THE CHINA TROUBLE. AN AWFUL SITUATION. THE PEKING MASSACRE. WORLD-WIDE HORROR. RETRIBUTION DEMANDED. FIGHTING AT TIEN-TSIN. A DESPERATE STRUGGLE. MASSACRES THROUGHOUT CHINA. 20,000 PERSONS KILLED. GHASTLY TORTURES.
THE PEKING MASSACRE. SIR ROBERT HART'S ACTION. London, July 16. A student interpreter at Peking, writ- ing on June 10, declared that the Dowager-Empress's threat to massacre foreigners had induced Sir Robert Hart, the Director of the Imperial Customs, to send all the European ladies related to the Customs officials to the Legations for protection. CHINESE GOVERNMENT PARALYSED. London, July 16. Some further brief particulars have been received of the massacre at Pe- king. It is stated that the repulse of Ad- miral Seymour's expedition precipi- tated the crisis. The native servants in European em- ploy and native converts were the first massacred. The "Boxers" then fired many of the finest buildings in the city, and at- tacked the Legations. The Government appeared paralysed. SOME OF THE VICTIMS. SEVERAL SOUTH AUSTRALIANS INCLUDED. London, July 16. Sir Claude Macdonald, the British Ambassador at Peking, his wife, and two children, and five members of his staff were among the victims of the massacre at Peking. Other of the victims were Dr. George Ernest Morrison, the "Times" cor- respondent, and the Rev. J. M. Allar- dyce, Mr Ansell, and Mr. Russell, of South Australia. Mrs. Allardyce and her children, whose regular residence was at Peking, recently went to Shanghai. A SUPPLEMENTARY LIST. SIR ROBERT HART AMONG THE KILLED. London, July 17. The victims of the Peking massacre included, in, addition to those whose names have already been mentioned, 12 student interpreters at the British Le- gation. Mr. Conger, the American Ambassa- dor, and his wife, his daughter, and his niece. M. Pichon, the French Ambassador, and his wife; The wife of Baron von Ketteler, whose murder had previously been reported ; Sir Robert Hart, the Director of the Imperial Chinese Customs, five of the Customs staff, seven of their assistants, and nine student interpreters of the Cus- toms Department; The Rev. I. H. Smith, of New Zea- land; and The Rev. Thomas Biggan, who was to have been Mr. Alladyce's successor. The total included 25 ladies and 14 children. EXCITEMENT IN AMERICA. 10,000 TROOPS FOR CHINA. THE FEELING IN EUROPE. COMPLETE RETRIBUTION DE- MANDED. London, July 17. The news of the Peking massacre has created intense excitement throughout the United States. President McKinley is hurrying for- ward arrangements for the despatch of 10,000 troops. If more are required, Congress will be summoned to vote the necessary supplies. The whole of Europe is unanimous as to the urgency of a complete retribution, and also as to the necessity for unity of command at Tien-Tsin and elsewhere, in order to prevent any reverse._ A NATIONAL REQUIEM. TO BE HELD AT ST PAUL'S. London, July 17 A National Requiem for the dead will, it is announced, be held in Saint Paul's Cathedral shortly._
FIGHTING AT TIEN-TSIN. A DESPERATE SITUATION. HEAVY CASUALTIES. London, July 16. The allies, chiefly Japanese and Americans, have ejected the enemy and their guns to the westward of the Tien- Tsin foreign settlement. The British regiment of Chinese, who escorted the allies' guns, behaved splendidly in their march through the swamps. Detachments of one hundred each of British, French, and Japanese, de- fended the railway station on the 11th killing 500 of the enemy. The British casualties were 19. The losses of the others of the allies were much heavier. A destructive fire from the re-occupied citadel in the native city of Tien-Tsin compelled the allies to again attack the position on Friday. The Russians operated on the right, and the American 9th Infantry and a de- tachment of marines on the left. The Chinese troops, belonging to the Shantung army, joined the rebels at their north-eastern camp, and partici- pated in the fight. The defenders of the Citadel, includ- ing the Imperial troops, fought des- perately, their marksmanship being deadly accurate. The allies' killed were as under :— Russians, 100, including an artillery Colonel. British, 40. Japanese, 60, including a Colonel. Americans, 30, including one Colonel and one Captain. French 25. The assault lasted the whole day. Finally, however, the allies, under a