OUR VIENNA LETTER.
VIENNA, Nov. 23.
DIFFICULTIES OF THE GOVERNMENT.
Tho Austrian Parlmmcnt which1 waa sent
home booauso of the violent obstiuotion going on in it is again sitting regularly, if not accom- plishing much Tho merit of ita working belongs to tha new Premier, Count Clary, who is at tho head of a neutral non-political Cabinet d'affnua The Conservative majority, with T^eobB and Po'os as its most important fractions, natnrally desires a Ministry from among its own ranks, although no such Ministry baa ever boon able to last ¡bo from discontent thoy openly and seorotly oppose tho Ministry, carrying on a thinly veiled obstruction Tbo majority finds Count Clary too strictly constitutional in tpint, and dis- approves of his first act, which was solemnly to deoliro that ho would novel employ tho ill famed emcrgenoy clauso 11 of tho Constitution, ivlnch tho last Primo Minister, Couut Thun, applied in such an unconstitutional way He, it will bo remembered, ignoring Parliament, governed by tho strength of th it clause, by means of it sanctioning tho Utidger, the prolongation of tho treaty with Hungary, and other moat impor- tant measures On the Honso's reassembling a motion was brought in for tho total abolition or curtailment of that clause, but lho reactionary majority, doBpito lho fant that the unlimited application of tho clause modo tho Aus- trian Parliament superfluous, tried to frustrate tho motion by procrastm ition It appears but too probable that the presont neutral Premier's declaration that ho would lievor apply the clau«o unconstitutionally will prove tho ¿Lath warrant of hiH Ministry Tho Poles and T^eohs loso no opportunity of trying to overthrow him Tho other day the Commission for tho Control of tho Public Debt, in which the Right has a majority of one vote, declined to delivo" the 59 million florina in gold, ivhich the Government, m accor- dance with tho proAisionsof the Ausgleich had to hand over to tho Austro-IIumrarian Bank As tho "timo for it is now quite uear, tho Government is greatly embarras9od Thus, Count Clary's Cabinet is being-relentlessly driven to uso clauso 14 or-to resign The situation has become so di dienlt that the Emperor himself hns interfered, and IB summoning to him one after-tho other of tho leading roombes of the majority, and im- pressing on.them tho fact that at present only a neutral non-political Cabinet is possiblo In the past, whonover tho Emperor made such a direct appeal to those concerned, his in Huerica always snftii ed to remoi e tho ditiiculty, and it is to bo hoped that it will do so this time
GOETHE'S LAST LOVE
At Topbtz, in Bohemia, took placo on the 12th instant the death of a person who is famous in German literatura without over having been au author, or even tho relativo of one, namely Goethe's last love, the Baroness Ulnko von ieve tow. Tho greatest German poet and lover was alreadj 71 years old when he fell passionately in love with her, then a girl of l8, but endowed with a surpassing charm of body and mind To his eathtuiiBtic admiration of Ulnko the Gorman people owo tho " Trilogy of Passion," which the still youthful poet of 73 wrote after meet- ing bet at Mnnenbad and Karlsbad when a girl of IS summers Pho uolent attachmontjwhich the " Olympian " conceived for tho charming maid tilled her soul with a noble pr.do that never left her till her death at the great ago of 9J Her tv bolo soul and being wore devoted toGoetneB memory She never married, and even in her last days her thoughts and feelings wore still occupied vith the remembrance of whut befell her IU her loth year notwithstanding her advancodage she never lost htr mental freshness, nor the myste- rious charm that took the poet captive, any more than a sonco of tholieauhiul und the piety with which she treasured Goethe's memory Formauy years all who sought to throw fresh light on his lifo wer? wont to make Teplitz their Mecca, where they sought out his captivator to hear from her lips what manner of mau ho was Her en- during Tame, rests not on aujh^ she did, but solely
on what bhe was
Tue Viennese photographer, Herr Pietzner, is reported to havo achieved an important succesB in tho application of photography to tho produc- tion of reliefs. It is long since tho first efforts in this direction wera made by some now forgot- ten person At the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1807 were shown reliefs in the preparation of which photography had been used, hut the pro coduro waa really n failure Since then many have tried to turn to account in this direction tbo hw elling of gelatino But they did not really produco plastic reliofs Only the other day carno
from Berlin tho news that Herr Seiko there had discovered i process that he called " Photosculp ture," but it did not fully answer Kow, how- ever, it appears that liorr Pietrner lias succeeded in solving tho really difficult problem Tho other day he showed eoveral persons tho objects in re- lief inado by moans of tho photograph camera by bia own process, which ho has named " Plaato graphy " Somoof the reliefs aro after living models, others after paintings, drawings, e"èc They aro declared to bo genuino art-industrial products Seiko's process did not go beyond fix- ing the contours of numerous parallel longitudinal sections of tho model, leaving tho datall to bo put in by hand Plastography, on tho other hand, which for its part also is based on tho swelling of glue, reproduces all the detail and even fine
