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Thursday, January 30, IST6.
The little missionary steamer Ellen- gowan has once moro returned to Somer- set with further tidings from the scene of lier former discoveries. She has made an adventurous voyage up the great river which, it was the good fortune of Mr. M'Farlane to have discovered and re- ported on after Mr. Macleay had beaten a somewhat too hasty retreat. This time, however, the missionary received the material support which the secular ann of authority conveys, and it is not improba- ble that the assistance afforded by Mr. Chester and the few native troopers he had with hun contributed to the ultimate safety of the whole party. The very brief report published by us yesterday gives, no doubt, a very faint concep- tion of the perils that were really encountered. Of these, pro- bably, we shall have a . much fuller and more particular account hereafter. Enough, however, has been told to show that this enterprising little band of ex- plorers escaped- by the skin of their teeth from the unenviable fate which awaited them if they had actually fallen into the hands of the savages who interrupted their progress vip the magnificent river by which they penetrated upwards of 165 miles into the interior of this un- known country. The fortunate circum- stance that M. D'Albertis was provided with a good supply of dynamite for the peaceful purpose of obtainiug a supply of fish proved, probably, the salvation of the whole party. We maj' be tolerably cer- tain, nevertheless, that the defensive demonstrations were not limited to the harmless explosion of a few charges of dynamite. Some, at any rate, of the passengers and crew of the Ellen- gowan must have been armed, and if they made use of their arms when driven to extremities, no one would blame them for doing so. There appears to he no doubt of the unprovoked hostility of the natives. That they so far succeeded in that hos- tility must be admitted, for tho Ellen- gowan was obliged to retrace lier steps disabled. But tho expedition must bo looked upon on tho whole as successful
for most valuable information has been
obtained in connection with this great river, which will doubtless prove hereafter
to bo a most convenient mode of access to tho interior.
Thus another step has been taken to- wards the occupation of New Guinea. We havo throughout pointed out that, while there was a great talk of elaborately fitted out expeditions from distant places, the real work was being done in^an unos- tentatious but by no means ineffectual manner by the missionary and scientific explorers who made Somerset the basis of their operations. We doubt if, at pre- sent, it could be in better hands. There is evidently a large amount of preliminary work to be done before anything like actual occupation can take place. But it must bo evident that the process of occu- pation has actually commenced. Tho embouchure of this great river is not more than twenty-four hours' easy steaming from tho peninsula of Cape York, and it cannot be sup- posed that there will not be others who will follow the lead of the Ellengowan. It is in vain to say of what avail is it to probe the secrets of this great island con- tinent i It may bo true, as has been asserted, that the climate is one most fatal to strangers, even if it is not deadly to thc natives who havo become inured to its dangers. We may be quite sure, however, that nothing will suffice to allay the curiosity with regard to it which has now been excited. That it can in any sense be looked upon as a field for Euro- pean colonisation iu the seuse in which
Australia has hitherto been colonised would of course be absurd. But that somo sort of hold will be acquired can scarcely be doubted. The least objectionable form would probably, in the first instance, bo that which may be found in tho combina- tion represented on board thc Ellengowan.
The missionary zeal which induces men like Livingstone in Africa, or men like Mr. M'Faiilaxk in Polynesia, to imperil their lives in a cause by some deemed quixotic is, in truth, not to be despised.