Japanese Commandant, captured the Citadel and the town. CHINESE FIGHTING QUALITIES. THEIR OVERPOWERING ARTIL- LERY. London, July 16. The Chinese at Tien-Tsin are display- ing great military resource. Moreover, the overpowering weight of their artil- lery is rendering it extremely difficult for the allies to maintain their posi- tion. The Press correspondents at Tien-Tsin speak in terms of high praise of the fighting qualities of the Japanese, and of their military organisation. The Japanese cavalry have already displayed splendid dash, while their in- fantry and artillery have proved ex- tremely mobile. As for the Japanese transport service and commissariat department, both are pronounced excellent._ THE FIGHT AT TIEN-TSIN. VICTORY FOR THE ALLIES. OFFICIALLY CONFIRMED. London, July 17. Later and more hopeful reports have been received regarding the fighting at Tien-Tsin. Despite the earlier and momentary repulse, the allies' victory has been officially confirmed._ IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. A MINISTERIAL STATEMENT. London, July 17. In the House of Commons yesterday, Mr. W. Brodrick, Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, said he could hardly dare hope that the reports regarding the massacre were inaccurate. The War Office believed they were true. The Go- vernment had also learned from a good Chinese source that the object of the massacre was the creation of an irre- parable breach with the foreigners. Continuing, Mr. Brodrick stated, as showing the promptitude with which the Government had acted, that Sir Claude Macdonald on July 4 asked that concerted measures for the relief of the Legations should be taken, and that on July 6 Admiral Seymour was in- structed to exercise his unfettered dis- cretion in co-operating with the other foreign naval authorities at Taku, and as to the most speedy and effective measures that might be taken to afford the required relief._
SITUATION AT TIEN-TSIN London, July 16. The situation at Tien-Tsin is far from reassuring. A report received this morning from Taku states that the allies attacked the native city at Tien-Tsin, and were badly repulsed. Many of the foreign troops were killed._ FOREIGN CENTRE THREATENED. London, July 17. The "Boxers" are now threatening Ching Hong Po, the foreigners' centre, to the south of Tien-Tsin. Prince Tuan is reported to be sending large bodies of troops and "Boxers" southward from Peking._ MORE WARSHIPS WANTED. A DEMAND FROM SHANGHAI. London, July 17. The Foreign Consuls at Shanghai are asking for more warships._ THE POWERS CONFERRING. REPORT FROM SEYMOUR. London, July 17. In the course of his statement in the House of Commons yesterday on the situation in China, Mr. Brodrick inti- mated that the Powers were conferring, with a view to the appointment of a Commander-in-Chief. There had been no proposal to appoint a Japanese Com- mander. Mr. Brodrick added that Admiral Seymour had returned to his ship. He had left sufficient blue jackets to work the guns. He had also expressed his belief that the allies had captured all the forts except one._ SITUATION IN CHI KIANG. EUROPEANS REQUIRED TO LEAVE. London, July 17. The "Boxers" have compelled the Bri- tish Consul and all the Europeans in the maritime province of Chi-Kiang to leave the country._ HELP FROM INDIA. GENEROUS OFFERS OF NATIVE PRINCES. London, July 17. The Feudatory Princes of India are offering to furnish Her Majesty's Go- vernment with troops for China._ THE REBELLION SPREADING. HORRIBLE BUTCHERIES. GHASTLY TORTURES. London, July 17. A horrible butchery of native con- verts is reported from the Chinese pro- vince of Hunan and Hupei. It is estimated that 20,000 native Christians were murdered in three days. These victims of "Boxer" barbarities were, it is stated, subjected to inde- scribably ghastly tortures. It is also stated that massacres have followed everywhere upon the circula- tion of Piince Tuan's sanguinary edict. The Chinese Governors of Shensi and Honan provinces have joined the anti- foreign movement._ EUROPEANS IN CHINA. ESTIMATED AT 12,000. London, July 17. It is estimated that there are 12,000 Europeans in China. Of this number, about one-half are English._ SITUATION AT CHIFU. A RISING EXPECTED. London, July 17. On Sunday last, the guns on the foreign warships stationed at Chifu were trained on the town, where a rising was expected. [Chifu is a treaty port on the north side of the peninsula of Shantung.]_ THE QUEEN. GREATLY DISTRESSED. London, July 17. The Queen is greatly distressed at the news of the Peking massacre._ DR. GEORGE ERNEST MORRISON. Dr. George Ernest Morrison, who was the "Times" correspondent at Peking, was an Australian. He was born at Gee- long, in Victoria, on February 4, 1862, and was therefore 38 years of age. He
