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On Saturday last sailed for England, the ship Mangles, Captain Cogill. Passengers, John Wylde, Esquire, late Judge Advocate of this Territory, Son, and Daughter; Major Morriset, 48th Regi- ment; Captain John Macarthur; Charles Macar- thur, Esquire; Drs. Price, Dobie, Hamilton, and Crocket ; Mr. James Atkinson ; Mr. Carne, Lady, and family; Mrs. Harvey and family; Mr. Turner ; Mr. Broadfoot; Mr. G.K. Nichols; Mr. Uther and two daughters; with six others. The cargo com- prised 635 bales of wool, 295 loads of timber, 40,000 trenails, 5 casks of fur skins, 1757 hair ditto, 1 cask of kangaroo ditto, and a few cases of
On Tuesday last sailed for Hobart Town, the brig Governor Macquarie, Captain Tomkins — with a full cargo of sundries.--Passengers, G. T. Pitt- man, Esq. and Mr. Beveridge.
Remain in the harbour, with H. M. ship Slaney, the ships Ardent, Phoenix, Swallow, Hope, St. Michael, and Grenada ; with the brigs Active, Ann, Hawes, Fame, and Lord Liverpool cutter.
His Excellency the Governor in Chief came to Town on Tuesday morning. A Council
was convened in the forenoon.
In the evening His Excellency dined with the Colonial Treasurer, at his residence in O'Con- nell-street ; and yesterday the Officers of His Majesty's 40th Regiment entertained the Com-
mander of the Forces at Dinner.
This morning His Excellency returns to
We were not a little gratified in having the op- portunity of promulgating to the world a correct
account of the late discoveries in the interior of this country, undertaken and accomplished by these enterprising travellers---Messrs. Hovell and Hume. Our satisfaction, however, was considerably damped on perusing the comments of our contemporary upon that occasion. He might have contented himself with paying every proper encomium to the Gentle- men more immediately interested in the publication of his strictures, without embracing the opportunity of lampooning a Character, that happens to be placed infintely beyond the reach of such envenomed but powerless missiles. Why does he not turn over a new leaf? Will he never grow wise, after all our pains to bring about a reformation ? We are almost resolved against giving any more of our time to such a sulky and sullen pupil ; but as he ventured to speculate last week upon a certain subject, we have a desire to put him right once more, and then see what course he will steer. As we are about to set off on a voyage of discovery, quite new to us, we crave the charity of the considerate Reader, well knowing that om- contemporary will only lend us the same helping hand as the sailor did the Jew, who sent the poor fellow to the bottom without mercy. As we are not going further then Western Port this trip, we shall take into account a few plain facts, and endeavour on the journey to amuse ourselves with proving, as satisfactorily as circumstances will permit, the short-sightedness of all these fine spun theories that came into the world from Macquarie- place, on Thursday morning last. We will en- deavour to explain that the Surveyor General has not " sweepingly disposed" of that immense tract of country with which he is thoroughly acquainted, and which he was well warranted in officially pro- nouncing to be " uninhabitable and useless for all the purposes of civilized man." Surely he would never have hazarded such a "sweeping" assertion upon vague surmise; and, fortunately for our pur- pose, this Officer's testimony is corroborated by that of other Gentlemen equally respectable, and equally official. " Actual observation has proved (to use the words of our contemporary) that a considerable extent of country in the same latitude, and nearly in the same longitude with the immense tract" passed over by the late travellers, although " Eng- lish-like in point of climate," is NOT " the finest in point of soil ; neither is that part of the island blessed with "an admirable port, and a river not in- ferior in magnitude to any yet known in the Colony." " These unparalleled advantages for the formation of a new settlement," never could have entered the minds of Messrs. Hume and Hovell---such sophistries can only have existence in the fertile imagination of those who would the other day colonise, at one dash of the quill, the Southern Island of New Zea- land --and now, forsooth, without any satisfactory grounds, would argue the adoption (in our time too !) of steam-boats, so that they might charmingly whiff across the straits ! That Messrs. Hovell and Hume may have passed some fertile plains, we will not attempt to deny---and indeed who can? but that they encountered the river spoken of in such ardent terms by our contemporary, as well as " the beautiful tract of country near Western Port," must be doubted, whilst the united autho- rities of Captains Murray, Barrallein, and Tuckey, go to establish the contrary position, in which they are supported by the Surveyor General, who most
laboriously investigated Western Port so far back
even as 1805.
