates that this season has been re- ' sponsible for phenomenal growth gene- rally. The Midlands area has benefited by most favourable weather conditions, as shown by the growth of both crops and grass. The yields Indeed are the heaviest of which local farmers have recollection. They are so good that a ?paddock of anything up to forty or fifty bushels to the acre is considered a com-
paratively poor crop this year, whereas ! In other seasons a crop of such propor-
tions was thought to be most satlsfac- ' tory. Farmers in every district who ' have finished with the threshing machine have been very unlucky not to have broken their own records, and most of those who have yet to be visited by a machine are confident of every success because of their unusually big crops. ?
EXCEPTIONAL IN HEIGHT.
"When visiting various properties this season it has not been unusual to come across paddocks containing White Giant oats seven feet and over in height. Mr. J. T. Devine, of Stonor, grew some Slr Douglas, Halgs measuring 7 feet 3 Inches high, and he ls only one of many with such high growing crops. Mr. C. Palmer, of Whitefoord, has grey peas the haulms of which ran to from ten to eleven feet in. length. In somo grain crops tho stra\v has grown too long, thus cutting down the grain yield. By this it is not meant that the crops were not satisfactory. As stated, yields have been heavy everywhere, but several farmers with crops of impressive ap- pearance had expected astonishing yields, but their hopes have come short of' realisation because of rank growth, which had not been taken into considera- tion. The experience of Mrs. C. T. Gregg, of York Plains, may be mention- ed. Mrs. Gregg had a wonderful crop of 28 acres, and when threshed, this gave her the highly satisfactory yield of SO bushels to the acre. Even then, her crops bore an excessive quantity of straw, for she obtained" eight 9 x 6 stacks. ?
A WONDER CROP.
The .best crop that has' como under notice to date this season ls à six-acre paddock of oats on Mr, Rex O'Kelly's Ellsmere estate, Jericho, which has yielded, the very rare average of 100
bushels to the acre.- The crop was . grown by Mr. James Emery, of Oat- lands, who Btates thàt nothing very special was done to the ground, but the land is noted for its quality tor oats. The crop was sown In August or September last, and the ground was treated with 1001b. of manure to the acre. This is'not Mr.-Emery's first century with oats. Years ago, he told "Tho Mercury" reporter^ he reaped 250 bushels on two acres of land which he had sown with oats. Mr." Emery had thirty acres under crop at Ellsmere this season, and the average throughout was .75 bushels,
Sturgeon Bros. did very well on their tino Oatlands property thia season. Many paddocks yielded well into .the eighties, and several touched ninety bushels. There were 200 acres under cultivation, the crops consisting of oats, barley, and,rye. The total number of bushels .obtained from- the lot waa 10,447,' an excellent average for mixed crops. . Tho 200 acres also yielded- 600 tons'of chaff, an average'of two .tons to the'acre;
. Mr. Ell Webb, of Jericho, reaped.3,400 bushels of oats from 76 acres, and at Oatlands Mr; Reg Fisher obtained 1,100 bushels from 22 acres; Mrs. G. T. Gregg, of York Plains, obtained over 4,000 bushels of White Giants from 108 acres. Th«> crop in which she averaged 80 bushels to the acre was a late one, arid the fact that lt was Bown after rape further demonstrates tho value of the rotation system of 'crops. At' Hunts worth, Jericho, Mr. A. F. Archer's crops were exceptionally good. His oats aver- aged up to'85 bushels to tho acre, and he reaped well over 3,000 bushels. At Park Farm, Jericho, Mr. Thomas Burbury averaged 86 bushels In.a small paddock of Slr Douglas Halgs, and his white oats averaged 55 bushels to the aero.
Mr. C. H. Fisher, Wallace, Oatlands, did very. well ' with grey peas this year. Off nine' acres he has a stack 42 yards long and five yards wide,- and he ex- pects to get well over 300' bushels.
MARKET NOT GOOD.
Almost every farmer in the Midlands will find himself in possession of a large quantity of grain when threshing is finished. With such a good season, lt ls indeed a pity that the market is not in a better state than it is. Earlier in the season, it looked as though oats would command a fairly good price, but, in common with everything else, a fall was experienced, and farmers will have to put up with these tim-is of financial stress until an improvement comes along.
Stricter Inspection Urged .
Fears that laxity in inspection o£ sheep importations Into Tasmania may result In flocks becoming infested with lice were expressed at a meeting of the Oat- lands Agricultural Bureau on Friday. Tho strictest1 possible supervision was urged.
Mr. W. M. Lester presided over a fair attendance of members.
