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Geographical Outline.

The name of New South Wales was originally given   to the whole of the Eastern Portion of Australia by the Great Circumnavigator, Captain Cook , who when first exploring the rugged coast in 1770, just one hundred years ago-thought that some of its   general outlines were not unlike those of South   Wales " New South Wales", however, is an appel-

lation now only given to the Southern half of the   Eastern Coast-the Northern half being distin- guished, since the 1st of December 1859, as the seaward boundary of the Colony of Queensland. The New South Wales of the present day lies between twenty eight and thirty seven degrees South Lati- tude, and the 141st and 154th meridians of East Longitude It extends over about nine degrees of latitude, and about twelve and a half degrees of     longitude. Its Northernmost Limit (Point Danger) is in 28∙ 10 South, and 153∙ 29 East, its Eastern most Point (Cape Byron) being in 28∙27 South,       and 153∙37 East, the most Southerly limit of the   colony (Cape Howe) standing in Latitude 37∙28 South,     and Longitude 150∙8 East. It has well defined natural   boundaries, on every side, except the East and North East. On the North, it is separated from Queens-     land by the Macpherson Range, the Dividing Range, the Dumaresq Rver, the Karaula (or Macintyre) River, and the 29th parallel of South Latitude. On the East, it is bounded by the Pacific On the West, it is separated from the Territory of South Australia by the 141st Meridian of East Longitude. On the South, New South Wales is separated from Victoria by a line   drawn from Cape Howe to the source of the Murray   and by the westerly course of that River. The posi turn of New South Wales, as regards its distance South of the Equator-corresponds to that respec

tively occupied by Cape Colony in Africa, and by the Lower Portion of La Plata, and by Chili, m South America,-the South of Spain, Italy, and Greece lying in similar positions to the North of the Equator. The boundaries of New South   Wales on the map, constitute an irregularly shaped, four sided figure, the Southern frontier deviating most widely from a right line. The extreme length of the country (measured diagonally) is 900 miles

its greatest breadth, something less than 850, and its mean breadth, about 500 miles. Its superficial area is 323,437 square miles. New South Wales is about three times the size of Great Britain and Ireland, and larger than any State in Europe except Russia. One of its "Outlying" Pastoral Districts within the frontier     (Albert) is, alone, larger than England and Wales put together. Taken as a whole the Colony is nearly equal in extent to Canada. The entire length of the coast line is about 800 miles The seaboard

presents twenty two remarkable Headlands or Capes.   Its Bays and Inlets (from Point Danger to Cape  

Howe) are about eighteen in number. Most of these are still known by names given to them by Captain Cook, and other early discoverers. On the coastline there are eleven inlets of the sea, with narrow open   ings, occasionally closed. These Salt water Lagoons are generally, but somewhat improperly, known as "Lakes" In the Interior there are several extensive         Freshwater Lakes.The Islands on the coast are   very few and unimportant. The Principal Harbours   are Port Hunter and Port Jackson, but at the mouths  

of several of the Rivers there are numerous roadsteads    

and inlets, more or less, available for maritime pur- poses. The Harbour of Sydney (Port Jackson) is one of the best and most extensive in the world. As regards the physical features of the Country,the   surface of New South Wales can be divided into three parts-(1) the Coast District, (2) the Table Lands and (3) the Plains of the Interior. The Coast District is a comparatively narrow strip of undulating land lying along the sea coast - often not more than   35 miles wide, and sometimes considerably less. A

high Plateau, or Elevated District (furrowed here and there with precipitous valleys), next succeeds, fre-

quently presenting, on the Seaward side, nearly per- pendicular escarpments. The most important series   of these highlands traverses the entire length of the  

Colony. In width, this Elevated Region extends  

westward to about the 151st meridian. Its shape is irregular, and the area of its extent not so easily esti

mated. On this Table Land, at the distance of   from 60 to 70 miles from the coast, rise most of the loftiest mountains. From the 151st   meridian, to the westward there is a   gradual fall to the Plains. These Plains in   the Interior, are for the most part very thinly   timbered, but well watered, covered with grass and       herbage, and forming admirable sheep walks. They   are the great grazing grounds of New South     Wales. In the Central District, or Table Land, the   climate is cold in the winter, particularly so, in the     more mountainous tracts. On the Muniong Range, in   the Pastoral District of Monaro (a Range generally   known as the " Australian Alps ) the snow fre-  

quently lies from May to October. The snow is,   however, seldom seen in these localities in the   summer, although it has been sometimes known to   fall there in December and January. In the Alpine   districts tremendous storms not unfrequently occur,   followed by heavy rains. Although in the Ele-       vated Country the winters are rather severe, as a rule   the climate of New South Wales is warm and dry, the     difference between the mean temperature not being   more than 25 degrees. In the Coast Region - the coun   try to the East of the Great Dividing Chain - the mean     annual temperature stands higher than on the Table  

Lands, upon which rises the Great Dividing Chain     of Mountains, separating the Eastern from the   western Rivers. The heat of the summer is here,  

however, moderated by the proximity of the Ocean.    

In the vast Plains of the Interior the alternations of  

heat and cold are always more distinctly marked.   Hot winds are more or less prevalent throughout the   Lowlands during the summer , and whilst they last often raise the temperature to as high as 120° Fahren heit. Notwithstanding this inconvenience the climate   is universally esteemed to be both healthy and pleasant. One of the general characteristics of the   climate is a peculiar lightness and purity of the   atmosphere, seldom seen and felt elsewhere. When the rain does fall, it usually descends in very large quantities. Thunderstorms are not uncommon, especially in the summer.

Physical Aspect.

THE main peculiariries of the Physical Aspect of       New South Wales arise out of its Mountain and River Systems, which must be carefully considered before the general character of the country can at all   be comprehended, either by the geographical student

or by the colonist.

THE MOUNTAIN SYSTEM.

The Mountain System of New South Wales, when rightly understood, is a very simple one. The moun-

tains extend over an immense area, but their average   elevation is probably not more than 3500 feet, although some peaks are much higher. The highest Mount Kosciusko (in the Muniong Range) attains   an altitude of 7308 feet - about 700 below the line of perpetual snow. The Great Dividing Chain, or Cor-   dillera, separates the Eastern and Western Water- sheds, but does not constitute the sole important feature of the system. The mountains of New South Wales, frequently remarkable for their steepness, may be conveniently distuiguished under four dif- ferent heads. I. THE INTERIOR RANGES; II. THE GREAT DIVIDING CHAIN; III. THE COAST RANGES; ,   and IV. THE ISOLATED PEAKS AND GROUPS.  

I. THE INTERIOR RANGES. - The ranges of the   interior near the Western Boundary of the colony form the Western Watershed of the Darling River. Of these the principal are (1) Grey Range, and   (2) Stanley, or Barrier Range In " Grey Range "  

the chief elevation is Mount Arrowsmith, 2000 feet high , and in " Stanley Range " the chief elevation is Mount Lyell, also about 2000 feet high.  

II.THE GREAT DIVIDING CHAIN has Seven Main   Branches, viz., (1) The New England Range (highest   point " Ben Lomond, ' 5000 feet), (2) The Liverpool   Range (highest point "Oxleys Peak,' 4500 feet), (3) The Blue Mountain Rangc (highest point, " Mount   Beemarang, 4100 feet), (4) The Cullarin Range highest point, " Mundoonen, ' 3000 feet), (5) The Gourock Range (highest point, " Jindulian, 4300   feet), (6) The Monaro Range (highest point, "Head   of Kybean River, 4010 feet), and (7) lhe Muniong Range - highest point, ' Mount Kosciusko, ' 7308 feet. These Seven main Branches are again sub- divided as follows: (1) The New England Range into   the Five Lateral Branches-1 Mac Pherson's   Range, 2 Mac Leay Range , 3 Nundewar (or Hard wick) Range, 4 Hastings Range, 5 Moonbi Range.   (2) The Liverpool Range is subdivided into the three

Chief Lateral Branches of - 1 Peel Range, 2 Mount Royal Range and 3 Warrumbungle Range. (3) The Blue Mountain Range is subdivided into the three Chief Lateral Branches of - 1 Hunter Range , 2 Mittagong Range , and 3 Macquarie Range (4) lhe Cullorin Range is subdivided into 1 Western     Range and 2 Mundoonen Range (5) lhe Gourock Range (of a ruggeel and broken appearance) cannot be easily subdivided (6) The Monaro Range is     subdivided into 1 " The Western Range, and 2 "The North Western Range (7) The Muniong Range - the Northern Portion of the " Warragong Mountains" of Victoria - contains (on the northside of the Frontier) 1 The Murrumbidgee Range, 2 The   Tumut Range and 3 The Murray Range. All this series is connected with the Cordillera, dividing the Eastern and Western Watersheds In one portion of it there is an Inland Slope (at Lake   George, to the S W of the City of Goulburn), where there is no outlet. Here an area of 300 square miles is drained by the Turallo and Butmaroo Creeks.

From the Muning, Monaro and the South Coast Ranges, the Margalong or Snowy River (with its affluents - the rivers Eucumbene, Crackenback, Moamba, Tongaro, Moyengul, Ingeegoodbee, Wul

wye, Bobundarra, MacLaughlan) - and, lastly, the Bombala, (with its tributaries Cambolong, Columboca, and Maharratta) flows away, across the frontier, to the South. With these two exceptions all the waters of New South Wales either pass away into the Ocean on the Eastward - or, accumulating on the Western side of the Great Cordillera, fall into the River Murray at Wentworth, and so, eventually, the whole

stream reaches the Ocean near Adelaide

III. THE COAST RANGES On the east side of the Great Dividing Chain - and parallel to it for a very considerable distance - lie Ranges, which, from their situation, are called the " Coast Ranges. "They gene rally form the edge of the elevated Table Land upon which lies the Great Dividing Chain. These Coast Ranges are distinguished as follows: 1. The Northern Coast Range; 2. The Illawarra Range;     3. The Currockbilly Range; and, 4. The " South   Coast Range "— mentioned under section II. The loftiest peak of these Coast Ranges is Mount Coolun- gera (in the South Coast Range) 3712 feet high

IV. ISOLATED MOUNTAINS AND GROUPS. The most remarkable of these (as enumerated by Wilkins and others) are Mount Doubleduke, Whoman, Elanie, Yarrahappini, Kibbora, The Three Brothers, Mount Talawah, Dromedary, Mumbulla, and lastly, Imlay,     or "Balson"—2900 feet high. This is only a     meagre outline of the entire Mountain System, but it may serve to give some idea of the vast extent of the country, and will also render the course of the rivers more intelligible.

THE RIVER SYSTEM.

With the comparatively trifling exception of the Snowy River (the Margalong) and its Affluents, and     the two inconsiderable streams called by the colonists "Turallo Creek' and "Butmaroo Creek ' (especially mentioned under the head of "Mountain System,

paragraph II), it will be correct to say that ALL the Rivers of New South Wales have their sources in the Great Dividing Chain, or " Cordillera, ' flowing thence, with a curious variety of direction, to the sea   by the EASTERN or the WESTERN WATERSHEDS. The great Rivers of the Western Watershed are (I) the River Darling, and its numeious Affluents , (II) the River Lachlan, and its Affluents, comparatively few   in number, (III) the River Murrumbidgee, and its Affluents, and (IV) the River Murray (or Hume),   and its Affluents. All these great Western Rivers eventually become united with the MURRAY, which receives its last tributary (the Darling) at the frontier town of Wentworth. Thence the Murray flows away into Lake Alexandria, near Adelaide in South Aus- tralia. The Drainage of the Western Watershed may he readily understood by the following analysis -

I THE DARLING. The Karaula or Calewatta River (River Macintyre) rises in Ben Lomond, not far from Stonehenge, in the New England Pastoral District. It first flows in a N W direction for about 130 miles. Having received (1) the Severn, it reaches the Northern Boundary of New South Wales, and runs for a considerable distance Westerly, successively receiving (2) the River Dumaresq, and (3) the Boomi, (4) Whalan, and (5) Gilgil Rivers. Its course, thereafter, is (for the most part) Southerly, and South Westerly. The United Stream is here gene ralyj called the " BARWAN," OR UPPER DARLING down to about the site of the township of Breewar- rina, to the NE of Bourke. The River next re- ceives as its tributaries (6) the Mooni River, (7) the Gwydir ori Bundarra, also called the Kindur, (8) the Namoi, or Peel River and its affluents, (9) the Castle reagh River, (10) the Macquarie River (the Wambool)     and its numerous affluents, (11) the Narran River, (12) Bokhara River, (13) the Culgoa River, (14) the Bogan River, (15) the Warrego River, and several other large streams, usually called " Creeks ' From Breewarrina down to Wentworth the United Volume of Waters is known as the DARLING. The estimated length of the " Barwan" or (Upper Darling) is 510 miles , the length of the Lower Darling (or   " Darling, ' properly so called) is 650 miles , giving a total estimated length of 1160 miles. The DARLING falls into the MURRAY at Wentworth in Lat 34∙ 6 South, and Long 142∙ 2 East The area of basin drained by the Darling, and its affluents, is 198,000 square miles. The length of the MacIntyre is 350 miles, of the Gwydir, 445 miles , of the Namoi, 600 miles , of the Castlereagh, 365   miles , of the Macquarie, 750 miles , and of the Bogan, 450 miles. It has been supposed that the River Paroo, in the Albert District, falls somewhere into the Darling , but this is somewhat doubtful.

II -THE LACHLAN -The River Lachlan or Calare, is the next main stream, but much inferior in length, and extent of basin, to the Darling. It rises on the w estern side of the Cullarin Range in the County of

King. It receives first the Jerrawa Creek, and is then   called the Narrawa River. The Crookwell and the Abercrombie then become tributaries, and the River assumes the name of the LACHLAN. The Boorowa and Belubula Rivers are the last of its principal afflu ents. Sweeping round to the West, and South West,   the Lachlan falls into the MURRUMBIDGEE, flowing in the latter portion of its course through vast plains. The total length of the Lachlan is 700 miles , Area of Basin, thereby drained, 27,000 square miles.

III. THE MURRUMBIDGEE -The Murrumbidgee rises in the Muniong Range, and (in the neighbour-

hood of Cooma) trends suddenly to the Northward It receives (1) the Umaralla, (2) tlie Queanbeyan, (3) the Yass River, (1) the Coodradigbee, (5) the Tumut, (6)   the Adelong, (7) the Nackie, and (8) the Tarcutta. After the first 300 miles it pursues a westerly course, and uniting the LACHLAN (near Maude) fills into the   Murray, twenty miles to the South West of Balra- nald. Estimated lcngth of the Murrumbidgee 1350 miles Drains of basin having an area of 25,000 square miles. The Muuumbidgee is navigable for 500

miles

IV THE MURRAY - The principal source of the Murray (or Millewa-also known ns the Hume ul- indi) is in the Muniong Range, near Mount Kosciusko-not xerj fnr fiom the head of the witers ol the Murrumbidgee It Hows Westerlj, aud North Westcrl)-tinough the entire width of New South Wales, and finally itccixes all the Western Waters of the Colon). '1 he lower portion of the Mun ay and the Muirumlndgee are connected by Ana-branches. It his sexeial consideiable affluents in the upper portion of its course It forms the Southern frontier of the Colonv, from Monaro to the South Western limit Length, 1120 unies. Drams an area of 270,000 square miles Width of the stream from Moama to Albur j, in the summer time, about 210 feet Nax igable bj small steamers as far as Albury.

Rivers ON THE EASTERN WATERSHED - The Rivers on the Eastcrn Watershed drain an area of not more than 50,000 square miles. These Rivers have often   been described. They all flow into the Pacific Ocean. The most considerable are the HAWKESBURY and the   HUNTER. The length of the Hawkesbury is 330 miles - area drained, about 8700 miles. The length of the HUNTER (Coquon) is 300 miles - area drained, about 8000 square miles. The Shoalhaven is 200 miles in length ; the Clarence, 240 miles ; the Mac Leay, 190 miles ; and the Manning, 100 miles. The Hastings, the Karuah, the Clyde, the Moruya, the Turons, the Bega, and the Towamba (all more or less navigable) are each of them less than 100 miles in   length. Most of these Rivers have bars at their mouths, and cannot safely be entered by any vessel in tempestuous weather. The Hawkesbury (Deerubbun)   is remarkable for the singularly tortuous direction of its course. Its basin has three distinct "Slopes" in   the Great Eastern Watershed - a Northern, Eastern, and Western Slope. The main stream comes from its Northern Slope. It is first called the Wollondilly.   It receives the Mulwaree, the Cookbundoon, and the Cox Rivers, and is then called the Warragamba. When     the Cowpasture River has joined this winding stream,   the united volume of waters is called the Nepean. The     River continues to be called the "Nepean" until it   receives the Grose River (flowing into it from the Blue Mountains), when it finally assumes the desig- nation of the Hawkesbury. After receiving the Colo and MacDonald Rivers and other waters, the Hawkes- bury finally discharges itself into the Pacific Ocean at Broken Bay. Owing to the immense territory which it drains, and the flat character of the country in the lower portion of its course, the Hawkesbury is liable to sudden floods. The alluvial lands in the lower portion of the Hawkesbury, and in the Vale of the  

Hunter are renowned for their fertility.

Topographical Divisions.

THERE are two methods of topographical sub- division, by studying which the extent of the area of New South Wales may be appreciated, and the re- lative position of its more important localities more   easily understood. The first of these subdivisions is   that of " Counties and Towns," and the second, that of the " Old Counties " and " Great Pastoral Districts."

THE COUNTIES AND TOWNS.

New South Wales has been subdivided into one hundred and eighteen Counties, but this mode of sub-   division is of but little topograplucal importance, and xeij generally disregarded Besides the xast extent of country included in the rather x aguely defined areas of some of the more distant Inland Counties there are also widely spread, unoccupied tracks to be found (as m the Albert District, beyond the River Darling, to the N.N.W. of the Colony) wherein few counties yet appear to have been even     " named " The boundaries of the " Old, or Pro- claimed Counties," nearer to the coast, are all more clearly defined, and their respective areas are less thinly peopled than the " New Counties " of the Interior. Towns, villages, homesteads, clearings, cultixated farms, plantations, and other evidences of human industry and progress, are here not infre- quent , increasing efforts having been everywhere made, by the Government and by the People, to     facilitate intercommunication by Railways and by Common Roads—by the establishment, at convenient distances, of Post Towns, and by the multiplication of Electric Telegraph Stations. In this direction much, at a very large outlay, has already been achiexed, but much, of course, yet remains to be done The OLD COUNTIES (with their Chief Towns, &c. ) are—

I. [The Six Counties on the Coast.] (1. ) ST. VINCENT Chief Toxvn-Bt aulwood, and twenty other Post Toxins. Area of Count)-eighty miles long, by forty miles wide , contains 1,704,884 acres. (2) CAMDEN Sen ima, and twentx-mne other Post Towns. Area of Countx-sex en ty miles long by forty-five miles xi ide , contams 1,400,320 acres (3) CUMBERLAVD. Sydney, and Sixty-four Post Towns. Area-sixty three miles long by thirtj -eight miles wide , contains 914,800 acres. (4) NORTHUMBERLAND Newcastle, and twentj-six Post Towns. Area-sixty-eight miles long, by fifty-five miles wide , contains 1,498,880 acres (5) GLOUCESTER Raymond fa ¡ace, and nine other Post Towns. Area-eighty miles long, by sixty-five miles wade , contams 1,375,200 acres. (6) MACQUARIE. Pot t Macquarie, and fourteen other Post Toxins. Area-sixty-miles long, by fifty miles wide , contams 1,408,000 acres

II. {The Three N.W. Inland Counties] (!) DUR- HAM. Paterson, and nineteen other Post Towns Area-sixty miles long, bj fifty miles wide , contains 1,354,880 acres (8) BRISBANE. Scone, and eight other Post Towns. Area-ninety miles long, oy forty miles xvide , contams 1,500,160 acres. (9) BLIGH. Cassilis, and three other Post Towns. Area-eighty miles long, by forty miles wide, contams 1,077,120

acres.

III [The Seven Western Counties] (10) COOK. Hartley, and fifteen other Post Towns. Area-sixty miles long, by forty-four miles wide, contains 1,065,000 acres. (11) ROXBURGH. Kelso, and twelve other Post Toxvns. Area-fifty miles long, by forty miles xvide , contains 976,160 acres (12) WESTMORE- LAND O' Connell, and four other Post Towns. Area -sixty four miles long, by thirtj -two miles xvide , contams 1,018,880 acres (13) WELLINGTON. Orange, and fourteen other Post Town«. Area-seventy-two miles long, and forty-two miles xvide ; contains 1,059,680 acres. (14) BATHURST Bathurst, and four- teen Post Towns. Area-sixty-five miles long, by forty miles wide , contains 1,190,400 acres. (15) HUNTER. Jewry's Plains. Area-sexenty-one miles long, by forty-sexen miles xvide, contains 1,315,840 acres. (16) PHILLIP Mudgee, and another post tow n -Guntawang Area-fifty-three miles long, by foity-one miles wide, contains 1,035,520 acres.

IV. The Four South Western Counties] 17 GEORGIANA. Tuena, and four other Post Towns. Area-fifty miles long, by forty miles wide, contains       1,231,360 acres, (l8) KING Gunning and fixe other Post Towns. Area-1,159,810 acres (19) ARGXLE. Goulburn, and fourteen Post Towns. Area-sixty miles long, by thirty-six miles wide; contains 1,218,600 acics. (20) MURRAX Tau, and nine other Post Towns Area-sexentj'-eight miles long, by forty-four miles wide, contain 1,458,080 acres

The NEW COUNTIES (with their chief Towns, &c. ) are subjoined in then Alphabetical Order, without regard to their Topographical Position These so-called counties appear to be, for the present, little more than vaguely determined areas forming part of the Thirteen     Great Pastoral Districts of the Interior. In describ- ing the Colony, they are very often, even by the best geographers, passed over without much notice (See Wilkins's " Geography of New South Wales." Chapter IX, page 121, &c. ) Nevertheless, it may, perhaps, be as well to mention these "counties," as   they are sometimes occasionally alluded to.

V. (The Principal New Counties in the Interior). (21) ARRAWATTA, Ashford. (22) ASHBURNHAM, Forbes, and three other Post Towns. (23) AUCK-   LAND. Eden, and seven other Post Towns. (24) BARADINE. Baradine. (25) BENARBA. Kunopia. (26) BERESFORD. Cooma, and two other Post Towns. (27) BUCCLEUCH. Tumut, and another Post Town— Brungle. (28) BUCKLAND. Breeza, and four other Post Towns. (29) BULLER. Maryland, and another Post Town-Tabulam (30) BURNETT. Warialda. (31) CADELL. Moama, and another Post Town— Mathoura. (32) CAIRA. Balranald. (33) CLARENCE. Grafton, and eight other Post Towns. (34) CLAREN-

DON. Gundagai, and another Post Town—Junee. 35) CLIVE. Tenterfield, and one other Post Town   Deepwater or Gladstone. (36) CLYDE. Breewarrina. 37) COOPER. Narranderra. (38) COURALLIE. Moree. (39) COWLEY. Kiandra, and another Post Town—Big Hill. (40) COWPER. Bourke. (41) CUNNINGHAM. Con-   dobolin. (42) DAMPIER. Moruya, and five other Post Towns (43) DARLING. Manilla, and another Post Town—Barraba. (44) DENHAM. Walgett. (45) DENISON. Tocumwall, and another Post Town—Mul- wala. (46) DRAKE. Drake, and two other Post Towns. (47) DUDLEY. Kempsey, and four other Post Towns. (48) EWENMAR. Colite. (49) GORDON.

Newrea—Post Town named Obley. (50) GOUGH. Glen Innes, and three other Post Towns, (51) GOUL BURN. Albury, and three other Post Towns. (52) GOWEN. Mundooran. (53) Gur.ciniY. Merri Murri. (511 GRESHAM. Ncwlonboyd. (55) HARDEN. Binalong, and seven other Post Towns. (5G) HARDINGE. Bundarra. (57) HAWES. Nowendoc. (58) IIUMI:. Corowa, and another Post Town-Howlong, (59) INGLIS. Bende- meer, and two otiicr Post Towns. (GO) JAMISON. Wee Waa. (G1) LEICHARDT. Coonabarabran, and another Post Town-Coonamble. (G2) LINCOLN. Dubbo, and two other Post Towns. (03) MENINDEE. Menindee. (G1) MONTEAGLE. Young, and three other Post Towns. (G5) MURCHISON-. Bingera, and another Tost Town-Cobbadah. (06) NANDEWAR. Gulli'/al, and another Post Town-Narrabri, (G7) NAPIER. Wceluluba. (C8) NICHOLSON. Booli- gal. (G9) OXLEY. Canonbar, and another Post Town _Warien. (70) PAHHY. Tamworth, and five other Post Towns. (71) Pottinger. Gunnedah, and another Post Town-Boggabri. (72) RALEIOH. Dovedale, and two other Post Towns. (73) RICHMOND. Casino, and two other Post Towns. (71) Rous. Lismore. (75) SANDON. Armidale, mid three other Post Towns. (76) SELWYN. Walarcagang, (77) TAILA. Euston. (78) TOWNSEND. Deniliquin, mid two other Post Towns. (79) UKAKA. Jcreelderie, and another Post Town-Urana. (80) VERNON. Walcha. (81) WA- KOOL. Moulamein, and another Post Town-Wakool,

(82) WALJEERS. Appletree Flat. (83) WALLACE.   Nimmitibel, and four other Post Towns. (84) WARAD- GERY, Hay, and another Post Town—Maude. (85) WELLESLEY. Bombala, and two other Post Towns. (86) WENTWORTH. Wentworth. (87) WYNYARD. Wagga Wagga and six other Post Towns.

VI. (Additional New Counties of Minor Importance.) Of the following New Countries hut little is known at present. They are, most of them-perhaps we may say all-situated at a great dißtance from the Metro- polis. (88) BLAND. (89) BLAXLAND. (90) BOURKE. (91) BOYD. (92) CANRELIOO. (93) CLARKE. (94) DOWLING. (95) PINCH. (9G) FITZROY. (97) FLINDERS. (98) FORRES. (99) FRANKLIN. (100) GUTS. (101) GUN DEKiiooKA. (102) KENNEDY. (103) KILLARA. (104) LANDSEOROUGH. .(106) LIVINGSTONE. (106) MITCHELL, (107) NARRAN. (108) NARROMINE. (109) PURRY. (HO) RANKIN. (HI) STAPYLTON. (112) STURT. (113) TARA. (114) WERUNDA, (115) WHITE. (HG) WINDEYER. (117) YANDA. (118) YOUNO.

[NOTE.-In the vast area comprehended in the fore- going divisions of the colony of New South Wales there are, nt present (in September, 1870), about five hundred and fifty Post Towns, Postal Villages, and Postal Stations. These Post Towns and Postal Vil- lages are distributed over tlio country, ¡n the manner and proportion shewn in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 6th preoeding paragraphs. In addition to those Post Towns however (so distributed) there are about ninety Postal Stations recently established ; the exact position of which cannot readily be described with- out the aid of a map. Of these about forty have been placed in the Districts to the WEST of Sydney ; about twenty-five more in the Districts to the NORTH of Sydney ; and the remaining twenty-five in the Districts to the South of the Capital. The following analysis may perhaps serve to give some practical idea of tlie wide extent of the mea embraced by our Five Hundred and Fifty Postal Stations. One of these (Mount Gipps) 944 miles from Sydney. Another of them (Mc?iindee) is 850 miles from Sydney. Another of them (Wentworth) is 835 miles from Sydney. Two more-Louth and Pooncarie-are over 700 miles and less than 800 miles from the capital. Two -are over 600 miles and less than 700 : Twenty-five -are over 600 miles, and less than G00 ; twenty-six are over 400 miles, and less than 500 ; fifty-six are over 300 miles and less than 400 ; one hundred and four -are over 200 miles and less than 300 ; one hundred and ninety-nine-are over 100 miles and less than 200 ; and only one hundred and thirty-one-are less than one hundred miles from Sydney. There are seventy eight Telegraph Stations ; the most remote being at Wentworth-a distance about 835 miles from Sydney. There are also one hundred and sixty-eight Money Order Offices ;-one hundred in tlie Twenty Counties and sixty-eight in the Postal Districts. These Postal Villages, Telegraph Stations, and Money Order Offices ore daily on the increase. According to the latest information on this subject, the number of Post Towns in the Ten Pastoral Districts of Monaro, Murrum- bidgee, Lachlan, Wellington, Bligh, Liverpool Plains. Gwydir, New England, Macleay, and Clarence amount (at present) to one hundred and eighto-five (185) j and the number in the titree Outlying Districts of Darling, Albert, and Warrego to eighteen (l8). The rest are all in tlie " Twenty Counties." In a Twenty miles Radius of Sydney there are 30 Postal

Stations.]

The Population of SYDNEY, the Capital, and Suburbs (lying on the shores of Port Jackson) is about 140,000 ; the population of the second seaport town, Newcastle (the Port of the Hunter) is about 5000. The total population of the colony is about 600,000 souls.

THE PASTORAL DISTRICTS.

Disregarding the cumbrous and (at present) somewhat imperfect subdivision of the Colony of New South Wales into Counties, a shorter and more simple method will, perhaps, be to adopt for die interiorr the _ comprehensive arrangement of the Pastoral Districts. These " Pastoral Districts," thirteen in number, include the whole area of the colony, irrespective and outside of the "Twenty Counties"-those proclaimed under the Orders in Council in 1847. The " Old Counties," long considered tobe the Colony Proper, have already bten described. Grouped around the Old, or Twenty Counties, are the Thirteen Pastoral Districts, each a sort of province dependant upon New South Wales, and each, much larger in its area than some of the most important European States. They are as

follows :

I. MONARO. This Pastoral District lies adjacent to the coast, at ths southern extremity of the colony. It includes the new. counties of Auckland, Dampier, Wellesley, Beresford, Wallace, chief part of Cowley, and part of Buccleuch. It has an area of 8335 square miles. The principal towns are :-Kiandra, Kiora, Moruya, Bergalia, Bodalla, Cobargo, Wagonga, Nerrigundah, Bega, Murrimbula, Panbulo, Eden, Bombala, Delegate, Cathcart, Candeleo,- Kameruka, Nimmitibel, Bobundarrah, Buckley's Crossing, Jin- dabyne, Jegidzerick, Cooma, Numeralla, Bunyan, Adaminiby, &c. It iß traversed by lofty mountains and deep gullies.

