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Colonial Times.



The extreme depression of trade under

which this Colony was for some time past been suffering has been such as to excite the most intense interest amongst the mercantile portion of the community. A considerable check has been given to speculation, owing to the disappointments which those who have exported wool, mimosa bark, &c. have expe- rienced ; but, notwithstanding this, it does not appear to be quite annihilated. In our last, our Readers have no doubt perceived an adver- tisement, calling a Meeting of the Merchants, Traders, and Settlers, at the Ship Inn, for purpose of considering the expediency of exporting a cargo of Tasmanian wheat on

the ship Sir Charles Forbes, now lying in the Harbour. This idea was first suggested, in consequence of the master of that vessel having offered to take a cargo of Colonial produce to Rio de Janeiro, and to return laden with the produce of that country, for the sum of £2500 sterling. This very low offer, added to the great abundance of last year's wheat now on hand, gave rise to the project of the Merchants and Traders club- bing together, in order to export to Rio the surplus of grain now in their stores and stacks. The vessel would carry about 20,000 bush- els, which, according to the most accurate ac- counts from the different districts, can be well spared, without endangering any scarcity in our grain market. With this view, the Meeting was convened on Wednesday last ; A. F. KEMP, Esq. in the Chair. It was attend-   ed by several of the Merchants and other re- spectable Inhabitants. Mr. Kemp, on open- ing the Meeting, expatiated largely on the present stagnation of our, Colonial trade ; which, he observed, might in a very great degree be attributed to the want of a spirit of speculation in our Merchants and Settlers ; and added, in our opinion very justly, that, if we continue in the same spirit of inertion, we must always be as depressed in our inter- nal commerce as we are at present. In illus- tration of which, we may point out America and various other places, which have arisen from similar origins to that of this country.- There, in the first instance, when they found   that they grew more wheat than was sufficient for their own consumption, the Merchants and Traders united with one accord, to freight a vessel, in order to its exportation. From   such a beginning, she (America) has rose to   the high pitch of prosperity which she now enjoys. Why, then, is it not reasonable to expect that Tasmania, which is unquestion- ably one of the finest corn countries in the world, should not also rise from a similar be- ginning?-We boast, and not without reason, that our wheat is amongst,the finest in the world ; that our soil and climate are so ad- mirably adapted for its growth, that in no instance an entire failure of the crop has been ever yet experienced ; that the crops here are more abundant than is usual in other countries; and, consequently, that we must grow, infinately more than we can ever con- sume, either among ourselves or by occasi- onal supplies afforded to the sister Colony, which has been the case almost every season for several years past. Yet, notwithstanding all this, we, on this side of the Island, are to grow wheat and boast about it-let it stand in our stores and stacks-grumble about the depression of trade-but take very little pains to remove it ; which the Meeting pret-  

ty well evinced.-After much discussion, al- though all unanimously agreed, indeed every man of common sense must see it, that the exportation of our superabundant wheat was "a consummation devoutly to be wished," for

fifty reasons too obvious to particularize, it was found that only a few individuals entered fully into the spirit of this laudable under- taking ; for the idea of which we are in- debted to Mr. Bethune and Mr. Kemp. But there is one thing to be considered, in speak- ing on this subject, which is, the very short notice that was given of the Meeting ; and we might add its being called when all the Agriculturists are busily employed in getting in, or preparing for their new Harvest. This must have kept away many of those indivi- duals who were most likely to have entered unanimously into the speculation.-There- fore, notwithstanding that nothing of con- sequence has been done at this Meeting, as really might be expected, from there not being a sufficiency of wheat in town, and the short- ness of the notice preventing the country proprietors from attending it, we do not despair of seeing the commendable project of uniting to export our surplus wheat yet carried into effect. Nothing can be more certain, than that there is an immense surplus of grain now in the Colony (indeed numerous

Gentlemen at the Meeting testified this from their own individual knowledge), unless it

be the utter impossibility of finding a market for that surplus, without having recourse to exportation. There is now nearly nine months' supply of wheat in the King's Stores; therefore the Settler cannot expect to find any market there, for at least these six months. The Harvest has just commenced the Settlers must have ready-money-there- fore as they cannot afford to keep their wheat themselves, what is to be done with it ? If it is not exported, those persons who are not so immediately in want of ready cash, will take advantage of the necessities of those who are-buy up their wheat at a very low price, which must be accepted, and keep it hoarded up, until the market is in some mea- sure relieved, and the price advanced; when they will bring it forward, and poc- ket the profit, which properly belongs to nu- merous individuals. A more wide field for

monopoly could not possibly be opened ; and this alone, we are sure, will be sufficient to induce persons, upon more mature reflection, to follow the example set us by some of our Launceston wealthy and independent Settlers and Traders, to send it out of the country. We would therefore strongly recommend that the promoters and friends of the late Meet- ing should not let it drop here ; but to men- tion some more distant period, when the bus- tle of the Harvest is over, for another and more general Meeting. To effect this, we would lrcommend that an advertisement, fully explaining the views of the projectors, should have all possible publicity in both the Colonial Newspapers,and by every other means ; which, for our own parts, we would be most readily to do gratis, in order that every Settler in the Island, who ever reads a Newspaper, or hears of its contents, may be made acquainted with a subject which so very materially affects them all, and the commu- nity generally ;-and that subscription papers should previously to the Meeting be kept open at the principal places of public re- sort throughout the Island, for the purpose of receiving the names of those persons who might from the advertisement be willing to contribute, if ever so little, to the specula- tion ; and who would not have an opportu- nity of attending the Meeting, in consequence of their residin so far from town. By these means an immense quantity of grain might not only now, but annually be procured. From accounts derived from Captain Dixon, of the Skelton, of the corn market at Rio de Janeiro, it appears, that our wheat is there ad- mired above all other for its quality, and will, if well screened and properly dressed, fetch generally three Spanish dollars per bushel. A rough estimate of the profits which must be gained by sending our wheat to that port   is easily made, viz.-

