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SYDNEY GAZETTE, and

New South Wales

Advertiser

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WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 10, 1827.  

, OUR file of Mauritius Gazettes, up to the    

departure of the Industry, bring us no intel- ligence worth communicating to our Readers.

THE letter, in our present columns, coming, as it does, from The Community, is well worthy of attention, and will doubtless meet with prompt regard from some intelligent pen or other.

OFFICIAL advices have been received from

Captain WETHERALL, of H.M.S. Fly, and     Captain WRIGHT, the Commandant of Wes-   tern Port, which are as satisfactory as could be wished, considering the little lapse of time that has occurred to procure all that information which is so desirable should be promulgated. The Amity parted company with the Fly off

the entrance of the Straits on the 18th ult, during a heavy gale of wind. The Dragon put into Two-fold Bay, by which means the stock and horses were disembarked in perfect health, and without any loss. At Western Port six sealers were found, with a boat in their possession. They had two acres of wheat ready for the sickle, and some maize in great forwardness, looking extremely well. The harbour was found of easy access, and appeared to have no hidden danger. The anchorage is safe and commodious, with good holding ground -well sheltered from every wind- is capable of containing any number of ships in the most perfect security: the tides,   which are rapid, rise from 8 to 11 feet.

The expedition was not long in the bay, before Captain WETHERALL set about the erection of a Fort on Phillip Island, for the protection of the anchorage, to which Cap- tain W. gave the name of FORT DUMARESQ, in honour of His EXCELLENCY'S Private Secretary; and, on the 3d instant, a Royal Salute was fired from Fort Dumaresq, on the

occasion.

Our Readers will be pleased to hear that wood and water are in great abundance, and that the soil proves of the best description. Excellent coal, specimens of which have been sent on per the Dragon, in its perfect and its progressive state, has been discovered on Philip Island, and also to the East of Cape Paterson. The timber is remarkably fine at a short distance from the coast. The main land is hilly, and of moderate elevation, ap- pears thinly wooded, and well clothed with grass. Bass's River was unfortunately un- approachable even by boats, in consequence of the extensive mud banks, which present themselves as insurmountable obstacles. No- thing, however, from all that we have heard, can surpass the beauty of the situation, or the fertility of the soil, in which the capital of this new Southern Colony is founded. The water will always be particularly abundant in the town, as four small rivers are running with  

velocity from the interior, which discharge

themselves into the harbour.

The climate is remarkably fine and healthy - not a man was ill. The rise of the thermometer was from 62° to 82°, and the latter only in the case of those hot winds which are common to us. The average of the thermometer, at noon, was 75°.

The natives were numerous, and as soon as Captain Wetherall, and his party, attempted to approach their camps, in accordance with the Governor's instructions to conciliate them, they immediately fled into the woods,

and continued inaccessible.

Captain WRIGHT had used extraordinary diligence in erecting temporary buildings for the men, and some of the more permanent   edifices were also built. Horticulture was in

progress, and so far advanced that the seeds            

The COMMANDANT, and Mr. Hovell, the Australian Mungo Park, were about to set out on their inland expedition. Up to the             of more importance than that which we have narrated, occurred. There was considerable doubt whether Messrs. Hovell and Hume had

              not mistaken Western Port for Port Philip. But we must leave this mystery to be ex- plained in due season. We are gratified to know that Western Port is so promising in its first aspect. In the course of a few years it must be a Colony of great importance, and will command advantages over the parent Colony from its situation; and there can be   little question that the Home Government will send prisoners direct to that settlement in future. At least such is our impres-

sion.

WE have much satisfaction in announcing to the Public, that, on Friday morning last, His EXCELLENCY the GOVERNOR, accom- panied by the Hon. Mr. McLEAY, Colonel and Captain DUMARESQ, Mr. OXLEY, Lieu- tenant DE LA CONDAMINE, and Mr. BUSBY, proceeded to inspect the line which the last named Gentleman has laid down for the pipe tract, by which to convey water to Sydney,   from the large lagoon near the Botany-bay road. His EXCELLENCY and the whole Party expressed themselves much gratified by Mr. BUSBY'S plans, which are forthwith to be

carried into effect. We announce this fact in

the pleasing anticipation that the metropolis of New South Wales will not long be destitute of an abundant supply of this first element of health and comfort; for, independently of the characteristic energy of the present Govern- ment, the plan has been thoroughly matured, and is undertaken with every advantage which science and experience can afford in the pro- secution of such an undertaking.