As regards capabilities, Western Point is wholly destitute ; whilst, on the other hand, its incapabili- ties have been repeatedly ascertained. In casting our eyes over the map, at first view, its situation appears to command the north side of Bass's Straits ; and the Surveyor General (whose profes- sional talents and industry are well known), would have been highly culpable, had he even inadvertently overlooked the many advantages that now, all at once, burst in upon our yet benighted contemporary. With the exception of Port Philip, which was ne- cessarily abandoned for want of water as well as proper anchorage, by Colonel Collins, in 1804, no other inlet or port presents itself to the eye of the mariner, save this notorious Western Port. Bass's Straits were so named after the Doctor that made
the discovery. Western Port was examined by Dr. Bass; and subsequently, in 1801, it was mi- nutely surveyed and sounded by Captains Murray and Barrallein. As the French have expressed more than common anxiety relative to this island, and no doubt intended to plant a Colony in some nook or other, could they only have met with the object of research, the discovery-ships, under Baudin, tried the merits of this "admirable port ;" but the Commodore was ill repaid for his patient investiga- tion. In 1804, Captain Tuckey, and other Officers attached to the expedition under Col. Collins, while in the neighbourhood (Port Phillip), were enabled to report, most decisively, on its demerits; which, had the case been otherwise, would have prevented, at that early period, the colonization of Van Diemen's Land. Governor King, however, not content with the explanations that he considered unsatisfactory, in the year 1805, directed that the harbour, as well as the surrounding country, should undergo another scrutiny: in the course of which the expedition had ample opportunity to gain all the information that could possibly be desired, either by the Colonial or Home Government, as to the probability of either the country or harbour being adapted to a settle- ment, or considered a safe port. Upon this occa- sion, the Gentlemen (the fact we state upon the highest authority) actually walked round the bay, which contains about 100 miles, and only saw two or three insignificant rivulets, leaving a river, not inferior in magnitude to any yet known in the Co- lony," entirely out of the question ! ! ! But, as we have no desire to impugn the veracity of the Gentle- men from whose journal so many inferences have been drawn, it might not be impossible, as the country in the immediate vicinity is said to be extremely low and swampy, but that the tremendous accumu- lation of fresh waters from the snowy mountains, in the Australian Alps, may have forced a passage, in the lapse of 20 years, into some one of the un- explored or undiscovered parts of this "admirable harbour !" We would now refer the still incredu- lous, if such there are, to Captain Horsburgh's published account of Western Port, which has made more stir in the world, perhaps, than our con- temporary is yet aware of. If this work will not suffice, let a reference be made to the printed as well as written reports of the distinguished Officers already adverted to; one and all concur in exclaim- ing against the capabilities of this port, by forcibly observing " that Western Port appears to lay in a deep bight; to be of dangerous access; to be open at one entrance to the winds from the West, whilst the other is equally exposed to the Southern gales ; that there is not a solitary sheltered cove in it ; that the tides, rising from 10 to 13 feet, run with great rapidity ; and that, at low water, the greater part of the shores of the port is altogether inaccessible from the bounding mud flats; and that the whole of the upper part of the port, opposite the large
island (seen by Messrs. Hovell and Hume) is also dry---a boat channel to a small suit water inlet ex- cepted; that fresh water is uncommonly scarce, no running waters being discoverable in any part of the main land—the streams, having their source in swamps on the E. and N. E. sides of the main land, being also excepted, as they are accessible, at high water, to large boats." Should this authentic in- formation be thought unworthy of credit, no doubt our contemporary will be good enough, in his next number, to describe more accurately all the nauti- cal advantages Western Port appeared to hold out
to Messrs. Hovell and Hume. From what we have read, and what we have heard, in conjunction with the map now before us, all idea of ever fixing a settle- ment at Western Port, must be abandoned at least for another century. Should a vessel only happen to miss the exact latitude, with the wind on, it would be impossible to avoid destruction ; and the commander of a vessel might as well think of safely mooring in the open sea, as securely riding at an- chor in this said "admirable port !"
