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?\)t _§>pïme_» áHcrníng 5?eraßx

MONDAT, APRIL 28, 1890.

MR. H. M. STAXLET, after havinjr visited Bras» sels, arrived at Dover on Saturdav. He was greeted with enthusiasm. On reaching London Mr. Stanley was again enthusiastically received.

IN the Hsuse of Commons on Friday Sir George Campbell, M. P., for Kirkcaldie, moved tho abolition of the vote of £5000 for the maintenance and equipment of the steamer for the service of the Government in New Guinea. He attacked the ad-

ministration of the Eon. J. ii. Douglas. The < amendment was negatived, ,and the vote passed.

Mr. A, N. PEARSON, the Government agricultural j chemist of Victoria, ia not sanguine that Mr.

Smith EUU's recommendations for the prevention I

of rust in wheat will bave the favourable effect the inventor 'anticipates.

THE Marine Board of Brisbane has fonnd that the Quetta struck on an unknown rock, and that no blame was attachable to anyone.

TEE ceremonies in conneotion with the Melbourne University commencement took place on Saturday. Lord and Lady Hopetoun attended.

THE foundation-stone of the Geelong TradeB Hall was laid on ¡Saturday by Mr. Handoock, president of

the Trades Hall Council.

SIQHOB Scccr, tbe Italian who undertook to fast for 40 days conolnded his feat on Saturday, when I he wa« strong and vigorous.

TBE labour demonstration in the United State), to take place on May 1 simultaneously with the demonstration on the Continent, is ezpeoted to be on a large scale. A split has occurred in the ranks of the London working men's organisations, and in consequence of this faot it is expected that the i number who are to take part in the demonstration

in Hyde Park on May 4 will not reach 100,000.

ARRANQEHBNTS are being mads for s great labour strike io Chicago affecting 12,000 firms em- ploying 200,000 men and 24,000 women. The leaders of the -various labour organisations in that city are becoming alarmed at the extensive charac- ter of the demonstration, and they are seeking to limit the strike to the carpenters.

TBE floods in the United States are causing wide- spread loss and hardship. 5000 miles of country in the State of Louisiana are flooded, and 88,000 persons bave been rendered homeless and destitute. The safety of the city of New Orleans ii im- perilled.

TBK report that Sir Graham Berry, the Agent General of Victoria, wa9 suffering from illness is

unfounded.

TBE Australian cricketers have arrived in Lon

don. The member» of the team are ia good

health.

IT it expected that the British Government will apply the principle of Mr. Parnell'« land scheme in Ireland to the district« where the landlord« are unwilling to sell or tenants to purchase, Mr. Parnell declines to accept the concession.

AN extensive strike of railway employees has taken place on the Great Southern and Western Ballway in Ireland, and railway traillo is paralysed.

EMIN PASHA, who accepted the position of Ad- ministrator of German Rast Africa under Major WiBamann. has left Zanzibar in charge of an expe- dition for Lake Tanganyika.

TUB Victorian loan recently floated has been paid

, under discount.

Firs girls in Moscow, who apprehonded that they would be arrested immediately upon suspicion of being concerned in the Nihilistic movement in that city, committed suioide to avoid falling into the hands of the police.

COMSTENTINO upon the state of parties in the House of Commons in view of the opposition to the Irish Land Purchase scheme of the Govern- ment, the Pall Hall Gatette deolares that the Opposition in Parliament is at sixes and sevens, and is a veritable Ephesian mob.

MR. ORMISTON, a Glasgow iron expert, is engaged to proceed to New South Wales to examine the Illawarra iron manufacturing scheme advocated by Mr. Joseph Mitchell, now in England. Mr. Ormiston leaves England for Australia about the middle of May.

IF the report of Mr. Ormiston on the prospects of the Illawarra iron enterprise is favourable, a syndi- cate of Scottish ironmasters, which has the affair under consideration, promises to find the capital re- quired for the projected operations.

IT is reported that Colonel Sir Francis de Winton, K.C.M.G., GB., her Majesty's Commissioner in Swaziland, has been appointed Governor of British East Africa, and that he will start immediately for Mombasa. The British East Africa Company is equipping expeditions to traverse the country within the British sphere.

THE frozen mutton ex Star of Victoria arrived in good condition. The beef was placed in store, though the market is rising. New Zealand beef, hind-quarters, is sold at 5d per lb.

THE Tasmanian S. N. Company's steamer Talnne will be launched at Leith on the 3rd proximo.

IN his suit against Harry Farniss, the artist of Punen, George Augustus Sala has recovered £5 damages for alleged libel.

ANOTHER seam of splendid coal WSB struok on Friday by the North Stockton Coal Company at a depth of 501ft.

i THE railway accident at Bathurst is said to have been caused by the breaking of the oentte coupling of the up goods train at Raglan. The train waa pulling np when the jerk broke tho iron rod nnder neath-the truck, where it is fastened with a screw and iron plate. There being no side-couplings 16 tracks were at once released, and the rebound giving the necessary impetus, they oommenoed to descend

the incline.