20,000 bushels of wheat, at 5s.

per bushel, will cost .,..,. £5000 0 0

Freight of vessel, to and from

Rio. 2500 0 0

Salary to Supercargo for the voy-

age, 10 per cent. upon the cargo.. 500 0 Q

Expenses in foreign port, and

other incidental expenses (say 20   per cent.) on prime cost of cargo,

£5000. 1000 0 0

Total expense,...£9000 0 0

Proceeds of cargo, at three Spa-

nish dollars per bushel, is.13,000 0 0

Deduct expenses. 9000 0 0 Nett profit on export cargo ,.£4000 0 0

We do not pretend to be the best judges of such a calculation, but as far as we can see, the above is correct. But even admit- ting that the export cargo only paid the expenses, the immense profit which would arise from the return cargo (under judi- cious management), would fully compensate for the other, and obtain a fair remuneration to the shippers ; and not only so, but we should thereby keep much money in the Co- lony which is now sent out of it merely on account of the want of speculation evinced by the Colonists at this side of the Island ; for we Certainly must highly commend the spirited efforts which are being continually made by several persons at Launceston. This must ultimately come to pass ; and we think that what we have said, must render it so clear to every person, that it is an ab- solute necessity, that we shall have the unanimous vote of every true-hearted good Colonist given in favour of the exportation

of wheat.

There is nothing which gives us more plea- sure and real satisfaction, than to find our la- bours useful, and our suggestions followed. This is no more than natural, for most per- sons are pleased when they gain their ardent wish-so are we; and we have no wish so near   our heart, as the benefit and improvement of our adopted land, and the comfort and hap- piness of our fellow Colonists. Therefore, any thing towards this end which is obtain- ed, and which we can attribute to our la- bours, is doubly gratifying.

We have frequently taken up and dwelt upon the subject of the want of classification in our places of Confinement, more especially in the Female Factory, which we have dragged forward to the view of the Public and the Government, time after time, until our voice has reached England, and the ears of the Home Government. The prisoners, per the Sir Charles Forbes, who have not been as-

signed to private service, have not been put into the Factory among the other women, but have had a separate place allotted to them till such time as they are assigned, in pur- suance, as we should suppose, of an order from Earl BATHURST, to that effect. This is certainly one step towards the classification which we so earnestly desired to see ; and, if properly followed up on the part of the Local Administration, will be one of very considerable importance. It is a circum- stance, perhaps unprecedented, that two ships, both with female prisoners, should be lying in this harbour at the same time, al- though those per the ship Grenada are des-

tined for Sydney ; but how much more extra- ordinary it is to hear that no less than THREE   MORE ships, all with females, are now on their way out to these Colonies. This proves ano- ther point, that our Paper (and the Austra- lian, which has also advocated the same prin- ciples), does most certainly get into the hands of some great people at home, who can see that what we say is right, and there- fore they act accordingly. We (and not only we) have many-many times deplored, that more women were not sent here, and at the same time have given reasons strong for our argument; and it really appears, that even the British Government is compelled to use the information contained in our Papers, for want of the proper accounts being given in any official publication. A greater supply of female prisoners than was ever before known, is about to be sent out for our benefit, and it now rests in a great degree with the Lo- cal Government to make the supply turn out to our benefit, or to our prejudice, by the way in which they are managed. If they are classified, and not suffered to get corrupted by intercourse with the bad and depraved wo- men who are generally among the inmates of the Factory, they will be a good to the Colo- ny ; but, if, on the contrary, they are indiscri- minately mixed, they will prove as great an evil. We must again recommend what we have frequently before recommended, name- ly a Committee of Ladies being formed, who would occasionally visit the female prisoners,

in order to see and judge of their respective merits, and be accordingly enabled to recom- mend them to service, or for the indulgence of marriage. With regard to the discipline of women, we acknowledge, there is consi- derable difficulty, but we think that it might not be altogether amiss, if the following sug- gestions were improved upon, namely, after the women first come on shore, that it should be intimated to them, that their future pros- pects depend on their present conduct-that they will be expected to perform, at least, one year's service, without just complaint being made against them, before they will be allowed to marry; in order, in the first place to shew them that they are under the lash of the law, and that mercy and indul- gence have been shewn them in the outset, which will make them respect the ordi- nance which they otherwise would dread or despise ; and, in the next place, to fit them for a domestic life. If they behave well during the above period, we think that no check should be given to their marrying, as that would tend greatly to settle both the men and themselves, especially as those fa- milies who would be deprived of their ser- vices thereby, will, in all probability, have an opportunity in future of replacing them from the increasing number of female prison- ers which are almost certain to be hereafter sent out. It is well known, that Sir Tho- mas Brisbane was a most strenuous sup- porter of marriage among the prisoner po- pulation, and held it to be the best policy imaginable, that it should be encouraged.- We mention this, in order to strengthen our own argument, considering that the opinion of a man, so experienced as Sir Thomas, must have considerable weight. There now re- mains one thing more for us to notice con- nected with this subject, which we cannot touch upon without very considerable pain. It is, the number of orphans and destitute children which there is in the Colony.- Surely, our young Tasmanians are worth che- rishing in their early days, when in helpless infancy they are bereaved of their parents. The number of poor destitute orphans is really deplorable, we may add unexampled ; and the ship Sir Charles Forbes, has added thereto, by the children (one an infant) of those women who died on the passage. These poor little innocents who lost their mothers soon after the birth of some of them, and

whose fathers are either dead or cannot be

found, are thrown on a strange land, with- out a friend and without an asylum to re- ceive them, except the Colonial Hospital.- An Orphan School, then, is a most desirable thing-it ought certainly to be established,

and reap the benefit of the Auction Duties, in a similar way to that which has for some years been proceeded in at Sydney.- We had hoped, from what had been said, that that most useless, of all worse than useless establishments, the Ross Government Farm, was to be given up in favour-and its proceeds to go to the benefit of the Orphan

School-that the miserable bandicoot cattle which compose the Government herd at that place, were to be slaughtered and sold also for its support, and that a loan was to be ne- gotiated for, in order forthwith to complete the necessary works of this laudable under- taking. But all those hopes have proved   fallacious, and have fled as the fleeting ray before the deepening gloom of night

" And like the baseless fabric of a vision,

" Leave not a wreck behind."  