It is, we believe, not generally known, that so early as June, 1825, Mr. BUSBY made his first report on this subject ; and the interest with which the Home Government enter into our affairs, will appear from the fact which we have the best authority for stating, that this report has been carefully examined and scrutinized by the Home Authorities, and has been returned with the most decided approba- tion, in order that its recommendations may be carried into effect. Wjth the details of the plan we have not been made acquainted ; but we understand that, from the first, Mr. BUSBY recognised the necessity of bringing a supply of water from a distance, and the futility of any plan which would attempt to raise a supply for the town within its own precincts, or to collect it in its own immediate neigh- bourhood. With the knowledge of these cir- cumstances, and the arrangements in progress, we could smile at the incessant reiteration of the boring recommendations of one *of our contemporaries. We knew that the final re- sults would satisfy the good people of Sydney of the activity of their Rulers in promoting their comforts, and therefore we allowed the Doctor's spleen to vent itself without inter- ruption, in discussing a subject of which he knew nothing, and permitted him to render himself ridiculous, by the puerility and igno- rance he displayed.

It would appear that the Doctor is really

serious when he tells us that his decisions are considered oracular-that his opinion decides, in the estimation of his Readers, the merits of a question. It must be under the influence of this persuasion that he calculates so much on the mere form of invention, and so far oversteps the bounds to which sober prudence would confine his speculations. Wrapt in his fancied importance, he forgets that there is a material difference between speculating on details, which are the subject of every day observation (though absolutely ignorant of the fundamental principles of the question on which he was discoursing), and venturing abroad alto- gether in the dark, and entangling himself in a maze of which he knew not the beginning, nor the middle, nor the end-where every step he made was a false step-where every cru- dity he might advance (and every sentence he did advance was such) would expose him to ridicule. He might, for example, fill whole volumes deep and strong on the currency question; aud, at the conclusion of all his learned reasonings, propose to " stamp the dollar," and thus stamp his own ignorance. But this was an incidental blunder ; for the Doctor still knew something of the subject on which he was Writing, and, by talking thus glibly of specie, thought to make his paper current. But this was widely different from entering on a subject of which he was totally ignorant, and plunging into waters of which he knew not the depth-and, destitute of the slightest glimmering of geology, descanting on a subject which is so intimately connected with this fashionable science in our days, so

generally known, that it is a wonder how our learned friend managed to escape all knowledge of it. The fact is, that this boring System is not quite so great a novelty as the Austra- lian, in his happy ignorance, would persuade us ; he had been told that water had been raised by boring- that it was an infallible means of supply- that it never failed- and, in the simplicity of his heart, he believed it all. There was something in the word, too, that was so congenial. The Doctor was quite at home in the boring system- the

word was a talisman.

Probably, however, those who have tried the experiment in this Colony, on the recommen- dation of the Doctor, are by this time satisfied, that if good water is to be obtained by boring, something more is necessary to be

known than how to force an iron rod to a

depth into the earth ; as any one, who has ca- sually heard that letting blood by a puncture with a lancet would abate the symptoms of a fever, would probably find, after a few trials, that the puncture might be made in the wrong place; and he who pretends to raise water by   boring without a scientific, and practical knowledge of geology and chemistry, leaving hydraulics out of the question, is as much an empyric as he who would undertake to cure a fever by blood-letting, without knowing the difference between a vein and an artery ; or (if it is possible to conceive such ignorance) that there is any thing within the- human frame different from what appears on the sur- face. The general principles, to which the raising of water by boring are referable, are not, by any means, so recondite as the Aus- tralian imagines. The talk of subterraneous rivers, or collections of water, is ridiculous, the crude hypothesis of some speculator, who knew, perhaps, a little of the theory, and had as little practical knowledge of geology as the Australian himself. All experience is against such a supposition. The water formed in all mines or excavations, at whatever depth, can be easily traced from the surface, and in very deep mines all appearance of water ceases. The fissures in the strata are occu-

pied by hydrogen gas- the fire-damp of the mines ; and this fluid cannot be displaced by the denser fluid, till a double communication with the air is opened, as in decanting liquors from a cask -so little do these mat- ters, when understood, contradict the known principles of hydraulics, as the Doctor sapi- ently tells us. To bring the subject to a con- clusion ; boring, when its proper application is understood, is a useful invention, but it is, by no means, a specific to remedy a deficiency of good water; it is, in many cases, totally inapplicable; and in very few cases can good water be procured by its   means. The hardness of all rocks of the

primary formation makes blasting, by gun- powder, a cheaper process than boring through them ; and, in all secondary rocks, mineral substances soluble in water, with or without an acid, are so universally diffused, that in no case is water found free from

their impregnations. The water will vary in its quality - will be agreeable or nau- seous, wholesome or deleterious, as the sub- stances in solution are different in kind or in