AT tbe Dubbo Picnio Bases on Friday, Mr.

Thom«« M. Keogh, of Wanan« station, was riding his horse Darkie m the Macquarie Handicap, When he

fell and waa killed.

THE river at Bourke is still falling slowly. It has been resolved not to hold a publio meeting with regard to the administration of the distress fund. The Mayor of Bourke haB appointed himself, Mr. O. M'A. King (the police magittrate), Alderman Bioxham, Alderman Macfarlane, and Mr. J. C. M'Eenzie to assist in distributing the money.

1 THE work of laying the duplicate oable connect- ing Australia with Now Zealand was commenced at Botany Bay on Saturday morning by the cable-lay- ing party on board the steamer ¡scotia. The condi- tions wero favourable. The total cost of the work is estimated at £300,000.

THE foundation-stone of the Neutral Bay and Mossman'« Bay Presbyterian Church was laid on Saturday in the presence of about ISO persons. The church is to be erected at the intersection of Yeo etredt and Shell Cove road. ,

-THE new wing of the Newtown Orphanage, Albury, was opened yesterday, when the Rev. J. Gallagher, of Wagga, preached a special sermon on the inequalities of human life. A large sum wa« colleeted in aid of the building fund.

The unsatisfactory state of the coal trade has been the subject of some discussion by politicians in Newcastle and elsewhere. And there can be no doubt that the colliery interests ore not in the flourish- ing condition that belonged to them some years ago. According to the Statistical Register the quantity of coal raised in the colony increased from 1,406,180 tons in 1880 to 8,203,444 tons in 1888; and Mr. BRUCE SMITH states that last year the quantity waa 3,655,000 tons. This represented a rate ef increase far more rapid than that of the population. While the Minister for Works showed

that New South Wales herself consumed j no less than 1,267,000 tons, the foreign trade has also been rapidly increasing. These were the main features of the progress of coal-mining enterprise from 1880 to the end of last year. Now, however, we are tola that there is a considerable falling off in the trade which has been estimated at 30 per cent. This is owing, not to any decline in the demand for local consumption, but to the absence of foreign trade. This in turn is due on the one hand to the diminution ia our imports.and on the other te the enlargement of our exports. To the 19th April this year the imports into Sydney were valued at £4,608,000, against £6,454,000 to the corresponding period of last year. While a smaller amount of tonnage sufficed to bring us supplies, quite as large an amount was' required to take away our wool and other produce, the exports from Sydney being valued at £4,787,000, against £4,622,000 to the corresponding period of last year. Besides, there has been a falling off in the imports into other colonies, where there is also a large wheat crop to be moved. The foreign' coal business of Newcastle is thus dominated by our general trade. From this cause mainly the foreign coal trade has been reduced within the past six or eight months. And it is remark- able that the estimate of reduotion approximates very closely to the rate of decrease in the volume of general com- merce. Protectionists who desire to limit our imports and increase our exports would simply destroy the foreign coal trade.

The situation has, unfortunately, been greatly aggravated by the opening up of an unnecessary number of coal-mines. Unhealthy spéculation has developed new properties. In the Northern district many new mines have been opened, and some of them cannot get a remune- rative trade. The negotiations begun some time back to form a Coal

Trust have not been successful. The '

valuation of the different properties has been the stumbling-bleok. Still, in spite of the numerous collieries, the priee,vso far, has been maintained at 11s. per ton, and it

is 'estimated that last year about 2,600,000 Í tons were rained. In the Western moun- j tain collieries competition has closed three or four of the new collieries, and the

others are selling coal at the pit's mouth <

at the very unremunerative price *>f as lOd to 4B 6d per ton, their annual output being about 860,000 tona. In the Southern district« the trade has been developed by new oolliertea beyond the demand, and they raise about 700,000 tons per annum, at prices averaging perhaps 7a. per ton. As if these properties were not aurlicient, new ground is being tested and coal discovered nearer Sydney. During the last few years many efforts have been made to find a coal seam on or near the navigable waters of Port Jackson. Geolo- gists have declared that the coal measures

dip under Sydney, and that it is only a ques- ] tion of depth to reach them. But, so far, the discovery nearest the metropolis is about twenty miles away. The diamond drill has recently penetrated coal at Liver- pool. It seems to be thought that, how- ever roany rained may be opened on the Hunter, on the Western mountains, and in the Illawarra district, that there Í9 profitable enterprise if a coal-mine can be discovered near Sydney. Possibly this may be the case ; but it will certainly be at the expense of other coal properties. These foots represent the main features of our coal industry. The decline in the foreign trade has considerably reduced the amount of work for the miners. In the North the capital of many of the coal pro- perties is at a discount, and in the West and South the mines are generally being worked by capitalists without prout, if not

at a loss.

