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CPUBLISHED DAILY.) ' ' t^e -'.-J-!-:-:-1-.-, for

Wednesday, August _», l8.7. upt

WE aro informed by our telegraphic correspondent in Melbourne that Mr. Berry, in proposing in the Legislative Assembly to impose a duty on all live stock 'crossing tho border into Vic- toria, said that the effect of such a tax as lie proposed-viz., 5s. per head on horses and cattle, 2s. on pigs, and 9d. on sheep, would not be to increase the price of meat in Victoria. He also'denied that his policy was calculated to excite ill-feeling between the colonies, declared that a policy of pro- tection was the only one that possibly could lead to the federation of Australia, and prophesied that at some future time his policy would prevail in New South Wales, and that even this colony and South Australia would be attracted to

Victoria by its means. '

We must certainly give Mr. Berrv credit for having spoken in good faith, and him- self fully believing what he said. No one who was not completely mystified could have been bold enough to utter such egregious nonsense as he has done. How 'does he account for the fact (as stated by him) that a duty imposed on imports into Victoria falls on the producer, and not on the consumer, as it is acknowledged to do in every other country 1 It is clear that an importer of stock who pays a duty of five shillings per head on ciossing the iMurray will not be able to sell his cattle at the same price as when there was no duty upon them, If the Victorian herds are able to supply the Victorian market, as Mr. Berry appears to think they should be, competition with them will bo checked by the additional disadvantage under which this tax will place the importer, and competition being diminished, prices aro not likely to fall. On the other hand, if Victoria does not produce enough meat for her population to-day, she must import sufficient to meot her requirements, and sellers will not take less than they can get elsewhere because the Victorian Government has put a tax upon their stock. The market price of stock in Victoria is not fixed by the Vic- torian demand alone, but is regulated by the demands of tho population of all

Australia.

If Mr. Berry's ideas were correct, this new tax of his, though aimed at the people of Riverina principally, would diminish the profits of our Western squat- ters, who now send a good deal of fat stock to Melbourne. We believe, however, that the loss will not fall on thom, but on

the Victorian consumer.

The tax must certainly have one effect that Mr. Berry will scarcely approve of. Meat preserving has been extensively

carried on in both the colonies of Victoria and Now South Wales. Now the Victorian

companies cannot cortainly afford to give five shillings a-head moro for their cattle than their New South Wales competitors, nor will the producer be satisfied to take five shillings per head less for supplying a company on one side of the Murray than ho can get on the other. Whatever shape, therefore, our exportation of fresh meat may finally take, whether it is pre- served by freezing or by any othor means, this tax on stock imported into Victoria must disqualify that colony for competition with her neighbors in that trade.

There is, we think, also another reason why the imposition of this duty at the present time is particularly ill-judged and impolitic. Victoria by her railway enter- prise has attracted to herself the com- merce of Riverina, and has now enjoyed it for many years ; it is not too much to say that the great prosperity of Melbourne has largely arisen from tho possession of this valuablo trade. At tho present moment, however, she is threatened with a formidable competition for it. Her possession of its advantages has always been regarded with jealousy by New South Wales, to which colony Riverina nominally belongs, and oven South Australia is discontented with tho small share of it which sho has been able to secure. Both of these colonies are

pushing railways out towards Riverina with the avowed purpose of snatching some of this trado from Victoria, if pos- sible. The faros on the New South Wales lines have already been reduced for the purpose of attracting some ,of the traffic which now goes to Melbourne, and when they reach the centre of the debateable territory it is probable that considerable sacrifices will bo made to draw the trade

to Sydney. At such a time, then, we

think that the Victorian Premier acts in- judiciously in attempting to impose any tax on the residents in those districts, or in any way to restrict their deal- ings with Victoria. It is even pos- sible that the imposition of this duty, especially aimed at tho colonists of New South Wales, may disturb the agree- ment respecting the collection of duties on the border, which has been such a great convenience to tho people of both

colonies.

Mr. Berry's idea that a protective policy will ultimately be adopted by all tho Australian colonies may be verified. It is already evident that in every colony except New South Wales there is a growing determination to foster internal industry by protective duties. Now j South Wales at present is living upon' her land revenue, and with a terri

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tory four times tho area of Victoria, and a smaller population, she can find work for her people without subsidising local induskies. Even there, however, ave signs which tell us that when money ceases to flow in from land sales, and additional taxation becomes necessary to replace it, when population- shall have in- creased arid1 employment shall no longer bo_as.easily obtained as at present, that, additional taxation will take the shape of a protective tariff.'