AU that is needed afterwards is tho insertion of n fow very fino touches, as for instanco to bring out tho drapery moro olearly than it was in the photograph eorving as a pattern ITho new process is expected greatly to "cheapen reliefs, und to constitute a new branoh of art industry At present the nlato for a scarfpm, after Char- pentier, costs some .15,000fr -a high figuro, which we may expect plastogiaphy very mate- rially to deoroose without the sacrifice of tho utmost fineness. Tho reproductions Her- Piéti- ner showed tlie visitors to his studio were in metal, plaster, wax, ohma, ¿o They were of very divers characters, including an oxcellent por- trait of tho Emporoi, tho lines and detail remind- ing the beholder of tho best Trench work, also tho reproduction of Dupms's .' Wave, ' both in metul and on vaEes of the most modern styles Then ho showed reproduotions after paintings by the cele- brated Austrian painter Maknrt, and after other mod»rn masters, both portraits and ntherpictures Of great intorcst wcie the fittings for doors and furmturo in tho English style, which aro very im- portant for nrt-indnstry Thoirclnan, smooth lines mot with much appreciation Pietrner s process Berves likewise for tho production of plates for cmbOoMng leaeher, wall-paper, bookcovers, name plates, and many similar things The now pro- cess seems likely to make tbo hand production of such things dispensable, and consequently very considerably to rtduco their price . and tor tho commercial exploitation of tho process a firm has
been formed in Viouun
NEW ROENTGEN RAYS
A new kind of Roentgen ray seems to have been discovered very recently. At the meeting of the Chemical-Physical Society held in Vienna the other day Herr Stefan Meyer and Dr. von Schweidler made some very interesting experi-
ments with the newly-discovered element "radium". That element gives off rays very similar to, but weaker, than the Roentgen rays. The former, like the latter, produce a distinctly discernible fluorescence, and they can even pene- trate aluminium and other metals-even rather thick lead. Another important quality of radium is its making the air conductive for electricity.
The first pnblic demonstration of the properties of radium took place before the Society of Phy- sicists at Munich quite recentlv, and now they have been shown to a number of scientists in Vienna. They were carried on in a perfectly dark room. The first thing shown was a screen coated with cyanide of barium platinum, and radium produced fluorescence on it. The light given off was visible at a distance of about two metres, and much resembled that of the glowworm. The in- sertion of an aluminium plate slightly weakencd the effect, while copper and iron did so still more, but the phosphorescent light remained visible to those near. Then some radium was placed near an electroscope, and the resultant effect shown on a white screen on the wall. All the experiments showed that the now element really possesses the qualities ascribed to it
AN AIR SHIP
It seems a very far cry from the besieged Kimberley to the peaceful Lake of Constance, while between keeping the Boers at bay and a new aeronautic apparatus surely there ap- pears no connection. But yet the connec- tion is a real one, for to the defender of that South African town, Colonel Baden-Powell, we owe some of the few particulars as yet published concerning Count Zeppelin's great air-ship, now about complete in a workshop on the Lake of
Constance. It is said that the first trials with the apparatus will take place very shortly indeed. Though little is positively known about the in- vention, wonderful things are told of it. The preparations are said to be quite complete, and the filling of the balloon has begun. The first thing will be to test its steering capacity, to see if it will sail against a strong head wind, or even a breeze. The new air-ship is a self-propelling balloon of novel size and shape. It is to be lifted and supported by the air, its own efforts being confined to the production of only horizontal motion. The entire structure is said to be as large as a first-class man-of-war, its enormous frame- work is entirely of aluminium, and the whole looks like one huge balloon, which in fact it is, but with fifteen smaller balloons inside it, on the principle of the water-tight compartments of a ship. So the bursting of one, or even several, of the inner balloons would merely detract from its relative lightness, and in nowise produce a fall. Its engines are expected to drive it 22 miles an hour. So light is the whole that it is anticipated it will carry ten thousand kilogrammes, which would make it possible to take with one all that was necessary for several days' uninterrupted sail through the air. The cost of the aeronautic argosy is believed to have been about £70,000.
The correspondents of English and American papers aro said to have chartered steamers to take them about the lake on the occasion of the trial trip, the larger ones for journalists and photo- graphers, the smaller as despatch.boats to carry messages to the nearest telegraph office. The balloon has been constructed in a workshop about 500 metres from the shore, of the Lako of Con- stance, from which sheet of water the first ascent will be made. It has been decidod to start from the water so as entirely to prevent damage to the expensive apparatus. In this way, even the cars, which are fixed by means of aluminium rods, aud not by cords, will not be damaged. On the trial trip it is proposed that only Count Zeppelin, his manager Director Roebler, and two assistants should mako the ascent, the remaining necessary weight being made up by ballast.
THE WINTER FASHIONS.