It is certainly not founded on merely '
mercenary considerations, and if often it is sustained by a certain love of adven- ture, it cannot be forgotten that its pri- mary moving cause is one which is based on tho most exalted principles of good-
will even to the most untamed and in- human races. Mr. M'Farlan'e, it is true, has in this particular occasion received some assistance from tho Police Magis- trate of Somerset and the posse comilatua of constables which accompanied him. It was fortunate for him that he did, for if this help had not been forthcoming, it is most probable that, even with the as- sistance of tho dynamite thunders of Signor D'Albertis, the Ellen- gowan would never have made her way out of the Fly River. It is, perhaps, scarcely in accordance with the most exalted notion of missionery enterprise, that the sword of the spirit shoidd be wielded by an arm of flesh. In that sense, the religion which we pro less is distinguished from the old Hebrew or Mahomedan propagandism. Nor do we emulate the example of the Spanish Con ijucstidores, who imposed the religion of the Cross at the point of the sword. But in our relations with savage races, such as those_ inhabiting New Guinea, there can be 110 doubt that the first civilised occu- piers of such- a country must fortify them- selves as best they can by their superior intelligence. They had better not go there at all, unless they are prepared to hold their own. It would, perhaps, be lonsidered impertinence on our part to recommend a permanent alliance between Mr. M'Farlane aud Mr. Chester. Much, however, might be left in the first instance to their combined good sense. Wc should be sorry to discourage Mr. ?iiester from paying another visit to the Fly, and there is nothing, we feel con- vinced, in the principles held by Mr. M'Farlane which should preclude him from accepting the valuable assistance which may be afforded by such a man as the Resident at Somerset. In combina- tion they would, in all probability, act ivith infinitely greater discretion than the motley collection of New Guinea colo- nists who have enlisted under Lieutenant Armit's colors.
There is an old saying that "threatened men live long." The collective fist of Europe has been shaken at Turkey ever ind anou; but she has lived. It has been shaken at her once again, and still she lives ; still seems likely to live. There is no common agreement as to when she ought to die, or who shall deal the death blow. Russia has been eager to be the executioner, and having so long desired the office, now wishes to postpone the fate of the victim. Austria would gladly see her out of the way, but is not disposed to let Russia be tho destroyer, and permit her to appropriate the effects of the deceased. Germany would witness the extinction of Turkish power in Europe without regret; but, like Austria, would not care to see Russia administer- ing the estate. England would prefer that what is should, if possible, continue to be, but reformed; and, beginning to believe that improbable, wishes for the substitution of something which shall be neither Russian nor Austrian but inde- pendent of both?a new empire. Turkey lives, and may yot recover, because her medical attendants are not agreed upon the treatment. What is death to most patients is life to her. The jealousies of rival Powers aro, to a great extent, the safety of Turkey. No one of them daro seize it, no division of it can be agreed upon, and so recourse is had to that which alone is possible? attempts to enforce remedial measures, which, if successful, must render extinc- tion less likely, and at least afford time for a chaugo which shall neither be ab- sorption by one country nor division amongst several. At the present time it would scarcely bo an exaggeration to say that Turkish statesmen are to' a great ex- tent masters of the position. They can play off St. Petersburg against Vicuna, and Vienna against St. Petersburg, and so keep the ball rolling, aud havo done so. Austria was inclined to intervene with au armed force to suppress tho pre- sent insurrection, and forthwith tho Turkish Government throw itself into tho arms of Russia, which advocated for- bearance. Aud thus the astute servants of the Sultan have gained time, and checkmated tho Servians and Montene-
grins j aud threats of armed intervention, and proposals for placing tho country under tho tutelage of Europe have dwindled down to a demand for guaran- tees for stated reforms, aud we shall next hear that Turkey would be only too happy to give them, but does not see how it can bo accomplished; and the promises which have always been broken previously will bo accepted once again. It seems a reasonable assumption that the aims of Austria havo been defeated by Russia, which dreaded lier ascendancy in the East; and those of Russia by Germany, who was de- termined that tho weakness of Turkey should uot bo her aggrandisement. The defeat of France by Germany has for the time fettered the action of Russia in the East. Germany is now able to assume an attitude of independence with regard to Russian projects, which was all but impossible when she was threatened by France, and required the aid of Russia to prevent Austria playing a good second to that formidable opponent. Tho military preponderance of Germany which has changed everything else, has also changed the aspect of tho Eastern question. Russia has passed from the hands of England and France to those of Germany aud Austria, and has lost by the change. She may regain her position; it is not likely that she will do so entirely. It can scarcely be otherwise than that German policy will be anti-Russian, and that between her and Austria thero will be more or less of accord. In this consists what safety there is for Turkey. If the possession of Turkey is to bc worth much to Russia she must havo tho Danubian Principalities. Prussia permitted her to occupy them at the commencement of tho Crimean war, before Austria had been defeated at Sadowa, before a powerful aud united Germany had been formed, before the military power of France had been crushed at Sedan. Now, stronger than both France and Austria, Germany is able to throw off the shackles which bound her to Russia. It would never
