1 correction by anonymous - Show corrections
The Advertiser MONDAY, JUNE 9, 1890
Dr. SCHOMBUROK's report for the year 1889 upon the Botanic Garden, Park, and Museum of Economic Botany is, If pos-<*> sible, of more than usual interest, dealing
as It does with experimental made In the acclimatleation of fodder plants and others cf economic value Imported for the most patt from Europe. The garden and gioonds are at once a. source of attraction to the citizens and to visitors from the ccDEtty and elsewhere) and a school of in ttroctlon for the practical agriculturist, gtazfer, and horticulturist, and for the scientific botanist. Experiments are con tinually made with trees, shrubs, and gra?ees, to ascertain which axe best adapted to the climate and most able to withstand ee?Sons of drought. From their very nature these tests can never be absolutely conclusive, for they are made under different conditions; from those which the plants most encounter If they are to be serviceable. The demand of atoekownen ia for herbage which will thrive during those periods of heat and drought which bring whole flocks to the verge of starvation. Even when for the purpose of testing the drought-resisting properties of trees and certain kinds of herbage they are kept without water, the conditions of their growth In the Botanic Garden are much more favorable than they would be In some of the northern and western districts of the colony, where the outlook across leagues of plain la sometimes desert-like In Its utter barrenness and aridity. If not absolutely conclusive, however, such experiments are valuable as far as they go, and fanners and squatters ehould make trials for themselves. One of the most usefol portions of the work of the Agricultural Bureau is the introduction and dislzlbntlca of pros and fodder pl?st Seeds, of which a large collection was supplied last "year to farmers for experimental purposes. Even apart from considerations of drought It Is desirable that farmers should be aided In their search for fodder plants that will produce a greater amount of sustenance for their stock than they can get from the native pasture. Among otner recommendations Dr. Schomburgk urges upon farmers and stockowners the cultivation of the wood lathyrns which has yielded surprising re sults In England and Germany, where It Is Indigenous, but where its valuable pro perties have only recently been dis covered. It grows luxuriantly In any climate and in the poorest of soils, and to evidently one of the most economical kinds of fodder that can be grown. In Prussia so highly la It valued by the authorities that they are granting a subsidy of thirty shil lings for every 2h acres sown with thie plant. It needa no manure and resists drought, absorbing "from the
pooreit soil the mo?t mlnata particles of nutritive matter contained In it for a great dhtance around the plant." Dr. Schom burgk early laat year obtained some of the seed from Germany, which there fetches almost famine prices, owing to the sub sidy, and he Is able, so far as bis experi ments hare gone, to endorse the statement as to the merits of the plant. Whether It flourishes as well In the open ground as It did last year under the care which It received In the Botanic Garden he 1b not able to say from his personal experience, bat he quotes reliable authority for the assertion that in the poorest Bolls the wood lathyrns has yielded from 4 to 5 tons of hay to the acre. The straw la described as richer In nutritions properties than any other, ex cept perhaps lentil straw, and Dr. Schombnrgk says the plant will be "a valuable boon to agriculturists if It should become properly acclimatised In this colony." Another fodder plant which he recommends to the attention of Btockowners Is the tagosaste, to which In previous reports reference has been made. This Is a ahrnb which attains a growth of from 13 feet to 14 feet, the branches of which are " clipped several times during the summer months, the clippings being eaten with great avidity by cattle and cheep." Daring the flowering season the tegosaste famishes a great attraction for beer. Dr. Schombnrgk enumerates other | graces with which experiments have been made -the lentil which, like the wood Ittihyrus, will grow In pool soils and Is a most nutritions fodder ; the Louisiana grsse, Indigenous to South America, which Is said to make good hay, but of which no perfect trial has yet been made In tola colony; acd the bastard millet grass, a valuable plant which stands both wet and dry seasons. Lastly, the cockspur Is warmly recommended for sheep and cattle. "Itis of vigorous growth, does well in almost any soil, Is much relished by sheep, stands feeding down and cat ting down, and grows again with great rapidity." When to this Is added the statement that "It is one of the most prolific grasses, and possesses considerable nutritions properties, and Is valuable for fattening