Oh! fie upon those hard hearts which can bear to witness, and to hear the miserable cries of the numorous orphans, and not en- deavour to provide them with an asylum, in the shape of an Orphan School. One most cruel and heart-rending case is, that of a fa- mily, named Davis. Sometime since, we be- lieve in September last, the father was ac- cused, tried, and convicted of sheep-stealing, and accordingly executed. His wife, the mother of four young children, was put in the Factory, where she lingered till last week, when death released her from her earthly troubles, and her spirit fled from its mortal tenement of clay, while one of her babes was still sucking at her breast ! ! Thus, FOUR IN- FANTS are bereaved of their father and mo- ther, in a country where they have no friend, unless it be the Government and the Public to provide for, and take care of them. What more than this, in addition to the case of the poor infants, per the Sir Charles Forbes, is requisite to show, how much an Orphan Asy- lum,or School is required, and to stimulate His Excellency to establish one. Let the Local Government, instead of building Go- vernment and Parsonage Houses, and instead of establishing Government Farms, and form-

ing other such nonsensical, ridiculous, use- less-nay, injurious establishments-let them forthwith build and establish an Orphan School, for the protection, instruction, and support of poor destitute and helpless Orphans. - We now leave the subject for the present, strenuously recommending that some of the Ladies should form themselves into a Com- mittee, for the purpose of inspecting into the cases of the female prisoners and orphans-as we are convinced, that neither Lieutenant Governor Arthur, nor the Rev. W. Bedford would throw any obstacle in their way, if they were to tender their services on this very im-   portant and interesting occasion ; and we call upon the Local Government, in the name of humanity, to abandon the useless and inju- rious projects now in progress, and to erect, rent, our purchase a building for an Orphan School. This is of so much importance, that if ever His Excellency Lieutenant Gover- nor Arthur is the promoter of it, he will not

only gain the present commendations and   good wishes of every feeling heart, but he will ensure to himself the blessings of thou- sands in ages yet to come.

We had neither time nor room last week to enter so fully as we should have done into the spirit of discussion with the Editor of the Government Gazette, on the subject of the general depression of trade, and its primary causes. We therefore again take up the sub- ject, in order to convince, if we can, not only our Brother Editor, but the Public, of his mistake. He stated in the retrospect of the year 1826, that the Colony is in a state of insolvency, arising from too great an indul- gence in imported luxuries, or words to that effect, and that it is to this cause our present depression is in a great degree owing. And moreover, he states, that some people (meaning of course the Colonial Times) have attributed the stagnation of trade to the change in the currency. We have in some degree done so, and we do so still, for this reason. - During the paper -currency, there was an abundant sufficiency of a circulating me- dium within the Colony, whereby, there was a great facility of payment, and being a facility of payment, there was not such a tenacity of speculation. Every respecta- ble man in business had the deficiency of his capital compensated by the efficiency of his credit. The former might then be em- ployed in such speculations as required hard specie, while, the latter was just so much as was necessary for the transaction of internal business. The consequence was, that specu- lations were not only more frequent, but more lucrative than now. By the system of issuing private small notes, every man so doing, was in reality a petty banker, and de- rived great advantage from the circulation of his notes, in the same manner that the Ban- kers do from their establishments, and still while he thus amassed property (for money it could not be called), no person was injured by it, so long as he took up his notes when presented for payment. But this is merely a personal advantage, which he himself de- rived, and has no connection whatever with the loss or gain- advantage or disadvantage sustained by the Public. We will, therefore, considers first,-what was the operation, and in what respect the Public felt the operation of a paper currency ;-and secondly, what proofs are to be adduced by the effects of such operation, whether we may attribute the dulness of trade to that cause or not.

First, we consider that the operation of a paper currency was wide and extensive-it operated as a circulating medium for inter- nal resources, like money-it was sufficient to procure its holder all the necessaries of life,

and it mattered not therefore to him whe- ther he tendered a silver dollar, or a dollar note, in exchange or payment for those neces- saries. It operated to support the public credit-for originating in credit, and being carried on thereby, the one was necessary for the support or the other, and in as great a degree as credit upheld the paper curren- cy, so did the paper currency maintain the public and general credit. We have before shewn, that it operated also as a source of

wealth to the issuers. We will now see how these operations affected the Public. First, as a circulating medium. Nothing will tend more to depress trade, than the want of a sufficiency of a circulating medium, and current tender in exchange or payment for property. Bar- ter (that is property for property) is very well, when there is an adequacy of both arti- cles, and no more than what is necessary of either for the consumption of both parties ; but when there is any great excess of one commo- dity more than another, so great will be the excess of difference required in exchanging one species of property for another. Thus,   barter cannot be well adapted for the inter- nal trade of any country like this, where one article (wheat) forms the whole and sole de- pendence of many of the people. So great is the competition in the grain market, that it reduces its value below the necessities of the grower, who therefore cannot afford to pay grain for other articles, because so much of the one is demanded in exchange for the other. To obviate this difficulty, a circula- tion or currency is required ; the best is un- doubtedly a metallic one, which, by having one continual set value, will always command a more fair traffic than could otherwise be ob- tained. If there is a scarcity ofthis medium, that is to say, an inadequate proportion, com- pared with the extent of articles of trade, the consequence must be, that trade will droop, and to prevent this, there is required some other medium-nothing presents itself so soon as individual credit.- " I cannot pay you now- you must trust me ;" but a something more than words is required by the seller-a some- thing which he can make use of in the same way-he has no doubt of the credit of the buyer, but the buyer's word will not pass with others. He therefore requires it to be reduced to writing, either in the form of an order, or promise to pay. This may be called the origin of a paper currency, for it is easy to, take a wide extended view of transactions, of which we have given but one specimen,

«ml send the eye over the whole community.