II. MURRUMBIDGEE. This great Pastoral District stretches away to the westward of Monaro, and i« bounded on the south by the River Murray (or Hume), and on the north by the River Murrumbid- gee, from which it tak«s its name. It includes the new counties Selwyn, chief part of Buccleuch, part of Cowley, Wynyard, Goulburn (county), Hume, Mitchell, Denison, Boyd, Cadell, Townsend, part of Waradgery, Wakool, and part of Caira. It has an area ol' 26,897 square miles of splendid grazing eountry. The Principal Towns are :-Walareaeang, Tumberumba, Upper Adelong, Tumut, Adelong, Brungle, South Gundagai, Tarcutta, Garryowen, Coppabella, Ten-Mile Creek, Bowna, Albury, Dight'« Forest, Howlong, Moorwatha, Wallundrie, South Wagga Wagga, Urana, Corowa, Mittiwalln, Tocum- wal, Jereelderie, Conargo, Deniliquin, Mathoura, Moama (opposite to which, across the Murray, on the Victorian side, is Echuca), Wanganella, Moulamein,

Wakool, &c.

III. LACHLAN. This Pastoral District lies North of the Pastoral District of Murrumbidgee. It is bounded on the South by the Murrumbidgee River, and, on the East and North-East, by the Western boundary of the Twenty Counties. It includes the new Counties Harden, Monteagle, Clarendon, Bland, Gipps, Bourke, Cooper, Sturt, part of Waradgery, Waljeers, Nicholson, Dowling, Franklin, and Blaxland. It has an area of 22,800 square miles, and is admirably adapted for grazing purposes. The Principal Towns are: Maude, Booligal, Huston, Eauabalong, Grenfell, Marengo, Burrowa, Binalong, Bookham, Gundagai, North Wagga Wagga, Narran- dera, Hay, Junee, Sebastopol, Jugiong, Cootamundra, Murrumburrah, Harden, Wombat, Young, Moran- garell, Marsdens, &c. The upper portion of the Lachlan River divides the Lachlan District into two unequal parts-of which the North-Western Part is but little known.

IV. WELLINGTON. This Pastoral District is bounded on the South, by the Upper Portion of the Lachlan River ; on the East, by the Macquarie River, and the Western Boundary of the Twenty Counties. It includes the new Counties Ashburnham, Gordon, Cunningham, Kennedy, Narromine, Flinders, Oxley, and part of Gregory, &o. It has an area of 1G.G95 square miles-for the most part fine grazing country. The pricipal towns are : Canowindra, Forbes, Billa- bong, Moonwonga, Condobolin, Canonbar, Warren,

Dandaloo, Heifer Station, Toogong, Murga, Cargo,

&c.

V. BLIGH. This Pastoral District lies on the North East bank of the Macquarie River, and to the N.W. of the "Twenty Counties." The Bligh Pastoral District includes the Counties of Lincoln, Napier, Gowen, Ewenmar, Leichardt, and part of Gregory, &c. It has an area of about 5,000,000 acres of pastoral land. It is bounded on the North by the Warrego District, on the East by the Liverpool Plains Dis- trict, on the West by the Wellington District, and by the Lachlan District and the Old Counties (or settled Districts) on the South. Ita Principal Towns are :

Dubbo, Mount Harris, Wammerawa, Merri Merri, Coonamble, Coonabarabran, Gilandra, Collie, Mun- doolun, Cobborah, Coolah, Weetuluba, Talbragar,

&c.

VI. LIVERPOOL PLATNS. This Pastoral District líos N.B. of the Pastoral District of Bligh, anti nearly North of the "Old Counties." It has an area of 16,901 square miles. It has but few hills, and is supposed to have once been the bed of an immense inland lake. The mean elevation is 921 feet above the sea level. It includes the new Counties of Buck- land, pare of Tarry, part of Inglis, Darling, Nan- dewar, Pottinger, White, Baradine, Jamison, and Denham. The Principal Towns aro : Walgett, Col litrendcbii, Pillngn, Wee Waa, Narrabri, Baradine, Boggabri, Bi' aba, Manilla, Gulligal, Gunnedah, Can oil, Breeza, Pine Ridge, Quirindi, Tamworth, Som ti ton, Bendemeer, Moonbi, Dungowan, Goonoo Goonoo, Cmrabubuln, Wallabadah, Bowling Alloy Point, Nundle, Hanging Rock, &c.

VII. Gwinni. This Pastoral District lies Noith o'

the Liverpool Plains District. It contains an area oi 11,075 square miles. It consists chiefly of open sandy plains, occasionally well grassed. It includes the new Counties Murchison, Burnett, Courallie, Benarba, Stapylton, and pint of Airavvtitta. It is bounded on the North by the Macintyre River-here the Southern Frontier of the county of Queensland. The Principal Towns are : Bingera, Warialda, Moree, Kunopia, Mungindi, Gundivvindi, Yetman, Cobba-

dah.

VIII. NEW ENGLAND. This Pastoral District is a

long and comparatively narrow Pastoral District conterminous with the Table Land (here lying on each side of the Dividing Range) and reaching from the Northern-most Boundary of the twenty counties to the Southern frontier of Queensland. It contains on area of 13,100 square miles, and lies at an elevation of about 3000 feet above the sea level, The climate is temperate, but rather cold in the winter months. Much of the soil is well adapted for agriculture. It includes the new counties Hawes, Chief Part of Ver- non, Sandon, Part of Inglis, Hardinge, Clarke, Gough, part of Gresham, Clive, and part of Arra- watta. The Principal Towns aro : Tenterfield, Tim- barra, Bonshaw, Ashford, Wellingrove, Inverell, Dundee, Glen InneB, Oban, Bundarra, Falconer, Ai midale, Rocky River, Uralla, Walcha, Nowendoc,

&c.

IX. MACLEAY. This Pastoral District lies between the Southern portion of England and the coast. It ÍB bounded an the North by the Southern limit of Clarence Pastoral District, and on the South by the Macleay River-from which it takes its name. It contains an area of 3180 square miles. Large quantities of cedar are obtained in this District and shipped to Sydney, and other ports. It includes the New Countieb Dudley, Raleigh, part of Vernon, and part of the County Fitzroy. The Principal Towns are : Kempsey, Dovedale, Nambucca, Summer Island, Warneton, and Frederickton.

X. CLARENCE. This Pastoral District lies between the north end of New England and the Pacific, to the north of the Macleay District. It contains an area of about 6000 square miles. Much of the land in this district is used for agricultural purposes. It includes parts of the New-Counties-Fitzroy and Gresham, and the Counties Clarence, Drake, Richmond, Rous, and Buller. It is bounded on the north by the Macpher- son Range-here the southern frontier of Queens- land. The north-eastern point of Rous is Point Danger. The Principal Towns are : Maryland, Unumgar, Kynnumboon, Tooloom, Drake, Lismore, Casino, Ballina, Richmond River Heads, Wardell, Woodburn, Codrington, Wyrallah, Lawrence, Clarence River Heads, Palmer Island, Rocky Mouth, Brush Grove, Ulmarra, Grafton, Copmanburri,  

Ebor, &c.

[Returning bock again South-westerly, to the Murrav River, we find within the present limits of New South Wales the Great Outlying Pastoral Districts of DARLING, ALBERT, and WARREGO.]

XI. DARLING. This Pastoral District (to the S.W. of the colony) is bounded on the East by the Lachlan Pastoral District ; on the South, River Murray ; on the West by the 141st Parallel of Longitude ; and on the North by the Southern limit of the Great Albert District-a line running from Menindee to the Western frontier, at right angles to it. It contain» an aiea of 50,000 square miles. It is used for Pastoral purposes. It includes the Counties of Tara, Windeyer, Menindee, Perry, Wentworth, Taila, port of Caira, part of Livingstone, &c, and much land never subdivided into counties at nil, The towns are few and unimportant : Balranald (on the extreme Western Boundary of the Murrumbidgee District)

Euston, Wentworth, Pooncarie, Mossgiel, Menindee) and Mount Gipps. ,

XII. ALBERT. This vast Pastoral District is, a» yet, but little known. It is bounded on the South by the Pastoral Districts Darling and Lachlan ; on th East by the Warrego Pastoral District ; on the North by the frontier of Queensland, and on th West by }he frontier of South Australia. On the West of Albert District ore (as w have intimated) two Ranges of Mountains-"Grey Range," and "Barrier" or "Stanley Range." Towards the Eastern Boundary is the course of the River Paroo, running towards the North. TheS.E. Portion of the Albert Pastoral District is traversed by the Darling. It contains an area of about 60,000 Bquare miles-considerably larger than England. The larger portion of the Albert District is not yet subdivided into " Counties," but it includes the New Counties of Young, Killara, Landsborough, Living- stone, Werunda, Rankin, and Yanda. The towns are very few, small, and otherwise unimportant. Amongst them are Wilcannia, Tankerooka, Mount Monaro, Louth, &c.

XIII. WARREGO.-Thii Pastoral District is tra- versed by the Rivers Darling, Narran, Bogan, Warrego, und Culgoa, &c. It contains an area of 10,000 square miles. In Warrego District there is much land good for pastoral purposes, and much that is arid and useless. It includes the counties of Cowper, part of Clyde, Yanda, Narran, Finch, Gun- dabooka, &c. Its towns are few, and (for the most part) unimportant. Amongst them are Bourke, Brenda, Toora, Breewarrina, Yarramba, &c.

Inter-Communication.

IN New South Wales there are numerous obstacles to on effective inter-communication for travelling, and for the conveyance of goods. There are no canals, and (comparatively speaking) but few navigable rivers, considering the vast extent of its territory. The Great Dividing Chain near the coast, for many years after the foundation of the colony, presented an absolutely impassable barrier to the early settlers. Much has now been done by public and private enterprise to remove these disadvantages. The Eastern Rivers are, for the most port, navigable by vessels of small tonnage, and the Four Great Rivers of the West by small steamers. Immense sums of money have been spent upon the common roads, of which there are Three Mt.in Lines-the Great Southern, the Gieat Western, and the Great Northern. The Great Northern Road begins at Newcastle ; the two other Main Lines at a short dis- tance from Sydney. There are three Main, Lines of Railway in the some general direction as these three Great Roads. The Electric Telegraph Lines have already been mentioned under the head of " Counties and Towns." New South Wales possesses an im- portant means ol' communication between many of the localities on the coast by her fleet of sea-going steamers. Sydney is 590 miles from Melbourne ; 600 from Hobart Town; 1000 from Adelaide; 390 from Brisbane ; 1280 from Auckland, in New Zealand ; 4350 from Honolulu ; 1520 from Fiji ; and 6130 from

San Francisco.

Governmental Divisions.

THE principal divisions of New South Wales for Political, Municipal, and Executive puposos, ore thiee in number, viz. : The Electoral Districts, the Police Districts, and the Municipal Districts. The last of these include (1) the City of Sydney, (2) "the Subur- ban Boroughs, (3) the Country Boroughs, and (4) the "Municipal Districts," properly so called.

ELECTORAL DISTRICTS.

New- South Wales is, under the 22nd Victoriano. 20, divided into Sixty Electorates, entitled to return seventy-two members to the Legislative Assembly. Of these sixty electorates two are in the Capital, and three constitute the Gold Fields Electoral Districts the " Gold Fields South," the " Gold Fields West," and the "Gold Fields North." The remaining fifty-five Electoral Districts aro those of Argyle, Balranald, Bathurst, Bogan, Braid- wood, Camden, Canterbury, Carcoar, Clarence, Centrol Cumberland (the metropolitan county) Eden, Glebe (Sydney), Goulburn, Gwydir, Hartley, Hawkesbury, Hume, Hunter, Hunter Upper, Hunter Lower, Illawarra, Kiama, Lachlan, Liver- pool Plains, Macquarie East, Maitland East, Maitland West, Macquarie West, Monaro, Morpeth, Mudgee, Murray, Murrumbidgee, Narellan, Nepean, Newcastle, New England, Newtown, Northumber- land, Orange, Paddington, Parramatta, Paterson, Patrick's Plains, Queanbeyan, St. Lconords, Shoal- haven, Tenterfield, Tumut, Wellington, Williams, Windsor, Wollombi, Yass Plains. Tlie three Gold Fields Electorates respectively embrace a large number of different localities, in which gold mining pursuits are followed. In these electorates every person possessing a Miner's Right ia licensed to vote,

The Sydney University will be entitled to return a

member of the Colonial Legislature when the Superior Graduates of the University will be

found to amount to one hundred.  

THE POLICE DISTRICTS  

New South Wnles »-also-BrrriitivideU into Seventy

one " Police Dlstriötß'GjSjhgse'Ti Police Districts

s included the whole"'area of New South Wales ? 323,437 square miles) constituted by the Twenty Proclaimed Counties, and the Thirteen Pastoral Dis- tricts. This subdivision is one ol' a purely practical character, convenient for statistical and other pur- poses. These subdivisions have all been taken into consideration in the arrangement of the Electoral Dis- tricts. The Police Districts are either grouped round some principal town or towns, or else round some con- venient, central point. The limits of tlie Police Dis tiicts arc so liable to modification, and so little known, that they arc not available for geographical pur-

poses.

MUNICIPAL SUBDIVISIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS, &C.

CITY OP SYDNEY.-The City of Sydnoy was first in-

corporated in 1842 - Corporation dissolved anti Commissioners appointed 1853-Corporation re- established 1857-Divided into eight Wards -s Mayor and bixteen Aldermen. Present Population about 90,000.

Of the SUBURBAN BOROUOHB, as Municipalities, there are seventeen, namely :-RANDWICK, WAVERLEY, GLEBE, REDIURN, BALMAIN, PADDINGTON, WOOLLAHRA, WATERLOO, EAST ST. LEONARD'S, MARRICKVILLE CAMPERDOWN, COOK, NEWTOWN, DARLINGTON, NORTH: WILLOUGHBY, ST. LEONARDS, ALEXANDRIA. They have each a Mayor and a certain number of Alder - men, and the population of the xvholc is about 50,000.'

There are also about twenty COUNTRY BOROUOHS, as Municipalities, governed in a similar manner ¡ ami

five MUNICIPAL DISTRICTS.

[NOTE.-The population in nearly all the Boroughs proclaimed in 1859-60 has been, in some instances,» doubled, and in some trebled. There arc now petition« before the Government from five or six towns in the interior praying for incorporation.]

Political Condition.

NEW South Wales furnishes an instance of political growth without parallel. It is but a century since the discovery of Australia by the illustrious naviga- tor, Captain Cook, It xvas not until 1788, that Governor Phillip arrived xvith the "first fleet.'" "Under his auspices a penal settlement xvas estab- lished. But the land was too beautiful and fertile for a prison, and thoso xvho claimed it as the futura home of millions of free men rested not until they hail secured the abolition of transportation, and the con- cession of all those rights of government and admin- istration which are dear to British subjects. It ia not the object of this article to give a history of the progress mode from military rule to responsible government, but ' rather to convey an idea of the degree of political freedom xvhich is enjoyed by the colony under its present Constitution, and to explain; in a familiar way, xvithout going into technicalities,, the form of government xvhich has been granted to it by the Imperial Parliament. New South Wales has been entirelj' free from all interference on the part of the Home Government, except in regard to matters xvhich affect Imperial interests, for fourteen years, anti its laxvs are supposed to be n reflex of the popular;

mind.

Politicians of all grades assembled to celebrate the inauguration of responsible government in 185Ö. They congratulated each other and the country on the distinction conferred upon them. Prom that time until now they have shown much vigour in contend- ing for places of distinction and emolument ; and, notwithstanding the bitterness of personal jealousies and political feuds, they have gix'eu evitlence of consi- derable administrative ability. lu the initiation of responsible institutions experience has been costly.' The colony has suffered from over-legislation, from the disturbing influences ol'frequent political changes, and from that kind of patronage which xvill always be exercised in small communities, where the chief political actors arc brought into daily contact xvith a, numerous class xvho xvish for Government employ- ment ; xvhere the administrators are unusually ac- cessible, and depend for support upon members, many of whom desire offices for themselves or their friends, and sometimes special advantages for the constitu- encies they represent. Nevertheless, the great majority prize their political institutions, and those xvho would recede are conscious that such a step is»

impossible.

The colony of New South Wales has a Governor, and a Parliament, consisting of two Houses, called "The Legislative Council" and " The Legislative   Assembly." The Parliament has power to deal with all matters affecting the order and good government of the colony. The special functions of the Governor, enable him to interpose as representative of the Crown in regard to questions which affect tlie Empire.

The Governor is appointed by Commission under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom, and is em- powered to appoint an Executive Council to advise and assist him in the administration of the govern- ment ol' the colony. But he may act in opposition to their advice if he deem it expedient, subject to certain directions contained in the Royal instructions which have regard to the preservation of Imperial interests. His Excellency the Governor receives a salary of £7000 per annum, which is provided for in one of the schedules of the Constitution Act. The

present Governor is the Right Hon. the Earl of

Belmore.

The Legislative Council is a nominated body. In the early days the colony was under military govern- ment. On the 11th August, 1824, the establishment of a Legislative Council, consisting of half a dozen members, was publicly notified. The Governor was president of that body, which at first was entirely official. Subsequently it was enlarged by the addi- tion of two or three distinguished colonists, After that, from the 1st of May, 1829, to 1843, the Govern- ment of the colony was administered under the Imperial Statute 9 George IV., cap. 83, passed in July, 1828, and intitled "An Act to provide for the better administration of justice in New South Wales and Van Dieman's Land, and for the more effectual Government thereof, and for other purposes relating thereto." The Governor derived his powers partly from this Act, and partly from Letters Patent. In regard to the Legislative Council the Act provided that it should consist "of such persons resident in the colony, not exceeding fifteen, nor less than ten, as his Majesty shall be pleased to appoint."

This form of government, based partly upon statute and partly upon prerogative, failed to give satisfaction, or probably it may be with greater fairness sald that the colony rapidly out grew it. The people petitioned, and in 1843 the representative element was introduced. This Act for the government of New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land was passed on the 30th July, 1842, and printed in full in tlie Sydney Morning Herald of the 6th January, 1843, It not only gave to the people the elective franchise and to the Governor and Council power to make laws for the peace, wel- fare, and good government of the colony, but also authority to alter the system of representation. The year 1842 was one of the darkest in Australian annals, but the inhabitants found some consolation in the fact that " if fortune frowned upon their trade she   gave them some compensation by smiling benignantly upon their politics." From that time to 1856 the colony had only one House of Legislature called the Legislative Council. It consisted of tliirty-six mem- bers. Twelve of them were nominated by the Crown and twenty-four were elected by the people. In 1856 the Constitution at present existing came into force. Under it there are two separate Houses. The Gover- nor with the advice of the Executive Council was empowered to summon a Legislative Council which was to consist of not fewer than twenty-one members.

The tenure of their office was for five years, but there   was a provision that all who were summoned to the Council after the expiration of five years, should hold their seats for life. Opinions havo been ex- pressed from time to time in favour of an Elective Upper House, and there are those who would abolish it altogether and reduce the Legislature again to a single Chamber. But the five years were allowed to pass away without any reform in regard to the constitution of the Council, or, as it is generally called "the Upper House, " and it remains part of   the Constitution. It consists at present of thirty-one members, most of whom are gentlemen of great ability and experience. There have been some eccentric appointments, and colonists who have better   claims to Parliamentary distinction than some of the present councillors have been over- looked; but the House has rendered very important   services to the country, and the fact that it has not been superseded or abolished is owing rather to its moral and intellectual status than to any preference

on the part of the people for the principle of nomina-   tion. Its duties in regard to the Assembly are some- what analogous to those of the House of Lords in relation to the Commons. It is not a mere revising body. It has initiated many useful measures, and with one or two exceptions, has shown itself jealous of its honour and its constitutional rights.

The Legislative Assembly, or House of Repre-

sentatives established under the Constitution of 1865,   consisted of fifty-four members, but by an Electoral   Act passed in 1858 the number was increased to

eighty Two or three years later, hy the separa- tion of the northern territory, and its erection, into a sepárate colony (Queensland), it lost eight membeis, so that there now remain seventy two. Scveial alterations weie made in íegaid to the qualifie itions of elcctots, and also of members of the Assemblv lhese nlteititions were «11 m the dncetion oí politie ti fiecdom One of the Hi st nets of the legislature was to pass a in vi to amend the Constitution, bj lepealmg those clauses ivluch rcquncd i mii]oiitv. oí two thuds to altei the Constitution, and to place that powei in the hands of a simple m vjout) The following aro the vvoids of the Llcctoiol Act setting loith the qualilu ation of membeis of the legislative Assembly -' Every male born subject of her Majesty of the full age of twenty- one years, being natural born, or who being a natu- ralised subject, shall have resided in this colony for three years, shall if qualified as in this section is   provided, and entered on the roll ol electors, and not disqualified by sections 17 and 18 of the Constitution Act, or unless under sections 11 or 12 of this Act, he would be disqualified or incapacitated as an elector.

The 17th clause of the Constitution Act referred to provides thal no poison,being a member of the Legis

latrve Council, shell be tipablc of being elected or of sitting oi v oting as a membei of the I egisl Hive Assembly Hie 18th ilisqualilies poisons holding nnv ofticc of poht undei the Ciown during pleasure oi for a tenu ot jeais lheie is however, an exception maele m îegird to ino gentlemen who held oflice undei the olel icgimo (one of these is now Attoinov General), and also in favour of half paj ofheera of the anny nndnavj The 11th clause of the Lloctoral Act disqualifies paupeis, persons of unsound mind, or attainted, or convicted ot ticason, felony, oi othei infamous offences The 12th disqualifies persons in the militan sei vice or ni the police

It will be seen therefore, that practically the only qualification required is that candidates shall have attained their majority, and that they shall be neither paupers, nor policemen, neither soldiers nor mad-

men.

It will not excite wonder that with a fieedom of

choice so extensive the I ogislotivo Assembly is a mixed bodv Lvcrj gnuie of society is represented The colonists have seen on the I egislative benches men of reputed w ealth and members for whom con- stituencies have sent round the hat, venerable paliiarchs, and bcaidless men who seem to have «careel} emerged horn bov hood , represcntativ es pos

sessuig supeuor hterarj nbihtj, and others who would he suddenly checked bj an elementary educational

test, mci chants and tiaders lavvvers and medical

tloctois, and men without settled occupation readj to accept any light genteel, and remunerativ e business As a rule, debates upon any subject of importance offei a fair illustration of " collettive wisdom

It can hal dlj be said that much regard is show n to paity government in the English acceptation of the term Eveij politician professes liberal pimcipks The colonj has suflered most, perhaps, from the per

sonal jealousj of men vi ho received theil Pnilianicnt ary training m the same political camp, fiom the efforts of rival politicians to out-liberal each other, and, asa conscquenee, fiom the rapid changes which have taken place in the Administration " loijism,

of couise is out of the question in a colony whoso Constitution embi aces nearly all the points of the Chaitei so earnestly desired by a class oí English íadical reforméis But withal, there isnowheie to bo found, m oi out of the Legislature, a people moie lojal to the fhione

The following is the qualification of electors

" Lverj male subject of her Meiiestj of the full age of twenty one jeais, bemg natur ii bom oi who being a natiualised subject, shall have îesided m this colonj for tluee veais shall, if qualified us in this section is piovided, and entered on the roll of electors, and not aisquahhed oi mcapocitatetl for some cause heieiu nftei specified, he entitled to vote at anj election tor the electoral district, in respect of which he shall bo so qualified ' The reqiuiements aie six months íesi dence, oi a freehold oi leasehold estate oi the annual lalue of X10 lheie is a pioviso that no elector, possessing more than one qualification within the same distnet, shall be theiebj entitled to any adch tional i ote at any election loi that distuct Among the disqualified aie classed éliminais, puipers peisons m the militai} sei vico oi in the police lheSjtlnej Uiuveisitj when it contains ti hundí ed supenoi giaduates is to return one member Practi

cally we have uiuversal suffrage lhe electoral rolls are icvised eveij vear, anel the dutj oí collecting the names is peifoimed bj the poliee Tor the most pait, the people show a fair appreciation of then poll

tical rights, and geneiallv thej possess a toleiably accurate knowledge of the woiking of political msti tutions But the Government is the gieat bridge huildei nud loadmakei, the owner oi telegraphs and railways and it has also the ailnumstration of the public lands 'lheie is theiefore a strong temptation to people ni i emote distiicts to exercise their suffrage m íegard topeisonal and local considerations rather than with reteience to anv political principle It will be obseived fiom the above quotations that the quahfi

cations requned m a member are less than the qualifications of an elector

Our Parh vnients aie quinquennial, but hitherto only one has expired bj eftluxion of time In the midst of general elections, however, the duration of Parha

menta has often been a subject of comment Bills

have been sevenl times introduced into the

Legislativ e Assembly to make Parliaments triennial, and there aie a few membeis m favour of annual ?election The practical result, how ever, of the present sj stem will satisfy most reasonable men that we haye not suflered fiom any lack of opportunity to ascertain the will of the people in their prunary assemblies

The electoral districts w ere framed on a population hasis, but considerable anomalies now exist, owing to the vicis«itudes of settlement and the shifting of com jnumties A general census of the colony is about to betakem, wren the inequalities which at present exist -Will be rectified The Gold fields return three members, an exception having been made in the case of gold miners, so that in consequence of then migra .tiona thej might not be disfranchised

The mode of voting at elections is by ballot, and the sj stem has vi orked w ith excellent effect There is at the hustings on the day of nomination ample scopo for political demonstration, the candi

dates being proposcel and seconded m the usual manner, and a show ot hands being taken But the ballot has tended greatly to the main tenance of good order and freedom of action on the polling daj In this colony it is valued most by men who require shelter from the aggressions of their own class, and not because of any attempt on the part of one class to unduly influence the votes of another

Seveialefloitshave teen made to make provision for -the payment of representatives by the State, but, as yet, without success The membeis of the Cabinet oí course are paid The Colonial Secretary receives £2000 per aiuvum, the Colonial Treasurer £1500, the Attorney-General -SI500, the Minister for Lands £1500, the Minister for Works £lo00, the Solicitor Geneial £1000, and the Postmaster-General £9«>0 The Crown Law ofheers are not necessarily members of the Cabinet At the present time the Solicitor Geneial is a member of the Cabinet, but the Attorney General is not Both are in the Legislative Council, of which the Solicitor-General is leader The Speaker has a salary oi £1200 a j ear, and -the Chairman of

Committees £500

The Parliament buildings, like the two branches of the Legislatuie who meet therein, are composite, and not very imposing, but they have hitherto answered the purposes for which they are intended There is a good libiarj attached to each House, and a íefresh ment-ioom, conducted on the principle of a Par

hamentaiy club, for there is not at present any counterpait of " Bellamj s m New South Wales

The oflices of President of the Legislativ e Council and Speakei of the Legislative Assembly have gene

rnllj been failed with great ability At this time the Piesidcnt is Sir Terence Aubrey Muriay , and the Speakei, Mr William Munnmgs Arnold A fair idea oi the incessant conflict which is maintained bj those who seek the honoui oi emoluments or both, oi the political ofhees, may be obtained fiom the political changes which have ti inspired since the inaugura- tion of lesponsible government in 18J6

In foui teen j eais the colonj has had six Parliaments The present Parliament is m its second session lhe fust Piuhament opened on the 22nd Mav, 1856, and alter two sessions was disolved on the 19th Decein ber, 1857 The second Pailnment opened on the 23rd Maich, 1858, and alter two sessions w as dissolv ed on the 9th April 18j9 The tlurd Parliament opened on the 30th August 1859, and after tw o sessions was dissolved on the 10th Novembei, 1860 The fourth Pailiamcnt was opened on the 10th Januaij, 1SG1, and after five sessions was dissolved on the 10th Novembei, 1804, the fifth Parliament w is opened on the 24th Januar j, 18C5, and its fifth session was brought to a close on the 1st April, 1869 The first session of the present Parliament began on the 27th January last, and closed on the 7th May Its second and contuiuuig session was opened on the 11th

Duruig the same tune we have had at least ?eleven Ministries We say " at least eleven

because two of them underwent so many changes, that while retauung their name, then composition lias boen greatly altered But eleven Ministries m fourteen years inehcates a îapiditj oi change sufficient to show how numerous aio the

chances of politicians, and how brief has been the tiaic lor nil) set of men to benefit the countrs

The first Ministr) was that of the late Su Stuart Alexander Donaldson, who took ofhec on the l>th June, 1856, and went out with a majority on the 2ith August the same year He w as succeeded by Mi

Cholles Cowpei, who held oflicc till the 2nd October, 1856, when Sir Hem) Watson Parker was sent fir, and formed a Government which lasted till the 7th September 1857 Mr Cowper then took olhco a second tune and retained his position till the 21 th Ottober, 185) Ho was succeeded by Mr lotstei, who, on the 8th March, I860 made way fjr Mi

John RobciIson, ol whose Mimstiy Mr Cowper was a member, and whose Government merged into the thud Cowper Government, which lasted till October, 18G3 Sn Tames I lattin then acctpted oiltte, and held it until the 2nd 1 ebruai), 18G5 Then we had a fourth Cowper Mimstiv fiom aid Tchraur) 186J, till the 21st Januar) 1S66 when Sir Jomes Maittn again come into power and held olhce till the 2Gth October, 18Gh Mr Robertson came into olhco on the 27th Octobei, 186S but at the beginning of the present Pailnment lus Government o¿oin meiged into the Cowpei Government, which still exists

In ieDard to legislation the pace has been scveie As many as ei"htv bills havo been oiigimttcd m a single session lor the first ten vears of responsible gov eminent the av erogc was about seventv tvs o per annum and the propoition passed into law is about lour nmtlis ol the bills introduced These include many measures of ¡,roat importance to the tolonv, and some of which have been exceedingly beneficial in their operation

Administration of Justice.