purposes," It can well be under* stood that It Is " one of the moat valuable of the grasses for permanent pasture that have been Introduced Into the colony." Although the Introduction and cultivation of economical plants that may be tuef ol to the colony la In a special degree the bnsl ceas of the Experimental Farm, Dr. Schombnrgk rightly defines aa one of the objects of the Botanic Garden the testing of useful foreign plants to ascertain their adaptability to profitable culture In this colony. It Is of great Importance that eoch experiments should be made, under different conditions aa regards and boU, In which respects the Experi mental Farm and the Botanic Garden differ materially. Other economical plants experimented with Include the Chinese artichoke, In troduced during the past two years Into Europe, and described aa an exceedingly palatable vegetable, having a flavor be* tween that of a succulent radish and that of a Jerusalem artichoke; the Mexican I vine which has a flavor like that of the muscatel, and is able to withstand the severest droughts ; the Dalra grape; and the Smyrna and Trojan figs, the former of which It Is feared cannot be brought to j perfection here, and the latter of which on the other hand produces fruit "of tha finest and most palatable kind that la known In this colony." Dr. Schombnrgk urges the cultivation of the 81b%1 plant, highly prized for ropemaklng, as certain to be a profitable speculation here as it Is In the Bermudas, the price of Its fibte In the English market being £52 a ton. In the number and variety of its trees, plants, and flowers, the Botanic Garden Is ever Improving. The flowers are wonderful in their loveliness and variety, and the display of chrysanthemums last year surpassed In Its beauty that of any previous year. The rose bads have been greatly Improved, and the flowers are pro bably as near perfection as can be attained anywhere. The new plants Introduced last year numbered 275 species, exclusive of florists' ilowen, Increasing the collec tion to 13,603 species. The Museum of Economic Botany has undergone exten sions, and presents a valuable collection of medical drugs, numbering 570 varieties, and of the products of many lands In their natural state or in the various stages of manufacture. In his closing remarks Dr. Schomburgk draws attention to the havoc committed by larrikins In the theft of flowers, the destruction of labels and other depredations, though this miscon duct has been lets conspicuous than in former yean.
Is the punishment of criminal offenders the English law allows to the judges a dis cretionary power which sometimes reaalta In startling eccentricities. The eatlmatlon In which the law la held suffers when In stances occur either of Inexplicable dis parity between punishments for the same offences when the sentences are pronounced on the oame day, or of some gross disproportion In- a particular case between the offence and the penalty. In the House of Lords on April 21 Loxd Henchell called attention to the difference of opinion prevalent among judges aa to the prin ciples that should regulate criminal sen tences and the consequent Inequality of the punishment Inflicted In cues of like I gravity. The result, he showed, was that crimes of the same degree of helnousne?S were, for Instance, punished sometimes by seven years' penal servitude and some times with only a few months' Imprison met.t. His object was to obtain an enquiry Into the subject by means of a Royal Commission. In his contention that something might and ought to be done to secure some approach to consistency and method In ! meting out punishment he was supported by all who subsequently spoke on the sub- j ject. It was only as to the machinery through which the reform might best be effected that there was any difference of opinion. The Government were not pre- ' pared to grant a Royal Commission or a Committee, but recognising that It was a cue for enquiry the Lord Chancellor undertook to bring the matter before his colleagues, and if possible devise some means for fixing the standard of penalty. Lord Herschell based hU argament on the Idea that the Inequality he complained of was attributable to a difference of opinion amoog the judges as to the effi cacy of long and short sentences. Some authorities hold that a persistence In crime aggravates guilt and ought to In volve an enhanced penalty, while others protest that no good results from piling up penalties on the heads of those on whom