As relates to the " sweeping" animadversion of Mr. Oxley, it must be taken for granted, till proved to the contrary, that a personal acquain- tance only could have induced, or in fact war- ranted the Surveyor General in passing so de- cided, and doubtless correct an opinion. Why should our contemporary venture on attempting to shake the testimony of so laborious and zealous an Officer, when that Gentleman condescends not to contradict the statements put forth by our contem- porary? Let him be kind enough to look at Mr. Oxley's printed proceedings in 1817, and he will ascertain that the Surveyor General's most Western part is connected with the personal observations of Mr. Brown, made on the summit of Mount Brown, on the East side of Spencer's Gulf.
In their diagonal route from N.E. to S. W. to- wards Western Port, it is not by any means impos- sible that Messrs. Hovell and Hume, after crossing the meridian of 147° 30', might have passed some tracts of good country ; but then it should he re- collected, that the distance between that meridian and Western Port is quite trifling; and that such tracts are inaccessible, unless by that port. It might not altogether be pardonable in us to attempt a correct estimate of the extent of fine country passed over, on this occasion, in the vicinity of Western Port, without further information on the only part of the subject that is confessedly obscure to our comprehension, but which, we are flattered, these enterprising travellers (who, again we rei- terate, deserve so much applause), for the preserva- tion of their own reputation, as well as for the information of the world at large, will most readily render public more voluminous details, or place in our hands a copy of their journal---and also favour us, pro bono publico, with a map of their route— which will have a tendency to solve many enigmas, as well as to consign over to the shades of neglect and reproach, the names of Bass, Murray, Barral- lein, Baudin, Horsburgh, Tuckey---with a host of
By the production of the map it might perchance
turn out, that the great river spoken of, does not fall into Western Port ; and should that not be the case, which we must as yet discredit, for mere as- sertion is of no esteem in such important matters, we might be the humble means of pointing out some other more probable point of discharge.
We now hasten back to town from the trip with which we have indulged ourselves---and feel neither fatigued nor embarrassed by the explorations un- dertaken for the benefit of the Community.
After the authorities we have called in to the es- tablishment of truth, we need observe little upon the absurdity of speculations that can only be termed ' idle fancies.' It is said, that " the tide of settlement will turn ;" we should be glad to know when ? That our contemporary has a desire to see that distant period may be safely concluded from the circumstance of his calculating upon " living to see one or more weekly steam-packets plying be- tween Western Port and Port Dalrymple !" We are led to enquire, where is the boasted sapiency of the present men of letters flown to---those that have been reared to the bar? Where is the individual, in the possession of his rational faculties, that could be induced to believe that a lady or gentleman, or both, for the sake of visiting Tasmania by land, would in the first place, set out for Bathurst---one week's journey ; from thence proceed to the Lach- lan---another week's recreative jaunt ; and then enter upon the third stage Western Port, which would take up 21 days longer---making, in the whole, five weeks ? and after all, these intimidated creatures must venture across the ' treacherous deep,' and run the risk of being longer on this short trip, than they would actually have been in setting out from Port Jackson---generally a run of only 7, sometimes 4 or 5 days ! The cheap, as well as the expeditious and safe manner of inland travelling, is also to be had in remembrance ! Long life to our confident contemporary, for we have no hope of welcoming the arrival of that "steam packet" day, unless our then bald and obsolete pate, like an old statute book with a new covering, be kindly sheltered from the chilly blasts of the Australian Alps by the important addition of a wig !
It is our sincere desire, in which we are certain of being joined by every well-disposed inhabitant, that the bush-rangers throughout the Territory will avail themselves, unhesitatingly, of the extraordi- nary extension of mercy graciously exercised by the Governor in Chief, published in our last, and return to that service, from which industry, honesty, and sobriety, can at all be expected to yield any lawful relief. But, should offenders be so dreadfully hardened in crime, as to disregard the present and only remaining hope of pardon, we have no hesitation in affirming, that against such characters, be they many or few, the door of mercy ought, for ever, to be closed ! The Proclamation, most assuredly, is a death-blow to the present in- creased number of runaways, and a more sound political act has not yet emanated from the present Executive--- it is decisive in its nature, and must prove beneficial in its influence. It is our opinion, that every prisoner, upon his second or third of- fence, should be drafted to Port Macquarie for a limited period--- in which case hope may still ani- mate the outcast to a reverence for virtue, and there- by induce a proper return to civilized life, on the stage of which a transformation might be exhibited. But, in the event of men persisting in crime, after this almost waste of mercy, we would urge ba- nishment to Macquarie Harbour for the re- mainder of their sentences. With some characters
severity is only mercy---the bare thought of the last-mentioned penal settlement makes the heart of the most desperate to palpitate with dread !