The statement of the position of our coal trade "Will probably have the very good effect of checking any disposition to open up further coal-mines ia the already over-supplied districts. Some of the properties will remain closed until there is a recovery of trade. Our miners have now to regard the development of coal properties in New Zealand, in Queensland, and even in Victoria, where they are beginning to provide for au em» largéd output in Gippsland. The unfortu- nate strike at Newcastle in 1888 has caused a permanent loss of trade in several direc- tions through the stimulus given to open coal-mines elsewhere. In China furnace« were adapted to the use of Japan coal, when the Newcastle coal could not be obtained. Notwith- standing all this, however, our foreign coal trade will doubtless again take a favourable turn, and the expansion may come quicker than can at present be fore- seen. Our coal measures are so favourably situated to command the markets of the I world that only a restrictionist commercial polioy can prevent their steady develop- ment. Let the amount of our shipping be permanently diminished by import duties, as it is unfortunately now for a time being reduced by other un- favourable conditions, and our foreign coal trade must Buffer. And as to the absurdity of expecting compensation by an increase of consumption ÍD the colony, we have only to look at the facts stated by Mr. BRUCE SMITH-that while under freetrade in New South Wale« we consume 1,267,000 tons, in Victoria with its protected industries there is a consumption of only 811,000 tona. In establishing industries uuder protection enterprise would be diverted from other oc- cupations arising under natural conditions, with the result of diminishing, not of enlarging, the local demand for coal. The foreign and the local coal trades would both suffer by the protectionist policy of import

duties.

* The past year's trade return« of Euro- pean countries are now being published. In making a comparison between the two chief commercial nations, there is so much in conditions and circumstances that is common to both, that for any superiority ia the rate of progress made by either we have to look to the points of difference between the two. Situated at the west of Europe, both possess extensive seaboards, France, with its land connections with Europe, its ports on the English Channel, on the Bay of Biscay, and in the Mediterranean, has perhaps the better geographical posi- tion. In point of internal resource the advantage would probably lie with France. In matter of population the two countries are now nearly equal. In 1888 France had rather over

38,000,000, and England had 37,500,000. We shall listen to no statements that France is handicapped in the matter of re- ligion, except se far as that religion ia identified with national policy. We assume that on the grounds of geographical situation, natural resources, and extent and character of population, both countries are equally well situated for an industrial career, and that under equally good

methods there should be no marked diffe- rence in their relative progress, Yet there

is a difference.

In the general revival of trade in Europe in 1889 we find that once again Great Britain has manifestly asserted her supremacy. Calculated at the prices of 1888, the net value of the foreign trade of the mother country, according to the Economist, was £800,603,000, against £555,703,000 in 1888, being an increase of £44,900,000, or 8-1 per cent. This is a very great advance, and it has produced a measure of prosperity felt doubtless in every cottage as in every

mansion in the land. Turning to the figures of the foreign trade of France, obtained from the same source, we find that there was also an increase on the year. In 1888 the total was £316,835,600, in 1889 £838,584,520. The increase was £21,748,920, or 6-9 per cent. Both imports and exports were on the basis of the prices of 1888. As the result of the comparison, therefore, we have this fact clearly demon- strated, that the foreign ti ade of England increased by £44,900,000, while that of

France was swollen to the extent of £21,748,920 only. Tbe increase in amount in England was more than double that in France, while the percentage of increase was 8*1 to 6-9. Absolutely and relatively the increase was greater in England than j In France, and the figures imply that the difference is growing still more largely in favour of our mother country. When we analyse this trade, we find that England had net imports valued at £358,197,000, and export« valued at £242,466,000. In other words, she had an excess of imports valued at £116,000,000. By so much had the . foreign relations of England enriched her people. In the case ot France the year's import« wera

valued at £184,925,120, and the exporta at £153,659,400. The figures imply that as the result of her foreign connections

France had an addition of wealth amount-J ing to £31,265,700. England'« enrich ment by her foreign relations was nearly four times as great aB that of France, and the difference of £85,000,000 circulate»

throughout England to vivify every in- ' dustry of the country.

It is not, of course, very difficult to see how it is that England Bheuld from its trade grow more rapidly

than France in the elements of national ' wealth. The one opens its ports freely. It recognises that every part of the world may contribute some« thing to vitalise, to fructify, and to improve the conditions of na- tional industry. It does not put a tax upon the incoming products but allows them to enter freely, to be bought cheaply by its own people, taxing for revenue purposes only such articles as tea and others, which cannot be produced there. The world ia brought under tribute for the welfare of the nation, which in turn freely exchanges its own produce for what it has received. In consequence its foreign trade amounts to the enormous figure of £600,000,000. In France, on the other hand, taxes are put upon a large number of the products of tbe outside world, becauae it is deBired to make the country more largely a world to itself.