Correspondence was read by the sec- retary (Mr. A. Meers) from the Director of Agriculture (Mr. F. E. Ward), in which it was stated that every atten- tion was being given the matter of ap- pointing an agricultural organiser for the Midlands. The appointment was In abeyance at present solely owing to the department's determination to secure the right typo of man.
The chairman expressed the opinion that any enthusiasm amongst branch members was dependent upon the ap- pointment of a Midlands organiser. The need for such an officer for the district had been apparent from the outset of the movement, and an appointment as soon as possible was desirable.
GRASSES AND CLOVERS.
Members expressed the opinion that a lecture on grasses and clovers should be given at the earliest opportunity. At the present time it was necessary to Im- port seeds, but farmers should be able to grow their own In the district If they knew the right way to go about lt.
It was decided to ask the district ag- ricultural organiser, resident at Sorell (Mr. C. E. Holland) to deliver such a lecture at the next meeting, to take place
THE TICK ACT.
The Warden (Mr. John Weeding) mov- ed, and the chairman seconded: "That while this branch very much appreciates the action which the Director of Agric- ulture (Mr. F. E. Ward) ls taking in re- gard to the Tick Act, it views with alarm the fact that in the past there have been quite a number of lice-infected sheep imported into Tasmania, and sold at the abattoirs. These sheep are often bought by landholders and taken into the country, thus endangering the spread of lice. This branch respectfully sug- gests that a thorough Inspection of all sheep coming into Tasmania should bo made before they are landed."
The motion was carried, and was or- dered to be forwarded to the executive for consideration.
Mr. C. H. Fisher was appointed assis- tant secretary ot the branch.
BOTHWELL FIELD DAY
i Sixty Farmers Present
'Th©Bothwell branch .of the Agricul- tural" Bureau held a most successful field day last week on Norwood, the property of Messrs. Archer ' Bros. Over sixty farmers 'from Bothwell .and surrounding districts were present. The district agricultural organiser, Mr. R. B. Steele, attended; and addressed the gathering. The purpose of the field day was to give farmers the opportunity of Inspecting the various types of grassland harrows available in Tasmania, and to see them
Addressing tho farmers assembled. Mr. Steele pointed out that in that dis- trict, as well as in other pastoral dis- tricts, landholders had to devote more attention to their pastures. The drop In the selling price of wool, together with the consequent decline in the value of sheep, meant that the income of all sheep-farmers in Australia had decreas- ed. If farmers, wished to obtain the same profits from their farms as they baa done during the last four or five years, they had to Increase production, .which could best bo achieved by the improvement of their pastures.
SPREAD OF GOOD FEED.
Mr. Steele then outlined the various ways in which farm pastures could be improved. First there was top-dress- ing. It had been definitely proved that on the majority of soils In Tasmania the application of superphosphate to pas- tures containing a proportion of good grasses and perennial or annual clovers or trefoils, would result in earlier feed that grew earlier, lasted longer, and was of improved quality. The first step that the farmer had to take to in- crease his carrying capacity was to topdress those pastures that would re- spond with at least lcwt. of super per acre in tho early autumn. The annual application of super to such pastures would also improve them, as the clovers and better'grasses would spread, cover- ing the bare places and crushing out tho poorer grasses and weeds.
Tho improvement referred to" could be brought about moro quickly by surface cultivation with some type of grassland harrow or cultivator and the sowing ot a little grass and clover seed to sup- plement those species already growing in the pasture. The seed could be mixed with the super used for top-dressing, and applied either before or after the surface cultivation. Provided there were enough good grasses and clovers in tile pasture to build on, lt was generally much cheaper to improve the grazing by adding super and seed than to plough the land up and then to sow down again with the loss of feed in the meantime.
Then' there were pastures that were sod-bound. This condition occurred generally in paddocks that had been irrigated for years, and in old pastures containing grasses that spread by means of underground, stems. The mass of roots and stems in the surface layer of the soil prevented both the rain from getting to the subsoil and tho aeration of the soil itself, thus checking plant growth. In many cases it was found that superphosphate would give no re- sponse when the'pasture was sod-bound. Thorough surface cultivation after good autumn rains or in the winter, together with top-dressing, would give the plants a hew lease of life, and enable them to produce more-and better teed.