It by no means follows, however, that protection in the other colonies will be exactly of the Victorian pattern, neither do wo see any reason why protection should be a preliminary to federation or should in any way lead up to it. Indeed, it seems to us that nothing could be more likely to disunite the different colonies than the adoption by each of such a pro- tective policy as that of Victoria now promises to bo ; and that the further that policy becomes developed the less probable is it that any agreement for mutual profit can be arrived at by them. If the people of Victoria legislate for the express purpose of putting a tax upon the trade which the people of New South Wales now carry on with them, it is much more probable that the people of the latter colony will retaliate by measures calculated to injure the inland trade of . Victoria than that they will humbly ask

to bo absorbed into the younger but more arrogant community. It is possiblo that an experience of the results of this game of beggar-my-neighbor might lead the people of both colonies to unite in abolish- ing the boundary which proved so hurt- ful to both sides j but Mr. Berry does no't,

wo think, intend us to understand that ' his policy will act in this way. It is to gradually rise Victoria to such a pitch of prosperity that her humbler neighbors will pray to be admitted) on any torma, to

share in it.

This Victorian arrogance is one of the real difficulties in tho way of Australian federation. Circumstances, early gold dis- coveries, her temperate climate and fertile soil, adapted for European colonisation, gave hor at the outset a great advan- tage over all the other colonies. "We scarcely think that she has used these adyantages wisely or well. A few more years, and she may have lost the position she has so long held, and gloried in, of the most populous and wealthy of these 'colonies. There is not one single colony of Australia that would be satisfied to join Victoria at the piesent time on her own terms ; not one single politician who would propose it. "When

the federation of these colonies does take place, it will not be on terms dictated by by any one of them j the well-being of all, the opinions and oven the feelings of all, will have to bo recognised and con-

sidered.

Wo do not care to discuss Mr. Berry's policy as a financial question. In that respect it concerns the Victorian people alone. He proposes to extend consider- ably the protection now afforded to Victorian industry; and we doubt whether au overdone policy of protection is not the most mischievous one that could pos- sibly be invented. The results, however, do not immediately concern us, and may even serve us as a useful warning in the future. We do, however, very greatly regrot that the policy of Victoria at the present moment should have taken shape

in measures which will be calculated to widen the division already existing between her and her sister colonies, and to increase the obstacles in tho way of federation If, however, this tax upon stock should bo now adopted, we feel confident that in a very few years it will bo repealed ; and we would even hopo that Mr. Berry, gaining experience as he grows older in politics, may some day perceive that Victoria would derive greater benefits from a union on fair terms with the other colonies of Australia, than she is ever likoly to derivo from establishing an oppo- sition between her interests and theirs.

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WE think no one can have watched, from this " removed ground," the fluctu- ations of public opinion in England on the Eastern question ; no one can have read tho books on Turkey in Europe written by English olficeis and gentlemon who have settled thoro, like Colonel James Baker, Captain St. Clair, and Messrs. Brophy and Barkly, without feeling that tho amount of ignorance which prevails in the mother country, even among highly educated men, with respect to the Moslems and Moslem rule, is literally unfathom- able. And this ignorance has been pro- ductive, as was only natural, of an im- mense amount of misconception aud of mis- representation concerning Turkey and the Turks. Generally speaking, our fellow countrymen at home cherish tho same blind unreasoning prejudices against the latter, which were current 200 years ago, when the compilers of the Prayer Book of tho Church of England prepared a collect for Good Friday in which "Jews, Turks, infidels, and heretics," wero all lumped together as ignorant, hard-hearted, and contemptuous of Holy "Writ. To 999 mon out of a thousand it was probably a now revelation to be told, by M. Bosworth Smith in his " Mohammed and Moham medism," that " there is, in the Uves of average Mohammedans, from whatever causes, less of self-indulgenco, less of the mad race for wealth, less of servility, than is to be found in the livo3 of average Christians;" and that "if tho two social touchstones of a religion are the way in which, relatively to the time, it deals with tho weaker sex, and the way in which it regards the poor and the oppressed, Mo- hammed's religion can stand the test."

The fact is, Turkey is judged of by the vices and follies of its capital. The official class is profligate and corrupt, and the Sultan Abdul-Aziz-Khan was a frivolous and prodigal voluptuary. Therefore, it is argued by the Turkophobists, the Moslem should be thrust out of Europe " bag and baggage." Now let ns imagino a great continental power, or a foreign statesman of the eminenco and influence of Mr.

Gladstone, talking in this way of England in the reign of Charles the Second. Tho tin one was occupied by a hireling of France ; and the court was a brothel. In tho metropolis, writes Lord Macaulay, " tho outbreak of debauchery was appal liug ; and in London the places most deeply infected were tho palace, tho

quai ten inhabited by the aristocracy, and the Inns of Court." Piety and virtue were scornfully scoffed^ at, and seduc- tion and adultery were openly practised and publicly extolled. ' vl'-Atheists turned puritans; puritans turned - atheists ; re- publicans defending the divine right of kings ; prostitute courtiers "clamoring for the hberties of tho people ; * juBgès in- flaming the _ rago of mobs ; patriot, pocketing bribes from foreign powers ; a popish prince torturing Presbyterians into episcopacy in one part of the island ; Presbyterians cutting off the heads of popish noblemen and gentlemen in the other." And England had her Bulgana in Scotland, and her Bashi-Bazouks who massacred Christians under the command of the " bloody Claverhouse," attended by circumstances of atrocity resemblirig those which have occasioned such just and natural horror and indignation in Turkey. But what if Holland had invited the rest of Europe to unite with her in driving

theso British barbarians back to the shores

of the Baltic, from which, they originally omigiated 1 Would not the " island mastiffs," as Richelieu calls them, have made the same desperate stand against their invaders which the Ottoman is making against Russia, Greece, and

Servia ?