So mild has been the prolonged fine weather in Vienna this autumn that it is only ont, of respect
for the calendar that wo are DOW speaking of winter and writing of winter fashions, which in- deed havo hardly as yet been so much aa aired Although those oharminc autumns aro very wel- come to the general public, for tho tradesmen thoy aro a misfortune, as no ono will invest in expen- sive fura or elaborately fur trimmed outdoor garments morely as ornaments Cons»quontly tho heavy Astrachan, Porman, and seal skin capes have as j et had but a poor solo On tho othei hand fur boleros, spencers, and wido many-tailed boas, worn with tailor-mado costumes, havo been very much patronised
Somo of theso boleros aro vorv dainty articles, composed of Persian or seal sir n, with wido sable oc chinchilla rovers. Thoy aro frequently lined with ermine, and this mixture of fur» in tho small jackets is very successful A few long ermiBO boas ate worn, but as a rule the darl cr skins, such as skunk, marten, or sable, aro pre- ferred, the rich tails being moro effective than those of the ermine Theo bois'form a handsome finish to the winter toilettes The oxpenso of real fur causes many cheap imitations
The skating toilettes of cloth or velvet are ex- tensiv ely trimmed with real fur Thoy now tako au important place, as now and admirably ar- ranged skating places have been onclosod in Vienna for this popular amusement Tho ico lakes are of groat size, and tho shelter and re- freshment rooms in every way suitable
The winter costnmes aro ont n redingote, princes", or pinaioro form, the doublo skirt taking tho lead Thero is an evident attempt to enlarge the narrow, pockctless skirt this season Hip pleats aro placed at the back, and though tho process is gradual theio IB no doubt that next spring will seo much wider skirts than thoso worn this year. The t-kirtô sec in yoke-pieces have a good effect, especially when they endjneerpen tmo volants Much application embroidery in satin md cloth is used for (lav todettes, as well ns for outdoor jackets and paletots Handsome stitched bands of a paler shade aro sold with the dress mitemls they have several straight lines or waved linca of btitohing ra silk These bands form a foot trimming, or simulate a tunic or ridingote <
Tho greatest attention is, of course, now bo stowod upon the preparation of ball and evening robes, many of them being extremely graceful They are generally made with embroidered tunica in guuj-o, tulle, or lace over silk foundations The overekirt is elaborately embroidered in a tinsel, jet, or puiUetted design, and the tunic, which is out m endless forms, is then finished with it deep fringe Tho sleeves in long or elbow lcnglh form are transparent, piped, ribbed, or tucked, whilo the tulle bodice is plain and dnped across to tho side Among the many tunic models, we mav mention a princess tumo of f raiso satin, deeply scolloped at the decolletago, and edg»d throughout with a deep fnngo and network border, above which a floral application design in
fruso maslin followed tho border The under- skirt, in Anted fraise muslin, is placed over a silk foundation ra the samo colour Another charm- ing princess tunic, comjiosed of yellowish Irish lace, had a deep point in front, and through the opening» of tho lace narrow block velvet ribbon was run in rosette» A tumo of roadish loee over a white silk Blip with a deep serpentine v olant was also very effective Fringes, embroidered designs, and network in chemllo and jet are among tho favourite trimmings for evening toi- lettes , narrow rouleiux of fur sometimes follow designs in coarse laoe or guipure
Somo of the blouse bodices for evening wear aro
really admirable A modol in peach salin which fastened behind was partly covered with a bolero of white tulle omb-oidory in coloursd silks A large bow of velvet was placed upon the bust
the narrow bolt was of peach satan Auothor of pate silk was hooked at the left shoulder and sido seams, and was finished with a lovely braided border 1 luck piping* of the silk crossed the yoko and the upper pait of the sleeves, the-crnvat and belt wero of a darker Bhodo of velvet A third bodioo of oonro silk niuslm was mado with diagonal tucl s, alternating with side insertions of laco it vv as fastened at tno side with \ civ et stiap3 to strass buttons
Some lovely tea-gowns aro being mado up, the materials employed being cashmere in whito and zinc, figured foulards, with cerise, cipucine, mistic, and ochre grounds, old pink vetantes, and lovely foulards with white and palo grounds strewn with brilliant sprays of flowers or bernes here and there D'ep lace .or \ ok et collars on % ery dPep yokes aro mado with them Tho bodice usually is overhung, or at least pouched A velvet waist-belt or a deoply fnngod sash forms a pretty finish Whero no collar is seen i sort of half bolero, deeply fringed,
fastens at the side
Lai e, which, is even employed for long outdoor volvot and cloth mantles, borag a very fashion- able trimming now, is placed lu insertion from between bands of fur The long paletots and capes h ivo not vot bocome general hero Those lons paletots whioh aro worn aro genorally made of livery drab cloth, in sac form, adorned with two rows of enormouB flat pearl buttons The shorter jucket« îu half length, with half loose fronts, aro much moro patronised in Vienna, allowing, as they do of so much elaborate braid- ing and application, which fir botter suits tho tasto of tho VienneEQ than anything so decidedly plam as a long sac paletot fmorelv Btitohcd at the edges and pockets
Tho winter gaieties havo as yot scarcely com- menced, but dancing and probably a gay carnival will follow the Now Year, when the musical and
theatrical life of Vienna will begin in earnest.
For the sako of the dainty skating costumes it ia I to bo hoped that we shall havo more ico this I
winter than we had last. I