The effects therefore appear to be public

1 __._"" ne u /Mr/Milatintr medium, and ns

, îefnmenÏGazette affirm, that it is « to faci-

lity of payment we must attribute the tempo- rary prosperity of the Colony," and yet deny, ?hat to " iAe c/iang?" the depression or ad 'lersittf is attributable. This is certainly ra- tiocination of a most singular and incompre- hensible nature, far too deep for humble eye <Ío scan it is not Its alone who attribute > stagnation of trade to the abolition of the

tjacier currency, but we see that at the Cape of Good Hope-in Scotland-every where that any change has taken place in the currency, to the abolition of paper mo- ney the Public writers are all, one and all JeVi that the change is the cause of the de nression now experienced in trade, which was never felt until that change took place. We now dismiss the subject, we hope for ever, with our best wishes, that sterling payments may now be supported by the issue of Com- missariat small notes, for we are firmly of opinion, that the heaviness of trade arises gFPatly from the want of a sufficiency of cir-

culating medium.

There are two very essential requisites for the prosperity of a young and rising Colony. The one is labour, and the other population. Labour has been defined to be wealth in a new country; and experience teaches us   that it is so. Every day as it passes, and every hour as it flies, proves the truth of the axiom; for we find, that the want of profita-   ble labour in Van Diemen's Land, is as se- verely felt as want of wealth. Indeed, one is produced by the other; and, in our opin-   ion, there would have been far greater im- provements made in the Colony, had there not been always a dearth and scarcity of la- bouring hands. The Settler, who had capital, could not, neither can he now employ it to advantage in improvements, because there are not operatives sufficient to carry his works into effect. We have frequently alluded to this subject before, and have recommended that the poor agricultural class of England should be encouraged to emigrate hither. A person of no mean abilities, has accused us of trying to establish the free emigration of the labouring poor, in preference to the importation of prisoners of the Crown.- We have therefore considered it incumbent on us to explain this publicly. We have advocated-still do-and ever shall advocate the free emigration of the labouring poor (agriculturists and farming men), for we con-

sider it to be of great importance, that the price of farming labour should be brought down to its proper level; nothing can do this   so well as competition, and, unless there are a number of competitors, the effects of the competition will be but little. Therefore, to excite this feeling of competition the more strongly, we advocate the FREE emigration of the poor, because it is among those who are free, that the grievance lays; for the prisoner,   while he remains without some indulgence, is unable to compete: he is bound down at the will, and to the pleasure of the Local Go- vernment. Thus nothing can occasion a com- petition among the free men, but an acces- sion to their number, and in our opinion, nothing will cause such an accession, to any extent which will be in the least degree use- ful, but a number of agriculturists (and we may also add, useful mechanics) coming free to the Colony,-because the number of pri- soners who hold tickets of leave, or who be- come free by servitude, is so very limited, in comparison for the demand for them. Such are our reasons for raising our voice in favour of the "free emigration of the poor;"-but   we do not say, in preference to the importa- tion of prisoners, although some have consi- dered that to be our doctrine. We are Co-

lonists of too long standing, to be led away with such an airy theory. We have seen too many of the benefits which the Colony has derived from prisoner population, to wish to see our ports ever shut against them. It is the influx of that class of people which has been, and is still the principle support of the Colony;-it is the Commissariat supplies,   for the victualling of prisoners, &c. which forms the grand depot of our Colonial meat, and much of our grain. A great portion of the articles of our commerce is consumed by them, and many of our best and most stri- king improvements have been made by them and their descendants. It is them jointly who form the greater portion of our community, and who possess, at least, one-half of the available capital now in the Colonies. Therefore, we should hardly think of decrying the system of sending prisoners to this Colony, in favour of free poor. Our idea is, that as the supply of prisoners from home, is not at all equal to the wants of the Colony, if it is wished that it should thrive, the deficiency should, so much as was possible, be made up by free labourers coming out; and in the very arti- cle (the mis-construction put upon which, has called forth this explanation), we say, speaking of the farmer-"It is not a free man which he wants, if that free man knows no more about agriculture than a prisoner. He wants a useful man; and it matters not, whe-   ther he be free or bond, so that he is useful."- We now declare, for the information of those who did not before understand the article from which the above is quoted, that we con- sider the influx of prisoners, to be one of the main supporters of the Colony; and we re-   commend, that as the arrival of them is now very inadequate to the demand, the great- er part of those men who are kept Jat the hulks (and who are ten times more corrupted, than improved by their confinement) should be sent out to supply the deficiency. If after this, there is still a deficiency, let it be supplied by free emigration of the labouring poor; for labour is of such vital importance,   that nothing should be omitted, which will tend to concentrate it into one focus on this


With regard to population, we must, by way of preliminary observe, that in as great