quantity. It may, in some cases, be equally pleasant to the taste with the purest water ; still it is hard water, and unfit for many purposes, as the Doctor's laundress can inform him. The sole case in which pure wa- ter is obtained by boring, is in a bank of sand, so situated that the water which falls on its surface can escape at a lower level ; in which case the filtration of the water may have washed away all impurities, and no- thing soluble in water may remain. It will require no difficult application of the above principles to convince any one, that if the Government have not attempted to raise water by boring in Sydney, it was not from the ignorance of the process, but the knowledge of its inefficiency. The country round Port Jackson is altogether of secon- dary formation; and, according to the above principles, by sinking or boring, no pure water could be obtained. If there are any wells in Sydney yielding pure (soft) water, they are in situations where it is collected from the surface, or filters through a bank of sand, as in the case supposed. But, after all, who ever heard of an extensive town or city being altogether supplied by wells ? Boring is only a cheaper mode of sinking wells. You bore for the spring, but after it is ob- tained, you must sink a well as a reservoir to   contain the water; and before the Govern- ment could by this means supply the town, they must sink a well for every house. We have heard thal boring has been a favourite pursuit, during 30 years of professional ex- perience, with the gentleman whom the Home Government selected to supply Syd- ney with water, and that he has even ob- tained honorary rewards from scientific So- cieties for the improvemement of the old,

and the invention of new instruments for

the purpose. On referring to his Report

to Colonel Sorell, observations made during his stay at the Southward, which was copied into our Journal, in February, 1824, we

find that he had left them a set of his own instruments, and exerted himself to instruct some men in the use of them, and that

he has, in a few case, where it was practica- ble, applied the art in this Colony. On the whole, the Auslralian's learned disquisitions on the subject, afford a fair specimen of the spirit by which he is actuated in his attacks

upon the Government. They show that

he will venture any length with any sub- ject, which, by construction or misrepre-

sentation, will afford the semblance of a case against it. They are also a fair specimen of   the candour and justice with which he treats the subjects that come under his learned pen ; and they afford a tolerable sample of the infallibility of his decisions, and a just criterion of the truth of his

assertions.

The base insinuation levelled at " the Powers that be," in the last Australian, in reference to the regulation which alludes to the proceedings carried on by the Commander of the Marquis of Hastings, while in- this port, is every way characteristic of the braia whence it sprung. " We suspect," says our learned contemporary, " this mulct bas been ordered on some ex-par te statements for- warded from this Colony ; a method of pro- ceeding quite characteristic of the way ia which some business is done here." This is scarcely worth a passing thought ; for the moment it is known by whom, and towards, whom, the arrow is directed, that instant it loses its poison, and recoils on the writer with all its pristine bitterness, as a just reward for such unprincipled and groundless policy. When the Authorities act in any other way than that which they should, upon any and every occasion, we shall not fail duly lo ad-

vertise Brother WARDELL.

The EXECUTIVE COUNCIL, on Monday,

was held at the residence of the CHIEF

JUSTICE, who, we regret to state, has been considerably indisposed. His EXCELLENCY did not retire from the Council till six in the evening.

The Woodford, Captain Chapman, we un- derstand, is taken up by Government to con- vey Colonel CAMERON, and the first division of the Buffs, to Bombay.

The Australian Agricultural Company have, not yet determined whether they will take the coal-mines at Newcastle, or open fresh mines on their own grounds at Port Stephen. We expect we shall have this kind of fuel the next

winter so low as 15s. or 20s. a ton.

We understand that the Anniversary Din- ner will not take place at H ll's Tavern, as we before stated, but at Mr. Cummins' Hotel, whose spacious awning will again be had in requisition on that occasion.

Mr. Beasley, of Wiudsor, we hear, is de- termined to start a caravan or coach, with as little delay as possible, between Windsor and

Parramatta.

The robbery at Cleveland House, on Sun- day night last, was a most determined affair. Five fine large mastiffs had been poisoned in the course of the day, and died in the night.

Mr. and Mrs. Cooper were on a visit to Par- ramatta. Eight or ten domestics were in the rear of the premises, and two young men slept, as guards, in the front room. The robber» entered by means of forcing one of the strongly-barred windows in front of the house ; and so great was the alarm at one time in the night, that one of the young men arose, opened the door, and fired off a pistol, but seeing nothing to attract attention, he returned to bed. In the morning the iron-chest wa$ discovered outside the window, which could not have been stirred except by three men-. The thieves, however, were obliged to leave this part of their spoil, and were unable to explore its mysteries, though it was filled with all kinds of valuable documents, and notes to an extensive amount. They de- camped, therefore, disappointed enough, with merely the articles which are enumerated in the advertisement. ,

A runaway, from the Government Estab- lishment at Emu Plains, was brought before the Bench yesterday, having been appre- hended near Dr. Dalhunty's residence, at Burwood. When questioned as to his rea- sons for absconding from his gang, this, being the fifth time he was brought forward on this charge, he pleaded in excuse the severity of h.s overseer, and stated that he would suffer lo be cut into pound pieces ere he would return. The Magistrates sentenced him to receive 75 lashes, and to be forwarded to the Bench, at Penrith, where it appears, some serious charge is to be preferred against

him.

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