Tur administration of lustice throughout so extensive atcnitoi-yas that of New ¡south Wales necessarily requnes a large and somewhat costlv. establishment

Hie laws of the colonv ore substantially identical

with those of Great Britain Theie aie a lew vam tions The most material is that the punishment of death is still aw arded tor the crime of rape It was proposed a good man) )eois ago to assimilate the low of the colonv, m this îespcct, to that of the parent countiv A bill for that purpose was brought in b) the late Mi Plunkett, then Attorne)

General, and the question wa* ver) fully ind ably discussed m tht legislative Council of the day-a body m which the Munster» of the Crown and tht elected representatives of the people sat and deltbe rated together lite opinion of the mijonty was that, circumstanced as this counti) was, with a veiy scattered population and females very often left with out mi) piotectionbut that of the law, the chances bought lor would be dangerous Hie question his been îevav ed since more than once, but vi ith as ytt the same result Anothei diffeicncc is in the absence of a grand jur) and the " finding or ' ignoring of bills of indictment by the Attorne)-G cn« al A thud, that the landed piopeit) of a poison d)ing mtestote, is divided among his hen», like the pei sonal estate, instead of pissing in its entnety to a heir at law There aie othei v iriations which need not be especial!) noted

In mon) matteis of practice-as, foi instance m the mode of selecting juries, and m admitting pleas of cross actions, so as to lessen and cheapen litiga- tion-tins colony has been even m advance ol the mother countr) Ihcie are still, hovvevei, some re forms whith aie consideied to be necessoiy-particu lnrl) a revision and condensotion of some of the statutes lo that end a Law Reform Commission has been appointed during the piesent jeai, which, altliqugh it has not vet prtsented anv report, is under- stood to have been actively emplo) ed m mquuiiig and crafting It consists of the Chief Justice (who is its President), the Attorne) -Geneial, the Solicitor Geneial, two membeis of the Bar (Su James Maittii, Q C , and Mr Butler), and two attorneys (Air (leeton and Mr Boiker) Its secietai) (Mr Oliver) is n hamster, and is also one ot the Parlia mental) draftsmen

The laws relating to insolvenc), which are spread ovtr a number ol statutes, are among those which are geneiall) admitted to need not onl) consolidation, but some amendment Hie) embodv a nuLibei of stimgent piovibions against fiaud and foi lessei kinds of misconduct-not wairaiiting criminal prosecution, theie mav be a suspension or îeltisal of the certificate, according to cucumstances Certificates are not classified "\\ lime a certificate has been absolu tel) relived, the msilvent mav, with the consent of a mojorit) "in number and value' of his ci editors, apply again aftei i lapse of tis o vears Public notice oi his application is then given, and it othei creditors do not come in and successlully oppose, the Court looks into the case mid giants a certificate after such fin thor suspension as the causes of relus ii and the v anous tttendant circumstances, arc thought to rendel needful These lenevved applications are made not to the Chief Commissioner (heroaftei men tioned), but to the Supreme Court btatutor) pro- vision has also been made lor the assignment of estites and their administration Lnprisonment for debt on mesno process has long been abolished, but is letamed as to damages recovered m actions for seduction, slander, and personal wrongs of like character And in these cases the insolvency of the judgment debtor will not entitle lum to be discharged irom prison without paying tlie damages awarded agamst lum Defendants in Supieme Court actions about to leav c the colon) ma) be arrested and held to bail, md persons against whom judgments haye been recovered in the District Court mav be imprisoned, on writs of ca sa , if it is mndo to appear to the satis

faction of the Judge that they aie able to pay, but fad

to do so

The police and penal establishments ha-e been in eluded here as necessary adjunct» to the " Ydmim stratum of Justice, although not oidmarily thus tlassed in public documents

Tlie sums voted for tlus branch of the public serv ice for the year 1869 were the following -roi the de partment ordmardy classed under the head of " Admi

lustration of Justice (. c , law officers of the Crown, Supieme and Circuit Courts, Sheriff s department, Insolvent Court, Distuct Courts, Quarter Sessions, Coioners, and Court of Claims), £o5,618 , Petty Ses sions, £39 357 , police, £140,013 , gaols, £68,026

total, £309 014 lhere were some savings effected by the abolition of a general establishment on Cockatoo Island and by some reductions m the police force and the Petty Sessions departments, but on the other hand there have been many supplemental charges to be met The cost to tlus colonv of the Administration of Justice thorcm may be estimated m round figures at £300,000 pel annum

We will now proceed to describe briefly the various establishments and divisions of tlus poition of our governmental machuiery

LAW OHICERS or THE CROWN

Tlie principal Crown law officers are an Attorney Genet al and a Solicitor-Genera I lhcse ouiccis are the advisers of the Government on all matters con nected with the administration of justice B ith aro generally members of the Cabmet, but itpicsentthe Solicitor-General only lias that position, the Attorney General being a non-political olhcer The Attorne)-General was iormerl) the Minister of the Department of Justice, but the superintendence of that department is now attached to the post of Colonial Secretary Tlus supcruitendence, however, gives no control over the bupremo Court or the Judges All the latter-both of tlie Supreme Court and the Distuct Court, hold ofiice during *' good

behaviour '

The law officers of the Crown aie assisted by an Vndo Secretary and two clerke lhere is a Ciown Solicito), who has five clerks, and two Patliamcntaiy Draftsmen (both barristers), and emplo)ed to draw

and icvise bills submitted to Parliament

Tht piesent law oiheers are the lion Su W M Manning, lint, M L C , Attorney-General, the Hon Julian E Salomons, M L C , Solicitor General, Mr W E Plunkett, Under Secretary, Mr John ?Williams, Ci own Solicitor, and Messrs A Oh ver and C J MOUHUIL,, Paihamentary draftsmen

The annual salaries of these functionaries are

Attoine) General, £lo00 Solicitor General, £1000 , frown Solicitai, £1000, Under Secretar), £Go0, and Pniliamentaiy draftsmen, £250 each

IHE SUTRLME COURT

The Supieme Court Ins, as regards this colony, all the powers which are vested m the Courts of Chan eel), Queens Bench, Exchequer, mid Common Pleas, and m the various other superior tribunals of Lnglnnd (the Admirait) Court excepted) for the Admini tration of Common, Ecclesiastical, and Sta

Theic are foui members of this tribunal-the Chief Justice of the colony and thiee Puisne Judges The Chief Justice has piecedence next after the Governoi of the tolonv, suth precedence being assured to lum bv the Chai ter of Justice In other lespects lus position m tlie colony corresponds to that of the Chief Justice of the Queen s Benth in Lngland, w hilo the Tuisne Judges hav e, lot oil), a suiular status to that of the Queen s Bench Judges Hit judicial powers which are m England vested m the Loid Chancellor are here committed to the Judges of tiie Supreme Court collective!)-that is to sa), to the full Court One of the Judgeb, however, has, ns Priman Judge in Lquity, peculiar functions

Tlie Prunai) Judge tionsacts all such business m the Equit ible, Ecclesiastical, and Insolvencv jurisdtc

tion of the Court as can be disposed of by a single Judge ; but there is an appeal from his decrees to the

full Coutt.

Tlie Supreme Court is the tribunal of final appeal for the colony from all Courts of inferior jurisdiction in all coses where, cither by statute or by common law, appeals can be had. Any two of the Judges can sit as "the full Court," and deal with all such business as is usually disposed of by o Superior Court in Banco. A single Judgo oven can exercise in emergent cases, out of term, the powers of the full Court, subject to a formal confirmation, in term, of his ordcis. It is seldom, however, that less than three Judges sit for Term business.

An appeal lies from the Supreme Court to the Judicial Committee of the Pi ivy Council in London in cases of the highest importance. Where property

is concerned there must be at least £500 at stake to givo on absolute right of appeal, mut if a loss amount than this is involved the Judges here have no juris- diction to grant an appeal. Mut the Privy Council con allow such appeal, in any case, on petition. In every case where an appeal lies as a matter of right, or has been granted by the Privy Council on petition, nil that the Supreme Comt has to dois to lix the amount of security to bo given for costs and for abiding the result of such appeal- There ure often, however, very important collateral questions to be determined, as, for instance, whether there shall be n stay of procec-dings pending the decision of a cose by'the appellate tribunal.

There aro four " Tonus " in the year, during which the Court sits in Banc. These terms last about a month each, and aro so arranged as to take up the various special cases, points reserved, motions for new trinls, Sec, arising out of the several sittings for the tiitd of causes and of criminal cases, both in Sydney and on circuit. The Terms have not here specific names, ns in England, but are styled the First, Second, Third, and Fourth Terms.

There are also four sittings iii the year, at Sydney, for the trial of causes, and a like number of sittings for the trial of criminals. A month at a time is set opart for the causes, and two Courts are appointed to be held at once. Latterly, however, there lias been a coiisideiable folling-ofl'in this branch of the business, and the two Courts have not been fully occupied during the whole time. The sittings for criminal business are continued until it has all been disposed of. It generally lasts about a week or ten days, one j Judge or two Judges sitting according to the nature

. mid prcssuie of the business.

There are two vocations-one of six weeks at the beginning of the year, and one of a fortnight in July.

lhere is, as has already boen mentioned, no Grand Jury in this colony. The power of determining whether or not n person who has been committed for trial sholl be nctualy tried is vested in the Attorney General, in addition to the other functions ordinarily attaching to that office.

The Jury lists is-both of special jurors and com- mon jurors-are very full in and near Sydney, as

well os in most of the circuit towns, but in some of the latter it has been found difficult at times to muster a special jury panel. The jurors arc quite equal in point of intelligence to mon of the same class in Great Britain. Criminal coses in the Supreme Court ore tried by juries of twelve taken from both panels, and the finding must be unanimous. For tlie trial of civil cases, a system has now been in operation for many ' years which has been found to work admirably. There ore three kinds of civil juries juries of four;'cómiiion juries of twelve, and special juries of twelve. In every case a verdict of three lburths of the jury can be returned if after six hours' consultation 'they:cannot all agree; and if, after they

have! "been out" twelve hours even tlu-oe-fourths cannot be found to agree; the jury is discharged without verdict. This latter result is very . uncommon. ' Most cases aro. tried by juries of

four, - but in some few cases considered of great importance special, juries of twelve are empanelled. The Court has decided that any suitor can claim to havo his case tried by a common jury of twelve (subject to the right of the other side to apply for special jurors instead) ; but it is very seldom that any such claim is urged.

The Equity and Common Law Departments arc as regards the records and clerical duties of those depart- ments kept distinct, although nil under the control of the Judges, and of the Chief Justice in particular.

The Master in Equity has similar functions to those of the English Masters in Chancery. He is assisted by titree clerks.

The Prothonoiary has charge of the common and ecclesiastical branches, and is also Curator of Intes- tate Estates. He is assisted by four clerks.

The Sheriff, although especially an officer of the Supreme Court, has other mid independent duties to perform, being also Inspector of Prisons. He is in this colony a poid officer of the Crown, appointed by the Government in the same manner as other public functionaries, although vested with all the powers held by the honorary sheriffs of England. He acts for the whole colony. He is assisted by an under sheriff and six clerks, and has o staff of bailiffs (13) throughout the country, all of whom are salaried

functionaries.

The Judges' Associates, of whom each Judge has one, are appointed by the G overnment on the nomination of the Judge himself, being generally some near relative of the latter. Besides tlie duties ordinarily attaching to such offices they act on circuit as clerks of assize.

Hie offices above enumerated arc filled at present by the following gentlemen :-Chief Justice, Ivis Honor Sir Alfred Stephen, lint., CB. ; Puisne Judges, their Honors J. F. Hargrave (also Primary Judge in Equity), Alfred Cheeke, and Peter Faucett ; Master in Equity, Mr. A. T. Holroyd ; Prothonotary, Mr. D. B. Hutchinson; Sheriff, Mr.HaroldM'Lean; Judges' Associates, Messrs. Cecil Stephen, It. Har- grave, G. A. Cheeke, and T. C. Callaghan..

Tlie annual salaries attaching to these offices are -Chief Justice, £2600; Puisne Judge, £2000; Master in Equity, £1000 ; Prothonotary, £700 ; Sheriff, £800 ; Judges Associates, £275 and £200.

There is also an allowance of £200 per annum to two barristers who prepare for publication reports of Supreme Court decisions.

INSOLVENCY COURT,

This is, strictly speaking, a department of the Supreme Court, but has all the essential characteris- tics of a distinct tribunal of secondary rank. In this Court the insolvency laws-which here supply the place of the English bankruptcy laws are administered. An appeal lies to the Judges of the Supreme Court. Such matters os can be dealt with by a single Judge are disposed of by the Primary Judge in Equity, but appeals are heard and decided by the full Court.

The .Chief Commissioner of Insolvent Estates has a primary jurisdiction in all matters affecting the management of those estates, the conduct of enquiries, the granting or refusing of certificates, &o. He is, in fact, a Judge, although not so styled. The officers of this department in Sydney are, a Registrar, before whom meetings are held for proof of debts, and three

clerks and a bailiff.

The present Chief Commissioner is Mr. George H. Deffell, barrister-at-law. The salary attaching to this office is £1000 per annum.

There are tlirce Official Assignees, (Messrs. J. P. Mackenzie, R. H. Sempill, and F. T. Humphery), to one or other of whom the immediate management of every Insolvent Estate is entrusted.

Of country Commissioners of Insolvent Estates, there are twenty-seven, chieily Police Magistrates and Clerks of Petty Sessions, f hey preside at meet- ings of creditors, &c, in their respective localities.

The Commissioners and Official Assignees are paid by commission.

VICE-ADMIRALTY COURT.

The Vice-Admiralty Court has a similar jurisdic- tion in this colony to that of the Court of Admiralty in Great Britain-dealing with claims for salvage, &c. The Chief Justice of New South Wales lor the time being is, ex oßcio, president of this court as Judge Commissary. One of the Puisne Judges is usually Deputy Judge, mid presides in the absence of the Judge. At present Mr. Justice Faucett holds this office. Cases are heard and disposed of by the Judge alone, and no appeal lies from his decision to the Supreme Court. There can in any case, however, be an appeal to the Privy Council. The officers -if the Court are two Surrogates (both barristers), a Registrar (this post being filled by the Prothonotary), and a Marshall. The remuneration for business done by the ollicers of this Couit is by fees.

CIRCUIT COURTS.

Tlie Circuit Courts deal, at the " assize towns," with all such cases, both criminal and civil, as would in Sydney be disposed of by the Supreme Court. They are, as a general rule, presided over by the Supreme Court Judges, but occasionally, when the pressure of business has required it, a member of the bar has been specially commissioned to act as Judge. The Circuit Courts are, strictly speaking, distinct from and inferior to the Supreme Court, but in practice ore worked as if they were branches of the latter tribunal ; new trial motions and special cases, &c, from Circuit being disposed of in their turn with other term

business. _.

The Assize towns are ALTÍURY, ARMIDALE, UATII URST, DENILIQUIN, GOL-LIIURN, MAITLAND, TAMWORTH,

and WAGGA WAGGA. Courts are held tit each of I

lhe=e pinces twice a year-i c m tho months of Apul and October

DISTRICT COIUTS AN-D COURTS 01 QUARTER SESSIONS

lhc colon) lsdixidcd into fixe greit Distncts for the jurposes of this branch of the admimstiatioii iii lustice lo the Mi aitoi MITÁN- AND COAST Disiiuw there aie two ludges who are both pietty fully emploxed J he Southern South Western, Western and Northern distncu, have each a Jud0c lheie 010 District Court binni«,!, onto a month in Sjdiicj, and less frequently nt all the piiiicipal tunis m enchdistnct-tho periods for liolding snell Couits xnrjing in different places Ihese Couits have a civil jtiiisdiction up to £200 except m ca->es airectmg title to ical pi op« ty When, the amount -it issuo is undei £10 it is disposed of by the Judge alone

but whciL it execedb that sum, the suitor can either leaxcit to the JUCILC or hnicniui) of foin Dam «Les can be .iw aided to a defendant in a Distuct Couit suit if he buccced-, m making out a counter claim gieatci in amount thin the plaintitl s demand

lhc Disttict (vint lud /ri ne ox offi io, also Chattmen of the Couti o/ Quatta S sion» in their J espectn e distnc ts 1 JIL ( oin ts of Qn u tor ¡sessions

have luntdiotioii m all ennnnal eases, except tieasons and felonies of the gi nest class Cases nie tried in these Couits bv common j unes of twelve

Thcie is a Ctotin Pt owen ai for each Distnct xv hose functions aie sufficiently indicated by lus title J

Hie Distnct Comt ofliecrs aie Claks of the Piarr Broisttals, mid Baihjfs Hie ofhee of Cleik of the Pence and pmieipal Reysti u is in each distnct united m one pcison lhere aie n number of local Rcgistiais- generally Cleiks of Pettv Sessions and baihlls-nt places wheie the Coulls nie held

Appeals on miittcis of law he fiom the Disliiet Couits to Die Supreme Comt

The picscnl Distnct Comt Tudges, arc Mr J S Dowling Mi A Ml inland Mr H 1 1 nucís, Mr J 1 Jo^ephson, Mi 1 W Mejmott, and Mi G B Simpson-all Barnsttis at Luv Hie salai) of each Di'-tnct Comt Jud0e m £1000 peí annum

lhc present Croxvn Piosceutors are Messrs Toseph Chambers, D G 1 tubes M TI oster, C J Man nmg 1 G Ro¡,eis, and W H "N ill nison Hie annual snlaiy of each public prosecutor is £500 Hie salaries of the pinn îpii Resistí us range fiom £o00 to £300 and those of the lotal Rcgistiais fiom £200 to

£30

Not onlx Judges of the Snpiemc C ourt, but those of tlie Distnct Comt and the Chief Commissioner of Insolvent 1 states nie each addressed ofhciilly as

' ) our Honoi

BUSINESS OI THE SUIREMF, CIRCUIT, AND DISTRICT

COURTS

Hie total number of conxictions in the Supieme and Cncuit Courts dining the xenr 186') xvas 1)9 loi xnnous lelonies, and 171 for valions nusdcnicinouis -313 m all Of these theie xvere 3 for assault xvith intent to rob, being irmed 8 foi minsl inghtcr, 3 for muidei lench tor wounding with intent to murdei, xvouiidmg with intent to do giicvous bodily linim, shooting with intent to do gncious bodily hann, sodom), assault withiutent to lob, nrson, breaking and entciing a church and steilmg therein, the like as to a chapel, utteiing a foiDorv, lobber), accessor) to a felon) admuustenng poison with intent to piocurc uboition usuig an instrument with the same intent, assault, ditto on the huçliscas, mde cent assault, alidiiction of a girl mulei lu, attempt to commit a felon), and enibc7/lcineiit by an in solvent, 4 loi burg] rrj, 20 for burglary and larceii), 4 for embe?/lemont, 3 for foigciy, 15 for forger) mid uttenng, 40 foi larceny, 2 tor stealing m a dwelling, 4 for attempts to commit cuines against natuie, 2 foi unlawful]} wounding, 3 for obtaumig goods bj false pretences, 6 for obtaining mono) by false pretences, 5 for conspiracy to defraud, and 2 for fraudulent uisolveiicj The total number of com- mitments for trial m these Couits, during the same penod, xvas 207 foi felonies and 277 for misdemea nowa, so that 68 peisons conumtted for felo- nies, and 103 committed foi misdemeanours, were acquitted The total number of commit

monts for tiltil in Couits of Quaitcr Sessions durmg 1869 xvas 83o, and the total number of con xictions in these Courts aunng the samepeiiod u08, shoxung 327 acquittals

The total numbei of conxictions m the Supicme and Cncuit Courts and Courts of Quirter Sessions 1111860 was 405, m 1861, 137, m 1862, 611, in 1863, 197 , in 1864, 590 , in I860, 686 , 111 18G6, 770 , 111 1807, 702, m 1868, 601, and 111 1869, 682 Hie number of criminals executed 1111860 xvas 8 111 1861, 2 , m 1862, 6 , in 1863, 6, 111 1864, 2 m I860, 3 111 1866, G , m 1867, 1, 111 1808, 5, 111 1869, none

The following extracts fiom official returns will give some ide 1 of the amount of Cn ii business trms acted m the beforementioned Courts -

Sei REML AMI CiiicciT CouiiTS -Common Law fvumber of xvrits issued, 2146 number of causes enteied for trial 275 total amount for xvhich judg ment signed, £19o,285 12s 8Jd , number of days occupied 111 Jury trials at Sv dnc), 09, ditto on Cncuit, 32 number of dnvs bittings in. Banco, 67

DOUITX AND ECCIESIASTICAL JURISDICTIONS - Iv umber of bills hied, 26 , petitions, 49, decrees, 103, appeals to the full Court, 7 , number of days occupied ni hearings before Primary Judge, 68 in appeals, 11 Number of letters oi administration, 202 amount sworn to, £363,002 0s 2d , Distnct Court appeals, 7

INSOIVENCILS-Voluntary, 513, compulsory, 17, total 530 Amount of liabilities as shewn 111 the insolvents schedules £183,14o 13s lOd Amount ol assets as similarly shewn £296,979 12s 3d Deb ciencx, £186,106 Is 7d

DISTRICT COURTS -lotal number of Distnct Couit suits 9899 Total amount sued for £113,33Ü 13s 0¡d Suits settled without hearing, 3779 1 ditto by aibitration 10 Tried 6044 (Go b) junes, and 5979 without juries) Veiuicts foi plamtiils, 5335, verdicts for defendants, 709 Costs of the suits, £9916

18s 3d

COURT OP CLAIMS

Tins Court, as it is geneinlly teimed, is moie pro peri) speaking n Commission appointed under n statute (5 William IV , No 21), to investigate and report to the Government upon claims to grants of land Ihese claims are, however, inquired into m a judicial manner, and the determination arrived at by the Commissioncis hos pietty nearly the effect of a judgment, so far as tlie claimant is concerned lhere is a President and txvo Commissioneis, all three being barristers, and a Seactaiy (an attorney), xvho is the ofheer of the Court Hie present oflieeis arc Mr A 1 Hob o j d, President, Messrs Owen and Wilkin son, Commissioners , and W G Pennington, Scere tary A fee of £2 2s to eich Commibsionei, md £1 Is to the Secretary is paid for the final îeport 111

each case

COURTS OI INIERIOR JURISDICTION

CORONLR s COURTS -lheie are forty one Coioners 111 the colon}, xvho hold Courts in then íespective distncts at nnj tune and place whcie it maj become necessarj Besides inouiiing into ciuscs of deith whenever theie me any circumstances which seem to render such an inqunj expedient, the) investi0ate the origin of fires Hie f lets nie decided upon by juries, the Coroner presiding is a Judt,o Occa- sionally, how ex ci, the causes of death aie inquired into ' magisterially, xvithout tlie assistance of a jury The Coroner for S)dney and its environs is a salimed functionary (leceivmg £450 per annum), and dex otes lus xv hole tune to the dutie of his ofhee , but the Coroners of the intcnor aie gentlemen following other axocations, and aie paid b) fees-2us 111 eich ease All Coronéis are tppouited b) the Govern-

ment

MAGISTERIAL COURTS -Nearly ill tlie magisterial busmesb of the countr) is done 111 the Coin's of Petty basions Theie aie a feieat numbei of Justices of the Peace who are all appointed by the Government and hold office " dunn,, pie isuro as in LnUand , but it is scared) ever, is m that countr), that a Justice Uansacts magistenal business at his own lesidcnce lheie are 160 places xvhere Courts of Pott) Sessions aie held moie or less fiequently according to cn ciuns tances, but nlvnjs, we behexe, on fixed dnjs Hie MiDistrites tending in tlie neighbourhood of a plico wheie one of ihese Courts is held nie consideied to constitute the Beneli of that place but gentlemen " 111 the Com mission hive jurisdiction ill ox oi the colon), and can sit m an) of the magistenil Couits There lie fift) six snlmcd Police Magistrates, whose annual salaries var) fiom £GO0 to C32o Two of these sene 111 S) due)-at the " Conti al Police Couit ind the ""Water Police Couit Hie lemniiimg fift)

foul tue apportioned among the principal towns ind distncts Many of thom attend seveial Benches, on different di)s Of Chi/s of Petty Sisitons oidmanly so called, 1 c, gentlemen spcciall) appointed to those olhccs theie are 7b, but in ninny cases tlie offices of police magis- trate and cleik of Pettv Sessions are combined, and 111 many others oflieeis of police act as clerks of Petty Sebsions Like tlie Police Magistrates, these clerks have often to attend sex oral Benches In the Sidney Police Courts, a "Roster" is kept and magistrates summoned to attend in turn There nie, x\e believe, similar arrangements m many of the country towns and districts Mnn) of the clerks of Pettj Sessions arc also Justices of the Peace I The busuicss m S)dney, especially tit the Central

Polico Court, is v or) heavy, but is never allow ed to fall into arrear The magistrates have, as in England, both mmisteital and judicial functions, but they have btv oral othei duties which English magistrates

are not colled upon to pciform Tlie business at Couits ot Pett) Sessions is indeed of a ici y mixed clnrottei, nfloiduig cheap and speedy justioe in a luminous tloss oi coses In neaily all instances wheie justices are empowered to act judicially the pit seine of two of them is lcquucd, but b) aspecul tnuclniciit n police magistrate can bo invested vs ith thtpoviei ol two justices, and police magistrates who officiate in places vihcie the attend inte of a second lUbtite tiniiiot olsinjs be lethoned upon aro so in

vested Hie polite maBistrttes tike precedence of tht imp ud justices, but, except foi the specitl pur pose ahead) mentioned, hase no supeitor povstrs Courts of Pett) Sessions in the countr) arc bj statute made Sn all DM* ( OMI it, in which all debts which do not amount in the whole to more than £10 can bo faucd lor ihc nnysliates have also a power of ordeiuig the bumnnrj ejectment of tenants (no uctiuil question oí title being involved) of directing the lestitution of property illegally detained of aw ui ding damages to a ceit nn extent tor piopertj in lined, ol oideiniL, maintenante of dcseited wives and children bj husbands and patents, and fixing its amount, of adjudicating betw ecu m istci s and bei v ints, oi healing ond deciding appeals against municipal obbcsMiients, of icvisiiig the electoial und juij lolls, giunting 01 lefusing licenses foi public houses, and tn nsfeis of some, S.e , vc Hie Gold 1 îelds Att of 18GG confers tci turn powers on Tustttos which ma) be saul to neate Minas (ou Is All disputes as to encroachments, &c , upon a nuning claim, arc timblc btfoie a Justice of the Peace and two assessors, the latter selected by ballot fiom among four poisons, holding miners rights 01 leases, who at the lequest of either party aie summoned by tht justices Au appeal agamst my decision arrtv ed at in this w ay htb to the justices in Petty Sessions ( Vs some changes oie occasionally made, and as the functions of police magistrates and clerks of Petty Sessions, Sx , mc much mixed up, the peifect ncciuaty of the above figuics cannot be v outhed foi, but it is believed that they ore substantiall) conect )

THE LAND TITLES OFFICE, although a branch of the Registrar-General's department may be said to have    

an important connection walli the administration of justice, on account of its great influence in the settle- ment of titles to real property, and the prevention of litigation thereon. There are three Commissioners under the Real Property Act, the Registrar General being one of these Commisissioners and their chairman. Of Examiners of Titles there are two, both being professional gentlemen (attorneys) of experience. No title is registered until it has undergone a thorough examination, and until ample opportunity has been afforded to any one to come in and object (public notice being given, for that purpose, of each   application), but the registration once obtained,       objections are barred, and the property may be transferred or otherwise dealt with by a simple   act ol rccoid, and at a very trifling expense. The present Registrar-General is Mr. Theodore James Jaques, the other Commissioners are Messrs. R. Jones and A. W. Scott. The Examiners of Titles are Messrs. G. K. Holden and Edmund Barton.   The total cost of the Lands Titles branch is estimated at £4575, but it is charged to the Rcgistrai Geneial s department

IHP Li o AI PROFESSION

The number of banisters on the roll of the Supieme Couit, resident in the colonv, is 66, of whom foul are Queens Counsel Hie numbei of S j dney attoinevs is 108, and of countiv attorne)s OS Iheie aie 22 notaries publie, all of whom aie attoincjs

Hie legal practitioners of New South Wales are, as a class, highly respectable men lu this íespett, and as to professional talent, the) may bo compared favourabl) with those of any other country Of coiuse there aie exceptions, but the) aie few The

examinations in law both for the Mai and and for ottornevs oio sufiicientlv ngid to ensure that none can pass who has e not a fin knowledge of their pio fession As a general nile the most successful prac titioneis among the attorneys aie those who have studied ni the colon), and some of the colonial bamsteis hove ntt unod gieot eminence Duly quali- fied piactitioneis not onl) fiom Great Bntain but fiom othei polls of the British Lmpue me admitted, without examination, on pi oof of their piofessional muk and of thtir lespcttabihtj Suth admissions m the case of attornejs uic tonditional upon theie being confirmed tftei til elvo months lesidenee, but the) ore bo tonfmncd as a mattei of comse, unless good cause is shewn agonist such confumatiou Au) gentleman of i espcctabihtv w ho can pass the neces sai) examinations con be c tiled to the Bar

Attoincjs of the Supieme Court aie admitted to picttice os advocates m the Distuct Couits and all

other tiibunals of mferioi rank

lhere is a ' Law Institute ' with a Piosidcnt, Council, and othei officers Its objects aie the pie vcntion of piofessional abuses, &.c

POLICE

The police of New South Wales is equal to that of onj countiy m the world It is, however, far less stiong than it ought to be for so huge a temtor), mid weie it not for the supenor intelligence and ottivit) of the officers and men of "the force, ' it would be too vseak foi its woik As it is, there is no p irt oi the Biatibh dominions where bettei ordei is kept The police also collect the jury lists, make up the electoial rolls and statistical returns, and peiform

vanous otlin du tie« of like choiocter Hie whole

stitngth of the New South Wales police, exclusive oi the Inspectoi General and his staff, is 795 Its supenor ofhttis oie 5 superintendents, 5 mspectois, and 11 sub mspcctois Hie mounted foice consists of l8 senior se géants, 25 sei géants, 98 senior constables, and 202 constables Hie foot police numbers 23 semor seigcants, 25 seigcants, 19 scnior constobles, and 331 constables The four bemor seif,eants m thai go of divisions of the Metropolitan Police have brevet rank as sub inspectors

Since the departuie of the militar) the tow n guards aie furnished fiom the police Eighteen of the force aie dailv told off for this duty

Hie Detective force consists of an officer m charge of thib branch of the Police Department and fifteen olhters, who arc ol three grades, five in each grade ihese officers, although not numerous, havepioved thtmbtlvcs on veiy many occasions exceeding!) effective Ihc Detective Office is at head quarters (m Phillip sticet, S)due)), and is under the imme- diate supervision ot the lnspcctor-Geneial

Hie Inspectoi Geneial (Ciptam M'Lene) has a st iff of cleiks, S.C Hie secretary of the department and supeiuitendent at head quuteis (Mr Posbery) is the oilieei next in îank to the Inspector General

Hie f. dary oi the Inspector-General of Police is £800 pel minim, supeiuitendents, £600 to £100 , inspectors, £300 each, sub inspectors, £200 each, senior sergeants, 9s Gd pel diem, seigcants, 8s 6d pei ihem, senior constables, tis Id , oidmary ditto, Gb , supernumerar) onstiiblts,4s , meltraekeis (native blacks), 2s Gd Hie olhcei in thargo ot the detective force receives £223 per annum , detectivs of the fust doss, 10s per diem eich, those of the second C10--S, 9s pei diem, ond those ol the thud class, 8s Hit geneial tost ot the PoUce depaitment has been alieody stated

GAOLS

There are 10 gaols in the colon) and 20 "lock ups" piochumed as gaols-that is to siy lockup houses cbtabhbhcd for tht temporaiy reception of prisoners, to which such as ore undei sentence may be com- mitted, The gaol at Darlinghurst is a laige building, or rather collection of buildings, where prisoneis aie classified, educated, and taught various useful mechanical arts It is capable of contumng 318 piisoncrs m separate cells, oi 700 if more than one pnsoner is confined m a cell lho total number re ceivcd theie dining the year 1869 was219o males, and lü71 females , the greatest numbeis received at any one time being 19 males and 19 females The total numbei confined time at Michielmas, 1869 (as to which time is o special leturn) was 100 males and 113 fern iles Hie total numbeis of prisoners received during the jeal 1809 at nU the gaols were 1881 malts, and 1995 females, the sum of the gieotcst mniibei ícccived ot any one time in each and ill of these establishments being 180 moles and uii females Of these elimináis 3G98 males ancl 1210 feuilles vicie able to read and write, 113 miles md 182 lunales able to lead onl), and 72S niakb and 2')1 females unable eithei to lead oi to vsnte Among the pnsoneis are included oi males md 1 fein iles mulei iriestfoi debt The tot ti numbeis

ol pnsoners leceised into the lotk-ups pioelauned as gtols di nug the same penod, were 1471 males (including 0 m ties tmpiisoned foi debt) tutd 193 lcmales-the sum of the greatest numbers lcceived at ans ont tune in these establishments being 92 males mid 11 females Of these pnsoneis 933 males and 73 lcmales could lead and write, 172 males and 36 females could lead only, and 309males and 84 females

could neithei read nor wnte

Hie follow mg viere the general totals of prisoners m gaols, and lockups used as gaols, during the j ear 18G9 -lotal numbers received during tlie vear, G355 males, ond 2188 females Able to read and write, 4631 moles, and 1289 fern des , able to lead only, 585 males, md 618 females, unable to read oi wnte, 1097 males, mid 378 females 781 males and 191 females had only

[ been once convicted, 220 males and 120 females had

been twice convicted, and 217 males and 207 females had been conv ictcd three oi more times The ofTences of pnsoiicis confined at Michaelmas, 1869, uithcseve lal gaols, mid lockups of the colonj used as gaols, are thus classified -Pcloiues, 789 males, and 36 fe- males , petty larcenies, 259 males, and 53 females , assaults, o4 males and 3 females, other offences 221 males and 103 females General total, 1326 males and 195 females These returns as to the state of the gaols at Michaelmas, 18G9, may serve as on lllustra oi their aveiage state

lhe salaiics of the gaokiB vaiy from Í350 (that of the principal gaoler at Darlinghurst) to £120 lo the bmalki gaols there aie warders at 6s Gd each per diem to poisons (lockup keepeis) in chaigo of lock- ups proel umed as gnols extra allowances of from £10 to £20 each me made The total cost of the depart- ment of gaols has been ahead) given

Religious Denominations.