previous chastisement has produced no Impression. On the one side severe sen tences are reprobated aa shocking to the moral sense of the community, and as needless, because light sentences are jast as effective as heavy onea. On' the other side short sentences are decried as useless regarded as deterrents, and equally so for purposes of reform, as they allow no time for prisoners to abandon old habits or to learn any useful ocenpa tlon. Lord Herschell himself pronounced no decisive opinion, bub mentioned that statistics told rather against short sen tences, citing an Instance of one woman who between 1884 and 1839 " underwent ] no lees than 11 short sentences, varying from a fortnight to ten months.'' The balance of opinion among the prisoners' aid societies, he showed, was decidedly adverse to brief terms of Im prisonment, the Howard Society thinking that for each successive offence a gradual j Increase of punishment should be awarded, and the Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society holding that a certain number of convictions should Involve a long sen- j tence —one of penal servitude. Regard- Ing habitual drunkenness. Lord Herschell contended that the course that should b3 adopted was plain enough. What should be done with offenders, and more particu larly women who have been convicted forty, elxty, or a hundred times, and who would probably repeat the offence In the future as often as they secured the oppor tunity, has been a painful problem to philanthropists. One woman In liondon, according to Lord Herschell, had been Imprisoned 400 times, and her husband bad paid her fine on 200 other occasions. Offenders of this stamp are clearly not deterred by short sentences, and Lord Herscbell saw no better course than to empower magistrates to commit them for lengthened periods to houses of detention, where they would be treated as dipso maniacs. It la In reference to habitual criminals ralher than drunkards that difference of opinion really exists. Some srlmlnalallke poets are born, not made. They Inherit the taint of criminal blood, grow np nnder the fostering care of relatives who have professed only crime during their whole lives, and are themselves pledged to crime from their infancy. Others are made criminals by accident, by the temptations of voluntary or Involuntary idleness, by the example or advice of wicked companions, by hunger and want, or by casual association with criminate. Jn respect to one class a mild punishment may be adequate for purposes of reform, bat the same cannot be said of the clsbb with whom criminal courses have become habitual. The sentence moat be adapted to the circumstances of the case, and It would therefore be Impolitic to re place the latitude left to the judges by a cut and dried system of fixed and in variable penalties. But It might be practi cable to reduce to some sort of system the principles that should determine the rela tive awards In the cases of offenders of the two classes. The elements to be taken Into account admit at least of enumeration, and an effort might be made with some prospect of success to fix the value of each as a factor. The age, sex, the social position, the tempta tion In the particular case of guilt, have all to be taken Into account; and as the Lord Chancellor pointed out, what In appearance are miscarriages of justice are not In reality always so, a magistrate or judge being actuated by circumstances of which the outside public are necessarily unaware. Still there must be many cues In which substantial wrong la done, and Lord Herschell enumerated many Illustration* of judicial perversity which show the need of come abridgment of the discretion allowed to criminal courts In passing sentence. As to what ahonld be done Lord Herechell did not speak very con fidently. He was disposed, however, to favor the creation of a Court of Review before which all sentences would come. A revising tribunal, however, would necessarily entail some delay between the verdict of the jury and the enforcing of the punishment, and It would also tend, as one speaker argued, to lower the authority of the ordinary tribunals in the popular estimation. The extent to which it would do this, however, would be trivial compared with the degree of mis chief inflicted by excessive sentences. Lord Coleridge saw much evil In the policy of the Habitual Criminals Act, and all kindred legislation by which the fre quent repetition of a small offence was con verted into a great one, so that a judge had sometimes to sentence a man to a long term of penal servitude for some fault which, bat for pre vious conviction?, would have amounted perhaps to little more than petty larceny. He had known, he said, a woman to be sent to penal servitude for 15 years for stealing a eh'-rt, and though she had stolen shirts previously he did not think the sentence justifiable. So long as the offence continues trivial so long shoald the punishment continue slight—such was the theory of the Lcrd Chief Justice. That there is much force In this hardly aDyone wili deny, and It certainly Is desirable that the punishment for any offence should not affect the public mind with greater horror than the crime for which It Is the penalty—a counsel of wisdom disregarded when some paltry transgression Is punished with penal servitude for a long term.