was educated in Melbourne and Edin- burgh Universities. He crossed Aus- tralia on foot, from the Gulf of Carpen taria to Melbourne, in 1882-3. Later he travelled through New Guinea, where he was speared in October, 1883, the spear- head being cut out of his body some six months later in Edinburgh. His love of travel led him to make the journey over- land from Shanghai to Rangoon, which was accomplished in 1894. Two years later, as special correspondent for the 'Times," he travelled from Bangkok, in Siam to Yunnan City, in China, and round Tonquin. In 1897 Dr Morrison crossed Manchuria, from Streteusk, in Siberia, to Vladivostock. His book, "An Australian in China: being the Narrative of a Quick Journey across China to Burma, 1895," brought Dr. Morrison literary fame and a lucrative position on the special staff of the "Times," in whose service he was at the date of the recent massacre._ SIR CLAUDE MACDONALD. (From "Men and Women of the Time.") Sir Claude Maxwell Macdonald, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., British Minister to the Court of China, was the son of the late Major-General J. P. Macdonald, and was born in 1852. He was educated at Up- pingham, and at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, and entered the army as a lieutenant of the 74th High- landers, in March, 1872. He was pro- moted captain in 1881, and major in 1882, in which year he went to Egypt, and took part in the campaign being present at the battle of Tel-el-Kebir. He was mentioned in despatches, and obtained the brevet of major, the Khe- dive's Star, and medal with clasp. He remained in Egypt on special service, and in 1884 volunteered for the 1st Bat- talion of the Black Watch, which was attached to the Suakin Expedition, and took part in the battles of El-Teb and Tamai, where he was wounded. He ob- tained two clasps to his medal, and the Osmanieh of the Fourth Class. From February, 1883, until June, 1887, he was attached by the War Office to the agency at Cairo. He retired from the army in 1887, and was appointed acting-Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar. In 1888 he became Commissioner on the West Coast of Africa, and the following year proceeded on a special mission to the Niger territories. Subsequently, at Berlin, he took part in the delimitation of the boundary between the Oil Rivers Protectorate and the Cameroons, and then became Commissioner and Consul General in the Oil Rivers Protectorate and the adjoining native territories. Sir Claude Macdonald was appointed in 1891 Commissioner and Consul-Gene- ral in the Niger Coast Protectorate, Consul to the island of Fernando Po, and also Consul in the Cameroons. He was created K.C.M.G. in 1892, and K.C.B in 1898. In January, 1896, he was appointed Envoy-Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Peking. Since his appointment China has been passing through the most critical stage in her history, and although the Bri- tish policy in the Far East has been se- verely criticised, yet Sir Claude Mac- donald secured some substantial conces- sions. Among them should be mention-
ed the decision of the Chinese Govern- ment to open all inland waters to navi- gation, whether by foreign or native steamers, and the assurance that no por- tion of the provinces adjoining the Yang-tse-kiang valley should be alien- ated to any other Power. It was also, in great measure, due to Sir Claude Mac- donald that the Government undertook that, so long as British trade continued to exceed that of any other Power, the Inspector-General of Maritime Customs should be a British subject. In May, 1899, he returned to England to have a short holiday, his health having been much impaired. Sir Claude married, in 1892, Ethel, daughter of Major W. Cairns Armstrong, widow of Mr. P. C. Robertson, of the Indian Political Ser- vice. Sir Claude Macdonald received the Grand Cross of Michael and George amongst the last Birthday honours._ THE BRITISH AND FOREIGN LEGA- TIONS. The following is a list of the members of the British Legation, who, it is pre- sumed, were in Peking at the time of the massacre:— Sir Claude Macdonald, Envoy Extra- ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary; Mr. H. G. O. Bax-Ironside, first secre- tary of legation; Mr. H. G. N. Dering, second secretary; Lieut.