Then there wert the' thousands of acres of native grassland to bo consider, ed. . .These were not producing what they should on many areas. Those areas whore tho soil was of fair to good quality and that were free enough of trees, logs, and stones to be easily ploughable, said Mr. Steele, could be cultivated, put down to crop for a year or. two, and then sown down with sub- terranean clover and grasses, or with mixed grasses and clovers, or to tem- porary pasture. Other areas could be surface cultivated, raking out the moss and flat-growing weeds so often present In old native' pasture, breaking up the matted roots of the old danthonla plants and loosening and aerating the surface sol!. The native grasses would take robt again and grow'with Increased vigour so there would be no loss of feed, and graBS and clover seed could be add- ed to Improve the grazing. The appli- cation of super would then be a payable proposition.
A demonstration df the work of vari- ous types of grass harrows was then given, farmers present closely following each, and inspecting t,1G work done. The implements. - demonstrated included stump-jump, harrows and a rotary hoe cultivator tractor driven and operated.
Mr. Reid, chairman- of the Bothwell branch, thanked Messrs. Archer . for placing their property at the disposal of the branch, and also the agents who had demonstrated Implements, as well as the large'number of farmers who had at- tended and made the day such a suc-
cess. , '
Mr. A. E. Powell's Work Remarkable Exhibition
The importance ot the poultry indus- try, leading the way as it surprisingly does in revenue return from farming activities In countries more familiarly as- sociated with grain-growing and stock raising undertakings, is being steadily recognised among men on the land In Tasmania. Wherever the Department of Agriculture's poultry expert. Mr. A. E. Powell, travels bearing the poultry standard, enthusiasts are further en- couraged, and those who have not, so far, realised the "poultry Industry's pos- sibilities, are Inspired to individual en- terprise on sound -foundation principles.
The manner in which Mr. Puwell con- trives to lit into his Ford car trios.of various breeds of utility laying birds; and all the paraphernalia Incidentál to trap-nesting, egg production, and pack- ing, poultry feeding, and demonstration of all the ills and cures associated with the feathered tribe., ls an admiration-inspir- ed byword throughout the countryside. Certainly the originator of that accom- modating means of mobility, himself uniting to so conspicuous a degree en- gineering genius with a predilection tor making more effective the efforts of the man on the land, would approve and applaud the poultry advocate's ingenuity and ability,
POULTRY PRINCIPLES EXPLAINED.
The comprehensive exhibit carried with him by 'Mr. Powell on his country lours ls of remarkable Interest and farm edu- cational value. To Illustrate his plainly understandable advice on sound poultry breeding and management, he demon- strates pens of nicely mated trloB, rooster and two hens, of the current sea- son's production, showing in develop- ment and characteristics the desirable points of birds bred from utility laying strain and mated for egg production. Samples of brown and white eggs, the eggs each and all of '¿oz. weight or over, i packed In odourless carton fillers tor
store delivery or for export purposes, show the standard of clean shell and uni- form grade which, tor commercial pur- poses, must bc adhered to. For bulk delivery, the demonstrated manner in which the ordinary kerosene case can. ty its successive layers of Inserted car- tons, be turned Into a standardised ega container is an object lesson to farm egg sellers desirous of establishing a district good name.
QUICK GROWING FEED.
A further Interest-stimulating exhibit which Mr. Powell.oxtracts from the ex- traordinary resources of his poultry run on wheels ls a tray series of light- ning-grown green feed crops providing the element so esseutlal to poultry's healthy functioning. Sprouted wheat land oats, he .makes plain, can be obtain- ed in one week when sown In a little rich soil in boxes or on trays, and care- fully watered, and he emphasises the point by compact.carpets of green stuff alluring to the egg and 'beak of the healthy egg piovlder. Properly propor- tioned mash, for dry or wet feeding pur j poses, rightly blended of Its constituents i of pollard, bran, and meat, and bone meal, with a little salt, ls there for ex- amination, and the mixing of its In- gredients explained.
. DEALING WITH DISEASE.
Disease-affected specimens and the spirit-preserved: outcomes of parasitic infestation are displayed for information and warning, while scientifically'proved remedies, and the full range of poultry nutrients and specifics are there for the discussion with a view to later individual testing and choice.
What the exhibit lacks, if anything, lp subject matter, is made up for by oral advice and discussion. The one com- plaint, but mildly expressed by the tra-r veiling authority, ls . that ? countrymen, tireless finishers, are at', times slow starters. Discussion gatherings, he cause late in assembling and warming to their subject, are prone to continue at the other end until approaching the time when a nearby cackle .proclaims that the first hen off the perch lias, laid the new day's earliest egg. ,
Such considerations, however, are all- in the way of generating .poultry en- thusiasm. By such exhibition, incen- tive, and assiduity in the advocacy of poultry possibilities is Tasmania's out- put of the golden egg being steadily in- creased. _