Im lehgious denominations of the colonists aie vtuious, the most numeious being the Anghcans the Roman C itholics, the Piesbj tenons, and the Wes kjaiis AU possess equal rights, and enioy the most peifcet toleration and fiecelom Noone denomi

nation is now bpeeiallj suppoited by the State lhe îeliitive pioportions ol nil the chfleicnt Chinches, and the extent ot then organisation will best be under- stood by the following analysis-b iscd upon the latest Statistical Returns It will bo seen that, in spite oi mnnv and serious dilhculties these Churches aie aheadj exercising a very potent and beneficial influence upon the cominumt)

EecLLSIASTICAr

CHURCH or ENGLAND-The Anglican Church in New South Wales is sub elivuled into 1 ive Dioceses (1 ) Sydney (the Metropolitan Sec) (II ) i\ eiccaxtk (III) Gi of ton and At tindale (I\ ) Goulburn (V) Bat hw st (1) In the Diocese of Sydney (including the City oí Sj liney and its Subuibs) there aie 92 eleigjmcn, and lib Chinches and Chapels Of these Chinches and Chapels-31 are in the City and Suburbs, and 87 m the Country Church accommo tion piovided for, 28,535 , average attendance, 22 490, attendance in buildings used foi Public Worship, 4501 lotal average attendance, at Publie Worship, eveij Sundav, 2G,904 (2) In the Diocese of l\cw castle, lo cleigjnien, and 71 chut ches and chapels Chinch accommodation here piovided for 9317, avciage attendance G272, attendance m buildings, ve, 2427 Total ayeiage attendance, "c , 8699 (3 ) In the Diocese of Gi afton and At lindale, 13 Cler gjmen, and 20 Churches and Chapels Church accommodation provided for 27)0, avei ige attendance 1721, attendance m buildings, le , 1372-total ave- iage attendance, le, 3093 (1 ) In the Diocese of Goulburn, 21 eleigjmcn, and 51 chuiches and chapels Church accommodation foi 7050, average attendance 1601, attenelance m builduigs, 1c , 1935 total avei ige attendance, le , G53G (5 ) Bathuist Diocese lhe details lespecting this diocese (recently established) aie included undei the See of Sj dnoy lotal numbei of 1 leensed Anglic m Clergjmou ni IScvi South Wales-1)1 Total numbei of Chuiches and Chapels, in ditto-263 lotal aveiago atten duice by this denomination at Publie Woiolup eveij Sunday-45,322 poisons

RoviAi, CATHOLIC CHURCH The Roman Catholic CkuichinNew South Wales is subdiv uled into 1 ive Dioceses (I) Sydney (the Motiopolitaii See) (II) Maitland (III) Bathuist (I\ ) Goulburn (V) armidale (1) In tile Diocese of S/dncy (including the City of Sydney and its Suburbs) theie oie 69 Cleigvmen, anel 82 Churches and Chapels Oi those Chuiches and Chapels-21 aie in the Citv and its Subuibs, and G1 ui the Counti) Chmch accomo dation piovided foi 25 500 aveia0e attendance, 27,151, attendance m buildings used ioi public woiship, 1,065-lotal aveiage attendemee at Public

Woislup ever) Sunda), 28,816 peisons (2) In the

Diocese of Maitland, 10 cleicvinen and 26 churches and chapels Chuieh Accommodation heie piovided for t>772, average attendance HZoi, attendance in builduigs, ve, 4o0-lotal aveiage attendance 1c, 570j (3) In the Diocese oí Bat ha st, 17 clergymen, and 14 Chuiches and Chapels Church Accommo- dation provided foi 309.), aveiage attendance 2,3J0, attendance m buildings, le , 19dl-lotal average attendance le , 1304 (1) In the Diocese of Goul- burn, 13 cleigvmen, and 27 Chuiches and Chapels Chui ch Accommodation for 6 JOO, av eragc attendance o500 attendance in buildings, eve, 930-total avei ige attendance le, 6430 (o) In the Diocese of Armidale, G dei gy men, and 9 Churches and Chapels Chmch Accommodation foi 2220, average attendance loOO, attendance m buildings ¡te , 930 lotal average attendance, &.C , 2430 lotal average attendance by tins denomination, at Public Worship eveiv Sunday-47,685 peisons

PiiLSuiTnuAiv CHURCH OI NEW SOUTH WALES In

the Presby tenon Church of New South Wales there are G8 RcL,isteied Ministers, and 96 churches and chapels Of theso chuiches and chapels, 17 are ui the city of S) dney and the subuibs, and 79 in the tountrj The Church accommodation provided is for 18 730, the average attendance 10 o94 , the attend- ance in public buildings, oi dwellings used for public worship, 4721 lotal aveiage attendance by this denomuiation, in New South Wales, at Pubhc Wor- ship, every Sunday-ly,315peisons

PRESHITERIAN CHURCH-¡SYNOD OP EABTBRV AUS- TRALIA In tins Presbyterian Church, in New South "V\ ales, theie are 7 RegisteredMimsters and 5 churches and chapels lhe Church accommodation provided is ior 620, the av erage attendance 450, the attendance m public buildings, oi dwellmgs used for public wor- ship 730 lotal aveiage attendance bv this denonu n mon, m New South Wales, at Public Worship, every Sunday-1180 persons

PHESIIITERIAN CHURCH-OTHER THAN THOSE STATED.

In this part of the General Presbyteiian denomination, in New South Wales, there aie6Registcred Ministers, and 3 churches and chapels Church accommodation provided for 280 , aveiago attendance, 130 , attend- ance in buildings, de , 191 Total average attendance oí this part of the denomination m New South Wales, at Public Worship, every Sunday-321 persons

WLSLEIAN METHODIST Ciancii -In the Wesleyan Methodist Church of New South Wales theie are 68 Re0istered Munsters, and 200 Churches and Chapels Of these Churches and Chapels, 26 aie in the City of S) duty and its Suburbs, and 174 m the country The Church accommodation piovided is for 30,000, and the aveiage attendance-34,000 persons

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH -In the Congiegational Chuieh of New South Wales there are 24 Registered Munsteis, and 21 Churches and Chapels Of these Churches and Chapels, 11 are in the City of Sydney and Subuibs, and 10 m the Countiy The Church, accommodation provided is tor 7030, average at- tendance, 4815 , attendance m Public Buildings and Dw ellings used for Pubhc Worship, 242 Total aver- age attendance of this denomuiation in New South Wales, every Sunday, 50o7 persons

PRIMIIIVE METHODIST CHURCH -In the Primitive Methodist Church of New South Wales there are 12 Registered Munsteis, and 39 Churches and Chapels 4 in the City oi Sydney, and 3e> ui the Country The Chuieh accommodation provided is for 5260, average attendance, 3285 , attendance m builduigs, _c , ¿GO lotal aveiage attendance of this denomuiation m Now South "VS iles, eveiy Sunday, 3545 persons

UMTED METHODIST TÄBE CHURCH-This Denomi- nation has one Resist« ed Minister, and 4 churches or chapels Church accommodation foi 580 , average attendance, 290 , attendance m buildings used foi public worship, 210 Total i-erage attendance of this denomination, every Sunday, 600 persons

UNITED IREH Gobi EL CHURCH - llus Denomina- tion has one Registered Minuter, and 2 churches or chapels Church accommodation foi 200, average attendance 100 peisons

BAI TIST CHURCH -This Church has 9 Registered Mimsteis, and l8 chuiches and ch ipels Of these churches and chapels-1 are m the city of Sydney and subuibs, and 14 m the e ountry Out of those li chinches, 3 are Welsh chuiches lhe church iccommodation is provided foi 3204 persons, 1414 ioi the city chuiches, and 18d0 foi the country churches Ihe avenge ittendance at the city churches is 710, ditto lor the countiy chuiches 1000-total 1710 Attendance m builduigs used foi public worship 179 Total attend mee oi this deno nnn ition m N evv South Wales, evci), Sunday, 2189

peisons

IREE Cm non or ENGLAND-This Church has 2 Registered Ministers, and one chuieh oi chapel. Church accommodation ioi GOO , av erage attend mee, 90, attendance ui othci buildings, 90 Total aicrage, attendance, evei) bundol, 180

UNITARIAN Cmiicii-llus Chuieh has two Regis- tered Munsteis and one church Chuieh accommo- dation provided, 300, aiciage attendance every Sunday, 450

G LUMAN LUTHERAN CHURCH-Tins Church (in the counti)) has one Registcied Minister, and 2 chuiche3 or chapels Church accommodation, loO, nverag attendauce everv Sunda), 80 persons

" CHRISTIANS * - llus Church (ui the suburbs) hi\s one Registcicd Munster, and one church Church accommodation provided for 400 , av.erage atten dance, every Sunday, 250 peisons

JPWI«H DENOMINATION -This denomination has 5 Registcicd Ministers ui the «ty of S)d"ej, and 2 S) nagogues Accommodation for 720 , ¡x\ erage atten- dance evci) Sabbath, 410 persons

CHRISTIAN IsicALLTOB -This Donomuiation has ono

iicgislercti minister, ¡mu - tuiuc n-o u oj hub "

Accommodation foi 1G0, avcra0c attendance, 7o

persons

SUMMARY 01 Tin lonraoiNa-Rcgtsteied Ministers oí Religion, 170, Ordinal) Established Pi tees of Public Woislnp, 818 Church accommodation for 105,113, average attendance of all Denominations meelin,, for Public "S\ orslup weekly, 15C,bj9 pers ins

SUNUAI StllOOISOl ALI Di NOMINATIONS-Nuillbci of Schools, 805 number of lcaehcis illo number of male Scholars, 2J,1S5 , numbei of feinde 'athol us, 24 890 totol Sunday School Schohis l8 0S1 In

crease of Sunday School bcholais duimg the past yeiu 42S7

Education.

UNIVERSITY AND IIIGU SCHOOLS

THE prmcipal means of Education m New South Wales are the Pnmaiy Schools (" Public and De

nomuiational ) , tlie ' Grammar School ol Sjdnoy, and the ' Kmg b Sthool ol Pairnmattii and, lastly, the Sydney Univeisity and its Alhhatcd Colleges St Paul s and St John s lhe Public School Act has latel) given a most grntifjing impetus to Primary Education in New South Willes, but the state of Education oi a more adiamul choractcr (such as moy bo more pioperlj termed "Scholastic ) is still vciy far from satisfactory Hie instruction supplied hythe Svdnej Gioinmu School (founded and supported b) the State) is cluell) in- tended for the uistruction of the youth of the colony in classics and mathematics, preparatory to the Uni- versity course But the standard of the University is high, and there are ro collegiate uifititutions m the colony at all corresponding in their character to ¿ton or Winchestoi Instead of every student trjuig to go to the Universitj, very few indeed attempt to do so It was thought by some that the Alhhated Colleges, and oth«r similar Collegi

ate Institutions outside the Umvei«it) might be so worked as, in some degree to rtttif) this lite stringent clause of the 18th Victima, No 8-which requires all students at the Affiliated Colleges to be matriculated students of the University-has had, some hove thought, an unduly restnctive effect on the present nasecnt state of Liberal Education m the colony Undoubtedly it has kept tlie large Collegos of St Paul and St John (the AngUcon and Roman Catholic Colleges) nearl) empty Hit number of young men there finishing their education is discouraginglv small -far fiom what might be expected, considering the enormous outlay made in the establishment of suth an institution Private Schools and Colleges-such as Camden College, Newtown, in connection with the Congrcgationahsts, St Mar) s, L)ndhuröt, in con- nection with the Roman Cathohcs, and many other Educational Establishments of an altogether "Private" character-have been labouring wnh same success for some years past, to fill up the "aching void But almost every tlung remains to be done m this direction A s)stem of public examinations has been tried, m connection with the University, foi non matriculated btudents, and with a partial success Besides the above institu tions there is an Anglican College ncor Liverpool, on George s Riv er, but ord) for the training of C utdidates for Holy Orders The S) dnev Uiuv crbity w as founded on the 18th of October, 1850 It has a magni- ficent range of Buddings on a lull to the South of S) ebie), It is governed by a Senate, con sistmg of nineteen gentlemen,-one of whom is tho Chancellor, and another the Vice Chancellor It lias five Professors,-Boards of Examiner» for the Faculties of Low, Art, and Medicine, a Registrar, and other officers St Paul s College (of which the Metropolitan Bishop is the Visitor) is governed by a Warden, and eighteen Fellows St John s College (of which the Roman Catholic Archbishop is the Visitor) 16 governed by a Rector and eighteen Tel

lows A College for the Wesleyan Body, to be called "Wesley College" is projected, and a Presbyterian College (to be affiliated to the Sydne) University) has been incorporated b) Act 31st Vic

tona "St Andrew B ' is to be connected with the Presbj tenon Church of New South Wales Modera- tor to bo the Visitor To be gov erned by a Principal,

and a Councü of Twelve

PRIMARY SCHOOLS

Great importance is attached to primary education by the people of New South Wales Ample pro

vision is made b) the Legislature of the colony for the instruction of the joung Irom 1858 to 1867 public instruction had been admimst"red under the superyisioi of two separate Boards called respectively "lhe Board of National Education," and "the Denominational Board " To these separate bodies the Government handed, from year to )ear, large sums of money ni equal proportions These lioards performed good service to the community , but many circumstances arose to show that it would be bene-

ficial to supersede them by an undiv ided authont) , and this was done in accordance with the piovisions of an Act wluch, towards the close of 1866, was passed to make better provision for public edu-

cation.

lhere are many points of resemblance between the provisions of the Public Schools Act of New South Wales and the bill recently introduced by Mr Forster into the House of Commons m relation to the some subject, hut as the object of this papei is chiefly to state facts, it wall be necessary here onl) to mention the provisions of the Act Hie work of comparison may be left to those who have leisure and mchnation to enter upon it

The Councd of Education consists of five members, who are appomted bj the Governor with the advice of the Executive Councü lhe term of office is four y ears, but the Act gives the Govenior power to re move an) member oí the Board at any time upon the like advice Iwo of the members, however, were at the outset, nominated for two j ears only, so that m the event »f appointment not being ogam conferred upon the same persons, the changes would not be so abrupt as to mterfere with tile satisfactory workuig of

the Council The Act entrusts to the Councd the expenditure of all money appropnated by Parliament for elementary instruction lho Council has authority to establish and maintain public schools, to grant md to certified Denominational schools, and, subject to ccrtaui provisions, to appoint and remov e teachers or school inspectors , to frame regulations , to elect their own President, to define the course of secular instruction, tlie trairung, exami- nation, and classification of teachers, the examination of scholars, the discipline to be enfoiced, and to do every tlung that is necessary to carry out tlie pro

Visions of the Act The Councü of Education is sub ject to the Governor and Executive Councü m the same way as any other department of the Publie ser

vice Its regulations are laid before ParUament, and hav e the force of law

Public schools may be established in any locohty where, after due inquiry, it is found that there are at least twenty five chüdren who will regularly attend

such school on its establishment Denominational schools are certified under conditions set forth m the 9th clause of the Act as follows -"It shall be lawful for the Councü of Education ui any locality where a Public school may be established which has ui attendance thereat not less than seventy children to certifj as a denominational behool any school situated

not more than five mües from such Public school on

such Councd being satisfied after due inquiry that there are at least thirty chüdren in regular attendance

at such school Provided that no sthool shall be so certified m any case wheie such school shall be within two mües by the shortest higlnva) of any Pubhc school, unless there shall be m regular attend ance ot such school, and at the nearest Public school togetliei, not less than one hundred and twenty cluldien ' All certified Denominational schools are subject, gcneiallj, to the same couise of scculai in- struction and the same inspection as Public schools, and tile ceiufieate may be withdrawn if the requued number of pupils be not maintained , if the building become düapi

dated oi otherwise unsuitable, if the supply of furniture and oppaiatus become madequate or if the regulations of the Councd be infringed No devia- tion is allowed contrary to the spirit of the Act

Teachers of tlie same "persuasion ' as that to wluch any certified school may belong, are appointed to certified Denominational schools, but they are subjected to examination and approval the same as Public school teachers In aU certified Denomi- national Bchools, the lchgious instruction of the chüdren is left under the control of the heads of the denomination to which ony such school may belong

The Act makes further provision for half timt schools to be taught by itinerant teachers who move about among the scattered population By regula- tion, such schools may bo established wheiever twenty children of the Behool age, residing within a radius of ten mües from a central point, can be collected m groups of not less than ten children in each lhe Act provides for assistance, under certain regulations, to schools m thinly popu- lated distnets A schotl fee of a slulling per week is charged (a reduction is made where several chüdren attend belonging to one fomüv), but chüdren whose parents or guardians are unable to pa> the fees are not on that account refused The following are the provisions of the Act in regard to secular and re- ligious teaching -"In every Pubhc school four iiours during each school day shall be devoted to secular instruction exclusively, and of such four *ouw two shall be in tlie morning and two in the

tilteriioon , and a portion of e ich day-not less than one hour-sholl be set ai ait vi hen the childi cn of aiy one lelijjiotib persuasion may be instructed by tho clcrgymin 01 othei religious teacher of such ptisua

sion Piovidcd th tt m tose of the non attendance of any tlcrt,)man 01 íelifeious teacher during any poibon of the ptnod horeb) set opait foi ich0ious tnstnic tion, such period shall bo devoted to the ouliniry

Stettin institution ui suth sthool

Hie loctl supcivision of these schools is confided to local ' School Boards It is the dut) of the mun

btrs of these boards to visit inspect, and îcpoit upon the schools Piovision is also nude for the ti lining of teachers mid theu classification according to att nu ments Hie assistance given by the Council in aid of the erection and furnishing of Pubhc school build UIL,S, is os a nile two thirds of the pnvato contnbu tioiib for the same object, and asstbtonco to the other classes of bthools is generativ limited to the pa) ment of te ithers halones and the supply of behool books mid appaiotus Tubbo school buildings may not be used ns places of public worship nor for the holding of political and other meeangs hkel) to cause eon tention, but non vested schools built and kept in ltpan without aid fiom the pubhc puise, are m ide available for the work of tie Sunday school and lor week night religious servîtes It is a bpetial instruction t* aU Public school teachers that " nothuig must be «aid or done to oflend the religious views oi any pupil durang tlu> peí îod devoted to oi dinar j ínstiucüon Hie teachers receive salanes varjmg liom £81 to £160 per annum as well as the school lees-which in lal ge schools where there are severul teachcis are divided ratably-and, lu some coses, residence Special salanes arc given in the

model schools

Hie Council has remained anialtered from its com- mencement Its members are the Hon George Allen, M I C tlie lion the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly (Mi W M Arnold), Sir James Martin, M L A , Mr Henry Parkes, M L A , and Professor Smith, M.D , of the Sjdney Umversitj Mr Parkes, vi ho rendered distinguished services in connection with tlip passing of the bul, still occupies the position

of President

Last j ear the Councü had m operation 807 schools, attended by about 600,000 pupils Hie number ot teachers, including pupü teachers, was 1093 The reports which have been issued since the Att came into operation show how well the Public school sj stem is appreciated Hie applications for Public schools hav e been numerous, and the Council has had an arduous task in detennuung whether they should be granted or refused Duruig the present year there hav e been many applications for provisional schools, but it is not ¿kely that either the appk

cations for the establishment of Pubhe schools or the attendance at the schools already established will be so numerous as formerly, for with a slowlj uicreosing population there must of oourse be a time when the public demand, speaking generally, w ill be fully met, and the av erage attend ance oí childi en m the country districts has, no doubt, been v erj much reduced by the operation of the floods lhe figures published by the Council of Education in its recent report will best show the rate of progiess In 1807 there were established 288 Pubhc schools, m the following j ear the number increased to 318, and in 1869 to 336 Duruig the same time the Provisional schools had increased from 31 to 116, the Half time schools from 6 to 61, but the Denominational schools, wluch in 1867 were 317, fell to 289 m 1868, and last j ear the number stül further decreased to 2G1 During the same penod the scholars m tlie Pubhc schools considerably increased In 18G7 theie were in Public schools 20,986 scholais, and in Denominational schools there were 26 416

But ui 1869 the pupds in the Public schools had in- creased to 26,208, and the numbei in the Dénomma tionol schools had decreased to 2Ü,909 Hie total in- crease of bcholars of all classes has been at the rate of

upw ords of four thousand a v eor According to the report of the Councü the " Provisional schools are buppoited by all denominations, and " tend to supply many dtstitute and tluiüj settled localities with the means of elementary education" Speakmg of their operations the Councü observes -' Ihough populai, comparativ el) little tan be said for their efhcienc), the results being in most coses, except in reading and wnting, low, and the instruction, to a great extent, confined to these subjects, with the addition of arith metic lhere are uistances where they have grown into Public schools, and it was anticipated by the lromers of the Att that such a result would be brought about with the expansion of the districts ui which

the schools w ere established There can be no doubt m regard to the popularity of half time schools seeuig that they are attended by more than a thousand scholars, and in one of the districts the Inspector speaks very favourobly of their operations About 66 per cent of the chüdren on the roll are continuously at school lhe cost of education

m 18G9 is thus stated -" The amount of fees

poid during the year was, for all schools, £39,618 Of tlus sum £22,815 was contnbuted to the Public, provisional, and half time schools, and £16,803 to the Denominational schools Hie local contnbutions to

wards the erection and inaintenonce of Public school buddings amounted to about £G000 Adding the foes and local contributions to the amount expended by the Councü, the total expenditure on all classes of schools under the Council is seen to be £147,000, besides the amount (unknown to the Councü) spent in maintammg Denommational school buüd uigs Omitting the cost of buüdmgs, and, tnkuig G0,000 as tlie number of children brought under mstruction dunng the year the cost per head is found to bo £2 2s Gd , of which £1 9s 3¿d is contributed by the State, and 13s 2Jd by the paients There would appear to be a dis- crepancy between these figures as compared with the number of scholars and the fees paid, but there are many cases where tlie fees are remitted It is re

ported that dunng the year 1869 " the number of freo chüdren educated ni Pubhc schools [Sjdney] wa» 220, or nearly 2 per cent of the total number of pupüs on the roll " The number educated m Denominational schools was 1388, or 9 per cent of the total number on the roll In a geneial summary of the operations of the j ear it is stated "no prominent feature is in a lower position than it occupied lost year, and in many respects a marked improvement has been

effected '

The Pubhc schools are attended by children of oil denominations The teachers are of various rehgious creeds-so are the members of the local boards , so, also, are the members of the Council of Education There is not much attention paid to rehgious teach- ing during the hour set apart by the Pubko Schools Act, considering the great outcry made by certain members of the community m regard to the importance of rehgious instruction, and it 13 a fact worthy of note that those who have declaimed loudest in favour of rehgious instruc- tion have done least to impart it in the Public schools to tlie chüdren of their denommattons The vigour with wluch the work of education is corned on, and the results which have already been aclueved, warrant tlie belief that the PubUe school system is destined to have a most important influence on the future of this colony Politicians regard it as the handmaid of the franchise, mid a safeguard to the Constitution Social reformers value it as being favourable to domestic happiness and commercial prosperity, and a portion, at leost, of the rehgious world hov e become conscious ol their own obliga- tions to meet the necessities of the future by a more earnest regard to the educational qualifications of the munsters whose duty it will be to occupy the pulpits of the colony lhe people hove reason to be grateful to tlie men who battled for this Act, as well as to those who administei it with so much impartiality and ability, and they do not grudge to spend on the Public schools of the colony £100,000 a-yeai

Educational Institutions.

ONE of the most impoitant institutions in Svdney of a quasi-Educational character is the " Free Public Libiary," now open iii Bent,-street, ne«r Governor Bouike s Monument This institution was opened to tlie public on the 30th of September, 18G9 It wa» established by the Government of the colon) lhe first act of the management was to purchase the books of the old Australian Library-about 16,000 volumes for £1500 Many of these works-the Accumul- ation of forty years-were of great value as works of reference The budding now occupied by the Tree Librarj is rented, pending tlie erection of a new budding for which money has been voted by the Colonial Parliament, or until some other desirable orrongement can be made New books, on the vanous branches of Uterature, of considerable v alue and interest, hav e recently been added by purchase, on the approval of the Trustees The Government have also plaeed m the Librar) about 3000 volumes of the Patent Commissioner s Publications-so that

the total number of volumes there kept for the use of tlio pubhc now amounts to 20,000 Orders have been also sent to England for completing and continuing a supply of the leading penodicals pubhshed in Great Bntain The object of this admirable institution, wluch is open every day free of charge, is to encourage the students of the colony, and all persons of limited means, to supply them- selves with the necessary means for self-improvement, so as to enable them to cultivate an acquaintance with a useful, scientific, and desirable class of literature,

ihese tilintees ore now bj ihe dot ttic lie 1 ubhc Iibiaiv ilaccd withn th îeieli nf ill

Besides this Libiii) thcieisal i e i 1 well selected libmry at the Mechanics Se) I Aits in Pitt sticet md mini) librarles of a (j lu eharietei

Amongst these are the Libral) e i I lxcraiti, the 3 ibnr) of St Mar) s, I}idliur^t thT Ai "hean Cleigy s I ibriry, m Phillip street, and othei similar collections of valuable books Hie Mechanic« School of Arts m Pitt street, is a hiDhly popular institution, mulei a management similar to that ol theliee Libiai), and nilli a )et vvidei splieie of usefulness It is the mother of all the in stitutions of its kind m IScvv South VV le md b/ fu the largest of an) m the Ausli bin t loues lor i inn )cais under excellent mu ¡,ci lent it h i-* dm mt the 1 ist tw o or thiec, h id nt \ lu md ci eiiçv in fiiitd into it xv ith the obx mus deteinu i loiiolimkinc, it is ittiactive and useful is pos îblc s > that not

withstanding the establishment of n I ice I lln in and A gtncial commeicnl depression bul ti o prev dent it contn utb to llounsh, and to ineicase in the number of its mimi ers Hie volumes circulated theiebj a\enge about 40 000 per annum Hie libnny for circulation eonsibts of not lets than 10,000 books, embracing fctindnrd xvorks in ox cry department of literature, and the latest publications nie continually added Hie reading room is spacious and comfortable, containing the piincipnl Lnt,libh Scotch Iribh, foreign, and colo mai newspapers together with British lrench, Ger man ai d -An encan periodicals, and a huge and valu able refefence librar) Hie following »lasses and numbei of pupils meet xvcekl), xi/ -" School of Debign 90 " Lntm 40 , " Mithema ticnl, 30 ' English Grammar, 30 " Trench 20,

'Draxiing, 12 'Shorthand, 10, " Architec- tural, 3, '"SAnting and Anthmetic, 16, "Smg mg, 50 Members of the institution enrolled tlus year, 1800 The subscription is very low, considering the numerous advantages held out to members-only five shillings a quarter 1 lus institution (wluch not only proxides its members xvith a good librar) and readuiL, room, but is a sort of People s College for all male adults, xuth limited means, who may desire to oducate themselxes) is managed by a committee, a secretar), and an assistant There sao " Schools of Art and (" Literary Li stitutcs of a character similar to that in Sjdney) at Alburj, Armidale, Balmam, Bathurst, Bega, Bel- lambi and Bulb, Herruna, Braidwood, Branxton, Bourke, Camden, Dubbo East Maitland, Torbes, Goulburn, Grafton, Grenfell, Gundagai, Inverell, luama, Morpeth, Mudgee, Muswellbrook, Orange, Parramatta, Paterson, Queanbeyan, Raymond Ter- race, Richmond, St Leonards Smgleton, Stroud Tamworth, UUndulla, Wagga Wagga Waratah, West Maitland, Windsor, Wollongong "iass, and many other places In several of these localities and many other places, Mutual Improvement Associations have also been estabhshod Generally these organisations xary somewhat according to the taste and habits of the inhabitants At Balmam, for example, there is not only a School of Arts but a Working Mon s Institute, in Odd Tellows Listi ute, and a Literary Association-all distinct institution In man) of the toxvns at a distance from the coast, tlie building occupied as a School of Arts, or Literary Institute (as at Berrima and at Camden) forms a con xenient mcetmg point for the various Triendl) Societies, and occasional!) a place for concerts, and amateur dramatic entertainments for the amusement of the rcbidents after the labours of the day In S)dnej, on tlie eastern side of Hjde Park, stands the

' Austiulian Museum, a large and splendid build ing, in which theie is a magnificent collect on of objects illustrating cv cry department of Natural History, anl cspeciallj such objects as are duectly comected with Australia It is open to the public four lours daily, free of chnrge There is also a Museum of antiquities in connection with tlie Sjdney Umve bit», which' once a week, is, likewise, thrown open to al visitors Sjdnej, moreover, contains a Masonic Hall an Oddfellows Institute, an Infirmary, and lomerous club houses, warehouses and banks The loa-named edifices are some of them, of a trul) palatial lppear ance Mauj of the churches and other pubh build nigs are structures that would command adaration in anj part of tlie globe

Public Chanties.