a degree as labour is necessary for the pre- sent improvement of the Colony, population is necessary for her future prosperity. It should never be lost sight of in colonization, that one great principle should be observed;   namely, to cease to be a burthen on the Mo- ther Country so soon as possible. So long as a Colony is dependent on the tide of emigra- tion, she will be burthensome to the coun- try from whom she sprung, and nothing will sooner render her independent of emigration, than the rapid increase of her own population, which it is the best policy to encourage. But we maintain, that all expenses attendant on the prisoner population, immediately con- nected with their discipline, and all salaries of Government Officers thereby occasioned, always should, as it is intended by the British Government, be defrayed by that Go- vernment; and that the Colonists should not be taxed with one farthing towards the sup- port of the penal establishment. And, for this reason, we would wish to see many per- sons, now receiving salaries and pensions, paid from the Parliamentary Establish- ment, instead of the Colonial Revenue. To return, we may say, that one of the grand duties of a Colonist may be very aptly express- ed by a scriptural quotation- "Increase and   multiply."-Of such vital consequence was this considered among the ancients, that we read, for a man to be unmarried, was a disgrace, and nothing a greater honour than a   large family. The woman, who had borne many children, was termed the friend to the   State-while she who was without, was look- ed upon with the utmost scorn and contempt. Socrates, one of the most eminent Philoso- phers, devoted no small portion of his genius and attention to induce the youths to marry ; and even laid it down as a duty they owed the State. If, then, that it is a duty incum- bent on every good Colonist to marry, and if the Romans, when in their glory, considered it to be so among them, we would ask, what is the reason that Van Diemen's Land, as a Colony and as a State, should not come under the same rule? Why is it good policy to put   a check on the inclinations of young people and to prevent their marrying in this part of the world? And why, we again ask, is not matrimony more encouraged among the prisoner population than it is? And what is the reason that so many women are confined in the Factory, when it is ac- knowledged, that population is one very great desideratum in any Colony ? It is cer- tainly very much to be lamented, that more women have not been sent out by the British Government, in proportion to the number of men; and no less so, that more encourage-   ment to marriage has not been given among those who have been sent. Perhaps, it will be said, that more female prisoners would be allowed to marry, if suitable husbands could be found-men who could and would support them.-One man applies for permission to mar- ry-"No, you are a drunkard, a second-   "You have had a dozen lashes for being   out after hours; a third.-"You have been     in the Penitentiary. Therefore, a man, be-

cause he has in some measure, for want of having a comfortable home (and we are well aware that this is the case with many), been led into company and intoxication, happened to be out once or twice, in perhaps, four or five years after 8 o'clock; or has had the mis-   fortune to be put in the Penitentiary, is not allowed to marry, and the women are doom- ed to remain single during the prime of life, because it is thought by a certain indivi- dual, that a suitable match cannot be pro- cured. Such a measure betrays a complete   ignorance of the method of colonization, and is about the worst policy in the world. By way of proof we will consider-First, when a man is married, he feels himself bound to provide for his wife and family, if he has any feeling at all; to do this, he knows that he must be industrious- that he must be saving-and economical;   to be industrious, he must be active, and to be saving, sober; and when he is   sober, he reflects on how much more happy he is with a good wife, than in a public house or elsewhere; and such a reflection   must tend to moralize his conduct; the more   especially, as eight out of every ten men, who now are what are called drunkards, are merely so, because they have no partner to   provide for, or console with, while, at the same time, they may dislike the practice of getting drunk. Denying a man marriage, is refusing him the liberty to reform his conduct. Secondly, on a man who has his wife awaiting him, and a comfortable little home to go to after he has done his daily labour, the arts of the prostitute are in a great measure thrown away, and he turns with disgust from the very creature on and with whom before his marriage, he had, perhaps, squandered pounds. Refusing him marriage, is refusing

him this stage of reformation.--Thirdly, a married man will be continually industrious, when he knows he has a family depending on him for support;- while, perhaps, if he was single, he would only care to provide for the bare necessities of the moment. Refuse him a wife, and he is left in the same indolent carelessness, from which, allowing him to marry, would have snatched him. Many other things might be said, to prove that mar- riage contributes to morality; but we must not enter more at length upon the subject. However, there is one thing in the present system of Government, towards the prisoners which appears hard, if not cruel; that is, a man transported for life, has been married in England, and his wife either will not, or can- not come to him in this Colony, is prevented from marrying, and is condemned to lead the remainder of his life in a state of celibacy. This is, we are aware, a very delicate point to act, or give advice upon; but we may ten-       der our opinion, that, although it may seem to approach to bigamy, as that is more a mo- ral, than a spiritual crime, policy may, in some instances, authorize a man to be re-mar- ried here, who has a wife in England; pro- vided he is under sentence of transportation for life, and can produce certificates that she either never can, nor never will come out to him. We advance this with much caution,

and not from any impure or licentious mo- tives; but merely, to shew that in such a case, as we have mentioned, as increase of population is a thing to be desired, such a thing might be permitted. We offer these remarks for the consideration, of those in Authority; who, we trust, will see the im- policy of the present marriage system.

We were, the other day, asked by a friend the following question "i^^ What do. you think is the Lieutenant Governor's opinion of the Colonial Tintes, when, he reflects upon it, and its coutents ? Athough, perhaps, it may in some measure be unpleasant to him, by exposing certain abuses, yet His Excellency cannot in his heart condemn its principles, What think yon ?" At-iirst, we were rather puzzled for a reply to this ; but, on thinking

it over once or twice, we were drawn to the conclusion, that the Lieutenant Governor hasthebest of opinions of us ; fpr ne ob- serve, that in a fev/ instances, he has recent- ly adopted (soqner or later) w hat we have re- commended. Within the last three months, several things have taken place, which clear- ly proves this. 1» the first place, our Coi respondents, through our Paper, very broad- ly discussed the subject of the rations allow- ed to prisoners. An order was issued for the amelioration of their condition, and a guide to the Settlers. We raised om voice against I Loreto, as a useless and extravagant under \ taking. Loreto wa,s abandoned, although

several thousand pounds.have already been expended. We-spoke of elie propriety of an order, relative to Harvest Labour. |t has this week accordingly come forth. We give it io our front page, and beg trip attention of our Readers will be directed toit. . We have frequently, within the last two years, repro- bated the system of indiscriminately com- pelling all classes of the Colonists, to attend the General Muster, to the great inconve- nience, expen'ce', and fatigue of the patties, especially in wet weather. An order, re- quiring an*annual Report (instead, no doubt) is accordingly issued this week also. It will be found with the other in our front page, and is equally noithy of attention and pe- rusal, i Numerous other things might be stated, to ptove how much the Lieutenant Governor adheres to our suggestions and re- commendations ; but it would, be useless to point ,out further subjects in illustration .thereof. We will rest satisfied with what has been already said, merely adding that, in our opinion, His Excellency looks upqu us like'a wounded man does on a doctor. Ile knows the latter makes the former smart ; but he is convinced it is the benefit of the Government as well as the people which we have in- view. Therefore, he individually is sometimes much obliged to us, and is thankful for the blessings of a Free Press, which must save him frequently the trouble of searching after abuses, in the different Public Departments. No, says ho, 1 may rest quietly.-The Colonial Times will find out What goes wrong among my Oilicers, and ex