The theory is not to cultivate the indus-1 tries suited to its population, its territorial and its climatic conditions, and to exchange the fruits of them for those of other nations of the world. Certain of its

politicians are envious of the forms of in. , dustry which other nations po99e8s, and io,

to cultivate them, they put taxes on lie, people, and have in consequence limited the foreign trade of the Republia to £338,000,000-but little more , than one-half that of England. Therefore a»y comparison of the developments of proteo-n tion in France with the results of freetrade

in England must be very gratifying to1 those who in this colony have been striving, to keep our ports open. We hove bee« following on the lines of the old land, and with much better results than those ob- tained in Victoria or New Zealand, where

the French protective policy has been' adopted. Under our free conditions popu-, lation has inoreased since 1881 by 49-8 per cent, while the increase in Viotoria' has been only 29-8 per cent, and in' New Zealand 26'5 per cent. In the' light of its own recent history under freetrade as compared with its former career under protection, England also has reason to be gratified with the results of the change in its policy.

As to the general results of the fiscal, systems of the two countries on the well being of the people, evidence very strongly supports the statement that England is the

more prosperous. Except perhaps among ' the frugal, thrifty peasantry of France, the struggle for life in France is harder than in England. The hours of labour are longer and the holiday s fewer. \\ e have

heard how the French artisan covets

the English Sunday rest. To maintain the weight of the burdens of protection in France, population has to be kept down artificially. There is little growth. Ia England the free play of natural laws con- tributes to a healthy expansion, and the growing population finds better and more remunerative employment at home, while giving forth swarms of its people, who in other lands contribute to swell the prosperity of those who are left behind,

And as to the outside results, we see ex-' panding colonies and growing fleets to further the exchange and extend the in- dustries of England. If the value of the new vessels constructed in 1889 in her ship-building yards were added to the sum total of her trade, we should seet even a greater ditlerence in the growth of the manufactures of the two countries than are disclosed in the statistics pub liehed. It is estimated that last yea?

1,286,000 tons of shipping, valued at over' £10,000,000, were constructed in the build-, ing yards of Great Britain. Tbe fact that larger results have been produced from the industries of » population of 37,500,000 working under freetrade in England than huve been

obtained from those of 38,000,000, not less ; industrious, working for longer hours and smaller wages under a restrictionist system in France, ought to be conclusive

evidence of the superiority of the Öscal, system which recognises every country as part of the world, designed to contribute to the welfare of every other part, and refuse« to sanction artificial écheme» which would detach countries from each other and promote discord amongst the whole of them._

It is satisfactory to learn from a cable message to-day that Mr. JOSEPH MITCHELL has achieved a certain measure of succès« in connection with his Illawarra ironworks enterprise. We commented at some length on the subject when that gentleman went home a few months ago to bring the advantages offered for the working of iron in that district under the notice of British capitalists. His important mission bas been so far successful that a syndicate of Scottish ironmasters has commissioned a Glasgow iron expert to proceed to the colony and inquire into the merit« of the proposal submitted, and the facilities offered to carry on ironworks to advantage. It is the intention of th« syndicate, Bhould Mr. ORMISTOV» report prove sufficiently encouraging, te take the matter up and invest enough capital to set this great industry going. The colony is interacted in Mr, MITCHELL'8 success, because the establishment of the proposed industry not only means making the most of the natural advantage» of this particular district, but the opening up of the colony'« resources generally. For it cannot be doubted that an exam pi« of this kind will be followed. Work for the unemployed, use for our super- abundant coal deposits, and the estab- lishment of a substantial and profit- able industry will be the result of thi» movement of Mr. MITCHELL'S, if the re« port of the expert be favourable. What has been' done Is another proof, so far as it goes, of the fact that our resources only require to be made known to the British capitalist, and the field for his enterprise fairly described for him, to have > them; turned- to profitable

account' We have waste resources all about ',VM. Only the other day it was pointed out by the Minister for Mine« that the coal and timber of the colony were lying largely unworked, while the mining companies at Broken Hill Wfre yearly importing coke from Germany, England, and elsewhere, and timber from Tasmania and New Zea- land. Instances like this could be multi- plied. The mission of Mr. MITCHELI, «hews once more that if our natural

resources are lying comparatively idle | about us, it is only because we do not

show sufficient enterprise in making them j

known. Whatever the result of the Glas- gow expert's visit may be, the fact remains that his principals are ready to invest as soon as they see the opening.

The rise in the price of silver to 4s per ounce' will be regarded with satisfaction by our expanding silver-mining interests. This is an" advance of very nearly Od per ounce on the price ruling fer the first six months of" last year. Not since August, 1885, has the price of silver been so high as it is now. According to Messrs. PIXMY and ABEIIL, in 1889 the average price was 42 ll-10d, in 1888 42¡d, in 1887 44fjd, in 1886 45|d, in 1885 48fd. For five years the price has been declining. To the Broken Hill Proprietary Com- pany alone, on its present rate of production, the advance represents an in* crease of income of over £150,000 per annum. And it will also be of consider- able help to all other silver-producing mine«, providing it does not lead to un- profitable development. The chief cause of the advance is, of course, the movement of the silver party in the United States to

induce the Government to increase

the quantity of silver coinage. Mr.