have suited her purposes that the Rouman Provinces should be incorporated with Russia; but this, which formerly it would havo been a peril to resist, she can now with safety forbid, and to a certainty prevent. The change is a gain to Europo; to France, who has a difficult task taken off her hands; to Austria, who dare scarcely move in Eastern matters ; to England, whose power was always inferior to her will. Never were the prospects of Russia in the East less satisfactory than at the present time, aud thus we see that very Power which has done its utmost to bring about the destruction of Turkey yielding to the change of circumstances, attempting to bolster her np, content to wait for a more convenient opportunity, which will probably never be such as she might once have had. Turkey is safer than she was five years ago. She, too, is a gainer by the triumph of Germany over France. Destruction may come from within, but is much less likely to come from without. Time and the opportunity for making reforms are the only hope of Turkish statesmen. That may fail them, but to possess the opportunity is some- thing. Nor is this their only prospect. There is a concurrence of belief that, before many years have elapsed, Germany will have come to blows with Russia, and the result most competent military authorities deem in no way doubtful. The defeat of Russia would be to increase the security of Turkey. It would as much enhance the influence of Austria in the East as it would diminish that of her present rival, and that again would be checked by Germany. For let it not be forgotten that, although in the course of some years France will have regained a strong military position, she cannot be the ally to Russia that she could once have been, because Germany has created so formidable a network of fortresses on her French frontiers, as to render attack a most stupendous task. Colonel Ches- ney, than whom there is hardly a more able military critic in Europe, deems this obstacle to a French attack so great that he has expressed his belief in the prob- ability of Germany, single-handed, giving a good account of Russia and France united. Tho despair of maintaining the integrity of Turkey, which is now so loudly expressed, is due much more to internal than external dangers; to the hostility of her Christian population, her form of Government, and maladministration. But she has always been able to suppress revolt. Servia and Montenegro gained their independence through the interposi- tion of Russia, whose designs it suited.
Omar Pasha had all but crushed Monte- negro, when Russia stayed his hand, and rendered his success fruitless. There is not much to hope with regard to Turkey, though the prospect is better, not worse, than formerly, because Russia is less
dangerous; because there are to be re-. forms; because time is gained, and cir- cumstances may favor her as they have often done before. But the interests of England, and of the Empire, require that the Russian flag should not float over Constantinople, and from this point of view there is much to hope. The danger of tho annexation of Turkey by Russia is much diminished ; it is more probable that the d3iiasty will fail to maintain itself, and that there will rise up a new Power which will be Christian, not Mahomedan, which Europe will uphold, and which Russia will not dare to attack.
Messrs. Alfred Hubbard nnd Joli/ Warde,
both of Brisbane, were yesterday sworn in as magistrates of the territory, before His Honor Mr. Justice Lutwyche.
Several candidates for the representation of Clermont are spoken of, but the only ono who has spoken for himself as yot is Slr. F. E. Lyon, who informs Thc Telegram that he means
Unpleasant rumors havo lately been afloat ns to tho present position of the Australasian Asso- ciation, founded somo time ago under such auspicious circumstances. We now learn that, at a meeting of the committee of management, held last night at the Royal Hotel, Mr. M. B. Magill in the chair, itwas resolved that ti general meeting of the members be called to consider the affairs of the association, and to discuss the advisability of continuing tho society, or other- wise. Tho secretary announced that Mr. W. H. Kent had liberally promised a donation of ten guineas rather than seo the association lapse for want of support. Two members of the com- mittee present nlso offered to subscribe five guineas each. It is not very complimentary to tho members generally to have it publicly known that, owing to carelossness'on their part, the sum of £00 ISs. is owing as arrears of sub. emptions, yet such, we aro informed, is the case; and tho committee particularly request that the members will meet tho collector in a satisfactory manner when next he calls upon them. Should they do so, we see no reason why the present difficulties should not bo successfully tided over, and the society placed iu that position which it promised to occupy when first started.