THE public chanties of New South Wales are nam fold There are no poor laws, and there n no regular pauper class, such us is found in older and more thickly populated countnes But there is-as m every populous country there must alw ax s be-a good deal of destitution and sickness, at tunes edi ing for relief And it does not call m van Intcn perance, we are sorry to eaj, is the cau.e of by ar the greatest part of the distiess which hasto be pn vided for But the necessity for efiectiu relief his not, on that account, been at all repudiattl Bene

x olence lins been gradually so " S) stcmatied that there is scarcely a kind of destitution, however brought about, xvhich has not been spetally pro

xided for, or a probable need xvhich has not been to some extent met Ihe putic sub senbe freely and largely to all inds of charities Many open hearted people tax thinselves x er) heav lly for this purpose, and lend thei aid to sex eral societies at once Others subsenbe oiy to the one or two which they think most worthy f their support The amounts thus raised by pnvattontri butions are xery liberally subsidised frompubhc funds Some of the chantable institutions of theolony are supported xvholly by Government grants uhers are maintauied partly by public money and poly by

pnvaie suDscripuonB. mere is a tiuru class othari

ties which have no Government aid. Severalioitu tions also exist which cannot be called charities,ios much as they are intended to be self-supportingbut which require more or less extensive aid for i^ir establishment or maintenance. \

The amount of Government aid to the yarlin charitable institutions of the country lost year-tó £109,968 18s. lOd. The official returns show receia from voluntary contributions to the extent,f £23,774 18s., but there are many "subscript^, lists " of which there ore no official records. Besiej the amounts expended in the support of vario charities unaided by the State, and towards ti maintenance of institutions which are parti self-supporting, there are frequently recul ring demands upon the purses of the bene volent in the shape of subscriptions for the relic

of sufferers from floods, contributions to British reliel funds, &c. The total amount per annum applied in.

this colony to charitable purposes is probably abouti £160,000, exclusive of such as may be devoted te piivate and individual charities and the relief funds of the Freemasons, and other brotherhoods.

All hospitals, infirmaries, orphan schools, and charitable institutions which are, wholly or in part, supjioitcd by grants from the pubhc revenue are under the inspection of a Government official st)led " the Inspector of Public Chanties. ' lhe gentleman who holds that office (Mr King) is abo secretary for the Government As)lums for tlie aged and infirm poor, and receives a salar) of £600 per annum As Inspector of Charitable Institutions, his duty is to inquire " as to tlie proper appropriation of the pubhc grants m aid, and the efficient conduct of such institutions," and to report annuiilly thereon

The follow uig extract from tlie Sydney Mail, of 20th August last, alfords an excellent illustration of the extent to wluch appeals for contributions to British relief funds have been responded to by the pubhc of New South Wales, and ol the proportion which their subscriptions m this wa) has borne towards the public contiibutions fiom other Australian colonies -

A notice îcccntly appealed in tho nowspapcr Press pur- posing to give an enumeration of tho contiibutions of tho Austiahnn colonies to the Lnglish lloliof I unels, in which sumo ot the j nncipal conti lbutious of this colony vvero not mentioned In o îctuni orduicd by tho House o£ Comraons on tho motion of Mr 1 orrons, received by last moil, wo OU6C1V0 fuller and moro accurate information u¿ion tho EUbject llio contiibutions ot tho Australian colomos to tho " Patriotic Puudj foi tho Rohef of Widow s und Orphans of Soldiers and Sailors who foil in tho Ciiincan War, '

werô -

New South Wales .. ., £6i,916 C 6 Tasmania ., ,. ., 28,37o 5 7 Victoria . .. ., 47,711 10 3 South Australia .. . 0,297 0 0

Tho whole of tho sum raised by Now South Walos wa» collected by voluntary contributions, while tho amount raiFcd by voluntary contributions m Victoria was only £7711 10s 3d Tho additional £40,000 boing- voted by tho Vu terian I cgislauiro

The contributions to tho Indian Mutiny Pund woro -

"\ letona .. ,. ,, £2o,000 0 0 Now South Wales ., ,, 6,821 0 ß South Australia .. .. 2,803 0 0

No mention is made of tho contributions of Now South AY nie« in the return, but wo find on roforenco to tho Set aid of tho 26th January, 1869, that tho abovo amount was raised in this colony by public subscription

Tho Australian contiibutions to tho Cotton Tamine Tund oro stated m tho return to have been

Now South Wales .. ..£21,311 0 0 ?\ letona .. ., ., 6,000 0 0 Western Austraba .. ., 603 11 5 Queensland (amount not named)

Tho Isiun of £15,739 12s Id is also got down to flio credit of "Austraba," tho amount being forwardod to the " Lord Mayor s Relief Fund "

Wo are not sure that the sum of £92,048 rcprosonts tho wholo of the voluntary coutnbutioiis from thiB colony to the three funds named, but, admitting' that it doos, it will be Boen that it is £64,236 mor« than the voluntary eoatn.

Li t cn* of A flu (tie next largest conlnbutor) It ill líhnioit i Imilary tonltihutions of Victou ""tilth /ti iii l in, and AVcstern Austritlnpi tc-ill II ami uhslunlial proof of tho loyalty ia 1 11 nili v f 1 ti i 1 e i c f f JNcvs ¡south "\\ ales

A sun ol al ia £¿3 000 has been subscribed for ti erceticn i f a hospit ü to commemorate the visit of hi Roy 1 Highness the Duke of Edinburgh It ha been lonj, in the hands of tiustecs, but it has not )t been detci mined ho si to dispose of it Vanous site it r a new hospital hav e been suggested and diseussci but none hab )et been decided upon lhere was a iden ol apply it to the improvement of the picsent Ii inman, but tlus has been abandoned lhere can I no doubt that it will bo laid out to advantage

We will endeavour to give an outline sketoh i dctuil of ti c i ubht chantieb of the colony

Gi HUM EhT ASVII MS 10R THE AOEl) AND INFIR Peon -Hu.re are four of these asylums, wluch ai wholly bit] loi ted hythe State lhey aro manage bv 11 oaid 1 ) whom, and the Secretary, orders le ailmi MOU ni t made Persons are also admitted o the reel ii n cndation of magistrates, &c , and, i uigcnt cu tb are taken in at the asylum themselvei limb the old people aro well cared for lhey are cor tmurlly turning and gomg but the number of peisor in suth os)lunib is "eneially much the same I Hyde 1 ark Atylum (w s dne) ), there were on the 31° December lost 197 females, mid the cost of the este blibhment for the )toi was £2731 10s 3d In Parra malta Asylum theie were on the same day 232 mci and itb tost foi the)ear was 273G 0s lud. In th Liverpool Asylum theie were on the same day 62 men, and its cobt for the jeal was £6393 12s 6d Hi Pott Macquarie Asylum contauied on the same day 8 men and 38 women, mid its tost for the year wc

£1679 7s 3d

LUNATIC AND LNVALID ASIIUMS -lhere are three c these-the Hosj ¡tal fo> the Insane, at Gladesville the Asylum for Fice lunatics and Invalids at Parra matta and the Asylum for Convict Ltmatics an Inialtd-s at the bamt place lhey are nil large, we organised, and admnably managed institutions, t which we cannot event attempt a dcscnption withi the space at oui disposal lhe Parramatta asylums al devoted almost exclusively to the reception of pel sons who are considered incurable, and the Glades ville institution to turable patients Iliese ar Government establishments, and most of the patienf and invalids are supported free of tost, but the rela fives of suth patients asare able to contribute toward their maintenance are required to do so lhe mim ber of inmates of these estabhsliments on the 31É December lost wos at Gladesville, 429 males and 22 females , *t the 1 oramatto Asylum for free lunatic and invalids, 229 males and 211 females , and at th Asylum for Convict Lunatics and Invalids, 63 male and 8 females lhe total tost to the Government fo 18G9, of tile three institutions was £40,380 13s Id vi? -£19,802 9s 8d for the establishment al Gladesville, and £19,928 3s öd for thoso at Parra

matt«

BpNEVoiia,T SOCIETY or NEW SOUTH WALES - This was the first charitable institution established ii the colony, having been lounded so for back as th 6th June, 1818 It has a most extensive operation givmg relief to any distressed person recommende by a subscriber, or, in extreme cascB, by any respect able person It gives out door relief duruig the yea to from 4000 to 6000 coses (the number of case relieved lost year being 6740), besides from 100 to l61 accouchement c-ibes , afloras refuge to a numhe of persons dum the j ear, and has been especiall useful in tollcctmg destitute children and in relievut¡ distressed women with sick chüdren lhe numbe admitted m 18G9 was 192 females (adults), mid 25¿ childi en lhere viere 3 nuiles and 50 females (adults and 112 chüdren in tlie ebtablislunent on the 31s December last Four adult females and 30 chaldrei died there during the year. Hie amount of volun tary subscnptions in 1809 was £756 6s 8d , and o Government aid, £4850 19s lid

SYDNEY INFIRMARY AND DISPENSARY -This is th« most costly of all the public chanties of the colony but its importance can scarcely be overrated li is partly supported by voluntary contribu tions, but these contributions are very largely supplemented by aid in vanous shapes by the Government The total receipts in 1869 were £20,384 8s 2d , of which sum £4080 Is Id was raised by voluntary contributions, and £16,221 7s Id ob tamed from the Government The total amount disbursed dunng the same penod was £14,750 6s Id lhe hospital was buüt many years ago, in the days of Governor Macquane Its wards are very large and airy It has been added to ui various ways, mid has now every convenience necessary to such an establishment It has a large internal staff, besides its (honorary) consultuig physicians and surgeons and district medical officers Of males on the establishment there ore a manager, two resident medical ofheers, two dispensers, and fourteen other officials and attendants The practical superintendence of the institution is entrusted to a lody supenntendent and a staff of nurseB framed on Miss Nightingale s system lhere are, besides the lady supenntendent, five sisters four English and one colonial-trained-titree probation siBters, and thirteen probationers, besides a housekeeper, 0 nurses, and 12 female servants Very splendid quarters have been provided, at pubhc cost, foi tlie sihteihood and female attendants, in the shope of a handsome gothic building attached to the institution, and called tlie " Nightingale wing, ' which has cost over £7000, and contains no less than forty rooms The number of persons m this estab- lishment on the 31st December, 1868, was 123

main» nnrl Pi fomnloc ír,t"l i aj A i_ «o. i

_ "_ w* xwuu.^a, luuu, loi. AUIU.UI.CU in

1869, 1110 males and 518 females ; total, 1628. Dis- charged, 977 males and 487 females ; total, 1468. Died, 140 males and 49 females ; total, 189. Re- maining on the establishment on the 31st December, 1869, 110-males and 43 females ; total, 159. Out- door medical and surgical relief given during the same period to 6439 persons.

ST. VINCENT'S HosriTAL.-An institution for both in-door and out-door patients, managed by the Sisters of Charity, but open to persons of aU religions. The present hospital has been in existence since 1857. The number of in-patients accommodated at one time has been 22 i the average number yearly has been about 200 ; the average number of out-patients has been about 400 yearly. The amount of the annual expenditure has averaged £600, and the fund to meet this has been obtained from subscriptions, donations, and other sources. The increased amount of applica- tions for the admission of patients, which it was im- possible to accede >o on account of the very limited accommodation in the present building, rendered it iiecessary to take measures for the erection of a new

'aospitaffnow almost comnlete. The TIPW Vimi/ii«.»

x-,--.-r_.". __u ne« ueeuenng,

f which but one half, as originally planned, is now -ected, stands in a very healthy situation, overlook g the harbour of Port Jackson, and has been erected ü about three acres of land. About an acre of this *s a Government grant ; the remainder has been Ichased. The hospital has all .the modern "uirements which are used in buildings apted for the use of in-patients. Very par- war care has been taken of the ventilation, aD*as and water have been laid on all through the hning when required. There are two large wards, ^'ja will accommodate 80 patients, each of whom wilavc about 800 cubic feet of air. In addition, theare several separate rooms for private patients, yhyii be able to pay for their separate accommo- dât!; There is a large operating theatre, a dispon |>aiybm, and the out-oftices ara all that is required. " lie ichased land on which tlie hospital stands cost £270t2300 of which is still due. The cost of the build^ -when m vvorking order, will be about £9000;ioo0 of which has been received from Goveriont ; the remainder was derived from donath an¿ other charitable sources ¡ leaving a balance n_0ut £2500 still due on the building.

BBNE^ENT INSTITUTIONS AND IIosriTALS ix THE INTERIOLxhero nrc institutions of this kind at Parraina Windsor, Goulburn, Yass, Bathurst, Mudgee,Uvcastic, Maitland, Tamworth, Armidale, Albury, ya, Gundagai, Wagga Wagga, Murrurundi, Carcoar, Jdwood, Port Stephens,Wellington, Deni- liquin, _cS) Muswellbrook, Grafton, Tenterfield, Young, Wjngong, Warrebri, Queanbeyan,Warialda, Tamborooi_ourke> Cooma, and Grenfell. These are suppoi partly by private subscriptions, and partly byifj-oj,! the Government. Their total income frorL former BOurce during the year 1869 vat £7762 i¿¡t ^^ from the latter £9134 14s. 9d. riie_ total Sursements of all these institutions during the sj period ^^ £15,678 12s. 8}d. There are also insti^ns at Penrith, Scone, and Singleton, which are c\fie¿ ¡- official returns as Bene- volent Asylt although one of them (that at Penrith, igtnted to he a hospital also, as some \ the country hospitals aro stated to he ^un)g ^ wen aB hospitals. The income of the ^^ úistitution in 1809 was £150 19s. 3d. from Vntary contributions, and £70 6s. from GovernmeWi £239 6s. 9d. ¡ and its total disbursements dfc the same period, £214 2s. 2d. Scone, yolwi_rySributions ¿,53 HS. od., Govern- ment aid £136 3s\ total £198 17s. lOd. ; disburse- ments ¿61 3s 6d. Ingleton, voluntary contributions í6°0 .**? T.. i?Went aid £507 0s. 9d.-total £1007 fis. Cd. ; dislemeius £732 12B. 2d.

# PROTESTANT On- Scnooi, P_ttn___rr_.--An institution for th^a- children 0f Protestant parents of all denoitjongi wholly supported hy the Government. Uer of children in the este

1

is b'ishmeiit on the 31st December last, 1G1 boy, 1.85 a, gris tolal, 216 Cost of the establishment m 1SÖ9,

ut £2781 Ils lOd lins is on odmiribly managedarj;-,, i(1 stitution Hie ehildicn ore admitted oft Government1

trdeis obt-iinablc on the recommendation of any le clergyman or person of known lespcctobilit^ Hiey/

lH me well educated, and, when old enough are ajpmen-' " tices Then lntacstb oie looked aftei tuitü thtiy amve

at adult agc

? RIMAN CITHOIIC OnniAN SCHOOL, PARRAMATTA

' An nibtituhon of the bamc kind as that 1 ist mentioned, n but lor childi en of Roman Catholic patents onlj It 1_ i nu noged (and well managed) by tlie Sisters of the 10 Good Shepherd " Wholly suppoitcd by the Govern-

ment Ni mbers of chüdren on the establishment on n the 31bt December last, 160 boyb and 170 gills-total,

332 , cost lor this year, £3170 7s 9d

DrFTiTLi-B CuimnrNS ASIIUM AT RVVDWICK -

r? This is peihaps the most useful of oui public

chanticf It wis founded on the 23rd Iebiumj, " If »2 It let civ cs and educates destitute andaban

di ned thtidiui namely -" 1 Chüdren found bj the pelite oi others without protection, whose parents 8 cai rct be discovered, or whose parents have been * convicted os vagiants, drunkaidb, or disordeily cha

* rutters, unfit to have the caie of their cluldien 2 , Cluldien abandoned by their parents, and left with _ out friends or protection 3 Chüdren, either of " whose parents is an abandoned or dissolute character,

ond who may bo placed by the other parent in the "' Asylum, on payment oi a fixed sum for then ,j maintenance lo these children tlus institu-

tion affords " a sound and useful education, and 'S trains them in avaüable habits of industry, until they

reach an age when they may be disposed of m the 1 manner which moy be most conducive to their indi

c vidual interest and the general good of society "

We quote from the original prospectus which expresses ' very clearly the objects of the founders These j have been very fully and efficiently carried out Hie j, institution has been so well supported by bequests, £ voluntary contnbutions, and Government aids, that

although comparatively young.it has attained mag- nificent proportions Hie builduigs are large and c hondsome, situated in one of tlie finest sites near " Sidney A hospital has been recently added, '" which is called the Catherine Hayes Hos ta pital, in honour of the lady whose munificent _ donation (which amounted, with interest, to £1300) S" first enabled the managers of the institution to con-

template this addition to its usefulness lhe buüd 7 ing is in the Romanesque style, and has cost £6000, 3 besides £260 more for furniture Hie number of the

children m the asylum on the 31st December, 18G8, was, boys, 364 , girls, 320 total, 684-exclusive of 17 apprentices There have been received dunng the

rs year 1869, 142 boys, 121 girls total, 263 There

, w ere discharged duruig the same penod, 100 boys t and 84 girls, of whom GO boys and 47 girls were ap-

prenticed There remauied in the asylum on the 31st December, 1869,406 boys and 360 girls total, 760, _ exclusive of 25 apprentices employed in the institu-

tion Tlie daily average of the year 1869 was 735, including the 25 apprentices lhere were but j three deaths dunng tins penod The total amount j of subscriptions and donations in aid of this institu " tion 1869 were £3827 11s Gd , and of Government a aid £7090 0s 9d Of the latter sum, however, £3890

0s 9d w as for the maintenance of children from the

Q Benevolent Asylum The total receipts for the y ear

were £11,717 12s 3d, and the total disbursements during the same penod £11,186 10s Id Hie * Society for the Relief of Destitute Children is rncor ° porated Its affairs are managed by a directory, and

g there is a "House Committee ' consisting of twelve

\ of the directors

£ GOVERNMENT INDUSTRIAL AND REronviATORY

SCHOOLS-lhere are three of these, an Industual School foi Girls and a Reformatory school for girls, £ both at New castle, and the Nautical School shtp

Vei non, in Sy dney harbour These institutions pro v ide a home and education for all children under six e teen, who, although they have not tome under tlie > grasp of the law are beuig tramed up as tlueves

and prostitutes, by constant association with adults of those classes lhey do the same f for juv ernies offenders Any boy or girl f who is brought before any Court of Jus ^ tice, and sentenced to any period of confinement

not less than 14 days can be sent toa Reformatory Sthool instead of to prison Children found wan deruig without lisible means of support can also be sent to these schools, where they are educated and ' taught to earn an honest livelihood These mstitu

",«b..i lu luui un jieijie-si. iivueiuoou. xnese insntu

' tions are supported by the Government, but parents L who have children in sucli institutions and aro 1 able to contribute towards their support are expected ' to do so. The number of boys on board the Vernon ^ on the 31st December, 1869, was 135, and the cost of

the institution during the year xvas £4291 12s. 2d. 1 The number of girls in tlie Industrial School at New-

castle at the same date was 105, and the cost of the school during the year £6568 8s. 7d. In tlie Re- formatory School, recently established, throe girls

cost £197 17s. 8d.

SYDNEY TEJÍALE SCHOOL OP INDUSTRY.-This is a Church of England institution for the maintenance and training of the female children of poor parents. It is supported by voluntary subscription, and by the proceeds of an annual ball. Its receipts for 1869 were £860 0s. lid., and its expenditure for the same j'ear £700 16s. 2d. There were 48 eliildren in the in- stitution on the 31st December, 1869. It is managed bj' a Ladies' Committee.

DEAT, DUMII, AND BLIND INSTITUTION.-The nature of this institution is sufficiently explained by its title. Premises are rented for its use at Paddington, but it is proposed shortly to erect n suitable building ; £1233 has been subscribed for this purpose, which lies in a bank at interest. A Government grant of £2000 has been promised, also a suitable piece of land (near Newtown) for a site. It is proposed to erect such a building as the means at the disposal of the directory xvill allow without going at all into debt. 40 cliildren in the institution-7 blind and 33 deaf and dumb. In- come of 1869 from Government £450, from X'oluntary contributions £728 14s. 3d : total £1178 14s. 3d. Ex- penditure of the year, £1029 OB. 5d.

RAGGED AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS.-There are three of these in Sydney, wholly supported by voluntary contributions. About 420 children on the books, but average daily attendance about 200. About 300 admitted during the yenr. Subscription/:, ¿bout £600, the precise amount for lostyear being £6'«"f ' ( s. Chil- dren admitted at the schools, and even sou.; it out hy supporters of the charity. Efforts made for improve-

ment of parents also.

SYDNEY NIGHT REFT/GB AN» Sour KITCTIEK.-An admirable charity, established about two years and a half ago, chiefly through tlie exertions of Captain ßcott, Senior Police Magistrate of Sydney. It is supported wholly by voluntary contributions. Tickets ore given to subscribers, to be handed to persons seeking charity. Three cleon and well ventilated apartments are provided for sleeping accommodation, the occupants receiving blankets to cover them. Three times a day a good wholesome meal is served

out, dinner is given to all presenting n ticket ; break- ' fast and supper only on the coüdition that tlie re-

cipient works during the afternoon. Baths and '

wasn-jiouses are provided where the men can wash

themselves mid their clothes. On Saturdays warm water is supplied, and every man in the place is re- quired to have a bath. During the year 1869, upwards of 70,000 meals were given (averaging from 180 to 200 meals per day) ; and upwards of 14,000 separate nights' shelter afforded. A free regutry office has been established in connection wita tlüs charity, and no efforts are spared to procure employ- ment for those who seek it. About 300 engagements were made during the year of longer or shorter duration. Many of the men kept their situations for long periods ; others might have done well but for their fatal tendency to " drink." Employment was obtained ¡for several women who could not otherwise get situations. Young women with infants were occomodntcd at tlie institution, who being per- fectly friendless must have suffered great hardships but for such assistance. In all these instauces situa- tions were found for thom after much trouble. The

income for the year was £404 Is., and tlie expendi-

ture £326.

SUNDAY MonNmo BREAKFASTS.--From 100 to 120 persons of the poorest class, receive substantial. i breakfasts every Sunday morning, and are addressed

by ministers of religion and others. Cost defrayed

by voluntary contributions.

CENTRAL POLICE Ornen Poon Boc.-Supported by small donations and judiciously expended by the Police Magistrate, Captain Scott, hi affording tem-

porary relief in cases where small donation« only are j

needed. The annual receipts have varied very much, and tlie extent of relief has_ been governed

by these receipts. Since the establishment of the j Night Refuge and Soup Kitchen, the demands on this fund have decreased more than ono-half. Average number relieved per annum, about 200 ¡ average receipts, about £20.

SYDNEY FJSMALE REPUOE.- A Protestant institu I tion for tlie reception and reformation of women

who hove strayed from tlie paths of virtue. Managed by a Indies' committee. In this establishment on tlie 31st December, 1868, 22 ; admitted during the year 1869, 46 ; discharged in same period, 47 ; remaining I on 31st December, 18G9, 21. Receipt of the year

(from subscriptions alone-no Government aid) 1 ¿036 2B. ; expenditure, £898 2s. lOd.

riovsE or THE Goon Sin i in RD -A similar insti- tution, (Jpeii to females of all religions, but managed iby-i.the1 Sisteis ol the Good Shepherd, under the 'ihs$cltioh of the Roman Catholic dignitaries In tho

establishment 31st Deccmbci, 1868, 91 Admitted dunng 18G«), 86 Dischnigcd, 83 Remaining 31st December, 1869, 93 Hie Sisteis also visit and ícliexo distics<ed poisons, the numbei so visited m 186!) havnigbeen 219 males and G75 females total, 801. The expenditure foi the xeni was £1397 10s ljd, towards which £832 9s Id w is contributed bv sub- scriptions, the rcmauidei being laiscd by piocccds of work, Á.C

HOME VISITING AMI RniEP SOCILTV, foi the lelief of educated peisons of both sexes bv gifts oi loans, &.c , so as to enable them to cain a livelihood About 100 poisons thus icliev ed dunng tlie j e ir Subscrip- tions, about £100 per annum No Government aid, Applications to the Secietar) (Mi G T Wise), but no nid given until case inquired into All îclicl con-

fidential

AUSTRALIAN BrNFiOLENT SOCIETY or BLUES-ror tlie aid, bj gift or loan, to persons educated at Cluibts Hospital, England, wholly suppoitcd by xoluntni) contilbutioiiB, amounting to about £80 per annum-few cases, as }ct, ncedmg relief, but some among them where such relief was xeiy seasonable

SXDNIX IlLiiitrvv PHILVNTiiRoric INSTITUTION, for tlie lehef of distressed persons of the Hebrew persua- sion b) loans or pensions About C1 10s week dis- tributed m pensions, besides lclicf by loan, &.O. Number of pensioners -vary Piobably average of about twenty in general Suppoitcd wholly by voluntary contributions fiom peisons ot tlie Hebrew faith Managed by a committee

SYDNEY DORCAS AND STRANOEU'S rniPND SOCIETY, for the relief of poor married women, without distinc- tion of country or creed, during the month of accouchement, and for the temporary relief of deserv- ing peisons who arc xvithout friends Wholly sup- ported by voluntary contributions About twenty or tlurt) Dorcas cases m the j ear, and about tlie same number of poor families relieved Subscriptions about £80 to £100 a j ear Managed by a committee of

ladies

HPHREW LADIES' DORCAS SOCIETY AND BENKVO IENT INSTITUTION -Similar to the last-named institu- tion, but confined in its operation as a Dorcas society to poor marned w omen of the Hebrew faith Also grants assistance to Jewish females under any circum- stances, xvhen necessar) Subscriptions between £80 and £100 per annum Numbei of persons relieved xnr) greatly, according to the times No datt slvovv

mg average.

SHOEBLACK AND PORTERS' BRIGADES -Supported partly by contnbutions and partly by the earnings of the bo)s xvho are enrolled in the " brigades " These, bo) s are mostly such as, if not prox ided with steady employment in tins xvay, xvoidd probably have to be cared for m a manner less beneficial to themselves and less profitable to tlie community by one or other of the public reformatory institutions already mentioned. As it is, they appear to be doing very well. The members of the " Shoeblack Brigade " stand in the streets and clean the noots and shoes of anyone xvho xvill employ them at Id per pair. They also go to houses for the same purpose when required to do so The " porters " attend the landing-places of steamers, &.c , and carry luggage. The lads have n uniform (of blue serge) and are numbered Part of their earnings go toward« their maintenance and part is saved for them This in- stitution is as yet but young m the colony, but appears to be very successful

OTHER INSTITUTIONS -lhere are several insti- tutions xvluch, although intended to be self-suppor- ting, require and receive some external aid The pruicipal of these is tlie Sailots' Home-a very com- fortable and cheap home for seamen (m a huge and handsome burlduig near the Circular Qua) ) also a place for the safe deposit of thou money and chests, &.c , xvhen nbsent lhc Home m Eli/tibeth-strect, S)¿ne), is really "a home " for respectable single females of ever) class xvhen out of employment, but chiefly for nursery governesses and domestic servants. Also a registry office for piocuring them employment. Open to lemalcs of all religions, but family priyers according to Anglican ritual The Female Home and Bcgtstty Oßce, Darlinghurst Road, is an institution of the same character as that last mentioned, but established under Roman Catholic auspices, and con- ducted under the inspection of the Sisters of Charity.

The Protestant ti anting School for loung Guts as

Dflttieifin ^>w/)i io o «*. -* * i-- - »

_ ,_-..i..-.?/.y ,^itvui- JUT îoung ums as

Domestic Servants is an institution now being organ- ised, and ¡which it is expected will shortly be in a position to commence operations.

Municipal Institutions.

THE inhabitants of New South Wales have shown an intelligent appreciation of the value of municipal institutions. Sydney has boen incorporated many years, and has experienced some extraordinary vicis- situdes of municipal existence. The Civic Council derives its powers from n special statute. The first General Municipalities' Act applicable to the entire colony was passed in 1858, and the Amended Act now in force became law at the end of 1867. Tho following will illustrate the rapidity of municipal progress. It was estimated a year ago that the city of Sydney hod a population of 71,800 souls living in 14,500 houses. Tho estimated value of the house property in the city proper is upwards of eight millions sterling» The suburban boroughs have a population of about 44,000. Hiey contain upwards of 9000 houses, and other buildings, and the estimated value of the house property is nearly £3,000,000. In the unincorporated suburbs there arc about 12,000 souls and 2600 houses and other buddings. Hie estimated value of the household property is nearly three-quarters of a mil- lion sterling. The total population of the city and suburbs, incorporated and unincorporated, within tlie Metropolitan Police District, was 127,000 ; the number of houses and other buildings was 200,000, and the estimated value of the household property was £11,037,000. In this district there are nearly 200 miles of street, and 134 miles of roads. During the past year there have been considerable mid valuable additions to the buildings of the city ond suburbs, and new streets and roads haye been aligned. The foregoing returns were carefully col- lected by the police, and the details are set out with,

great accuracy.