WINDOW tried to meet the case

by the purchase of silver at the market priée with certificates. But this proposal did not find favour. The Pan American Congress recommended the coin- age of the silver dollar as a legal tender throughout' America, but finally failed to agree upon a common system of ceinage. Then a joint committee of the*United

States Senate and House of Representatives proposed that the Treasury should buy

four and a-half million ounces of silver

per month ; but the bill proposing this was abandoned, and a free system of coinage recommended ; the issue to be limited, however, to the production of silver in the United States. But the parties concerned are at variance, and

it is said that unless a com- promise can be satisfactorily arranged Mr. WIXDOM will refuse to permit the House of Representatives to disouss the question. The' latest cable message is te the effect that the Republican party recommends the purchase of 4,600,000 ounces of silver monthly. This movement in the United States, the larger use of silver in England for coinage, and in a minor degree the increased consumption of silver for other purposes, explain the advunce now reported. Whether the advance can be maintained will depend largely on the realisation of the views of the silver interests .in the United States. The larger the quantity of silver coined in excess of the quantity coined under the Bland Act, the larger will be the increase in price. But it is not unreasonably thought by leading financial authorities, that an excess of coinage will be produced, which must cause over-production of silver, and end in a collapse of the pri:e, perhaps not lee« serious'than took place in the case of copper a year ago. Meantime, of course, our miner« will,profit by the rise in prices.

THERE will be a Cabinet meeting at 2 o'clock to- ' diy, at which it is expected all the Ministers will be present The Executive Council will meet later ia the day, probably at half-psst S, at which the speech to be delivered bv the Governor at the open- ing of Parliament to-morrow will be finally »auc-

tioned.

UP to noon on Saturday the Government htd received 145 acceptance» of invitation to the Ministerial dinner, which will be held this evening ia the Parliamentary refreshment-rooms, to cele trate the opening of Parliament Of this number 105 are member« of both Houses of Parliament Auonget tbo'e who have accepted are Admiral Lord Charlo» Soott, Chief Justice Sir Frederick Darley, Sir John BoberteoB, General Richardson, tbe Mayor of Sydney, and several officers of the warships now in port

ON Saturday morning Sir Henry Parkes autho- rised the payment of £1250, which »mount was incurred as wagei in connection with the floods at Bourka. The Government also purchased two boat« at Wilcannia, to be ther» used for flood purpo»««.

IT i» understood that Mr. Julian Ashton has been commissioned^ by his Excellency the Governor to paint a large portrait of Sir Henry Parkes, as his Eroellenoy is denrous of adding ? picture of the Premier of New South Wales to the collection of ral paintings of statesmen which is displayed in his English mansion,

TBE members for Central Cumberland have be°n Informed by the Lands Department that partions 486 to489, parish of Hunter's Hill, containing aa area of 18$- acres in the Field of Mara Bulldivision, havo been withheld from sale for publio buildings pur-

poses.

Bi (he Pepartment of Public Instruction tenders are being called for the erection of a new Public school and" teacher'» residence at Wentworthville. Tindera must be lodged at the Instruction Depart- ment on or before May 7.

WITH reference to the announcement in our Saturday's issue that it wa» the Postmaster General's intention to reduce the inland letter rate of postage to Id per £oz., we »re informed that Mr. O'Connor contemplates that the loss of revenue that will be sustained by this reduction will be recouped by the imposition of a rate of a halfpenny upon newspapers, which are now carried without charge, and by the increased number of letters that will'be posted consequent upon the lower charge.

Tan work of laying the duplicate cable connect- ing Australia with Kew Zealand was commenced at Botany Bar on Saturday morning by the cable laying party on board the as. Scotia, The condi- tion» were, favourable, and point to a speedy completion of the work, the total cost of which is estimated at about £800,000. The Aus- tralian end of the cable was floated asbore on drama, the first being thrown overboard at a quarter-past 9f the last drawn athoro at 11 o'clock, and at a quarter to one the steamer weighed anchor and beaded out to sea. A number of gentlemen, in- cluding Messrs. G. B. Simpson (Attorney-Gene- ral), D. O'Connor (Postmaster-General), «nd 3. Smith (Minister for Mines), witnessed the landing

of the cable, and lunched on board the Scotia as the guests of Captain Cato, A congratulatory message wa» »ant to the Premier of N»w Zealand by Mr.

O'Connor.