-Colonel G. F. Browne, military attache; Mr. H. Cock- burn, Chinese secretary; Mr. J. W. Jamieson, commercial attache: Mr. Clive Bigham, honorary attache; Mr. B. G. Tours, accountant; Mr. Wordsworth Poole, physician; Mr. W. H. Bourne, constable. The representatives of the other Powers in Peking were:— Germany.—Baron von Ketteler, whose murder was recently announced. United States.—Mr. E. H. Conger. Austria.—Baron Czikann von Wahl- born. Belgium.—Baron de Vinck de deux Orp. Spain.—Senor B. J. de Cologan. France.—Monsieur S. Pichon. Italy.—Marquis Salvago Raggi. Japan.—Baron Nishii. Holland.—Mynheer F. M. Knobel. Portugal.—Senor F. H. Galhardo. Russia.—Monsieur Mich. de Giers. Among the residents of Peking was Dr. George Ernest Morrison, '"The Times" correspondent, a native of Vic- toria. There were also, as our cablegrams have shown, a number of ladies and chil- dren at the Legations. The list of officials in the Chinese Im- perial Maritime Customs, whose head- quarters are at Tein-Tsin, is as follows: Sir Robert Hart, Mr. R. E. Bredon, Mr. J. R. Brazier, Mr. P. Von Raulen- feld, Mr. C. H. Brewit-Taylor, Mr. F. W. Maze, Mr. J. Van Alst, and Mr. C. E. Tennent. Messrs. Russell and Allardyce, who were murdered at Peking, were sons-in- law of Mr. Matthew Goode, a merchant of Adelaide. Both were about 40 years of age, and had been resident in China for some years. Mr. Russell was Profes- sor of Astronomy in the China Imperial College, and Mr. Allardyce was a pro- fessor in the Imperial University._ THE MISSIONARIES AT PEKING. Sydney, July 17. Mr. T. Pratt, the Sydney agent of the London Missionary Society, states that it is impossible to say exactly which missionaries were in Peking at the time of the massacre. He feared, however, that the Rev. H. T. Howard Smith and his wife, both former residents of Syd- ney, were still at their post. Mrs. Smith was formerly a Miss Burton, and joined her husband in Peking two years ago. Mr. Pratt said he expected by this time that the London directors of the society had advised all the missionaries in China to take every measure possible to secure their safety, by removing to the seaports or other places, where the danger was not so great._ RUSSIA AND THE PRESENT CRISIS. Sydney, July 16. Interviewed as to the prospects of the prompt suppression of the insurrection, Mr. Schemellitscheck said he believed only Russians can do it. The hardy Asiatic corps of the Czar, he says, can go anywhere, and the Russians are really masters of Northern China, and well pre- pared for the present crisis. It is re- ported in China that Li Hung Chang contemplates nothing less than a move- ment which, with the aid of Russia, would place him on the throne. The missionaries, in his opinion, were at the bottom of the whole trouble._ A CHINESE ON THE SITUATION. Sydney, July 16. Quong Tart, who is a Mandarin of China, when seen to-day respecting the massacre in Peking, said the news would cause Chinese residents in Sydney a very painful shock and much sadness, as Prince Ching, who was Commandant of the Peking field force of 50,000, was a few days ago reported to be protecting the Legations. Some difference must have arisen between him and Prince Tuan. It certainly looked, he said, as if one of the Powers was pulling the strings, so as to establish paramountcy in China, for the Tsung-li-Yamen was