p"osc*it quite soon enough'; therefore, I will' .not trouble myself aboufsüch public mat-|

tors, while I" havp such ah »indefatigable' friend as the Colonial Times'. But, it is the fawning'persons who hedge him in, that bring us into official disrepute with the Au- thorities, and their conduct Ihe Governor into disrepute with the people. It is this formida- ble phalanx, which only wants to be pénétrai ted, in order that Lieutenant GovernorfiVrthur may mix with His Majesty's subjects whom he governs. It is manifest from the effect which our comments have when we succeed in dis

placing one of these dependants, and there- by have an opportunity of whispering a word in his private ear. Was he not so secluded from the people, weare convinced, Lieutenant Governor, Arthur would be more popular among all classes of the Colonists, ¡who are ever ready to shew their loyalty and attach- ment to their Ruler. However high political feelings may exist in those of talent and abi iity»' ypt we are assured such persqns are, one and>all,'always willing to unite with the Government, in affording it that information so highly necessary to be obtained from the people; and which, in fact, cannot possibly even <be got at with accuracy without a free access exists between the Governor and all classes of the Coloniots. Independent of this, it is the duty of any Governor to visit occa- sionally the different parts of the country, in order to come at the sentiments of the agri- culturists and stock-owners.

We last week gave some most elficient in- structions for cheating a people who had their eyes open, and the most effectual way for a Governor to render himself an object of pub- lic odium. We now change the subject, and lay before our Readers same of the particu- lars respecting the meeting of the Deputies of the Court ot Russia, convened by order of the -Empress Elizabeth, for the purpose of framing a new Code of Laws for the Russian 'Empire, which took place on the 13th July,

1767-O. S. After they were assembled, purusant to 'the Imperial Mandate in the i Convent of Chudore, the Empress addressed

them, and in a very eloquent speech, dwelt 'minutely and. forcibly on the .great impqr-f Itanre of the task they had to fulfil, to fortn >a Code of Laws, and gave her instructions at considerable length, which it would be im ! possible to detail in the columns of a News- paper, but the spirit of them was as follows :-.

1.-No acts come within the reach of the ¡penal law, but those which are injurious, either to the public at large, or some indivi- duals.

2.-Punishment, for which tbere is no ne cetsily, is tyranny. Justice, but not power^ is

the intention of the law.

3-A Legislator ought to make mere pro- visions to,prevent the commission qf a crime, ¡than to punish it.

4 -The strongest resistance to crimes does not consist in the severity of the punishment, but in the certainty that it will be punished.

£.--The decisions of the Courts of Law ought, to be published, and the records taken care of, in order that "the law may be always 1 exercised to-day, as it wa,s yesterday ; and

.".j ' W «

that the life and the property of lift sulñect may be safe as the Stale itself.

6.-vEyery man ought io be tried brfora his


7.-No maxim is more dangerous than the one " that the meaning and not the letter of the law ought to, be observed ;" for if this were to be'admitted, the same law' which pronounces a man guilty to-day, will acquit bim to-morrow; and this would depend upon the different opinions of the Judges as to such

meaning of the law.

8.-The Code, containing the whol? of the laws1, ought to be procurable as. cheap a« the catechism :-thechildreinnthe schools ought to read by turns,-the books of the'church-,

and the code of law.

9.-The credibility of a witness ought al- ways to be less, tahen the crime is atruciou», and the circumstances extraordinary,

10.-No man ought to be subject to, impri- sonment oil account of his inability to, pay, if he can shew that he did not come to such si.» tuution by dishonesty, but by unforeseen acci- dents : to commit such a mau to prison, would be punishing the destiny, and insulting the


II,-A country ought not to be so.over- burdened with taxes, that the subjects cannot lind their means of support, without the utt most difficulty. < ) -

12.-Every State is bound to procuro their subjects certain means of support foy life, and those who aie unable to work, ought not to be exposed to the mercy of other«. l «

The Empress concluded her instructions in the following manner :- ', ~*

Sycophants have inspired all Rulers on this Globe with this injurious maxim,-" That their subjects were horn for their sakes only j" hut think and declare the contrary. I speak of things just as they are, and I have no other object in view, but to make Russia more happy and more just than any other na tion. To be disappointed in this, my object, would be a misfoitutie which I should not

Wish to survive.

When we consider that the Government of Russia is a despotic aud au absolute one that the Empress, from whom the foregoing instructions emanated, was'in the greatest degree an arbitrary Sovereign- that her woi d ivas law-and to, disobey her commands,

dc'alk-we cannot but admire the'equanimity, /j feeling, justice, wisdom, arçd good policy

which pervades through her whole address. /*/ The 2d, 3d, and 4th paragraphs are particu-. / / larly striking, and d^seive to, be wntten in , > letters of gold throughout the woild, where ^ y good Government is d'csiied ; and the whole ought with a pen of steel to be engraven on tïè hearts of our Tasmanian Authorities. ~ Paragraph Cth, shews that even the Empress, who possessed arbitrary and unlimited(mortal) power, thought a Trial by Jury, riQt only a privilege, but as necessary for any Govern- ment which has the happine-iS of the people

at heart. "Every Man ought to ne tiukd «EroiitlllS ECWJALP." The 9t!i and 10th, are icplete with humanity, and the 11th and 12th evince arthorough knowledge of the me- thod'of »governing-weil ; While the conclu» sory lemarks, poiut out the patriotic feelings by which this despotic EJmpress vvas swayed. Oh ! that we may see the day when Tasma- nia shall be governed by principles similar

to those of the Empress of Russia. Be it des-' potism, or be it not, it is certainly good ; and has a direct tendency to the advancement of the Government-the good of the people-^ the decrease of crime-and the increase of morality. The sentiments wou{d do honour tq Airy Governmentthat should embrace them ; but they are more particulaily, adapted to one like this, than pet haps Russia itself, or any other nation, people, or tongue on the face of the terraqueous ßlobe. May they -be speedily adopted, in Tasmania, atid ma) they ever be those of every Constitution uuder which Britons live.