The Msyor of Adelaide (Mr. L. Cuban, M.P.) bM announced bie intention of giving a banquet on Thursday, Jane 19, in honor of the tSrd anniversary ol her Majesty's aocesuoa. Invitations have been issued to 170 guests. With reference to the statements made atthe Marine Board meeting on Thursday, that " the aeoonnts ot the department had not been audited for several yean," and that "the Treasurer and the Civil Service Commission bad both been communicated with," the Treasurer states that no Rich representation has been made to him nor to the commission. The mail steamer Paramatta arrived at Albany from Colombo on Sunday at 5.30 p.m., > tid she sailed for Adelaide at midnight. The taloon passengers are:—For Melbourne— Messrs. Siddall(2), Virtue, Birdsdoff, Hender son, Mesdames Eeid, Lloyd, and Ewing. Misses Lloyd (2), Tngham, Sejby, and Hender son For Bydney—Mr, and Mrs. King, Dr. and Mrs. Maker, Messrs. Joseph, Maolawrin, Ford, Edgeford, Oonnell, Scott, Otan, Hud eon, Mitchell, Archer, Blair, Meedames Aliaon, Cruickbhank, Archer, Miss Cmiokshank, the Rev, Mr. Hnghes, the Rev. Mr. Soott, Messrs. Fogarty, Carroll, and Ooplish. For Qaeensland —Mr. and Mrs. Boorke, and Mr. Alpin. A sad accident with a fatal ending happened on the Glen Osmond-road on Sunday morning. Mr. William Finlayson, sen., of Mitcham, was driving to church in a waggonette containing his daughter, Mrs, Ambrose, several of her children, and her sister, Miss Finlayson. When about 200 yards from the Parkside Hotel, in the direction of Adelaide, the hat of one of the children blew off, and Miss Finlay- son called to her father to stop. Before he had done so, however, Mrs. Ambrose bent over to
try to catch the hat, and in doing so fell on the back of her head on to the road, She was con- veyed in an unconscious state to the Parkside Hotel, where she received all possible atten- tion from Mr. and Mrs. Wells. Mr. Murray, of Glen Osmond, who was also driving on the road, came up shortly afterwards, and his trap was sent for Dr. Law- rence, of Hutt-street, but as he was not at home Mr. Finlayson went for Dr. Coombe, of Young-street, Parkside, He arrived about half an hour after the accident, and upon reaching the hotel pronounced life to be ex tinct. An inquest was held by the city coroner (Dr. Whittell) during the afternoon of the same day, when Dr.Coombe stated that the fatal injury consisted of a fracture of the skull, and a verdict of accidental death was returned. Mrs. Ambrose, whose husband died several years ago, was 44 years old. She leaves five children and four brothers, namely, the Rev. R. K. Finlayson, Messrs. J. H. Finlayson (editor of the Register), W. Finlayson, and E. Finlayson. Bhe was a member of the Baptist Church at Mitcham, and on Sunday evening the pastor made sympathetic reference to her untimely death. On Saturday afternoon the Militia foroe i araded at the Barrack-square, North-terrace, for brigade drill, and to rehearse the move ments to be gone through at the review on Jane 20. There m a' fairly good all-round musterj and 846 officers, non commissioned officer?, and men were present. Headed by the Militia Band the brigade marched to the foot of Montefiore Hill, where the men ware drawn np in line, and received the Commandant, who rede on to the ground with Brigade Major Lovett, with a general salute; Toe troops contbud Jot the liaccerc, A Battery of Field Artillery, B and C Batteries of Gatruon Artillery, the Ist, 2nd. and 3rd Bat talions of the Infantry, and the Ambulauoe Corps. The Infantry and Garrison Artillery were enpplied with aix rounds of blank amain cilion per man. After the general aalate the line broke, the troopi Hi«-fhiwg pH t th a saluting point in column, returning in quarter column, and then going put in line of quarter column. The Field Artillery went by the flag at a trot and the Lancers at a gallop. The marchings put wen on the whole creditablyeie cuted, the companies going by very steadily One or two of the companies wavered a little, and in some instances there wm a disposition to crowd the centre. Afterwards