The Government has offered substantial encourage- ments to municipal incorporation. Its object is t» bring about ultimately a state of things which will enable it to relievo itself of many duties wluch have hitherto devolved upon it, although they can ba much better performed by local municipal action. The Act provides for two classes of municipalities-« "Boroughs" and "Municipal Districts." A borough may consist of (1) " any city or town, with- out its suburbs or country immediately adjaccmt thereto j " (2) " any suburb of the metropolis as at present incorporated j " (3) " any populous country district." But every such borough must have a population of not less than a thousand souls, and an area of not more than nine square miles, of which area no one point shall be more than six miles distant from any other point. A municipal district may in- clude any part of the colony not containing a borough» ond may comprise on its first incorporation an area,

not exceeding fifty square miles, of which no point

Shall bo more than tvventv miloo )l,*uto».t t

o««- nu moro man twenty miles distant from

any other point. And there is a proviso requiring that every such municipal district shall contain a population ot not leas than five hundred souls. These " Boroughs " and " Municipal Districts " are incorporated on petition of persons who, upon the in- corporation of the municipalities proposed, would be " liable to he obsessed for municipal tuxes." In afovv instances counter petitions have been more nume- rously signed than those in favour of incorporation ; but generally the people have been quick to perceive the advantages, pecuniary and otherwise, which result

pi oin a practical application of the provisions of tho

Act.

There are novr in New South Wales about forty municipalities, and it is not too much to say that there are very few Acts on the statute book whose operation has been attended with results so marked, and at the same time so satisfactory ao that under which they aro incorporated. The municipalities vary greatly in regard to size and population. The suburban municipalities aro of ceurse the most compact and populous. Balmain contains an area of but fifteen-sixteenths of a square mile, and has a population of about 4000. The Glebe has an area of three-quarters of a square mile, and a population of 6000. The municipality of Cook contains an area of only half a. square mile, and has a population of about 1400. Marrickville contains an area of little more than two and a half square miles and ha» a pepulation of 1500 souls. Newtown contains two thirds of a seiuaro mile, and has a population of about 6000. Redfern contains an area of little moro than liait a square mile, and has a popu- lation ot between four and five thousand souls. Some of the ootmtry municipalities embrace area« of more than a hundred miles. Central Illawarra, for instance, has 116 square miles ; Kiama, 120 square miles ! and Cudgegong, 191 square milos. The Act provides for cumulative votes. The rates are lovied on nine-tenths of the fair average annual rental of buildings and cultivated lands, and upon £5 per cent, of tlie capital value of the fee simple of oil unim proyed lands. In addition to the -general rates, special rates may be levied for sewerage, -water, jgM>

free infant schools, and free libraries. But the rates, general and special, are limited to two shillings in the pound of the assessment, and in very few in Btanccs at present do they exceed one shilling in the pound. The municipalities have not generally undertaken the supply of water. Indeed, this is a weak point in regard to the city. The question of mi inexhaustible supply is, however, under consideration. Several of the suburban municipalities oie lighted with gus, the pipes Jieing continued f'tom Sydney, and the Corporation of the inland city of Goulburn light their stieets with kerosene. Some ol' the municipalities have free libral ies, but no special rate has been levied for their maintenance. The town halls, for the most part, ate generally neat mid substantial. The Sydney Cor- poration are erecting a building which would do credit to any English or Continental city.

Aldermen hold office for three years,-one-third l-etiiing every year. They are elected by ballot, mid the constituents aro the ratepayers. The occupier, lessee, or owner of property assessed at.an annual "value not exceeding £25, has one vote ; over £25 and not exceeding £75, two votes; over £75 and not exceeding £150, three votes ; over £150, four votes, .which number is the maximum. All municipalities l-oceive endowment in proportion to the rates. For the first five years after incorporation the Govern- ment gives n sum per annum equal to the whole of the rates, assessments, and subscriptions ; for the Becond five yeais, one-half; and in the third succeed- ing five yeai s, one-fourth, öfter winch the Govern-

ment endowment censes.

It will be observed that our Municipal Act is re- markable for its liberality. It is in fact rather too liberal inasmuch os it contains no pro- vision limiting the period during which the offer of endowment may be accepted. Thus those "who from an unworthy fear of taxation set their faces against municipal incorporation and improvement, may, after defeating the object of the Government for an unlimited period, come in at the last moment and claim its bounty. At present the municipalities have done little to relieve the Central Government which

continues payments for trust roads through the very heart of municipal distiicts. They havo nothing to do "with tlie payment or control of the police. They have certainly done much to change the face of the most i populous poi ts of the colony, and they have a very

important duty to perform in preserving the salu- brity of their districts and preventing operations in- jurious to the health of the public, or coming within the category of nuisances. The proceedings of the Municipal Councils are conducted generally with Spirit and intelligence, and every year there is an .enlarged inteiest in municipal elections.

Tlie Administration of the Land.

THE last Constitution Act conferred on New South "Wales, and which became operative in 1856, gaye full power to the Government of the colony to alienate «ntl administer its public lands. Tliis caused great satisfaction, for it was generally considered that the lands were by no means " fairly portioned." A small number of people come into possession of an estate vost and rich, mid there was a conflict to determine ' "who should be the administrators. Numerous schemes

.were proposed to secure the most satisfactory results. These matteis, however, are of scarcely more than local interest. In the exercise of its now powers the Legislature passed two bills which were assented to on the 18th October, 1861, and which are still in force, known as " An Act to regulate the Alienation of Crown Lands" and " An Act for regu- lating the Occupation of Crown Lands." By the 2nd section of the Crown Lands Alienation Act of 1861, the " Orders in Council" under which the sale and occupation of Crown lands were formerly ad- ministered by the Crown, were repealed, with certain reservations respecting rights which had accrued in .regard to some existing leases.

This Act provides for the granting of Crown lands for public purposes ; for the setting apart of sites for towns and villages ; for the special sale of land to occupiers who have made improvements, and for a ?variety of other things of a like nature. The clauses of most universal interest tire those which contain piovisions for the settlement of population upon the land. The principal of these clauses is the 13th : ?" On and from the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, Crown lands other than town lands or suburban lands, and not being .within a proclaimed gold field nor under lease for

mining purposes to any person other than the ap- I plicant for purchase, and not being within areas ' bounded by lines bearing north, cast, south, and l .west, mid distant ten miles from the outside boun

-dary of any city or town containing according to the j then last census ten thousand inhabitants, or five j miles to the outside boundoiy of anv town cont.iitir.ig

accoiding to the then last census five thousand in- I habitants, or tin ee miles from the outside boundary of any town containing according to the then last census one thousand inhabitants, or two miles from .the outside boundary of any town or village contain- ing according to the then last census one hundred inhabitants, and not reserved for the site of any town or village, or for the supply of water, or froin sale for any public purpose, and not containing improvements, and not excepted from sale under section seven of this Act shall be open for conditional sale, by selection in the manner following :-that is to say, any person may, upon any land office day, tender to the land agent for the dis- trict a written application for the conditional pur- chase of any such lands nor less than forty acres, nor more than three hundred and twenty acres, at the price of twenty shillings per acre, and may pay to such land agent a deposit, of twenty-five per centum of the purchase money thereof, and if ni other like application and deposit for the some land be tendered at the same time such person shall be declared the conditional purchaser thereof, at the price aforesaid, provided that if more than one such application and deposit for the same land or any part thereof, shall be tendered at the same time to such land agent, ho shall, ?unless all such applications but one be immediately -withdrawn, forthwith piocecd to deter nine by lot in such manner as may be prescribed by regulations made under this Act which.of the applicants shall be- come the purchaser."

Crown lands within proclaimed gold-fields, and not -witliin areas excluded by special proclamation, and not occupied for gold-mining purposes, must be selected subject to the foregoing provisions; but if, - subsequently, it be found that the land contains auri-

ferous deposits the sale may be annulled, in wlüch «case the purchaser will be entitled to compensation. At the expiration of three years from the date of any ". conditional purchase, or within three months there-

after, the balance of the purchase money may be ten- dered with a declaration that the law has been ¡satisfied in respect of bona fide residence and im- provement, and the grant of the fee simple obtained. The following is the clause of the Act : " At the expiration of tinco yeais from the dote of conditional purchase of any such land as aforesaid, or witliin three months thereafter, the balance of the purchase money shall be tendeicd nt the office of the i . Colonial Treasurer, together with a declaration by

the conditional purchaser or his alienee or some other person in the opinion of the Minister competent in that behalf under the Act ninth Victoria number nine, to the effect that improvements as hereinbefore defined have been made upon such land, specifying the nature, extent, and value of such improvements, and that such land has been from the date of occu-

pation the ioíiú fide residence, either continuously of the original purchaser or of some alienee or succes- sive alienees of his whole estate and interest therein, and that no such alienation has been by any holder thereof until after the bona fide residence thereon of such holder for one whole year at the least. And upon the Minister being satisfied by such decla- ration and the certificate of the land agent for the district or other proper officer of the facts aforesaid, the Colonial Tieasurer shall receive and acknowledge tlie remaining purchase money and a grant of the fee simple, but with reservation of any minerals wlüch the land may contain shall be made to the then right . ful owner. Provided that should such lands have .. Jbeeu occupied and improved as aforesaid, and should

interest at the rate of five per ci-ntum per annum on the balance of the pui chase money bo paid within the said three months to the Colonial Treasurer, the pay- ment of such balance may be defened to a period .witliin three months after the first day of January . i then next ensuing, and may be so deferred from yeir

to year by pavment of sucli interest during the first quarter of each year. But on default of a compliance - -with the lequiremcnts of this section the land shall . revet tato her Majesty, and be liable to be sold at auc-

tion, and the tleposit shall be forfeited."

Crown lands alienated without conditions for residence and improvement, are sold by auction, and the following aie the upset prices :-Town lands, £8; suburban hinds, £2; other land, £1. îChis is the general plan, but there is a proviso, that '*the upset price moy be fixed at any higher amount. Twenty-five per cent, is paid at the" fall of the ham - -pier, and the remainder in three months.

The object of the system of " conditional purchase " " and' unlimited credit (without interest for three

years) is to settle people on the land as culti .vators. The effect of its working has no doubt given a large amount of satisfaction to many persons -connected with agricultural pursuits ; but others,

tempted b) the e ise w Uh w luch land could be ac | quiied, have found " conditional pul chase a delusion and a sn ire lhe opointion of the Act his also been injurious to the squatting mteicst inasmuch as it has rendel ed the lessees of Crown lands hable al any moment to hav c the best paru of the luns the) oecup) selected either for legitimate use 01 foi the purpose of am o) ance and dishonest gain Cert unly II hilo the piescnt system exists theie is not much encourage incut to people ita distante to enter upon squittmg pursuits ni Nevi South Wales Another clleet ol the Alienation Act has been to scattci the people engaged in nguculturc in a m intiei quite unneces

suv lhe Act howevoi, has greitly laciht ite I the acquisition of land, wini h may now be obtained w ithout the delà) s and elis ippouitinents expert

enced undei the s) stem wInch iormerly pievailed and tins is lcgaided asanadvantigeofiiosmill import ince lhe duel nutter ioi legiet is that the climie was hi ought about ni a manner which thou"h beneficial to individuals, is fraught with much disiidv mta0e to the colony as a whole Many conditional puichasers have taken up lunns of a qualit) unsurpassed b) land m an) pint of the vi01 Id, and those who have had the means and the necessir) experience combined with mdustr) and sobriet), have no doubt, as a rule, estibhihed themselves on the soil undei vci) fen out able conditions Acco ding to the Crown Lands Alienation Act m New South Wales, so nch m nnneials, Ciown lands mil) be conditionally selected loi the puipt_c of mining other than gold nuning, on p i) ment of £2 per acre , andona ckclaiation tint ii per acie had been expended m mining opeiations othei than golcl nulling on the land, and ftuther upon pi)nient ot the balance of the pm eli ise mono) a Drant in fee simple is made without anv rescivation ol nnneials othei I than gold, and this payment may be nude

although the penod oí ino veais required in other cases ma) not have expuoel Aiuifeious lands ire dealt with undei an Act which was assented to on the 27th September, 1S66, to amend the laws leltiting to the Gold fields By this Act the Governor with the advice of the Executive Council, mai, ' sublet t to, and in accordance with the laws for the time being respecting Crown lands of the colonv, and the piovisions ot this \ct and regulations uiiHcr it, giant leases foi mining of portions ol auiiteious linds and fix the amount to be paid b> wa) of lent, whether asaio)olt) or other vi ise Tor the ' right to mino for gold the miner pays 10s pei annum The gold fields are a source of gi cat wealth to the colony of New South Wales, although the amount ap pears small when complied with the large sums mmuallv derived norn pastoral pursuits By the Act which regulates the occupation of Ciown lands b) peisons who become lessees under the Government ' Cronn lands are divided into tluoe classes -Ihe " hi 3t class settled districts compuso lands declared to be of the ' settled class under the Oideis ui Council lhe ' second class settled elis tricts comprise lands converted into the ' settled class bv a previous Act AU othei Crown lands loi m part of the ' unsettled districts In the in»t oi these classes leases are granted for pastoral pur poses foi one vear, in the settled or un

settled districts for five veais and loi mincial purposes other than gold mining fourteen ) eai» Ihe poitions leased are of various si/e» lhere me not many "inns or pastoral leises, less than 10,000 acres some of them are over 100 000 acres, and many runs aie sometimes held b) the same lessee A return of squattages in difleient dist icts ot the colonv held hi membeis oí Parliament thiee or foiu )eais ago shiwetl that one Inn gentle

man was tlie lesseee ot sixtv stitions, the total estimated mea of which was 1,772,000 acies Districts aie proclaimed ioi the formation of ' luns

and the Act contains the follow nig prov îsioii m icgard to their area and capabilities - Runs shall, in ordi

inry cases, consist of not moic than twenty five square miles , but should that area m the opinion ot the pioper ofhcei of the Government be insufficient in aveiage seasons foi the pasturage of foin thousand sheep, or eight bundi ed head of cattle a i un mi) be enlarged to whatevei aiea not exceeding one hunched square miles mi) be nccessai) foi that purpose

lhe lent paid tor these squattines vines irom a fiaetion oí a penn) to a poiinv and a fiaction poi acie A shoit time ago theie vi eie betiv eon tim teen and foui teen thousand leases, the estimated atea of vi Inch was neail) 209 000 squaio miles and the lent and assessment fiom vi luch amounted to £260 o00 lhe mea biought under lease has gradull) increased irom vear toveai lhe exports oí the colon) give some idea of the wealth pioducing power of these leased linds, and of their value asa soui ce of revenue to keep down taxation

lhose who read this account of the ease with which lind can be obtained m New South Wales loi ill puiposes, will miturallv compaie the state of i lets with th it which exists m the countr) they inhabit It is theiefore unnecessar) to point out in whit îespect the Lind Acts of the colon) agiee v ith and in what the) differ norn, the liws with which various classes of icadeis are familial Nevi South Wales, with its ciioinious noa of land, has room foi unlimited capital and euteiprise to develope its resomccs An attempt will shoitl) be made to cure some ol the defects of the Lind Acts The object will be not to ie»trict the freedom with which land can be acquired, but lather with greater prudence, and with a pioper regard to the principles of political econoni), to encourage agri cultuial settlement, to piomote immigration, and generan) to acceleiate the piogress of the colon)

The Produce of the Land.

IHE oiiginalboundanes of the colony of New South Wales, as defined by the British Go wilment in then instructions to Governor Phillip, vi luch comprised the eastern half of Australia, or a territory nearl) as 1 irge as a moiety of Lurope, has become peopled more oi less, tliroughout its length and breadth, by industrious and enteipnsmg colonists Trom its immense area it became ni time too unw leldy for the efficient control of the central Government and Legis 1 ature at Sydney Hence New South Wales proper has been largel) shorn of its pioportions-first, by the formation ot the independent fiee colon) of South Australia ui 1836 , second, by the separation of the district of Port Phillip under the title of Victona, in ISÜI , and third, b) the separation of the Moreton Bay district, with all the terntory noith of that, and its formation into the colony of Queensland, m 1859 In the last year of its entirety-183d-the population was 71,e>92, the nunibor of acies under ci op, 79,2o6 , the amount of w ool in pounds 3,893,927, v aluod at £299,587 , 500 cwt of tallow, a rev ernie amounting to £271,091, and an expenditure amount uig to £171,044 When Victoria set up for heioclf, she carried off 67,81o from the accumulated popula- tion of 26Ü 503, and reduced the pioportion of New South Wales to 197,168 lhe area oí lind undei cultivation was reduced from 198,0o6 to l3o,117 icres, the hoises wore reduced from 132,397 to 126,397, the horned cattle from 1,738,257 to l,375,2o7, the sheep from 13}C59,321 to 7,396,89e», the pigs fiom 61,631 to 65,510 the wool crop from 32,361,829 lbs to lo,269,317 lbs In the ) ear 1801, a considerable ni eieasc is observed in the population Notwithstand- ing the seporation of Queensland, it stood at 3J8,278 lhere were 297,o7o acres of land under crop, the horses had doubled on the return of 18ol, the horned stock had mcieased to 2,271,923, the sheep to 5,616,054, and the wool to nearly 13 millions of pounds weight The same)ear there were 260,798 acres under culture wluch)ielded 1,581,597 bushels of wheat, 1,484,467 bushels of Indian coin, 3J.801 of bark), 98 814 of oats, 28,127 tons of potatoes, 9701 cwt of tobacco, 50,927 tons of ha), 99,791 gallons of wnie, besides other pioduce lhe value of the fiuit exported, chief!) oranges, was £61,166 At the pre sent time the domain of New South Wales comprises au area of 323,417 square miles, which pioies the colon) to be neail) as large as the supeihcies of Turnee and the United Kingdom togethei lhe most recent statistics, to which we have had access by the kindness of the Registrar General, puts us in posses

sion of iucts concerning the yeal ending March 1870, which aie highly satisiactor), and somewhat sigiufi

cant of a diversion ol capital from some branches of 1 ibour to othei s lhe number of acres undei wlvat is 181 1Ü2 foi gram, md 11,418 for hay , the mimbil undei hi) 129,700 Of barley theie nie 91J1 for feiain, 2208 foi green foddei, and 12sl foi hiy Otts for hay, gieen foddei, and giain occupies 67 000 acies of land , potatoes occupy 17,132 acres tobacco 366, auowioot 31, sorghum or imphec ¿90 acies, sugar cine 3917 acies, tirtilicial grasses sown foi food and hay, 20,309 vines 3J06 acies, gai dens and orchards 11,516 acies lhe hoises numbei 280,o0i. the homed cattle l,79a,904, thç sheep 14,089,123, and the pigs 175,924 lhese dita, if taken m conjunction with the losses sustained by floods and thought and disease, and the seveial checks incident to a new colony, where »xpenence has to be gamed ni every depaitmeut of uguculture, aifoid good evidence oi the spnng andvitalit) which chauic

tiise New South Wales

TAHMIVO

There is a considerable difference of opinion le spectuig the fitness of the land of the colony for cultivation or the growth of crops There are many persons who would give it ali up to pasturage Common sense, howcvei, m these

Puk, Albui), and other xnncties, need be no lonDci in doubt It would bo xvcll if minc of the wine that is made could be lon^ei kept So soon as tlie ncienge sholl have liiticised and the pnce of the bettei wines been sufficiently leduced to bung them within the reach of tlie middle and libouiinn classes, the demand xvill be much strength oneil lins elleet is eiuncstlv desned by those who look with ic0iet upon the niebiietj winch prevails for thej considei thnt the imbibition of spnit which is now commonlj íesoited to-good coloiuil be« be HIL, xet not populni-would be much mortified xvere sound wine pioctunble Until latelv, tlicie were but few competent wine makers, and fevvei still who wcie skilled in the art of maturing wine lins defect is gnelinll) being ovei come and the Oiowers are getting cxpeirence-L,eneiall) as a initier of purchase Hie nppeanmce of the oidwm amongst the vines of Cuni heil mil and the lluntei Rivei distnct Ins not been ntttndcd xvitli xeiy scnous îesults, bulphui havin" been applied with gi eat assiduit) bj all the principal

igiieions

O LIX F

îvothiiighis been jet done with the olive snveb) wax of experiment but m the couiso of n few yeius this ticc xvill be freel) cultivated and ohxe oil will îppeai amongst the exports fiom New South W des

SUOVR CAM

lheie is but one other mutter of nnpoilance to allude to bcfoie we pioeeed to touch upon live stock and then collateral bianehcs ofpioiluce Hie Suaui CAM li is long been stiiiDi,liiig mt) notice Ino settlcis, xvho nie men c,oneraU) possessed of veiy sli0ht expeilmental acquaintance xvith husbandly, show munni unnditv in dealing with novelties They mc much given to wheat bule) oats, and potatoes, hnvinD heard of them 01 seen them alone in Lngland and li eland Hie cine, thciefoie, bid to meet with tuid ovticoinc much prejudice audit wis not until 1SG7 that this liulifleiciice to it was converted into fivoui Continued writing and t ilktng on the sub icet biought public opinion to i fever heit, and the settlcis. <\i tlie ni eis fiom the Manning River up- wards, went boldh in loi sugn as a substitute foi wheat which w is found to bo a fickle fnend, anti nni/e xvhich oflcied an nidifieront cash îetuni In 1S67, theie were about HO acres wushed, ind 17 "&0 lb» of sugni made, in 1868, fiOaci's, mel 131,710 los of sugar made in 1869 2518 acres, and 3,204,821 lbs in the )ear ending Mai eli 1870, thcacies under cane wcie 3917 and the pioducc, in pounds weight 3,563,704 fills produce should lune been Hinch L.rcotei but foi the want oí machinery Oxvmgto the spirited exertions of the Colonul Sugai Refilling (ompinv, the Clarence and Macleay Rix eis hive been piett) well supplied with michmeii

three gi cat nulls each capable of crushing fiom 4 to 4} ncres of cane per dax hnxms Leen put up or being in the course of election Hie settlers, as a rule aie dependent on capitalists to elect machmery anti ne ni some mstnnccs successful in the oilers the) hold foith Hie nilli owneis are purchasing the cane of tlie "îoxvcrs at 10s pei ton and cutting it for them, mil in a gie it man) instances, nix uicing money to them while the cane is glowing, with tlie dc-ign of initiating a better sxstem of niltivatioii th m would othciwise prevail Hie piesent xeiirb expencnee will enable us, in six months time, to ¡speak with cement) with íespcct to the profits of sugar growing but we have reason piospectivelx, to enteitnui the highct hopes of it It is now cleai that the Ciowcrmtiv do well with common erne and industry millring mue at tins pnce His picpiiittnv e\ pens s in trenching and pi inting do not exceed £20 in aro mid seldom ¡,o be)ond £12 The cine comes to iiátuntv m twelve months after being planted, nnd x íells from 30 to 40 tons of cane per acie If tended xvit| skilful husbandiv, the leturn will be fiom oO to lOtftons an acre, xvhich, tit 10s pei ton, afiords ex celen t profit to the grower Hie expenses tlie second x gi w ill be not moie than £a, xvhilo the weight of cíe from the rattoon ciop, it is consideicd, will W oxen great« than that fiom the plant a-p "With good management it is considei ed 1 it the succeeding ciops maj inciense ni force, i id as x et the limit lb not known So far as w e know at present the sugai cane behaves veiv diflcientlj in iNew South v\ ales to what it does olsen hei e Li the ^tiopics it must be leplanted whenever it anows or ¡/ flow cr« ni kew South M ales it never flow eis, and,

thtrefcie max be regaidetl prettv nearl) as perennial i hen, as to the pioduction of «ugai tue nianut icttuer i set ins to bo quite satisfied with his prospect The

axeiOjO of Queensland appears to be 1 j tons pei acie Hietvciage of kew South Wale» is moie likcl) to be 2 tons pei acie at piesent Hie nui\imum sugir xrekwill equal I tons to the acre, the minimum 1 ton Hus is far bett« than grain growing, and qualities of people aie putting their nioncv mto «mil lands Lithei the) nie bu)ing up tlie lands to

eîout to planters, or thev nie bu)inD to plant

I Hire is a îeath of countr) 300 miles long, and about I oOttide, between Cape llaxvke and Point DanDei, I ltluiablv adapted to sugar pioduction Nothinj is

w îtetl but capital skill, and labour The mode of t turo is «impie "\\ md, frost, and fire are the chief iluences inimical to the crop, and here the first and ) taie alone tobefeared Itseems to be pioofagamst )ods for vi here the wheat, moire, hav, and grass ive been i timed by flood viateis, the erne has btood li tluee feet of watei without having maternity uttered In btill w ater it is v ery little affected

But it seems that the colony is not to be lestncted lol its bugar to the sugar cane pioper lhe Imphee, a larietv of sorghum, is a sugir bearing cane of hardier habits It stands frost better, and is little iflected by floods It comes to maturity m five months, and therefore mav be employed as an mtei lal ciop, alternating with sugar cane, and keeping the sugai mills going Iheie ire sixty acres planted with imphee ui various distncts Picsent experi- ments lead the glowers to expect fiom 1} to 2 tons of sugai to the acre "When not gross n foi sugai the plant yields abundance of valuable food foi tattle at the nte oi 30 to 40 tons of tane pei ncie

SILK

SJ fal as sük is concerned, theie aie no expoit ligures to quote Sencultuie is a subject for the future Piobably befoie 1880 vse bhall have to ehiomtle the expoit of 100 000 pounds of cocoons to I ondon, but at present the affair is a complete specu lition ^ e know that the mulbeny will grow in rich piofusion, we know that some of the best descriptions of wonus aie cultivated here and that worms which me aflected with disease in Italy or 1 lance, S.c , are quite health) near S)dne), vi Inch seems to indicate that a veiy large trade might bo done m "giam or eggs Hie mulbenj will grow mv where m tins colony , all along the coast hues the cateipillar comes to peifettion, and what with the trade m eggs and the trade in cocoons, the commerce ui these commodities might swell with i ipithty A maiket has been opened in Lurope for the tontiibutions of the eoloines, and producéis and consuméis are biought togethei by means of the Silk Supply Association

PitosrECTS oi SETTLEIIS

lhe piospetts of settlers are very good if they are men of the right tlass It is found that men who are w eil v ersed ui the pnnciples of agncultuic speedüy leal n to apply these principles to colomal cucum stances and become the foremost men m ev er) dis- trict But the land will not clinch those who know not how to use it, and the explanation of the great amount of discontent which is expressed with the countr) is simply tlus,-that it anses from those w ho have had to purchase then expeiienco in the dearest ofollmaikets iheie are pectilianties of climate to deal with-prolonged thoughts and rains liaie to be piovided against, but clever men get nth in spite of them Good land is to be bought cheap the only di aw back is that it cannot be got ni lorDc quantities Capitalists oi e prev cnted fi om bil) nig largel), but men of modélate means can suit themselves vieil lor )oung Lnglish fanners who like to graze and faim, this colony oilers great adv outages lhe tate of wages is not so high os is sometimes supposed Tor the last ten years, iaim labomeis have been îeceivinj from 2Ss to 3us per w eek vi ith bo trd and lodging and shepheids fiom 30s to 3os pei vi eek Hie ten dency of the pi ice of piovisions and clothing to 1 nour the consumer within the some penod is vciy

m irked

I IV L STOtlv -IIollSLS

Now let us tuin foi a little time to the livestock -th it is to say, the hoi ses c ittle and sheep lust then lo horses Ihese animus since ISÜO hive m cicosed m number but dettnoioted in quality

Hoi se bleeding is not found to piy my better m N cw South "\\ ales than it does m Lngland, but the cause mav not be the same It is heie generally acknowledged that it does not pay betause tlio iules of good breeding ore neglected so much tint the reputation of New South Wiles horses has foiled to ittiittbuyeis "SVeie the brand good the demand would soon uiciease An attempt is now made to supply India with what succo-s vse are not informed Some cm goes of horses hove left the poit of Sydney, but we itoi tliat the sample was not suth as to mduce the exporteis to try again

Iheie arc splendid hoiscs m the countrv, but the I tendency to breed fiom any sort of maie leads to the j pioduction of a wholly wortless class of hoiscs, J which are commonly sold in our maikets for half a- '

mottcis pieiails, and the settlcts have found that they c m use the plough to ulv onto ,e in a great mau) localities 1 he du ltUng r in0c of the Blue Mountains i mining through the tulon) li oin noith to south in ¡i lute parallel with tht to ist and noivlietc more th m 100 nules fiom it scpaiatts the ptstoril ft oin what me termed the agricultural 1 nuls On one side there ait sheep mid bullotks and a little fanning on the othei suit it mixed poss ssion of the land b) fumen and gia/ttib Hie settlements now being made arc mostly nlon0 this eostein snip whcic the tmimphs of the plough will be thiefly appâtent in vc us to come A lur"t extent of this trott is useless either to ciop oi gri/e bein,, excossnciv buren Hie fumuig on the western side of the Blue Mountains is confined to Bnthmst Oionge, Mud0ec, and Ness 1 ngland tli^tncts which have all obtained a ltputotion foi ccieal pioduction 1 luther to the west there is notlunn worthy of the name of cultivation, althou0h settlers hove been temp ed to take up land beyond the retch of io ids and the influence ol schools and maikets lneso scttlcis ore gcncrollv too thinly spicid to keep each othei wann Sugoi is fast spicoding ft oin the Mm nmg Uiver to tht Richmond llivei-the fine alluvial valley of the Iluntei is devoted to the pioduction of lucerne hav, wheat, bailey, oats, either foi his or gram, and wane, and the rest of the strip to Cipe llowt which is cultivated is occupied in the same way lhe extent of this seaboatd measmes 700

mües

After haling glanced at the manner m which the 1 md is occupied, we will enter more particulaily into the facts concerning the piogiess and prospects of

ceitaui blanches of cultivation

OCCOIATIOV or LA.vu

In the first place, there weic, ml8G0,15,715 occupi

ers of land, the extent of vi hose holdings m acres was repicsentcd by the figmes 3,560,So8J len yeais has etltcted a change lho number of occupants of land (exclusiv e of occupiers foi pastoral purposes), w as ¿7,720, the total extent of holdings was 7,857 1G9J acies , the extent of land in cultivation was 482 321)

«ci es tlie extent of land enclosed but not in cultisa

lion, was 3,693,213', ocies and the extent of tlio land, unenclosed was 3,681,9311 ocies,