A progress meeting of tho committee ap- pointed to make arrangements for assisting in the promotion of Mr. Mort's scheme for the shipment of a cargo of frozen meat from Sydney to England, was held yesterday afternoon in the Museum, at which Joshua P. Bell, Esq,, M.L.A., presided. There were also present Messrs. T. M'llwraitb, M.L.A., B. D. Morehead, M.L.A., E. W. Lamb and P. ll. Gordon. Mr. J. Fenwick, tho secretary, stated that his prime object in calling the meeting was to report that in accordance with his instructions, he forwarded circulars to stockowners on the Darling Downs and tho secretaries of agricultural societies throughout the colony, soliciting their co-opera- tion in tho movement; and secondly, to receive any additional suggestions tho committee might offer to expedite it. Sufficient time had not elapsed to permit answers being received to oil the circulars, but an intimation arrived from Toowoomba to the effect that a meeting, hoped to be favorable to the scheme, would be held in that town on Friday next IThe chairman thought, and the committee concurred, that the distribution of circulars explanatory of the object in view, to the secretaries of the widely-spread agricultural societies, was a proper step towards Securing their assistance, and incidentally that of cattle and sheep owners in the immediate vicinity of them. Upon the information im- parted by the secretary, it was decided, after a brief discussion as to whether tradespeople and farmers might not unite in furthering the pro- ject, to postpone further 6teps until the amount of support likely to bo rendered by outlying districts was ascertained,
We believe that if there is ono thing more than another which, os a general rule, favorably influences visitors to Brisbane from Melbourne, and other large cities of the southern colonies, it is the orderly, or at least good-humored, conduct of our people at places of amusement, and tho absence of those rascally practices which in the south is known under the general term of larrikinism. It will, therefore, surprise many, aud none more than ourselves, to leam from n Brisbane correspondent of The Melbourne Agc, that " We hear a great deal about Melbourne larrikins in a theatre ; they are angels to the Brisbane oneB, who have not even the behavior to be found nmongat the most uncivilised of
A meeting of the members of the Board of Enquiry into the causes of disease in live stock and plants wnsheld in the lecture-room of tho Museum last night, when the subject of the re- production of our most valuable indigenous fodder grasses, which are fast disappearing through overstocking, was under consideration It appeared that two acres of land have been prepared by "Mr. Way in the Queen's Park Toowoomba, where several of the varieties are to be reproduced under Mr. Way's surveillance. Dr. Bancroft, and Messrs. Haly, Grimes, and Bailey have visited the Eastern and Western Downs, and collected many seeds which bave been sown by Mr. Way, many of which are already above ground. The trustees of the public parks at Rockhampton and Maryborough, have been applied to, and have expressed their anxiety to set apart portions of ground for the purpose, and to co-operate with the Board in every possible way in the matter. It wa3 stated that the commission found that the Californian prairie grass was fast spreading over many por- tions of the Downs, and was highly prized as a fodder grass.