composed of men who knew what was the strength of Europe, and would not al- low anything to take place which would bring them into conflict with the com- bined nations of Europe, unless the Power had misled them. VICTORIAN NAVAL CONTINGENT. Melbourne, July 16. Staff-Surgeon C. Stewart has been ap- pointed to proceed to China with the Victorian Naval contingent, at a salary of £500 per annum._ THE GUNBOAT PROTECTOR. READY FOR SEA. Adelaide, July 17. The Premier has telegraphed to the Colonial Office, through the Governor, ad- vising the Admiralty that the gunboat Protector is ready for departure for China, and asking for an early reply regarding the rates of pay to be allowed to the crew._ SIR ROBERT HART. The most interesting and influential foreigner in China was Sir Robert Hart, Inspector-General of the Chinese Impe- rial Customs, who has now closed his career under exceptionally tragic, cir- cumstances. Born in 1835, he entered the consular service in China in 1854, which he left in 1859 for the Customs, and in 1863 he became Inspector-Gene- ral. His power was enormous. The Chinese language was, so far as his own field was concerned, much the same to him as English, and with the Tsung-li- Yamen he had the influence which 30 years of close dealing with Chinese offi- cials gave him, backed up by the proud boast that they never had reason to re- gret taking his advice. Then the ser- vice he had created gradually increased, until it employed over 3,500 people, pre- sided over a foreign trade of £44,000,000, collected £3,600,000 a year, cleared 30,000,000 tons of shipping annually, and lit 1,800 miles of coast exactly as an en- gineer handles a machine he has con- structed—just as tenderly and just as firmly. The Inspector-General had an absolutely free hand, and it was to this he attributed his success. During the 37 years that he held office, he went home twice—once for 12 months and once for six. So close was his attention to his duties, that he never once visited the western hills, the summer retreat of foreigners living in Peking, and he never once saw the Great Wall, two days' jour- ney distant. Besides the creation of the customs service itself it was he alone who concluded the treaty of 1885 between China and France. All negotiations had failed, and as usual the Ministers of the Tsung-li-Yamen came to Sir Robert Hart. Then began communication by cable between Sir Robert and his repre- sentative in Paris, Mr. James Campbell. Month after month they went on, and at last, when 80,000 taels (£12,000) had been spent in telegrams, Mr. Campbell was able to report to his chief that a settlement had been arrived at, and that the Protocol was ready for signature.
Sir Robert's reply was characteristic:— "Signez sans delai, mais no signez pas premier Avril." April fool's day did not suit the Inspector-General to sign an agreement, and the treaty was signed on April 4. All this time a special French envoy had been residing at Tientsin, chafing at the slow progress he was mak- ing, and not having the slightest idea that other negotiations were going on until he received word from England that all was arranged, and that he might re- turn. After sending the last telegram settling the French business, Sir Ro- bert Hart went to the funeral service of Sir Harry Parkes, the British Minister, who had just died. As he entered the chapel Mr. O'Connor, the British charge d'affaires, handed him a telegram from Lord Granville, offering him the post of British Minister in China. He accept- ed, on condition that the matter should be kept secret while arrangements were made for the appointment of a successor in the customs service. His appointment was signed by the Queen on May 3, 1885. Shortly after a Conservative Govern- ment had come into office in England, and as Sir Robert found that the cus- toms service would suffer severely if he left it, Lord Salisbury allowed him to remain in the Chinese service. There were few civilians with so many decora- tions as Sir Robert Hart. A G.C.M.G., in England, he was also awarded the highest decorations by Sweden, Bel- gium, France, Austria, and the Vatican. America presented him with many me- dals of recognition, and the Chinese Em- press conferred upon him the coveted peacock's feather, and the order of the double dragon. A lady who spent some time in Peking recently gave some in- teresting details of his home life. "Of medium height and slight build," she wrote, "with a thoughtful and humour- ous face, a teller of countless good stories, fond of fun and merry company, and a host whose care and thoughtful- ness for his guests were proverbial, he was a typical Irish gentleman." Sir Robert Hart's administration formed an "imperium in imperio," without paral- lel, probably, in history, and it will al- ways be a matter of pride that it was built upon the genius, the devotion, and the integrity of an Englishman.