the Infantry Brigade was formed in line facing west, and advanced in echelon of companies from the left. The Lancers trotted off to the western end of the field, and then prepared to attack the In fantry, The latter, with bayonets fixed, formed company t quarw, and Just as dark was setting in Major Bowell's squadron, aft a bud gallop, dashed at the glittering array of eted formed in equates, the Inlaatry Brigade being in echelon. Toe gallant Lancers, notwithstanding the fact that the rifles rained out a "deadly" fire, and Out they were attacking a formation that some of tha crack cavalry regiments of Oontinental Europe have found invulnerable on the battle-field, came on in good order and rode with great vigor. There was, however, so dash of arms, as before the troopers got dose enough to use their lances the bugles tang out the cease fire, and tlowly they reined in their panting steeds in obedience.to their commander's inattuotiotu, and the proceedings ended. The cavalry attask will prove highly interesting to those who attend the review. In the premier football matches on Saturday Korwood easily beat 3outh Adelaide by 6 goals 6 behinds to 1 goal 2 bebinds. On the Kensing ton Oral the Adelaide! put Medindie through after a closer contest, the record shoving 4 goals 6 bebinds for the winners, and 3 goals 6 befainds for the losers. The Forts went to Gawler and defeated the local men by 4 goal* 7 behinds to Gawler 1 goal 5 bebinds, The following players bare been chosen by the South Australian Football Association as a practice team to represent this eoleny against a combined twenty from Victoria in July:— Messrs. Bichards, K. MoKenzie, Monclr, Daly, Gardiner, Dixon, Holbrook, Mc&affin, Stephens, Fieher.Waldrcn, Hamilton, Ba trier, McKee, Tomlin, J. J. Woodr, O. Wools. Kempster, Phillips, Walkley, Jackson, A. Bushby, Grayson, Shaw, and Lssshen. The monthly board meeting of the Adelaide Children's Hospital wag held on Thursday. In the cnavoidable absence of the president (Ohiel Justice Waj) Dr. Curtis took the chair, while there were aleo present—ljady Morgan, Sle: dames A. Campbell, J. A. Johnson, L Sim mene, and F. Wright, Dr. Lendon, Mews, W. hbifcter, L. P. Lawrence, O, S. lieader, and H. Mildred. Ite hon. treasurer (Mr. H. Mildred) read the financial statement for May, showing receipts'£ll6 2s. 6d., expenditure £167 2s. Id. The home surgeon (Dr. Cookson) re ported—Admitted, IS ; discharged, 18; died, S. Causes of death—Diphtheria. 2; broneho pceumonia, 1. Average number 36 present I utunber, S3. The secretary (Mr. W. Howcuiu) reported £7S outpatient attendances at the dieFcntaty, including 125 new Gases, Toe rfcigtisticn of nuree Chambers was received, end it was resolved to advertise in this and the adjoining colonies for a head nurse. Pre liminaries were settled for granting a loan of £EOO from the endowment fond as a mort gage on the North Adelaide Institute, House accounts to the value of £84 ss. si, and general acccunts, £S8 6b. 3d, were exunined an! i paEted for payme&t. Mr. John Soobel, «.f Birkenhead, died very I scddenlr on Saturday evening. During the afternoon be visited some relatives at Port Adelaide, and made a few purchases. He then Etarted for home by train, and on arrival i at the Glanv'dle station attempted to leave the carriage, but on nearing the door he fell back into the amu of a couple of fellow passengers quite dead. The body was removed to the Fort Adelaide morgue, and the coroner was in formed of the circumstances. Instructions were given to Dr. C. Bollen to make a post-mortem, examination, acd an inquest will be held this rccroiog at 11 o'clock at the Fort Admiral Hotel. The deceased, who was an old Per tocian, was very popular with all classes of the community, and his unexpected end has caused much sorrow. Although a shipwright by trade he had done much mining work, and ccce held a good position on the Barrier fields mices, and more recently was connected with gold mines at Barossa. Mr. Scobel was an energetic member of &s South Australian Yacht Club, and was quite