CEUI a Oitors

lhe cereals of Eurone, together vi ith illabo, have been extensiv civ cultivated ui Ness South Wale», not because they were the best adapted to the climate but because the settlers were more familiar with them th in vi ith plants more accustomed to a semi

tiopieal chin ite "V>, heat was grown is hen the colonv was first settled os a necessity but since it han been extensivelv planted m "\ retoña and South Vustralu viheie it is less subject to attacks of rust and con sequcntlv produced at less expense than it is here the glow ers m Is evs South "Wales aie gtadullv turning then attention to safer and more piohtable crops Hie some observation holds good of mai/c, to wluch the land and climate is adnurablv adapted Despite the piolilic chmacter of the crop, the pioftt is small, ow mg to the w ant of a marl ct It is also n fact ni rel ltion to wheat and mai/e

that, owing to the mode m which thev are cultivated the growers are ve ulv less capable of st Hiding agamst foreign competition Hie land bciiis cropped vear aftei year and neither mamu ed noi properly cultivated the yield giadually diminishes,, ind when a compensation is wanted tor the loss of the monopolv of the home moiket in the shape of m eieascd letuin the return per acre is octuillv stnallci

Ihc remedy of toui»e iiould be the introduction of btttei husbondiv where the wheit crop ts felt to be o sife one, as it is in the Oiange and Bathurst distitcts but on the sea coast the tultiv otion oi wheat can be

scaicelv expected to continue Although the neld pei ttcie is lolling off the acreage continues slowly to lntieose, but the wheat tiop is changing its location, and ev cntunlly will be settled at a dist mee horn the sea Hie íaüwavs th it me pcneti itma to fine wheat linds m the west and south vi ill be the means of tf Utting and establishing this change Hie wheat tiops occupied llo,928 acies in the veil 1SG0 yielding 1,60J,Soi bushels, whith was 1 , bushels per otic Last yeai theie weie 189,1J2 acies of wheat, vi Inch yielded 3,200 9jJ bushels or 16] bushels pei atrc Hie pnce is now about oo

pei bushel It vi ill be casilv understood that theie

is a vast dtffeienee betsvteu the maximum and the minimum m the production of wheat Hie man who pioduces IG bushels and seUs at os makes £1 an ocie, md finds lumsell out of pocket by the tiaiisiiction,

but theie is nothing to lundci the doubling) of this sum by good husbandry m a general woy Maize is giovvn for grain and also fir gieen loddei In 1SG0 there weit 1J,Ü06 acies undei maize, the yield being 1,602,030 bushels in 18 0 theie weie 129,"¡lo acres, yielding <J,bb0,80i» bushas Barley and oat» me cluetiy culhv attd for hay lhe itre produces, of the foimei, horn 12 to 11 bushell of ni indifferent giam, of the lattei fiom 12 tJ 13 bushels Potatoes do vieil m some lot th ties Hie colony piodueed 54 199 tons lastvcai, the ivcioge vield per acie being nearly 2 tons In borne distncts the hay tiop is veiy valuable Wheat, bailev, oats, ne all giown foi hay , but lucerne is geneial'y pre

lei led, and on the rich, alluvial, and well viateied linds, near the rivers, so gi eat are the íeturns that the settlers aie said to be able to be ir the loss by flood ol every third ciop ihev irequently tiop the land live or six tunes dunng the yeal, and gathei from one to tis o tons lier acre each time Hie laboui of cultn ation is slight, and the pi ice obtained gene- rally high, from £u to £6 pei ton being no uncommon figure, ni the neighbourhood of a good market. Some attention has been given to tobacco vi Inch grows nell m the colony , but enterprise ii this iluection has been checked bj the importation) ol American tobacco since the tivil stiuggle in tha country has ceased j

OllCHAItDS j Theie are very many settlers who have tinned fn grow eis Oichards are plentiful, and successi attempts have been made to pioduce apples and pe£ on the low lands, and goosebenies and other ha» Luropean fruits on the uplands lhere is a git demand for ajiples and pears, which, until latfi was exclusively supplied fiom lismsi *3tiawbernes are grown, but do not come to the F»e perfection as m Lngland Peaches, nectar-Si tpneots, and loquats fiounsh admirably in tho1011 air, and are cheap when in season Iheae gaens and orchards are mostly found m the couns of Cumberland (7775 acres), Camden, Cumbmd North, md Durham-but we cannot say wililoo portion of lind is devoted to fruit and vvl to Howers Hie entire acreage is 14,il6 acres

A consideiable portion of trus land is de^d to the ORA^OP, particularly m Cumbeiland, icre a fine market and an tccommodating nilway tobo lound Ihousands of cases come down tomney annually from the Pammatta oi angones "d are shipped to Melbourne, South Australia, 'anama, Ntw Zealand, kt lhe profits of oiangferovvmg aie, when the practical management of f tree is undei stood, îeiy considerable, but m l'y cases the ti ees have been exhausted by being owed to bear heavily, y em after year, without a attempt being mode to recruit their jach poweis by tlie administi ition of m un Most ol the oiangeries aie new , but111 some of the older ones the trees have attau a height of 3o feet the diametei from the extr ties; of the bi anthea being 33 feet Tiom ti ces of tlii'u. of w Inch there aro few m tht colony, 12,000 ora-s ate otci

sionally picked m the y ear, which, ßd a do/cn wholesale, would give £2o as the i a ofthe yield of the single ti ee Hie plantations ai e f-1 aly 5 oiing, tnd the ti ade in oranges and lorn is hkcly to assume large pioportiou» , but the greis ^"l have to master the principles of drainage'11 mourning, and apply them before they will bo"? to pieseive

theu ti ees in a healthy state

VlIiElAltDS

lho vmeisaiciy favourite pla'mcl <*el) Jc-lr is assuming a most unpoitant chfter lhe icpu ration of New South Wales is n established tor wine of gi eat excellent*:, as thc(ircls at Ians and London m 1851, IS06, 18G2, nr^? testify In I860 the vine occupied 1583 ac-"2nnL1^ being dti oted to w mc lhe produce!" f 791 g »lion, ol wine and 709 g liions of brandy at the i »te of 160 gallons pei ttcie Since that'e the acreage his been anira »Iii extending, as who seen by the lol

lowing liguies - .

-> eui emin.,, Cf C«Jon*

31»tMuth Actes i(° ""'."

I860 181J 1ÖS 3077 18GG 212G Jl23 1139

18G7 2281

U83 3176

SS nil fm ÎK

1870 3906? M« 1087

Besides this, doo' tons.table {lUi\ uave Ul-en yielded by the iinei »id?, ih, ar,° found in giertest numbers m the counties of11"«1 lI1(l> Noitiiumber lund md the Mun mujee di.tncts Theie is ibundance of land amUW1 tho vine, and the ciop is growing m fin oui m hose who hive snllicitnt c mitai to plant and entail the busings ot wine miking It was at oírT considered tut our wines would not keep Vbut this qucstini Ins now been stttled in the ni»tnc Hose who hive tasted eaily vintigtff tue Dalwood, Cunden

ere w n ni d five shillings a held, 01 boiled down for the yin c to lubncite thecmiages thev should draw In Ib60 theie xveic 116,397 hoibts-thcie aro now (1870) 280,301 The stud lioises impoiled fiom Dnglaiid numbei mi c during the past )cai

HOHNT STOCK

Hie piineipnl breeds of Oient Biitam-Slioit

he in oi 1 uihim, Hciefoid, and Devon, aie to be lound h«e m pcifection A walk tluougli the entile sheds ol the A0ricultuiAl Society ot New South Vi ukb would îlidueo u lovel ol stock to believe himself in Lunlnnd l'cdigiee stock is much sought foi nud îcnlistB a high puce Not onlv aie the pim tip il bleeds nine enteil heic, but tile pnneipal heids Hie ttiiitst is nlmobt us sliinp about Booth or Bates «fe it is it ht me Vi ithout piatieul nibiug individual înipciteis, rt is sufficient to si) that so much has leen donc ni this wnj that at oui ii¡,i'cultural meet

mgs the ciloiiiul bred ¡min ils me îllovvcd to ompoto without leMiiction with the imponed, when foimcil) the îniioitcd mid eiloiunlbied xveit cln^cd se] m itelv Tins vins in acknowledgment of mlciinrit) tint would not now be tolei ited anti peihiips no fact nlloids bettu testnnonj to the high thniactei of the cuttle of this colon) Hie Devon is not much used Hie native mount un spnit soon bleaks the must of civihoiition mid becomes visible m wildness of eve and a disinclination to human soeiet), lather tioublesomo to the bleeder Hie debate concerning the ments of Short

honi oi Heieloid is very stiong Both bleeds liaxe innn) advocates It is gen crail) admitted hiwexei that the Hereford Havels better than the bhoit horn, and better enduies penods of deaithand dioviL,ht A vast quantitj of the cattle of this colon) having to tiav c1 from 500 lo W10 miles to the slaughter lu use, tins quahtv is a consideration of the utmost consequence, foi the fatigues and pnvations of tiavel oie cftcn buch as to i educe a lat bullock to a vet j lean btnte befoie lie piesents himself to the butch« Hioit horns nie tlio favounte bleed, ludging fiom then mimbei mid piobillj theie aie localities in xvhich thej most thnvc lime is no stock of native cuttle upon vvlueh to effect a ginft-the entue of the cattle oí the colonx is the usult of nnpoitation, nnd it is found ns)et that sulhcicnt hxit) of chiuactei is not gained bj the acclimatised lace ti make us independent of the home blood Deterioration of chniactci tal cs place vci) quickly, and it is nccessaiy to stop the process by continued lmpoilntioiis both of Hciefoid and Shoithom blood

Hie cattle station propeit) of this countiy is of two 1 niels bitcdmg mid inttemiig J he breeding country is picttv much ti nliiied to the table lands-high ana coinpnintixclx cool-extending fiom north to south Isew Lngland up to lcntcifield the liverpool Plains, mid the countr) from Goulburn lo Mmioioo Plains, nfloid spetnnens ol bieedmg lund Hie fattening 1 md is numil) found to the west of the mountain r mgc-being the silt bush counti ) is fal back as the mci Darling, wheie tlie appoiuniment of 3 acres to one fattcnuig bul'aek iscoiibiilcied lui Besides,fine fattening piísimo» nie found in the alluvial districts alone, the senbonid Bl ceding ne not so much in request as fittenuig stations Iiom theloimei the letiiin is ibout 10 pei ctnt fiom the lattci fiom 12 to 15 per cent upon the capital cniplo)od at the picsciit lime Stoie cattle aie e,cnoi lily sold at fiom £2 to £3 pei bend, fat cattle, weighing about 600 lbs from £7 to £8 Hie ordinal y weight of what are called fat cattle is 600 lbs , but occasional!) they nv«age fiom 800 lbs to 1000 lbs Hie mciease m homed stock since 1860 has been inconsideiable In that veai the numbers viere 1,37J,2O7 , they leached a high point in 18G0, continued to increase to 1¡>G2 (2 6 0 383), and fell to l,79o,901 last-jeu In f ict, the following figuies illustrate oui progicss m live btoek foi the post forty ¿ears -

Horned

Hoises Stock SI cop Pigs 1S30 ,, l¿,479 262 868 636,391

1840 No returns

1850 . 132,437 1,738,965 7,366,895 65,510 1S60 . 251,497 2,408,586 (5,119,163 180,662 1870 . 280,304 1,795,904 14,9S9,933 176,924 Throughoutthe Australian colonies there are 636,670 horses, 3,667,678 honied cattle, 46,812,859 sheep, and

698,430 pigs.

WOOL AND MUTTON-.

The great staple of New South Wales is wool, which is almost entirely derived from the Merino sheep. The figures already quoted will show with what marvellous rapidity these animals have in- creased, and will imply the vast amount of capital sunk in sheep farming. A sheep, when fat, is generally supposed to weigh 00 lbs, and at piesent it fetches from 0s. to 8s. The wool does not average 2 lbs. per fleece. The same conditions are requiied for breeding sheep as for breeding cattle, and for this reason the breeding giomids are pretty much the same as we remarked in the case of cattle. The profits on sheep farming have leen eno) mons-as much as 25 per cent, generally but now they have been reduced, one-half, and, in a

vast numbei- of instances, sheep stations aro held at

¡m annual loss. This w«nlt« evr.T ti.« cn

m the jil ice of wool, mid the small demand vi Inch exists foi mutton In Vittono, the piesena tion of mutton for the European market has just

ibout doubled the price of sheep m eighteen months, md this will probably be the effect in Ness South W ales whenever any large meat preserving establish- ing ts aie organised At present the wool, the fat, md the skin mt the only patts of sheep wluch the squatter can turn into money, but whenever he can economise the flesh also, he vi ill find sheep bleeding moie profitable than it now is Iheie are tsso meat pieseiving establishments on the Clarence, but these deal with beef, and hove obtained a reputation in Ln0land A thud company is started in Sjdnej, but as jet it is not localised , vi hue a fouith, at Goulburn, nul soon be m opeiation In thepioducts fiom lue stock lor export a great miprovcment is seen suice ISoO lhe number of pounds was then 32,861,820 lhe sepaiation of Yictona fiom New South M ales m 18ol leduced the amount to 15,269,317 pounds, the sepaiation of Queens- land in 1859 further reduced it to 12 809,362 pounds, m 1806 70 it hid risen veij nearlj to 30,000,000 pounds and this by no means lepresents the whole, since the Munumbidgee district contains nearly 3,000,000 of sheep, whose wool almost wholly goes to swell the expoits from Poit Philip in- stead of Poit Joel son Iheie are 48 boiling down establishments 111 the colonv, where, 111 1869, 290,J50 sheep and 216 bullocks viere turned into mci chant able tallow, the quantity of that commodity being 67,175 twt Of hoofs and bones, 10,073 cut were expoited, of horns, 140,851, of hoi^e han, 3327 lbs , of skins, about 07,000 packages, and of pieserved me its, 10,059 packages, v ilutd at £37,072

In consequence of the low pi ice of the inferior sorts ot wool gi cat attention is now being paul to the pioduction of better quality Uns determination has been assisted by the severe drought of 18G8, which thinned the flocks and mido them moie proportionate to the land grazed llus calamity also effected a salutary selection b) killing oil thoso of mlenoi constitution The p istuies, íelieved iiom the oppression of numbers, will unpait greatei vitahtv to those that remain, and if better blood be introduced, and quality of w ool instead of quantity be aimed at, the immediate loss will be lollowedby a gi eat gam A sheep on the natural grasses needs about tinco acres to feed m, but OH aitificial grosses one sheep to an acre, the yeal loundi is supposed to be a fair proportion, supposing the land to be good Should the business of meat pieseiwng ever create a gi cat demand for fat sheep, a profitable occupition will arise foi those who like to gloss artificial grasses and luceme for sheep lceding on the sea bond lands

neal the poits

Besides the sheep, in some pal ts of the countrv, wheie viatei is scaire and the he tt severe, the Angora goat is lound to piospei It yields a hugo quiintit) ol fleetv bun 01 vsool, which realised a high pute m the Luglish mallett

The Wool Interest.

W OOL, which foi many yeais was the onl) impôt taut product ol New South Wales, continues to be our chief staple, md is at the piesent time by iai the laigest som ce of colonial wealth

Hie introduction of merino sheep b) Mr John Macarthur, moie than a genei ition tgo, is t mnttei of histoi) familiar to most educited people in the colony, and piobabl) to many whose bu<.jicss in longland and Continent »1 Euiope lenders the pioduc

tton oí wool a ma*ter of the utmost poisotnl impoitance lho small begummg undi, by Mr Maeaithm m ty be compared to a fountain, wluch, after the lapse of less than halt a cen tuiy, has become a imDhty rivei Tiom this insignificant soul te the cultiv ition of menro wool has extended to all tht neiglibouimg colonies , and New South Wales has furnished the flocks from which lasroania, Victoria, South Australia, Queens- land, ond New Zealand have become wool pro ducuig countries ol vast import ince to the mother

country

So gieatly dependent upon the Australian colonies is England "for the supply of this st iple, that it is not too much to assert that a sudden suppression, if buch, a thing were possible, would be productive of results as disostious us those wluch aiose out of the civil war 111 America , and created what is now generally

known as the cotton famine, '

The chief qutiht) which attracted the notice of Lnglish manufacturers, even m the eailiest stage of its cultuie, was the pecuhai felting propert) of colo- nial grown merino wools, comprising a desirable medium between the huid milling chaiacter of Spuiushwool and the softer qualities denv eel fiom the Genudii StPtcs It is almost needless to sa), that the soil, elim ite, and other chnincteiistics of the colon), os i wool growing countiy, remain un alteicd and aie at the present moment as much available foi the purpose as they were vi hen the entci prise of the fust funnel ol Saxon mci ino sheep developed this va t som co of wealth to the colony

mid the lnothci e ountr)

A lustoiy of the piogicss of wool growing in Aus tiaha would occupv a volume, but it will be sufli

cicnt foi the puipo es ot tho picsent article to icfer to one or tw o phases m its development, which may

be useful to pioviire in futuio times

About tim tv )cni8 ago a gi eat mistake was made in sheep biccilin^ A widely extended nnpioasioti pievmkd that by cioss breeding with heav i long woolkd ioma norn the mother counti), a much heavier and moio valuable fleece could be obtained, md consequentlv that laiger piofits would nccmo lins iwiinn for it can scarcely be otherwise de- signated, pievaikd to an alarming extent, and for a huge propoition ot the wool of the colony, the dis- tinguishing charnetaistics, which had brought it into such high ícpute, vicie in danger of being cn

ucl) lost

A v cr) few ) ours, how ev cr, rev ealed the ti uo state of the case, and the nccessit) foi bunging back thewoolol this colony to its oiigmal typo became full) apparent Hie evil lind to be eradicated but it vins necessaul) awoik of some consul«able time lhe pnnic of 1814 1855, how evci, very greatl) ficih tntcd mntteis bj the inevitable convcisioii of huge numbeis of sheep into tallow and ¡is the ctai,e

woolkd sheep vvore the most suited ioi the pot they weietho fust bnciiiiccii, and the lestorntion of our pioducc to its on^inal hi0h chuinctci was thereby

gieatl) piomotcd

The "teady continuous increase m the v due of wool (subject onl) to accidental mteiruptioiis) and the consequent increased value of the stock led to the CJiploidtion and occupation of new country, es

pecially in Northern Queensland chiefly through the enterpiiso of S)dncy capitalists who pushed then business to almost the extreme northern limits of the Australian Continent Kecent experience ha«, ho vi ev ei, piovcd the total uniitne=s of a ti opie ii climate for the cultivation of merino vv ool and n lal go numbei of the far northern and western stations hive ali cady been abandoned and many othei s nie m the process of following suit Vast numbeis of sheep have been com cited into tallow, mid thousands upon thousands have been disposed of at nn almost nominal puce, for transmission to the moie congenial climates of Southern Queensland

and New South W aks

Ihe disastrous íesults of the enterpuses above al lue'edtomi) be objected to as being somewhat be ) ond the legitimate scope of this article , but they m iv faull be incidentall) alluded to as mere matters oí inet, as, at any late, the heavy losses entailed have maveiv luge measure to be borne by tho parent

colon)

New South Wales cmbiaces avast amount of ter iiton, m which arc to bo found, to almost an un- limited citent, the chflerent climates, soils, le , suit

able ioi almost on) descriptions of w ool especially ti ose mont pn/eel ui the home and continental mar kefs The Mudgee distnct and other lughl) favoured localities pioeluce wool which is probably not surpassed by any counti) ni the woild The Noithein counties, piobabl) best known as the ISevT England distnct pioducc fine, well giowai, sound fleeces, which English manu licnueis cannot dispense with lhe western mid southern counties which have acquued the

doitaiaUons of the Bathuist and Goulburn d sir <-n.

can pioduet ni peilechon, undti proper management, that lorgt and uni oitant tlass known in the ti ide as middle wools , while luithci south, any one who has a fantv to tomptte with Lnghsh gioweis m coaiso wool tan do so tolushcaits content INevv South utiles is capable of producing eveij description of vi ool of v ollie m the final moiket, but the gi eat evil to be avoided ib the attempt to giow such qualities

os aie not suited to individual localities

Hie ittcmpt to mtioduce i mongrel class of si ool ni localities which are suit »ble foi the growth onlv of the puie merino tjpc, proved to be m uttei failure more thm thirty yeais ago , and it is strange that the present (,enciation of wool pioducers should have ignoicd the ksson taught by the experience of othero Jhinng the last two or three y eais many important i lips have exhibited an idea, on the pait of the ovsntrs, that by adopting a system of cross-bieedmg, thci would mu ease their profits while, m fact, they vicie dcstiojuig the best feature m the character of t len piodute lhe evü is not, however, very widely picad, audit maj be hoped that the waining from

time to time KIV en thiouah the columns of thi» mibli»

. D - ""O " "wl " * ¡3 Uí. tut |JUUUlf

1 ícsb, combined vsith a little actual experience, sthuh is the best teacher of all, will present i fuithei extension of what would eventually pi iv t to Li. a suicidal policy

I 1 ho icsources of New South Wales, m a productive

1 omt of view, are so great that probably a few years vsill dtvtlope other industries wluch may chum to vie with the cultivation of wool Hie colony has already taken a linn stand as a w me grow ing country Sugar st ill piobobly ere long be established as a great staple piodutt and theie ore ample grounds for mcluding totti ii in tht tategorv at no very íemote date But if the boundless resources which nature has placed at oin disposal be cultivated with care, diligence, and intelligence, the colonv of New South Wales cannot fail to lank m peipctuity amongst the foremost of the vi ool producing countiies of the vi orld

The Mineral Wealth of the Colony.

GOLD

BrriNMxo with the most precious mineral, we must pic mise bj sajing that, having to confine our remarks upon the colony as a gold field to the limits of a nevispapei, vse can give little more than a synopsis of the localities in which the precious metal lias been

discoveied and worked

lhe fust public discovery of gold was made in 1851, tlthough gold had been found bj Strzelecki and the llev W B Clarke some years previously At the end of the present yqar we shall consequently have had twenty years experience of the conse- quences ofthat discovery, enabling us fully to appre- ciate the advantages and disadvantages of the new industry so suddenly mtroduced Tirst commenced at Summerhill Creek, in the Western district of the colonj, the gold woikings weie gradually pushed on bj the enterpnse and energy of the diggers, until within a few years the whole of tlie country border- ing upon the Macquarie, the luron, the Meroo, and many of their tnbutanes wero found to bo aunferous At the present time, vse have, or have had, woikings on the Cudgegong Uiver, from ite head waters, near Bylstont, down to its junction with the Meroo, b lovi Meiruidee, lins extent of country includes the Apple I ree Plat, the Pipeclay, the last new rushes at Gulgong and lullwang, mid the Isso milo 1 lat, vi ith numerous small diggings which have given employment to fiom twenty to fifty miners, and sometimes to even moie, but which havo nevei ob tamed anv speci ti notonetv The Meioo has been pioved along the whole length of the river, li oin its head-wateis to its junction with the Cudgegong, to bo almost one continuous gold-field , many of the diggings m connection with it haling pioved even î-icher than the liver itsell Amongst these mav be named the Upper and low« Pyramul, Hells Hole, Maitland Bai, and 1 otiisa Cieek In nearly all the places named, gold washing is being earned on at the present time, thoueh moit sybtematitolly and with moie expen dituieol capital than is as the case in the palmier

d iv s ot these fields

'Hie whole length of the luron has also been vsou tleilnlly nth ni aunfeious deposits, from its head watcis neal the Ciown rid go down to its outflow into the Macqu me M my of the numeious tributaries of this stream have also pioved no less rich than the mci itsell, whiUt otheis have given yields mfenor onlv to those of the mam stream On the-line of the 1 mon mav be enummatcd the Gulph, Palinei s Ouk«y, Spnng Cieek, Big and Little Oakey, Nuggetty Hill and V\ attie Hat, wheie vsotk is still going on Is ot onl j hni» the) been ali eadj extensiv el j worked, but thev now tilford piofitable employment to hun- ch eds ol nuneis, rthilst several leets have lccontly been opened, "v\ ith icgard to the mm ouse tange» -ninth border tins mer, it Uts been found that wlion- el ei a rauiy season has offeicd a supply of water suflitient to supplv a lace broughton to one of the hill sides, every one of the lulls tims cxpermiented on has paid vs eil for sliucmg llus has been so well pioved that, dunng the recent wet season4 seieial large sluicing compames lune bcui founed for woikuig diffeient portions qf the range lambaroora, though a tributary of the Macquone, demands a special notice to itself, not only by icason of the liehncss of its alluvial woikings, but also because of its extrao'.dmarily itch reefs lhe former aie being stiU turne j. oior, though no less than fifteen yeais haie elapsr ¿ suice the field was first opened, and though the ground has been woikcd at least a doscu tiuiess ^s to the latter, tho

.wonderful Yields of the quart/ veins which havo boon ?worked here dining the last eight or ten )enis, have every now and agnm astonished the people of Sjdney and the colon) These veins, found on Hawkins' Hill, though nation are numerous, and have given returns var)mg fiom ton to one hundred ounces to

tlio ton

On the Macquarie, the pnncipal diggings have been those of Ophir, Bmrandong, Stony Creek, and the Ironbarks , many of the smaller cieeks filling mto the river fiom some twent) miles above its june tion with tlie "luion doxvai n considei able distance below Burrandong have pioved highly remunerative to the mines During the last five or six )ears the colony has suffeied veiv beveiel) fiom continuous drought This lind so fur leduced the volume of the rivers, that the miners xv ero enabled to woik the bed of the Mncqunne It lequired, ol com se, some con- siderable capital mid skill to cirr) on such an cntcr pnse, foi ex en though low, theie xvns nlwx)s i large body of wat« in the liver Some very splendid yields of remmkublj fine and pure gold row aided tlie miners for some j ears but tlus list season of floods has earned awij all the extensive works, dams and races, mid water wheels, and filled up tlie immense excavations which had been made at an immense outlaj of labour and monej , and has dnv en the miner into the higher grounds, ?where it has furnished him with the xvnt« the w mt of w hich had hitherto m ide those giounds unw oik

able

Southwmd of the Ophn xvere found the strange deposits of the Lucknow or Wentvvoith mines seven miles east from O i auge Ilcie the gold was ni a regular ironstone lode, and incorporated with the stone as with qunit/ Hie lode, which was exceed- ingly irregular, occupied a xeiticnl position in a mass of alluxium xvhich hid filled up thomteistites formed bj a deep rent in the bed lock, tincetl down to a depth of nearlj two hundred feet Thestone gave fiem twent j to si\tj ounces to the load These mines are situated on private piopertv, and aro now in the hands of a large compnnv Be) omi this last named spot, round the eastern slopes of the Canoblas mountains, by Cnnowindn, and thence to tlie Xachlan, the countr) has been pioved to bo pi)ably auriferous m ev erj spotwheic the forimtion of the country has fax ourctt an alluv ia! deposit General

attention has been dnected to this part of the country only within the last three or four )cars, since xvhen diggings after diggings bax e been opened, whilst numeious nch reefs aie being worked, and others are being discovered almost dall) Onl) Within the last week or two some highly aiuifeious quart? reefi> have been opened in the Toi est distnct, and tlie displa) of Hie stone taken fiom the reefs is causmg consrder ible excitement amongst the w estein

minéis

Running up the Lachlnn to its junction with the Abercrombie, and then follow ing the latter upw aids to its head wateio, xve havo agun a largo stieteh of auriferous counti) in xvhich mi be included the digguigs of Caigo Iv-ing s Plains, liunke) Creek, and Tuena, besides workings on some of tlie smaller tribútanos of the stream In ex«) spot where theie has been no bwcepmg awi) of the incient alluv ni deposits, pa)able gold Ins been found, whilst the ?whole tract of countr) is perfectly seamed bj icefs of auriferous quait/, some ol the stone, as at Tiuukey Creek, being exceedingly rich

In order to convey some idea of the laige con- tinuous area ofnuiiferouscountiv winch onl j requires prospecting to le developed oi lather which only demands a good supplj of wat« tobe mule nchly remuneratixe, xve haxe passed bv the Lachlan gold- field, which nt one time astonished the colonj xvith its wondious jields It still gives eniplojment to some fifty or sixty mincis, and the reefs at tlie Pinnacle xvouldhaxe pioved lemuucrative had per- manent, water been piocurible within easier distance Crossuig the Lachlan, we come to the nch leefing district of Lum Cieek, which has certainl) sent axvay fiom it a hug« amount of íetoited gold thin any other distnct of the colonv, besides being rich in alluxial woikings, still fai fiom bemg worked out Within a few miles of the Emu Creek Gold field ire the extensive alluvial woikings of Lambing Hat, or the Bunangong gold-field, xv Inch foi the time they xvere xvoikmg iuinished perhaps a larg« amount of gold than had been done b) aux gold field of a sinnlar extent m the colonv , besides bringing together a large number ot mincis from the neigh bounng colonies Though xvorked out, as fir as indi- vidual mining is concerned, the giound jet offers profitable eniplojment to the capitalists, and two large companies have been fonned foi working ov« tlie giound m a sj.temitic manner bj the aid of machineiy

Be) omi Lnmbmg Plat, to the south, aie the Euron- gilly, Junee, and other reefing districts, extending beyond Wagga Wagga Most of these reefs ire in active work, although the) are but poorl) supplied xvith crushing power Hie latter is xer) much in demand, not only m these but in other reefing dis- tricts Turrung eastvv ards from these, the reefs of the Adelong and the Tumut have piovided settled ?work for tlie miners dunng the last ten or twelve years , and tlie jields recently reported show that the quait? is bj no means falling oil m richness The average of the stone crushed timing 1869 gave about an ounce and a quarter to the ton of stone Then from the Tumut bj Tumberumba, xvhere large alluvial deposits xveie found, and where several reefs have recently been opened, w e mount to the heidxvateis of the Snowy River, and icaeli the rich ind extensive gold-field of Kundra Here occurred perhaps the largest rush that wis ever known m the colonj The ground w as unmistikly nch, but the xveather m these lofty ranges proxed so mclement in the wintei season,

and the ice and snow formed so insurmontable

a borner to prospecting, that the place soon got thinned of its population A number of miners, hoiv ever, have settled down here to steady work, and find profitable emplojment on the margin of the old fround, and occasional!) opening out now spots

ev eral reefs aie also being woiked in tlus district, though the stamping batteries aie few in numb«