An Act of Council is, we understand from, undoubted authority, in active preparation for the benefit of Insolvent Debtors. We bet lieve it has been called fqrth in cqngequence of a Memorial from some Debtors, who haye been a long while confined in Gaol, tq HU Ex, cellency Lieutenant Governor Arthur,pray- ing for a release, ^ We approve of something of this kind being done, but shajî forbear

comment until we see the Act.

His Honor Chief Justice Pedder arrived at Launceston on Sunday evening last. His Ex- cellency Lieutenant Governor Arthur ac- companied His Honor as far as Roseneath, where they took breakfast. The Courtcoin menced i^s sittings on Monday last. Two, cases of minor importance were disposed of.

The Van Diemen's Land Company haye at last began to do something; but whether or not for the ultimate good of the Colony, re- mains to be seen. They have ' Jatejy pur- chased from Mr. Thomas Archer, qne thou- sand five hundred sheep, at twenty7liye shil? lings per head.

The brig T

Tranmire, belonging to the Van

Diemen's Land Company, has been chartered by the Merchants and Settlers at Launceston, for the purpose of exporting a cargo of wheat to the Isle of France ; from wheqee shp will bring a_ return cargo. The expeqse of the vessel is ¿£2000, a very large sum, con- sidering the brig is only 200, tqus burthen. And if a market cannot be found, at the Mau- ritius for her cargo, she is to proceed to the Cape ; in which case, an 'additional charge of £2 per ton will .be made. S)je is not to sail till February. Thus we' find that the new Company have' commenced dealers ; and we shall not be at all surprised to hear next of the Company letting out, their carts, Corses, and bullocks, to hire^

We have been given to understand, that the ship Sir Charles Forbes brings out a Fire Engine, for the use of-theColony; and also, an order from Earl Bathurst, that the Im- perial Standard of Weights aud Measure?' should be adoptedfqrthw}th in the Colonies.

' We are ^requested to Btate, that Messrs, Uames/Lucas andjGharies Williams, of Laun- ceston, are the owners and buildeM,,o^'tb.y bi ig QUya, and not Mr, Griffith. ''

Hy the Maiqnis of landsdown we leam,,

that the master and crew of (he schooner 1 Governor UrKhatu», by whom that vessel .vVasJ i piratically carried into Batavia soine^fflgeP*] t ago, are all dead ; and that the schoot>er.4W been sold for the benefit of all concerned by the Dutch Government. She was the "pro- perly of Messrs. KtMP and Co. Merchants of this place ; and was insured in the St. Pa- trick'* Company, London.

Just befóte the departure of the Marquis of

Lansdown from Calcutta, the brig Active, be- j longing'to the house Of Robert Campbell, jun. I JEsq. of Sydney, was lying four or five weeks in the roads, wind bound, destined for Port Jackson ; but, owing to stress of weather, had put back, and was condemned as being not


The brig Dottrell, also bound for these Colo nies, had sailed, and is supposed to have gone on to Sydney. ->

The ship John Munroe. Captain H. J. Greene, irom New South Wales the 17th of "May, arrived at Calcutta on the 31st of August. On her passage, she touched at JBa'tavia, Sin .gapore, and Penang, It appeals, that on the 1st of June, this Vessel received on board off Murray's Island, in Toi res's Straits,- William Oillett, Esq. Commander of the late brig Sun, .Which vessel was wrecked (as was reported a few Wfccks ago in the Colonial Times), and to- tally lost on a detached part of the Eastern Fields, on the 27th of May, dut ing her passage <from New South Wales to Calcutta. Mr. John Lovell was also saved; bat the 1st and 2d offi- cers,', with eleven of the crew, were unfortu- nately lost. It will be recollected, that we re- volted'at the some time the total loss of the brig Venus, Captain Kilgour, inTorres's Straits also. This intelligence had likewise reached


< The Sisters, from Ireland, with male pii soners, and three transports with female pi isoners from England for these Colonies, are on their way out.

The Magnet, with merchandize had sail- ed ; the Cumberland and Hope, with mer .chandize, may be also daily expected ; and the Admiral Cockburn had sailed, having on board Eowaud Lout), Esq. our old wealthy and respected Colonist.

Extract of a lettei from a mercantile, house in London, datpd the 31st of August : ** While the wools from your Colony arrive in such a dil ty and foul condition, thp result cannot but disappoint the shippers. The best recently sent from Hobart Town was only valued at seven-pence per lb. German and Spanish wools are hardly saleable ; and all other articles of impôt t must continue in some measure depressed, till there is some appear-

ance of the restoration of general confidence.' Good seal skins are however in demand, and prices improving ; but those from ^n-Die men's Land are ora very inferior description, and ^generally very badly cured."-We have often given hints to this effect ourselves, and only a few weeks ago pointed out the method of curing hides and skins.

letters have been received from Calcutta, stating that Dr. Ciiocket was in high prac- tice there ; but from the insalubrity of that cliinatp, was about shortly to return to this Colony, to enjoy the fruits of his industry.

The'Lieutenant Governor leaves town next Friday for New Not folk, where His Excellency will remain until the addition and repairs about to be made to the Government House are com- pleted,

It will be seen by our ship news," that Mr. "Deputy Assistant Commissary General Good sir, the Gentleman who was sent on the part of Government to Calcutta, on the Almorah husiness, has returned. Wc understand, how- ever, that the object of his mission has not yet been disposed of.