Our contemporary, good naturedly enough, an- nounced the embarkation of His Honor the late Judge Advocate in his last. But we could not avoid observing, at the same time, the inadvertent inconsistency of our competitor ; for, while in the act of censuring the valedictory addresses too com- monly in estimation amongst us, he commits the very same offence, by addressing a few " parting words" to our late Premier Judge! We always thought our contemporary was only a new hand in the Colony--- and of recent importation--- but he ap- pears to be so well acquainted with the character of the late honorable Judge-ships that we are begin- ning to imagine our conjectures, as to that point, must have been immaturely formed. In reference to His Honor the late Judge Advocate we have no- thing to urge--- we rejoice that His Honor escuped the vicissitudes of shipwreck, and got clear off from a Colony, which must have considerably deteriorated in His Honor's opinion, during the last few days of his unavoidable detention here that originated in adverse circumstances. It is our hobby-horse to give every one their desert, which induces us to mention, most honorably to the character of Judge Field, indifferent as he is allowed to have been in other respects, that it was an invariable maxim with him to owe no man any thing, and with this principle in operation, Judge Field was most exact and honora- ble in his payments--- and we believe no one in the Colony can libel that Character by alleging he de- parted this Australian life in a poor man's debt--- or that he defrauded the hireling of his wages--- or that he omitted, in the hurry of business, to pay the poor barber for curling and powdering his wig ! No, no ; so far Judge Field's honour is unim- peachable.
Every Reader will be delighted at the manly, unvarnished, and otherwise able statement of public inconveniences, as well as flagrant nuisances, that came under the cognizance of the late Grand Jury of the Court of Quarter Sessions. The former one was an exposition of facts that loudly called for prompt attention -- the present is not merely a repetition of circumstances previously narrated, but also developes certain grievances that there can be small doubt will shortly be remedied. Relative to the serious inconveniences arising out of the contractedness of the present County Gaol, by the Government it is as much deplored as it well can be by the Public. The New Gaol on the South-head road, in the absence of a sufficiency of efficient mechanics, does not pro- ceed with that alacrity which is wished for by all parties, and by none more strenuously than by the Government Authorities.
To all appearance this intended immense pile of buildings has been at a stand-still for some months past, which, however, we are enabled to report is not the fact. Such a structure as the new gaol, requires huge preparations, which are making with all possible expedition. The stone is being quarried, and conveyed to the ground, and other materials are also in preparation--- but little or no expedition can be expected from fewness of hands. We are not aware, were there people in the Colony sufficiently strong in capital, and possessed of diligence and ability, whether it would not much better answer the purposes of Government, and facilitate public convenience, by contracting for the erection of the County Gaol within a given time. This, however, is merely our opinion ; but still the interests of Government might thereby be equally protected as in the present unavoidably slow way of proceeding.
The decayed and dangerous state of the King's Wharf, that we have already had occasion to advert to, has also very properly been represented. If not speedily repaired, or re- newed, the Public is in danger of losing the valuable services of our attentive Postmaster, who, some day or other, might
perchance drop through one of the many openings, and sink beneath the briny flood. This is too great a risk to be en- dured with impunity.
The new Market-houses, those stately mansions that run upon wheels, have been considered proper objects of repre- hension. These little hovels would be admirably adapted for travellers who would like to visit Tasmania, via Western Port, through the newly discovered interior. This sugges-
tion we leave for cool consideration.
The Inquest concludes with the abominable way in which the Tanks---now the only public reservoir for water within miles of Sydney---is rendered almost useless from the num- berless nuisances that are unceasingly running into this valuable stream. For years we have been harping upon this string, but now that a Jury is established, we shall no longer
run the risk of having our suggestions contemptuously smiled at, and suffered to pass unnoticed. We are decidedly of opinion, that no brewery should be allowed to empty itself into the Tanks, and that no license should be granted to any brewer, unless it was made one of the conditions of his bond,
that no superfluous washings or water, be allowed to connect themselves with any part of the stream running into the Tanks. The tanners, too, in that vicinity, if any there are, ought at once to be indicted as public nuisances. No one should be allowed to erect out-houses that discharge them- selves into the stream, which is at present the case----in proof of which it is only necessary to examine the banks between George-street and Pitt-street. The boundary of each gar- den should be walled-in --- to effect which the owners of
grounds in that vicinity generally have ample means.