Lot us be just, then, towards the Turks, and divest ourselves of insular prejudices in surveying, their history, in estimating their character, and in forecasting their futuro. Everyone who has, lived in Turkey, or who has studied its people on the spot, asserts that the heart of the nation is as sound as was that of England undei the last of the Stuarts. The average Moslem is acknowledged to be superior in morality to tho average Frank. He is chaste, temperate, frugal, industrious, dovout, charitable, hospitable, truthful, and singularly kind to animals. It would be utterly impossible for such an incident to occur in Turkey as that which was re- ported in the English papers brought by the Lusitania, whore a party of laborers in Staffordshire amused themselves by skinning alive a' number of frogs, and then instituting a race among thom, at the same time dropping salt upon the poor cieatures to stimulate their activity, and at the same time increase the agonies thoy were suffering 1

Colonel James Baker, who farms a large estato in Macedonia, tells us in his recently published- " Turkey in Europe," that " it is tho very virtues of the Ottoman people which cause their patient submission to misgovernmeut. Their religion enjoins respect for their íulers, and they do their utmost to obey the command, however trying the circumstances may be." On the other hand tho corrupt classes, com- posed of men who have been depraved by coming into contact with the vices of Western civilisation, ho represents to be an exceedingly small minority. All that is required for the political regeneration of Turkey is, he says, " an honest and ener- getic executive, and time"

But the diplomacy of Russia in Con- stantinople has beon uniformly directed to ronder all good government impossible, in ordor that the State might fall to pieces, and that the Czar might help himself to the choicest of the fragments. The insur- rection in Bulgaria was exclusively the work of Russian agents and emissaries, and it was so planned and timed as to disable the Sultan from putting it down by regular troops . and General Ignatieff knew perfectly well what wild work would be mado among the insurgents by the ii regulars, composed chiefly of men whom Russia had oxpelled from Circassia, under circumstances of characteristic fero- city, and whom Tin key had been com- pelled to receive, and locate on the slopes of the Balkans. Colonel James Baker, who knows the scene of the insurrection w oil, thus refers to the mendacious state- ments circulated in England with respect to tho people of Bulgaria having been ','ground down by oppression and cruelty until they wero about to be goaded into madness and rebellion. To say so," he exclaims, " is a wicked libel. I have no excuse for and no wish to excuse the car- nage of last year, which here took place by oiders from panic-stricken authorities ; but if ever retribution follows wickedness upon this earth, it should fall upon the heads of those who poisoned the minds of these authorities, and let loose the organ- ised band of murderers, who had orders first to manufactuio a rebellion, and then to provoke the massacre which laid waste this fair land, aud cast its honest and con- tented people into the uttermost depths of misery and despair !"

' This is confirmed bythe obviously impar- tial testimony of Dr. Hamlin, head of the American Christian Mission in Turkey, who affirms that " Russian agents formed a plot for a general rising, and, at the first outbreak, tho Bulgarians fired Turkish and Circassian villages, and killed some hundreds of men, women, and children." As tho origin of this destructive war is likely to be lost sight of, owing to the tremendous events which are flowing from it, it is important that the foregoing facts should be placed upon record, in order that we may not allow our judgments to be waiped by Russian falsehoods and fal-

lacies.

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"WE understand tliat the Government steamer

Kato makes a trip to H.M.S. Wolverine to-day,

with tbe officers of that vessel and a few of

their friends 0The Kate is to leave the Queen's wharf at ten o'clock ÜIÍB morning. It is probable that his. Excellency Sir Arthur Kennedy will accompany Commodore Hoskins in the Ente to-morrow to the Wolverine, returning to-Bris- bane in the evening of the same day.

A SOMEWHAT sensational paragraph in the Queensland Times of yesterday is headed "A close shavo," and gives one rather an uncomfort- able idea about travelling on the line, as if seriouB accidents were only to be very narrowly avoided. "We, however, have the best authority for Btating that the whole of the movements of the traine in question wero in Btrict accordance with the regulations by whioh an up-train leaves tho track for one coming down and into the ata tion, and that there waa no danger whatever of accident, and no " closer shave " than happens every day in the ordinary course of business.

A in__li<a of the membors of the Lily of the Valley Lodge, No 4, was held last night in Forti- tude Valley for the purpose of initiating members in the "first degreo." After the admission of ono member, songs and recitations wero given by

tho various members, aud the meeting closed.

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