The distillery, belonging to Messrs. T. Y. Lowes and Co. has been purchased by Go- vernment, at the price of £2000, for the pur- pose of forming an Asylum for Female Pri- soners on their~landing from England, or a Factory on a better principle than the old one, which, we undeistand, is to be thrown into Hie gaol, for its further enlargement. We must observe; that we think the above place has been.most injudiciously chosen for the purpose required, on account of its low and damp situation. However, wp hope that its internal management will he somewhat dif- ferent from that of the present Factory.

Wre last week mentioned, that the whole of Mr. Anstey's sheep (300 in number) which had been stolen, had,beert recovered, and the sus- pected thieves imprisoned., We understand, that they aro servants to Mr. Owen, of the Swan Inn, on the Pott Dalrymple Road ; on whose premises the sheep had been found ; where, it appealed on the examination of Mr. .Owen, they had been driven by his servants Without his knowledge.

A Lasear, belonging to the Marquis of Lans- down, was-killed on board that vessel, one day this, week in consequence of a fall from the main top-mast yard.    

Our Readers will no doubt recollect the celebrated and notorious character, George Ives, the Architect, who cut such a figure some few months ago in Hobart Town and

Sydney. It appears by the following para- graph, extracted from the Bengal Hurkaru, of ,the 2d Sept., that this promising youth is now in Calcutta. We most heartily give  

the East Indians much joy on the arrival of Georgoe Ives, Esquire !-" A professional European Architect of ability, has long been wanted in Bengal, and we have repeatedly heard it regretted that no Gentleman had at- tempted to establish himself here. We un- derstand however -that a Gentleman of con- siderable talent has been for some time in' Calcutta, who intends to remain if he is sup- ported as, he deserves, as we have little doubt he will be when his merit is more generally known. We have seen proposals circulated for forming an, establishment, on a similar system to the Albany of London, according^   to plans>submitted-by George Ives,, Esq. the' genteman we allude to ''  

-:%'* ' .rf:PJ'.:. : .*,* ¿;.-i «., . \

Extensive Forgery.-it has been pri-   vately known by Assistant Commissary Gene- ral Moodie, the head Commissariat Officer at this station,, duringthe last twejve months, that forged Treasury Bills, on the Commissariat Department, of New South WaleB, amounting to nearly five thousand pounds, were in exist- ence. A few days ago, the above Gentleman was fiom some leason induced to give private information to the Police Magistrate here. The consequence \yas, that yesterday some of the bills in question (which were made payable in favour of Mr. Winder, a Gentleman resi- ding in the elder Colony), were discovered on the parsons of 4 men, named Haywood, Shar-i man, Scott, and Ben. Jackson, who were drink*

in g iii Mr. Maddock's Public-bouse, on the ' New-town Road. The offenders were appre- hended, and lodged in safe custody.

Task-work.-We observe with much plea- sure, that Lieutenant Richardson, of the 40th Regiment; the Superintendent of the Road Pai ties between Hobart Town and New Nor- folk, bas îesUmcd the old system of task-work among the men under his superintendence. The consequence is, that the men now get more work done by 12 o'clock in the day, Jhan they otherwise pei formed the whole day ; we may say, in some places, even in two days. After their task is finished, they are allowed to work for the Settlers, thereby benefitling both them and themselves, and the Colony at large. As an instance, wc might mention one indivi- dual, who has had a bridge erected at the trifling price of £10, which would otherwise'

have cost lum £3Q. And that the Government get more work done, is obvions, from the ra- pidly improving appearance of the road on this side of the Black Snake, in contrast with the roads-at Jeiicho, where little or nothing is

done. As the (ii st four miles from Hobart

Town are very bad, and Lieutenant Richaid son having a considerable quantity of mate- rials prepared, we trust he will, with .the in- creased industry of his men, baveit completed before the ensuing winter comes on.

Harvest.-It is a singular circumstance, and certainly worthy of lemark.that, notwith- standing the exti erne lateness of sowing corn the last season, the present Harvest is unprece- dented ly eailj, leaping having commenced on Monday last, the 8th instant ! We do not re- member to have seen wheat reaped in this Colony until the middle of Januaiy, before this season, w hich there was every probabi- lity of being a very late one. The grain is re- niai kablv rine, although the straw is shoit, and in some places damaged with smut ; and the late tains must have gieatly contributed to swell the corn of auch as is not yet lipe, Wc congratulate our fellow Colonists on the pros- pect of a tolerably abundant Harvest.

Silk Worms.-Messrs. Heathcoat, of Tiver- ton, Devonshn e, who have long been celebra- ted for their lace manufactures, had planted several thousand mulberry trees in that neigh- bourhood, for the purpose of introducing silk worms in that part of the country. The cli- mate of Devonshire is considered peculiarly favourable to theattempt.-/The trees already planted, will require three years to be^ brought to such a state as will render their leaves suitable for the feeding of the worms. The mulberry tree has been planted with success in this Colony; and we should like to see also the silk worm introduced. Query, would not the silk turn to valuable

account as an article of commerce. '

Horse our report of the matches which were made after the races at Sandy Bay, which we published in our last, we erroneously stated, that Mr. Kearney's mare, Currency Lass, was " matchrd,> to run against Speedy, or any other of Mr. Lackey's horses. This was wrong. Mr. Kearney of- fered to hack Currency'Lass against any of Mr. Lackey's horses, of his own breed, with- out mentioning any puitîcularone, with from .£50 to ÜOO ; but Mr. Lackey left town with- out having accepted'the challenge.

PARSONS.-We hear that all the District Chaplains have received authority to solem- nize matrimony in their respective Districts. If our information is correct, we must admit this is good ; and we hope, that we shall now find those complaints which have existed against the difficulty of getting married will cease, and that we shall see young Tasma- nians branch up in every quarter of the Island.