M*. & H. LAHBKW, «eeratary to the Po»t Office. hu informed Mema, Farnell, Nobbs, Ritchie, and

Dale, member« for Central Cumberland, that the tender of Messrs. Banks and Whitehurst has been accepted for the ereotion of a new post and tele- graph office at Granville for the sum of £2215, the work to be completed in nine months.

MR LAMBÍO-«, secretary to the General Post Office, has notified to the members for Central Cum- berland that the postal inspector considers tho rail- way station at Sutherland to be the most central position for a post and telegraph office. There is not only a tost-office at Sutherland, but a money-oi'der office, and a publio telegram can at present be received at and transmitted frerâ the local railway station. The total revenue for last year was only £20, and in view of those cir- cumstances it is considered that Sutherland has already been liberally dealt with by the department, and further it is thought that no change should be made at present

MR. J. BABLIVQ, Tinder-Secretary for Public Work«,, acting under directions, has informed the members for Central Cumberland that, in addition to the £800 recently granted for the road from Carlingford Post-office to Smith's Corner, the votes for the last and present years, amounting to £180, have been transmitted to the credit of the new

Trust

H.M.S. EOFRIA, which left here last month on a surveying crnise, returned on Saturday to port, under orders from the Admiral. There has been a disturbance on board, amounting to a mutiny on the part of the crew, and 23 ef the men are at present under arrest, the ringleaders being in irons. A court martial will be held within the next few day«, and it is stated that only in the worst cases of refusing duty will the charges be pressed. At the same time it is stated that the who'e of the crew were taking .ides with the men who refused duty, and abso- lutely declarad they would not obey the commands of one of the officers of the ship.

THE Cuzco takes her departure to-day from this | port for London in the Orient line ; and of move- ments of the mail steamers it may be mentioned that the R.M.S. Victoria, of the P. and 0. line, has repeated her splendid «teaming performance to Australis, and the Svdney portion of the English mail by her (London date March 28) is expected to reach here to-morrow, the 32nd day after posting. A« tbe "Victoria reaohed Adelaide yeBterday, her arrival here will not be very long delayed.

A DENSE fog prevailed in the harbour early yes terday morning, it was so bad as to materially interfere with the movements of the shipping. A similar thing occurred early on Saturday morn- ing. The fog was so thick that the steamship Port Pirie, inward bound from London, had an exceptional experience. Those on board say they never saw anything worse in the English Channel, where a thick fog is something to be felt. The Port Pirie entered the Heads at 4.45 a.m., and risked coming up as far almost as Bradley's Head, where she let go the anchor. Another start was made and Pinchgut was reached. There another anchorage was come to, as the fog was so thick it was impossible to see the ship's own length or anything like it. At 10 am. the fog lifted a little, and a third start was made and continued until at noon the steamer reached Miller's Point and was there berthed seven hours after entering the Heads. Yesterday the bells and whistles of the ferry steamers were kept going, and it was 8 o'clock before the Messageries Maritimes mail steamer could cast off from the Circular Quay with safety. The Tanais breasted off and kept a bell ringing loudly all the time she was lying there as a caution to the passing ferry boats. The Australien's progress down the harbour was slow indeed, and it was much after 9 o'clock ere she passed between the

Heads.

AN incident of an unusual character occurred during the voyage to Sydney of the Anglo-Austra- lian Steam Navigation Company's Port Pirie. The vessel arrived here yesterday and recorts that crossing the Southern Ocean during heavy thunder storms the ship'« yards and masts were illuminated with electrio fireballs or corposants. The effect was striking in the extreme. Amongst the passengers is the Hon. A. Percival, a nephew of Lord Egerton, who is making the round voyage in the ship, The steamer is to go homewards hence via Penang and Singapore, and passengers for China and Japan will thus have an nnexpested opportunity of travelling in a« particularly well appointed ves iel. Besides her general London cargo the Port Pirio has on deck some live stock, notably prize poultry, some prize pile game consigned to Mr. Croudace. There aro also some very handsome pigeons, English pouters, whioh have been sent out for cale. AU have arrived here in capital order.

Tits Hubbuck, one of Mr. Lund'« line, finished a smart run round from Melbourne last night The Hubbuck has made a " trip from Australia to London in the short space of 42$ days. She and the Wilcannia, Bungaree, Yeoman, Culgoa, and others, now compose a permanent line from Sydney to London, the sailings being monthly.