A well-attended- meeting of the enrolled members of the recently-formed Volunteer Engi- neer corps was held at the drill-room, George street, lost night. The prime business was swearing in twenty men, principally the original promoters, before Mr. A. Hubbard, who kindly attended for the purpose. Tho discussion of regulations, prepared by a sub-committee for the proper working of the company, was then proceeded with, and these, with a few unimportant emendations and addi, tions, were unanimously agreed to. Forty members are now on the roll, and it was decided that the first drill should take place on Wednesday next. It being too late to consider what style of uniform would be most desirable to adopt, the subject was deferred until the fol-
lowing meeting. Mr. G. H. Newman, who occu-. pied the chair after Mr. J. M'Kellar's departurei said that Mr. John Douglas, M.L.A., president of the School of Arts, favored the formation of n class at that institution for teaching civil engi- neering, and subjects of n kindred nature. It was also believed that the committee would con- cur with this idea, a3 it would tend to aid in promoting the efficiency of tho corps, and if a sufficient number of members signified their in- tention of attending the classes, it was very likely that a paid instructor would bo provided.
The immigrants who were landed from the ship St. James, on Monday last, aro not being engaged quite so quickly a3 some others have been, still a goodly number have left the depot. Some have been engaged here, others forwarded to the inland towns, and many have gone away with their friends. The numbers still remaining at the depot are aa follow :?34 married, couples, and 49 children ; SO single men, aud. 30 singlo girls. Tho whole of the married couples and singlo men, aro open for engagement; but of the singlo girls, only two or three are without employment to go to. On Tuesday S of the single men left for Toowoomba, aud yesterday 34 immigrants?married couples and single men?went to Ipswich. More will prob- ably be sent inland to-day or to-morrow, so that those desiriug to engage labor, should visit the depot as soon as possible. The prevailing rates have been :?Married couples, £45 per annum and upwards; single men, £35; aud single girls, Ss. to 14s. per week. It has been aunounced that the Immigration Board will meet to-day at 2 o'clock p.m., to enquire into an alleged deficiency in tho quantity of water issued to the immigrants by the St. James, and any person connected with, tho ship who may desire to tender evidence is invited to attend at the above
hour. lu referenco to the Gauntlet, wo learn that this vessel will come up to-day ; but from latest advices it is highly improbable that the immigrants will be brought up within a week or ten days, as fresh cases of fever have broken out quite recently.
In our issue of yesterday appeared a pain graph of a bucolic nature, treating of certain aspects of bovine diseases, which was noted at Hie end as being extracted from "Specialities" in Thc Queenslander. Our readers were doubtless considerably exercised in the attempt to reconcile thesomewhatpracticalaudniatter-of-factstyleand subject of this paragraph with their ordinary impressions as to what "Specialities" are gene- rally like. It may therefore be as well to explain that tho paragraph in question was extracted from tho portiou of Thc Queenslander devoted to subjects connected with the Farm and Station, and that, whatever may be its merits in point of furnishing useful information, it has never been distinguished by a place among the "Specialities" in that journal. It is almost needless to add that the delusive footnote was the work of " the devil." In the same issue, another eccentricity connected with stock appeared in the shape of a " bull," which the police should impound, inasmuch as a sentence devoted to the objurgation of certain atrocious curs in George-street, which have the habit of assailing the nags of passing horsemen, is inadvertently so worded as apparently to ap- ply to the police compliments intended for the dogs, the consequence being that to all appear- ance it is asserted that the former make it their only busiuess in life to rush into the roadway and frighten horses, and that to them is applied the pleasing lines which ruu ?"four or five of these worthless and mis- chievous brutes may be found any day at the juuetion of George and Turbot streets." As we never by any chance make a slip in our com- position, it may be as well to explain that we merely put it that way in order to obtain the complete and lively attention of our excellent police to tile nuisances, a consummation which we flatter ourselves wo have now finally secured.
The Queensland Theatre, it is announced, will re-open to-morrow evening. The company comprises, in addition to a number of well known Brisbane actors, Mdlles. Solange and Andree Navaro, who have several times pre- viously appeared in this city, and are to give several operatic selections.
Amongst other serious results of the excep- tionally stormy weather which has prevailed during the present month, we learn from The Maryborough Chronicle that " a meeting of the 'Gladstone Progress Committee,' convened for the evening of January 10, wa3 effectually stopped." The committee will probably be re- christened after this, and called the Port Curtis Fairweather Committee.