at home when , b&cdliog the tiller of his little craft at race meetio?s or pleasure trips, He took great i&tetett in all the contests of the dab, and was a regular attendant at the monthly meetings. He leaves a wife and three children. Mr. Edward W. Scott, of £~? York, the vice-president of ♦be- Equitable Life Assuranoe Sccie'.j- of the United States, baa been staying in Adelaide for a few days to establish the business of the company in South Australia. Mr. Scott has visited several of the coloniaa doting his present tour, and be previously travelled through themabout six years ago, A representative of this paper bad an interview with him on various matters which mutually affect the United States and Australia, an* the result appears in another colnmn, Mr. Scott leaves by the express for Melbourne to day. On Sunday evening at about 6 o'clock a man, unknown, attempted to stab Frank Malone, the boots of the Sir John Barleycorn Hotel. Bundle-street, while he was endeavoring to prevent him from entering .the hotel. Malone had been instructed by the landlord to look after the door, and while at bis post twj strangers put in an appearance, Malone opened the door after they had knocked, bat told them they could .not be served with drink. Thereupon the one standing nearest to him (whom he describes as being about 6 feet 8 inches in height, and proportionately made) caught him by the arm and endeavored to force an entrance. Malone, who is only about 20 yean of age, grappled with him, and again told him that be could not let him enter. but theintmder repeated bis intention of getting in. After struggling for several secondsthe man drew a sheath-knife from the back of bis right hip and struck a blow at Malone'e chest. Ha warded it off with, bis left hand, tent reoeived the fall force of the thrust in the thumb, which bears a terrible gash on the fleshy part. The men then decamped down the street, and as it was dark soon disappeared. Malone atatas that both the teen were strangers to him, bat he could easily identify the man who cam
mitted the assault. He aUtet that the user of the knif chad a sunburnt complexion, with light moustache and tide whiskers, and appeared to be a seafaring man. He has given information to the police, and a warrant will be issued for the arrest of both assailants. The Oampetdown correspondent ol the Melbourne Argut telegraphed on Wednesday that a fatal accident occurred the previom <Jay to Me. Tailor, a well known and ■each • respebted farmer on the Mount Lenra estate. Ue was engaged in carting stones on his farm, and it ii supposed that he fell under the wheel of the dray as it seems to have pawed over hi* head. When picked np it was eeen that his head was very muoh cinched, and he died to day. Taylor was a comparatively youD? man and had been married only about a fortnight. A singular feature of the «ad affair is that for the p?st lew days Tailor bad had a presentiment that some thing serious m going to happen to him. He was co impressed that he wrote concerning it to eoroe friend?, and also mentioned the matter to ctveral people. In the Mcd indie Congregational lecture- I-all tonipht the Key. 3. Lenton will lecture on the *' Evolution of Labor." Copies of the petition which it is intended to aak his Excellency to forward to her Majesty the Queen praying for the pardon of the Dgeria mutineers now on their way to England can be obtained from Mr. Ghas, Beer, 2L5, Bundle ctreet. On Sunday thi? gentleman obtained US signatures within an hour at a meeting in the Botanic Gardens. "Macanlay: Historian, Poet, Statesman," oca of the Key. Charles Clark's most attraotive lecture entertainment!, will be given by him in the Town Hall to-night. Special attention is directed, and with reason, to the recitals which form such splendid features in this lecture on the great historian and poet. They will include "Horatius at too Bridge," the Armada, the account of the trial of Warren Halting!, and the famous description of the tiege and relief of Deny. To morrow evening Mr. Clark will appear at Gawler.