RFDUCTIOKR in fares are being made in nearly all the steamship line». The A. U. S. N. Com- pany, following the announcement of Howard Smith and Sons, has made a great reduction in the the «cale of fares to Brisbane and all Queensland ports. It is long since the New Zealand, the Tas- manian and the Melbourne ratei carne down, and now the reductions announced to the ports of the northern colony may be said to complete the scheme

of retrenchment

OWINO to the late arrival of the branch line steamer Tanais the departure of tbe outgoing mail steamer Australien for Marseilles was put off until Sunday morning. The Tanais on Saturday tran- shipped Kew Caledonia oargo and passengers to the Australien. There were on board the Tanais 125 passengers altogether from Noumea. These were destined as follows:-93 fox Marseilles. 8 for Aden, 1 for Adelaide, 5 for Melbourne, and 23 for Sydney. There were 13 Algerians amongst the number, political ex-prisoners who had been liberated from New Caledonia. They were concerned in the insur- rection in Algeria in 1870. Nine of them aro bound to Marseilles and four to Aden. By the Tanais there returned to Sydney the master, engineer, and crew of tbe small steamer Emily, which was recently purchased by Messrs. Jouve and Co., of Noumea, in the Sydney market. The Emily made a very good passage up to New Cale- donia, occupying but eight date. She is to be used for harbour and towing purposes at Noumea. Mr. A. Polletier, who is the agent at Noumea for the Mcssazories line and also the Transport Mari- times arrived by the Tanait, and purposes buying a small steamer here for the New Caledonia coastal service. The Tanais bring* word that tho steamer Noumea was being repaired, and it is thought likely she will come to Sydney for the purpose of being slipped. The man-of-war Saone left Noumea for a three weeks' crnise to the New Hebrides Group on April 12.

THE pilot steamer Captain Cook bas hauled away the mainmast of the sunken srthooner Colo- nist, and another charge of gun-cotton has blown the foremast out of the submerged hull. The mast, with the topsail yards, is r-ported to have sunk, and it is intended to send a diver down to clear it so that it may be towed away. Trie hull of the Colonist is, as has been stated, well down in the mud, and after the foremast is removed there will be no mrther obstruction to shipping.

A GOOD deal of interest will be taken in tho pro- gress the Australien makes homewards from Sydney this time. It ¡B understood to be Captain Didier's intention to make the steamer do her best She got away yesterday, taking comparatively few passenger*. These will, of course, be added to at Melbourne and at Adelaide. There were close upon a hundred tran- shipped from the steamer Tanais, which arrived here from Noumea to connect with the Australien

from New Caledonia.

A PESTivAx in honour of Father Pater Chanel, "the first martyr missionary of Ooeania," which is to extend over three days, was comcenced yesterday in St Patrick's Bowan Catholic Church. There was a large assembly of prelates and priests, Cardinal Moran, Archbishop Navarre, Bishop Byrne,

and Bishop Higttins were among the number, and ' the interior of the ohuroh was elegantly decorated.

Cardinal Moran, in the course of a panegyrio of tbe martyr priest briefly described his tragio death ' at Futuna, after the misionary had laboured three years among the natives. ' Both in' the morning and evening the churoh wa» densely

ciowdcd.

Dn. HITCHING, of Young, maltes a complaint with regard to the railwav officials at Harden. He say*:-"On the night of April 23 I accompanied a patient'of mine, Mr. W. S. Jones, of the Commer- cial Bank, Young, to Harden on his wav to Sydney. As regards Mr. Jones I need ooly say that his lungs are' very Beriously affected, eo that his posi- tion is quite obvious to anyone at a tingle glance, and I may add that it is of vital importance to his lifo to avoid any draught or cold. When I got to Harden I found the waiting-room without any AM and a cold wind blowing right through it I accordingly waited on the station master (Mr. Parsons), informed him tbat Mr. Jones was very ill, and asked that be might sit in his office till the mail train came in. This was curtly refused, and I was informed that the waiting-Toom was for passengers. I then pointed out that there was no fire there and a cold wind blowing right though it and again begged that Mr. Jones might be allowed to sit in the office. In reply Mr. Parsons said tbat his office was private and that he allowed no one there, but Mr. Jones could eit in the telegraph-room where there was a fire. I then went with Mr. Jones to the telegraph room, and there found seven or eight young men seated on the tables, desks, &&, conversing cheer- fully but doing nothing. To one who seemed the officer in charge I again preferred my request and was again curtly refused and referred to the waiting-room. In vain I urged Mr. Jones' »tate of healtb, aud the danger to bis life from cold, &C. It was all in vain. As he could not walk to the hotel, he had to go to the waiting-room and sit shivering in the cold, while he had the pleasure of seeing through the ticket window a p'easant party of six or savon people, including ono or two ladies, in the station-master's office. Of course I am aware tbat passengers have no claim whatever to sit in the station-master's office or telegraph-room, but every rule has its ' exceptions, and I think, considering Mr. Jones's evident state of health, one should have been made in this instance, as to the credit of the Railway Depart- ment I have known done so often in similar cases. It certainly seemed inoredible to me that men in the position of these officials should have compelled a man who was obviously before their eves in an almost dying state to remain in a cold draughty room for nearly three-quarters of an hour, when without ¡nconvenienoing themselves in the »lightest he might have been allowed to »it in a warm

office."

