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Laud Line Difficulties. MORE DESCRIPTIONS OF


In countries like Australia, where vast distances have to be covered, network broadcasting presents special difficul- ties. Experiments are constantly being made and gradually the technique is becoming smoother. There remain, however, things that cannot be done


For Instance, when a programme has been relayed from the mainland to Tasmania, some considerable time must elapse before it is possible to relay an item from Tasmania to the mainland. There are occasions when the same thing applies as between two States on the mainland, but it is pronounced in re- gard to Tasmania because of the lesser number of telephone lines connecting that State with the others.

Relays from State to State do not go through the atmosphere, but by landllne from studio to studio and then go again on the air. Be- tween Sydney and Melbourne, for Instance, the sound waves have to be built up at recog- nised places en route because they weaken as they get farther from the place of origin. At these places they enter "boosters" which give them strength to carry on to the next boosting station, and so finally to their


These "boosters" do not work in reverse. The lines connected for a relay from Melbourne to Sydney are no good for a relay from Sydney to Melbourne. They must be relinked for the reverse run or, as more often happens, a second set of lines must be connected to Hie "booster." If It is possible to have this second set in readiness there may be next to no delay in changing over from a Melbourne to a Sydney national relay. But If a second set has to be tested and prepared for the new relayed programme anything up to half an hour may be required if perfect transmission is to be guaranteed.


As far as possible, the Australian Broad- casting Commission is allocated regular lines for broadcast relays, and, these having been tested for various type3 of broadcasts, it Is possible to make a change-over in short time. Thirty seconds is the normal allowance for this. Those are the occasions on which the listeners hear the studio gong chiming out a fragment of "Pussy's in the Well."

This warns the announcer in each of the cities concerned in the relay that the item li finished. He disconnects his stations from the trunk line and comes on the air himself with an announcement which gives the techni- cal staff time to do whatever is necessary to allow the new items to come through. To en- sure that all the technicians along the route between, say Sydney and Melbourne, make their adjustments in the 20 seconds between the chiming of the last gong and the coming on the air of the new national relay was once a problem of magnitude: but it is done to-day

as a matter of course.

There are times, however, when, as the A.B.C Federal superintendent, Mr. T. W. Bearup, pointed out yesterday, the most care- ful arrangements are upset and ordinary chan- nels are not available. For instance, last sum- mer's bushfires in Victoria made it necessary to find unusual landline routes so that relays might be maintained. In these circumstances the technicians are faced with an entirely new set of circumstances involving hurried test- ing and the making of the hundred and one adjustments without which receotion will be poor. Bushfires, storms, and floods are the more spectacular of the disrupters of the service. One small child with a kite which becomes entangled in a telephone wire, may be just as upsetting.

Broadcasting executives dream of che day when all landlines will be underground, but that day is a long way off.


"The Fury of Revolution" will be the sub- ject of a talk from 2BL at 9.45 . m. to-day. The speaker will be Madame Lui Gardo, who claims to be the only woman to enlist in the White Russian Army in her own name, and she will give some of the experiences which befell her as a soldier in the days be- tween the defeat of Russia and the coming into power of the Bolsheviks. She will give n, second talk through 2BL on Tuesday, June

13, at 9.45 p.m.

Anothei talk set down for to-night Is "The March of Democracy," the last of the series arranged by C. Tapley Timms. This will come from 2FC at 7,40 p.m. Hil earlier talks have been on Fascism and Communism.


Australian listeners will have another op- portunity this week of listening to a descrip- tion of part of the Royal tour. The King and Queen are expected to arrive in Washing- ton, U.S.A., early on Friday morning, and a description of the arrival will be broadcast. This broadcast will reach New South Wales listeners through 2FC between 10.30 p.m. and 11.20 p.m. The description will not take up the 50 minutes set aside on the programme, but the time not required will be given to a talk on the work of the British Foreign Office by Sir Robert Vansittart, Diplomatic Adviser to the Foreign Secretary.

An additional Royal tour broadcast will be given through 2FC on Sunday, between 8.30 a.m. and 9.15 a.m., when the commentary will cover the arrival of the King and Queen in New York and their drive through the streets of the city. Finally, on Friday, June 16, from 4.45 p.m. to 5.15 p.m., there will be relayed a description of the departure of their Majesties from Halifax, Nova Scotia. This will be placed direct on the national relay, and will be re- peated from 2FC at 10.45 p.m.

The recent Empire broadcast, with its con- tributions from all over the world, meant weeks of preliminary preparation. The only anxiety in regard to this week's commentaries will be on the score of conditions for reception. Mont Park, Melbourne, short-wave station, designed almost exclusively for picking up and re broadcasting oversea programmes, will play the vital part. It has aerial arrays which ensure a maximum pick-up, particularly from Daven try, England, by way of which these commen- taries will come from America.


Sunday's national íclay irogramme con- tal is a series of features provided by Goidon Ireland fiom the ABC library of musical records Always interesting, his offerings will have a special attraction next Sunday, for he has unearthed what is desciibed as "a re- markable old record of Melba singing 'L'Amour est pui,' from Bembeig's 'Elaine.'" This recoid appears to have been lost sight of in the flooc of newer lecoids, und until now has ne\ei been published in Australia It will be included in the 'Bulled casure" session which comes on the air fiom 2FC at

12 30 pm


The Australian Broadcasting Commission ha- secured the exclusive oadcaslins rights for oversea artists soon to appeal on the stage in Australia They are the Mills Brothers a famous quartet, George Robey, comedian and Nick Lucas the singing troubadoui

It will be recalled that early last year ta ran^em t- voie made loi the Commission to broac-ast perfoi manees b\ the Mills Biothers, but the quartets plans ii a visit fell through Duiing a ten weeks' tour the ABC will broadcast the quai tet three times a week Tile Robey broadcasts will extend ovei 11 weeks and Nick Lucas /ill be bioadcast twice weekly during the time he remains in



The Daughter of the Di agon," a musical íomance by Muriel Leslie and D Bowes Kelley will be bioadcasl from .!FC, 2NR, and 2CY on Saturday June if, at 8 10 p -> Marie Biemnei will be featured as Princess Ming Toy, the singinr» role of the Empeioi will be played by Richaid Bengei and Peter Finch will act the sper ' uig part The music has been wiitten b\ Mr Frederick Whaite p membei

of the ABC s surr

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