IN connection with the murder perpetrated in the Domain some time dnring Wednesday night last, a rather significant and auspicious circumstance has come to light The particulars obtainable show that early on Thursday morning a man called at a shop in Glebe-road and purchased a Buit of clothes. He subsequently entered a bootshop in the same locality, and requested permission to be allowed to change his apparel. Hi» request was acceded to, though it was remarked at tho time that the clothes ho was eo anxious to discard were stained with blood,

MDBDER is the great crime of the United State*, as the following table, token by the Times from the Chicago Tribune, sufficiently shows:-Year, 1881: murders, 3877; legal execution», 103; lynohingB, 219. Year, 1885: murder», 1808; legal executions, 108 ; lynching», 181. Year, 1886 : murders, 1499 ; legal executions, 83 ; lynchings. 133. Year, 1887: murder», 2385; legal executions, 79 ; lynchings, 123. Year, 1888: murders, 2184 ; legal executions, 87 ; lynchings, 144. Year, 1889 : murders, 8567 ; legal execu- tions, 98 ; lynchings, 175. Total of six years : Murders, 14,770 ; legal executions, 658 ; lynchings, 975. Murder, it will be seen, is only legally punished . in one case out of 28. In the 10 years ending 1888 there were 1766 case» of wilful murder in Eng- land, or at least the coroners eo reportad, and for theBO 672 persons were brought to trial, and only W3 acquitted or found insane. Commenting on these figures the Times saya:-Taking our popula- tion roughly at half the American, we should, on the American precedent, have had 12,500 murders in the 10 years, and only 460 exeoution*. Of course, many hundreds of American murderers have suffered lesser penalties, but the enormous number of crimes committed shows that those penalties do

not deter.

THERE seem» to be no limit to the capabilities of the penny automatic delivery-box. You may by dropping a penny into the slot of one or other of the machines arranged for your convenience at railway stations and other publio places, obtain a great variety of creature comforts, and in addition may ascertain your weight height and muscular strength, have an electrio shook, perfume your handkerchief, or provide yourself with a supply of stationery and postage stamps. To the array of appliances cspablo of rendering these services an important addition is about (savs the St. James's Gaieite) , to be made in the shape of a machine for supplying instantaneous photographio portraits. The machine consists of a case about 7ft. in height and 2ft square. On the front of it, at a convenient height, is a small mirror, and under the mirror is the photographia lens, The person who desires to have his portrait taken stands in front of the machine in such a position that he oan lee his full face reflected in the mirror. He then put» a penny in the slot and remains motionless for five seconds, when the ringing of a bell informs him that the impression is complete. An interval of 40 seconds now ensues, during which time the various

[ processes necessary for finishing the portrait are automatically performed inside the case. When the work is complete, the portrait on a metal plate, drops through the delivery port on to a small shelf. By dropping a halfpenny into a second slot a brass frame for the portrait may be obtained. It' ia understood that a company will be formed to work

the invention.

AccormiNo to private information from St. Petersburg, the authorities have deemed it prudent not to punish Mdme. Tshcebrikova severely for the letter »he addressed to the Czar. The Daily News correspondent rays :-She was examined by specialists in mental diseases and found sane, but disposed to fits of "exaltation," which caused her to do things she would not have done in her usual state of mind. As she has no political influenoe she need not, it is raid, be considered guilty of high freston, and she will probably be ordered to live be- yond the precincts of the capital, under police supervision. The reno wed activity of the Nihilists in Russia is causing much anxiety to the seoret police, whose extraordinary vigilance appears to be insufficient to cope successfully with tho astute tac- tics now pursued by the violent party. Despite the most stringent precautions adopted by the frontier authorities, an enormous amount of seditious litera- ture printed abroad is constantly being smuggled into the country. The numerous and distantly situated centres in which every newly-published seditious brochure makes an almost simultaneous appearance show how well organised is the Secret system of dissemination. An Odessa corre'psndeot states that he is informed by a police authority that much of the seditious litornture producá from the secret presses in Russia ia printed on foreign paper in order to mislead tho police. It is evident that the revolu- tionary party is taking the fullest advantage of the widespread popular disaffection with the Tolstoi reforms which aro now being put into active opera- tion in six provinces, to spread its violent propa- ganda. This new campaign may, under the present conditions, lead to serious strife between the impoverished, eullon, and disaffected peasantry and their new provincial and communal administrators.

WE have received the following contribution to the fund to alleviate the distress consequent upon the flood- ing of the Darling River :-Thos. Vi'. Kelly, Byerock Station, Byerock, £5 5s. The Mayor of Sydney has received for the same fund a cheque for £20 from Sir Henry Norman, Governor of Queensland.

MR. J. C. Riniu will give the first of a series of exhibitions of glsss engraving, in connection with the Technical Education Branch of the Department of Publio Instruction, in the Technological Museum, this afternoon, from 2 to 4.30 o'olock.

Digitisation generously supported by
Vincent Fairfax Family Foundation
Digitisation generously supported by

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