Trom Kiandra eastw ards to the coast, and thence northwaids, theie are several diggings which have been steadily worked for the last eight or ten years, on the first plateau of the coast fall of the table land The pnncipal of these are in the Nerrigundah and Moruja districts llience coming northwards we reach Araluen, wheie the work of the miner is done more sj stennticallj and effectually than m any other .workings m the colonx The surface soil is stripped down to tlie washdirt, a depth of about twenty feet, the Btnpping being caited axvaj, and tipped on to some other spot When the whole is shipped, the washdut is carefullv collected and washed down to the bedrock The claims are usually workedby com- panies of ten 01 a dozen men, and to keep the claim clear of witter pumping engines are employed bj each companj Tor several yeal s the j îeld kept up very stenny at 1200 o/ pei week, but xvithiu the last two ?jems it has fnllen off to about £3200 per month Bell s Creek and Majoi s Creek, bola tnbutanes to tlio Araluen Creek, have been long woiked out as alluvial diggings, but, withm the last two yeais attention has been called to the quait/ reefs in their viciiut) Hie stone gives pi omise of considerable nchness, ind as two oi three ciushing batteries haxe been erected at eich of the two pi ices, tile stone will havo an oppoitumty of bemg fairly tested Up to the piesent time the result ofcrush ings has been highly favouiable, two and tinco o/ of gold to tlie ton being obtained foi lots of fifty tons of btone, xvith leets xai)ing from «.»lit to twelve

feet m thickness

The Mongnilow, oi Little Rix«, some few miles east of Braidwood, his beena good lasting alluvial field The numbei of men woikmg on it Ins nev« been large, and theie aie still mm) aunfeious patches to be turned up, the eountrv it a distance fiom the nvei havmg been but pooil) piospeeted owing to the ßcnnt supply of water Its icefs litel) opened hive given some xvondeiful )ields of gold liom smill quantities of stone, some rich xeins stiuck having returned at the late of fift) and sixt) 0/ to the ton The body of the reef, howevei, does not appeal to bo giving anv thing but pool stone Coming next to the Jacqua icefs, between Binulwood and Bungonia .where an avengo of one o/ to the ton has been obtained, we me brought withm lench of the Southern hue of railb, ind me onl) i few hour» distant from ßvdncy

Turning next to the Ivoithein distnct, wo como fiisttothc Denison diggings, on one of the headwutcis of tlie Hunt« Riv«, and within two and tivent) indes of tlie town of ^cone This is mimi) a leefinf distnct, though some small illuvnl patches, not veiy rich, have been woiked there Astheio is an abuii duntsupplv of wat« in oidinaiy seasons, the ciushni" hattenes me heie w orked by w at« povvei The stone has turned out x erv lairlx, the crushrngs giv ing an average of about in ounce and a hilt to the ton The Peel Rix« h in been found to be nunteious fiom its head-wateis down to w Ullin a do/en miles of lumxioith, and on both bides of the liver severil quartz reefs have been opened Hie gre it di aw bick to the development of this field his been found to bo the possession bj the Peel River Companj of a ?verj largo portion of tlie land on the southern side of tlie streom The chief reefs are those on Tolev s ?Toll), which aie being woiked b) in association of miners und« the nmilgamated clninis s)stem The reefs on the river have not been xvorked for some 3cars i ast, owing to the absoice of water, which had

been used as the motive power of the ciushmg hattcnes Some ver) extensive sluices had been cut from the morasses on the high tableland, which brought down an abundant suppl) ol water sufficient for all the purposes of washing and water wheels but the last iew )ears of drought stopped the supply The watei wheels dropped to pieces and the washing vins put an end to loi six )eais theie vins no peí

eeptible i un m the nv er, and ) et miners m inageil to piocuie gold, anil, though their numbei fell oil there viere still mnny who adhered to the old spot Hihope of better seasons The uppci pnit of the river ibout Nundle, and the tributaries which here join it, have been ver) nell, and in the days ot viatei supply were extensively sluiced lheie aie voiy many spots which will all pa) handsomely forvioiking in this vin), and sever ii sluices have been cut it great ex- pense to bring the viator to spots ttncicd hythe miner 'lhe 11 inging Kock, on the table land abovc the riv er, nlso giv es employment to n few miners

To the north-west ot lamwoith aie Wood s Reefs, on which vei) little is now doing , and nu thor on, in the same dnection, are the Upper and the Lower Bingera diggings, now occupied almost exclusively b) the Chinese In the former of these was disco- vered one of the most extraoidinary aunterous deposits )Ct met with ni the colony On mi exten- sive Hat, the gold was lound ni laige pieces almost on the suiface, and baiel) coveied with the soil, with no deposit vihitevcr below it, and with no indication oí deposits on an) of the adjoining lulls One 01 tvio veins oi gold were found towards the embouchure of the gullv, the gold m tins ease being

fine lhere nie several fine reel« here but none ol them have been tested Be)ond the Lowei Bmgeia towaids the viest is a lnro0 extent oí country, vi Inch there is every reason to believe will one day be lound to be auufetous A little ofi the main NoiHiern Road, and two and twenty miles south of Armidale, .ire the Roth) River diggings lhese were nt one time veiv rich indeed, anel they still give cmplo)ment to some scoies of miners Noith of

Amuélale, on the eastern fall ol the coast lange, the streams vi Inch form the henel waters ol the Clirence and Richmond Rivers are all moie or less auriferous, and loi m the extensive gold-held known under the geneial name oi the lunbarra, and extending fiom Oban on the south up to the boickis of Queensland Toi vcars this field has given steady empk)mont to something like two bundled miners, and has contri tributed a stead) amount oí gold to the escoit Only lately two ver) fine íeefs hive been opened on this gold hold, on the load fiom lenteiheld to Gi afton, and íeports have reached us ot veiy astonishing vieldf. li om the hand crushing of small tiuantities ot picked stone

During the ) eai 1869, the Muit returns show that the amount of gold reeeiv ed b) escort loll oil to some small extent lhe Mastei of the Mint attributes this to the dr) state ol the counti) fiom the long sueces cession ol dioughts with which it had been visited Vi e oui selves doubt whether the actual vieldielloff at all and aie inclined to account ioi the smaller amount leccived by escoit bv the fact that the settled state ot the countiv and the absence ot bushiangeis on the io ids have allowed moie gold to be biought down bv private band However, taking the Mint returns ot the amount of gold aetunll) îeceived by escoit into that establishment, and dividing that amount bv the numbei of miners who have taken out minéis nchts duiing the veur the )ielcl per man would be £72 4s 6cl pei annum Uns, ni our opunon would be about a fin estunato as though theie aie ceitnmlv n numbei of men woiking without iruiois lights, these could very itiul) be set ofi against the gold which reaches Sv liney otherwise th m bv escoit, and of which we have no certain account The gold ii om the vaiious fields îeceiv ed pel escoit at the Muit, diuing the )ear 1869, was as

follows -

Vi cstein Distnct -Sofala-quantity of gold re- ceived, lo,779 34 oz , value, £oJ,69S 10s id , at £1 I5s 8d per oz Bathuist-eniantitv of gold re- ceived, l'JjßlG Oo 0/ , value, ob 911 16s 9d , at £i 11s 6d per oz Haigiaves-quantit) of gold re- ceived, 4387 53 o?, value, 117,106 Is 3d , at £3 18s 3d per 07 Tambaroora-quantity of gold leceived, 17,o07 10 o/ , value, £69,021 Is 3d , at £3 18s 7d per or Mudgee-quantit) of gold îe ceived, 20,177 33 0/ , value, £78,523 8s lOd , at £3 17s lOcl per o/ Oinngc-qunntit) of gold re- ceived, 10,131 29 o/ value, £38,o08 10s lid , at £3 13s lOd per oz Ston) Cieek-quantit) of gold icceived, 3669 19 07 , value, £11,101 11s oil , at £3 18s 6d per 0/ Poibcs-quantit) of gold received, 1583 41 o/ , value, £»871 16s 3d , at £3 11s 2d pei o/ Gienfell-quantit) of gold received, ii, »12 69 o/ , value, £161,612 18s 2d , at £3 19s 3d pei 07 Total amount of gold icceived fiom the AVestein dis- trict, 130,953 93 oz , value, £dOG,722 2s lid

Southern Distnct -Goulburn-quantity of gold received, 639 60 o/ , value, £2072 19» 3d , at £3

16s lOel per o/ Braidwood-quantit) of gold re-

ceived, 11,170 12 07 , value, £13,23S 16s 8d , at £3 17s Od per o/ Aialuen-quantit) of gold re- ceived, 38,824 59 OT , value, £lj0,930 11s lOd at £3 17s 9d per oz Adelong-quantity of gold íe ceived, 12,367 73 o/ , value, £17,921 19s 3d , at £3 17s Od pei o/ Tumut-quantit) of gold re- ceived, 173 69 o/ , value, £67o 18s lOd , at £3 17s lOd per o/ Tuinberumba-quantity of gold le ceived, 1310 36 07 , value, £J170 9s 2d , at £3 ISs lid per 07 Burrangong-quantit) of gold íe ceivcd, 8399 74 oz , value, £32,793 19s 8d , at £3 18s Id per oz Cooma-quantit) of gold icceived, 2036 110? , value, £9552 13s 7d , at £3 los 4d per o/ Kiandra-quantity of gold leceiv ed, 2419 65 o/ , value, £9053 10s 6d , at £3 14s lOd pero/ Gun- dagai-quantit) of gold icceived, 2817 67 oz , value, £9o75 5s Id , at £3 7s 3d per o/ Total amount ot gold received from the Southern district, 80,o89 56 o¿ , value, £310,989 3s lOd

Northern District -Rock) River-quantity of

gold received, 2734 13 oz , value, £10,789 12s Id, i

at £3 18s lid per oz Nundle-quantit) of gold |

received, 5905 41 oz , value, £22,342 2s 8d , at £3 I5s 8d pei o/ Tamwoith-quantity of gold received, 950 09 oz , value, £3o47 , at £3 14s 8d per o/ Scone-quantity of gold received, 521 11 o/ , value, £17o2 is 8d , at £3 7s 3d pei o/ Armidale-quantit) of gold leceived, 2727 71 07 , value, £10,604 Is 9d , at £3 17s 9d pel oz Total amount of gold received from the Northern district,

12 838 78 o/ , value, £49,03o Is 2d j

lhe following table shows the amount of gold icceived by "scort at the Mint dunng the last ten )cais -1860-3o6,o72 oz , value, £1,3.19,123, 1861 -402,634o/, value, £1,554,629, 1862-57o,538 o/,

value, £2,212,534, 1863-423,107 0/, value, I £1,629,049, 1864-316,130 o/, value, £1,211,170, 1865-280,810 07 value, £1,077,905, 1866-211,489 o/, value, £928,275, 1867-222,715 07, value, £863,798 , 1868-229,739 o/ , value, £894,829 , 186J -221,382 oz , value, £866,716

In a papei on the sedimentar) formations of New South Wales, written b) the Rev W B Clarke, in 1867, the following passage occurs, lllustiative of our gold deposits -

" So far as is at present known the gold is derived chiefly from the lower siluntin formation, but re- searches conducted loi me at II M Mint ni Syclnev, prove that it exists in almost c\ei) distinctive lock, in New South Wales In this piovmce the alluvial deposits aie not so extensive as m Victom , but this, piohabl), anses fiom the facts previousl) mentioned ol the stnko being m Victoria tiaiiiveise to the direc- tion of the coi chlleia, by wluch means, the euri cuts which distribute the dnlts had a vudei aiea of gold beaung materials to denude them than m New South Wales, whoie, I conclude from numeious examples, the pimcipil euri cuts weie to noithwaids, so that in that piovmce the) would coincide with the direc- tion ol the coi dillon, and not accumul ito the deposits in such low l)ing extensive legions tis those of the Muna) distncts lhe same objection would obtain on the supposition of gradual vi äste and iccumulation fiom less poweiful tigcnc) thm that of a general rush ol water It is not, however, to bodoabtcd that theie is au ciioimous imount ot gold )et untouched in numeious places in New South Wales, not onl) m the quart/ locks oi reefs, but ni gullies and plains wheie illuvitl gold diggings will )et be discoieied lhe distinctive difkicnces in matcnnl minti al wcilthbe tv ecu A letona mci New South Wiles aie not alto

gethei confined to gold, oi tin, which laUei metal is

well repicsented m New South Wales , but co ii, non, ' and coppei, sihei and lead piovc moie than m cqui- | v dent of the fereit amount of gold it piesent m Victom I

Actual expeilenco is dnil) showing the correctness of the vlevis hcie expicssed b) the lev geologist lhere has not been the same disiupturn, abusión, anil denudation ni New South Wales that has taken place m Victom, and thus, though the alluvia tleposits aie moie extensive and in man) instances richei ni the sistei colony, the amount ot auriferous we tlth cont mied m the recib of New South W iles fai ex- ceeds that of the reefs of the Southern pro vmce Vi lulst the) aie nchei the) arc also moro numerous, and only requue for then pcifect development the conjunction of capital with discieet and intelligent managen tit Unhappily, this branch of mining has, until within the last tvio veais, been too much neglected in the colonv The management of leehng opeintions vi hen he) have been undeittken b) aconipui) Ins fallen too much into the hands of meic speculators , w lulst

the works have been too often supersn d h r ti sum n g or pretentious men either vs tuting ni lioncty to their employ eis or without tn« abilu; 11 ej»arj for canjing the venture to a success! al issue We ne ju-,t now emerging from this stitc rt itfluis <" onipanies are giaduallj undtitaken by men ot moms and talent, anxious ns vstll for the «eli uiccmeiit of the colonv is foi their own pmatc gain mil theie is naw a blight hope befoieus of something b ttn in the ft tine lir what maj icallj be teimcd mining enroipnse

COUI-l!, SlIVLK AM; 1 1 »I), AM) IllOV

New South "W, ales is unmist ikably nth in toppci

In tht Oi inDo distntt outtiops of toppei catbonoles lune been lound ovci in mea ol quite twc»t< miles sqinie Hcie the lode li is been vvorl ed moie e-1 ton sivtl) than m an) othei distuct in the cifony Tilt Cudwngulong Company hiveveiv txteiuist works, both undti and above gioimd, with i complete lange of smelting furnaces ihc piopciij ho stvet, passed out of the hands ol tht tonipouj, and lasptuchised by some Vittonan capitah Is more foi iht sake of a quut/ icef luiuuiig tine ugh the pitpeity, th m foi the valuable coppci mine and svoikuig plant, which hod cost its lnstpiomoteis so luzcan »mount of capital Hit minc is now being vioiked on tnbutt, mid tonsists ol a fine lodt of bl ick sulphate of toppci, yielding about sixty pel cent of met ti

Hie I inn0iia nine, it the Cornish settlement, is nos idle, but baling been p*oitd it v unu» points, shov s a vciy laige mea of toppei counuj, co ninene

nig with an oultiop ol ttibonates, aid num- il g into a îcgulai lodt of bhtk ¡-tilpluitc "\\ ltlun two oi thiee miles of C u tng iw, on the tiaek to the Ophu, a toppti minc has been opened on the land of Mr Icely lhe lode has been pioved, but it has not been as yet systematically woiked

At Cunawang, netti Lake Geoi^e, ni the Goulburn distntt, a fine lode of black sulphate of tojipei is now bung woiked on tiibutt Heit, as at Gullongulong, a gieat deal of expenbe w as ¿ont to m making the woiks as complete as possible, onlv to encounter tinhut Hu.Monmouth Goppel Mines, at Gulgandia Cieek ui tlie Monaio distuct, aie lilao being woiked by a company of Victonans Shifts hive been put down, mid the lode has been thoioughlv pioved, but ob y et tht nettssai y smelting iiu nates has o not been eitctcd Coppci oie has also beta found m the vitnuty of Bathuist, Cucoai, mid Molong whilst at lumbaruniba, ui the Albiuy dibtntl, borne oic has been biouf,ht mto mttiket

Hit thief silvei leid mules of the colony are those of "\\ i olgmlo, on the lass His ti, neat its junction with the Munumbidgce, md ol Hülfe Gottes on the 1MS one ol the uppei v\ ittis of the IIuiuci and sone live md tvstntv milesliom Scone Hit toiinti is being vi oil ed bv i Syclicy etnipiny, uho woe piogiesamg f tv oui bly, having elected the nteesoaiy furnaces, aid othei woiks, when tht vitt season, which Ins just closed, tame upon thom, and ne uly the whole of the woiks vs is swept away by the hoods which, one aftti the other, time pouring down upon them at oiüy veiybnef ii civals Hie ivoiks h tie been again, put in older, ii d ti beginning is about to be made Hie Hülfe Gottcbis beuig woiktd by a company, of Newcastle piopnetois, and, though well opened and lauly Îrived, l'as as y ctr ¡^îveii no îeturn to its promoters

'he Momia SilltrMining Company ot Bioulee, after getting togeliei a fine plant at tiren mine in the

Tfjoulce distuct, was finally wound up a couple of ' vcirs ago, owmg to the mannei m w Inch its affaira had been tonnet ted lhe mine itself was a promising one, and gaie nn extellent return on analjbis In ftitt, ns wt have before remaiked wath, îegard to gold nunmg companies, the great fault w hich lias hitherto been committed m the management ot mining com- panies of every kind, has been that the piactical woikmg has been left to men altogether iguorant of the impoitant duties cutí usted to them

lhe Tit/ioy non mine at Nattai is the only one wluch has been w oiked in the colony It has hithcito pioied a som ce of losb to all who have ever been connected with it, and solely fiom the cause just mentioned Willi icgaid to iron oie, it has been been found veiy extensively ii the colony, and in most ins anees in immediate connection suth good

seams of ca'

CIM< MUT

Two deposits of cmnibai have boen found on the banks of the Cudgegong His er, fotu oi fiveimles fioin the township of the same name Hie ore was not found m a legulm lode but vs is tiaccd in small veins ol flood debus highly unpiegnatedsuth the led sulphmet of mci cm j, and lyinj vu tie illy in the ordinal i alluvium It has been woiked to some extent, but the quantity piocuiable vs is not con- sidered sufficient to justify the company in caris mg on an expensn e establishment Attempt) are being made to follow up the tiaek of the debus, in the hope of Stillung the leal lode Hit wilta of this leeentlv bass unmisniK tble tiaces of the ted sulphuret of mcrcuiv in the woikings at a small diggings in the neighbourhood of liunkej Cieek

The following is the official return of the silver, lead, &c. , mines of the colony for the year 1869:—    

No. of Mines

Bombala—Quidong ... ... 5 Silver and lead Oi 1111,0 5 Copper

Goulbirii-CttiTosvang, near Luke Geoigo 1 Coppci, sulphate liitburtt-Green Swamp 1 ditto Cucou-Green bvs-imp 1 ditto

Woods Hut 1 ditto VU long-Neal Boice 1 ditto Albur)-1 imibaruiiiba 1 ditto

"i tits-IV oolfcarlo 2 Copper, silsei,

»nd lead

cconc-Isis Kiver 1 ditto Ils lstone- Oakboioagll 1 Cinnnbat Ui ottiee-Mornj a 1 Stls er

Mun mundi- lunor Cieek 1 ditto Lemma-Natta 1 Iron

DlAMO>DS

Up to the piesent time, the seaich foi diamonds has not proved a very successful avocation The diamonds are too sparsely scattered through the w ash dut, that m spite of theempliyment of very excellent labour, and saving in machmeij (Hunt s Patent Oie Separatoi) the cost of labour has not been cov ered bj the value of the gems found The drift m which the diamonds are found lies immediately above the ordinary wash dut taken by the gold miner, to the height of about thiee feet, the stones being found, sometimes in the upper, sometimes m the middle, sometimes m the low er portion of the drifts , so that to secure that an immense quantity of w sh has to be msed to the surface and passed through the machine A very excellent papei, funushed by Mr Hunt, Manager of the Australian Diamond Mining Coni panv, and furnished to this journal, points out the difficulties at present m the way of making diamond nuning a successful mercantile specul thon What is icquired is a close study of the stones wluch are lound to accompany the diamond in the drift, so as to sai e the laboui of w ashing v alueless dnfts Hero again occtus a difficulty in the leiy capneious lodgments of the gems A very small patch of dnft will give a splendid i etui n of diamonds, as ins the case with the claim ot the Hennessy s at Two Mile riat, wheio diamonds vioith £1000 weie found within ibout a dozen cubic feet of dnft lhe necessity foi taking so la'gc a quantity of wash, also makes the yield of gold pel load very small Thus, theie may be only some six inches of aunfeious dnfts which, if washed by itself, would give peilnps half an ounce or an ounce to the load, but when to these six inches aie added three feet of the upper dnft washed foi the diamonds it may contain, the propor- tion of gold to the load becomes veiy small

We aie certainly not yet ni a position to compote with the diamond mines of either India oi of South

America, wheie laboui is procuiable foi nothing, oi next to nothuig, oi foi the mere first cost of tlie pin- chase of the labourer In Ness South Wiles the minci, who will willingly woik foi himself so long as he can obtain enough to provide him with food, or "tuckei, ts it is impiessively tenned, will not work foi a ni ister unless he gets full wages, and the ícison is obvious In the fust case, he has alvs ay s before him the chance ol obtaining somepn/e m the digging lotteij, and this is the secret which keeps lum up vi hen struggling against ill luck, w hilst m the 1 ittei case he has no hope hey ond his wages, foi anything he gets must go to lus employ oi Until di unond mining has been made a much moie complete study than it has y et been, nul until it tau be said authon tttively thttwhtie suth an I such indications exist theie will the gems piobably be lound, the cust of labour will pi tv cut the search being a successful

bpeculition

lhe numbei of diamonds found up to the piesent time h ive boen, at i îoiigl c lunate, about 5>U0 the Invest having been one of 5 caiats, mil the smallest one tenth of a gra n lhe asei ige weights of those found lias been ibout one gi am each lhey have nil been found on the banks of the Cudgegong, at the 1 vi o Mile Hit, a great many of them m the old tailings left by the gold minois fiom then v ashtngs, moie from the alluvial dnft in rogulailj woiked hlnfts, some few accidentally in the bed of the river Ihej ore alwajs accompmied by mbies, topaz, md other gems, but these 1 tttcr are of a sue to give

them tomineicnl value

Hie Australian Diamond Company was foimed in Melbourne, and has been working on tht Cudgegong foi the last tw o y tars, employing tv\ o of Hunt s machines tliivcn by steam power, and passing thiotigh a quantity ot dnft lho cost of wages however has been too much loi them, and thev have lecontly de teiimned upon bunging the woiks to a stop lhe

Mudgee Cfinj my ilso s ith a Melbourne x>ropnctiry has been vtiy ui linley, 1 avmg had their works 3ivept as ly by * oods no less than tinco times By list aecourls tilt) li id not got into woiking older Hie TJ>i ne y s tit mi which vi as mentioned aboso os very nib vs af. situated c n one t f the old leads Aftct the ii h find alludttllo, thej weieofieicd C2000fn a fifth sheie in then ci«und and lefused it mid since then they have ¿ten g< ting little tf mj v due Attempts

weie made to foi m two compuues in Ssdiioy, but i eithc- was successful, otu S)dncy capilnttsls not being quite so forsvud in such 'nattcis as aie the more speculating t'ci vena of the sibttr colon) It has been com put«! bj Mi Hint tint diamond mining will not 1 j i toinpmiv unless two penny vs eights of gold and

if di ltuiulof a gum in vvti"hl ne leturnul fiom

ich 1 el c f vi ash

Di une i di have aluo been found on the Meroo, and m the iiciivtj of JJubbo At the littci town a lonl tomprn y has been sfaitcd foi the purpose of following tin J blanch of mining

The Coal Mines.

Ai mt the goltf, the mort linpoitant of our mineral pioducts is coal liom the fiist vsorking of our coal muli s, our tindo in this nnpoitant article of commerce has gineon tjiadtuill) liicieasing "With the excep tun of lcoi and 1867 ivhtn thcie was a tnfltng falling off in our oxpoils, casil) lccountcd foi, the quaitit) sent out of the colon) has steadily mel stiiclv ii tit isedycm bv yen until non no find oui tustomeis foi the mtitle in almost evcij port of the Southern hcrmspheio

Hie n (st piodttctire, as well as the most exten- siv elv woikctl of oui Ness Couth Wales coal met

¡uics is that ef the Ilitntei li iei oi, as it is moie çencnllv called, of Newcastle Hie collieries at wlmh the scams aie woiked have been estibhshed on the southern mid vs estent side of the liver Iluutci

1 o lins there art tvio exceptions-tint of the Tomago colhcrj, which is on the Bay mond lenaee side of the nvei and only a short distance fiom that township , und lhe Bix Creek colliery, which is some ten miles north of Singleton Immediately, south of New castle is the Bui wood colheij better know uns that of the Coal and Copper Company then immediately to the noith of the town, and hemming it m on that side is the lund of the Vusti than Agrieul

tuial Company, on which is the Boiehole collieiy lhcn come in the order named the Ti u itali the I amblon the Co opeiativo, the Walls

end the Minmi the Hexham the Alnwick, and the "\\ oodfi rd eollienes At a shoit distance west of Moij eth tut the Tom mile Creek and the lltthluba colluiirs About five miles noith of the rbui mile Citel, at West Marti mel, is the colheij of Mr

1 onin llu=sell it Stony Cieek, vvheie a seam of c mnel as well as a seam of splint j coal is w oiked lui thci north again some fifteen miles the Towoi Huntei semis again crop out at Anvil and Dalwood ficcl s, and aie woiked neni Bionxton bj Mi lar

thing Hint j miles faithet noith again, at Rix t icck, i oith of Singleton theie is anothei outciop, which is being worked Inflict the outcrop of coal scorns has been found throughout ncttily the whole of the basin of the Iluntci almost uj) to the lerj bast of the main lange I von bej ond this outciops have been thstovertd and a valuable seam of 1 cioscne sine his been opened and tested on the propei tj of Mi A I oder at Collie Creek, in the Lntipool PI uns distntt

Beporting on these seams Mi Keene, i*\aminer of Co ii Mines, abscises - Hie seam of the Austiah m Agntultitial Companv has an iverago thickness of 10 feet Hie cool is highly bitun motts, with a ten dencv to unifoim and oibitulai fi teatro It is hi g11 j esteemed in the Melbourne and C ilifoiman maikcts Hie "Wallsend have the seam 1 feet 10 inches thick with 10 inches of paitings dividing the seam into tinco bands at the I ambton the seam tiops out towoids the nvei but the company havo woiked to the dip Hie Minmi seam appeals lobe the second below the choit lock, which covers the C oal and Coppei Company s seam at Buiwood and the small mal es a good coke as docs that of all the New castle eollienes Hie Pout Mile Cieek Com piny have at least tinco vs orkabie benns That wml ing is S tect 6 inches thick, 5 feet 0 inches being a splint coal of vciv supenoi quality It does not clml er, and bunts to a fine di y ash being compaiable lo the Gool coal Descending the strata and below

all these seams are the Stony Cieek seams of tannel and splmtv coal and fifteen miles farthei noith these low« seams n0aui tiop out it Amil and Dalwood Creeks, the coal bemg in îeptite fai steam luel

About foi ty miles south of S)dncy commences what mai be cilled the Wollongong coal meastue Outciops have been traced for a distance of tim ty mües to the south whilst to the west or inland vi hat hive been declai ed tobo the same seam, have boen stiiick at Ntttai and woiked by the litzioy Iron Mmmg Company, and between that locality and Bcinma, ashcie a splendid seam Ins been opened bj Mi \oung Hie Bulli Company aie wollong a fine tom teen feet seam bj an open altt, is ith a tramvs ay running thence by an incline to a jetty budt foi convenience of slupment, the only di aw back being that vessels have to ho in an open loadsteid Hie ports of Bellambi and WoUongong r ffoid means of slupment to the other eollieiies on the Southern coast Mr Keene remarks with regaid to these, that ' the same series of seams extends from New castle to the Wollongong district, disturbed and broken up only by compaiativ ely modern eruptions of porphyiies and basalts ' The mines opened m the Wollongong distuct aie the Osborne Wallsend, the Movuit Pleasant, the Bulli, the American Cieek, and the Bellambi (Woonora) Of these all but the last aie ui full woik, shipping then coal at Wollon- gong and Bellambi, with the exception of the Bulli, pieviously îefeired to In the Beirima district mines have been opened at the Cataract, Black Bob s Creek, Joideu s Crossing, mid Nattai None of these are at piesent at woik, though the mines at Nattai and Black Bob s Cieek aie ni a comenient position foi connection with the îailway A shaft has also boen opened at Stanwell Paik, m the Campbelltown dis- tuct, mid coal has also been discoveied at no very treat distance from Peni ith

lo the vsestviard of Sydney we have recently had opened what may be termed the Hartley coal measures The seam, which has been tracetl by the outcrop over au area oi some ten squue miles, is considered by the Rev, W B Clarke to belong to the low ei portion of the A\ estein section of the upper measures of the gieat co ii field of New South Wales lins opinion is I ascd on the fact of tlie presence of fossil plants and the alsence of manne fossils It is a non caking coal, tpproaehing to splint, and intermediate between the lovi ei New castle and the Anvil and Dalwood Creek seams lhe seam runs from 9 to 11 feet in thickness, and is beuig woiked by Messrs Say well and Garsed, at Bow enfels , by Messrs Woolley and Anderson, at the Hermitage Colliery, Lithgow Valley , by Mr 1 bomas Biow n, m the same valley, and by Mr

And lew Biown at Coerstale Besides these a com pmy is m progiess ot ftumatron foi work- ing the seam on the southern side ot the valley Bl he advantage which this position hits is pioximity to the railway line, whereby on the completion of the luic to Bathurst supplies of coal may be sent|therc at a cheap rate, whilst copper oro m ty be biought back to the mines to be smelted on the spot An agitation is now going on in the West to obtain such a reduction of the rate ot carriage per nulway as will allow of the introduction of this coal into Sy dnej

In connection w ith the coal measures of this distuct, mention maj be made of the splendid seam of connel cool now vs oi king m vi hat has been named Peholea "\ ale, a long i alloy running down on the northern side of Mount York Hie elliot ot these mines is at thcpiesent time that of theWesteinKeroseneCompany on the noilhein side of the vallcj , the mine ot the Haitlcj Kciosene Company being situated on the southern side Both companies aie working on the same seam, which is, on an average, six feet wide, ei0ht inches on the top and four inches at the bottom berne, ttinmon keioacnc shale, whilst the loin lining five feet tonsistof fine cannel co ti, giving anavcia^e ot

ibout 1 )0 rallous of tiude oil to the ton ol coal Hie Unities ( ompany aie mci ely nisiiig coal tor the sup] ly of the gas companies ot Sy dney and Mel- bourne the tannel giving gie itly increased illuminât

mg low ti to the ¡,is lhe "\\ Csicin Company aie ni u ufittuung oil fiom then coal at then woiks on the Botany Hoad, a full destination of which vi as "tv cn m our last monthly summaiy lhey hive f lty ictfits at vvoil, aid aie piodueing neil COOO " liions of pine oil pei WCLIC Hie oil has been tested by scientific "cntlcmon, and his b»en pionounced buponor to ti e best Amencan, one gi oat advantage bénit, that it will not ignite at a tcmpeia tme ten deDrecs higher than the igniting point ot the

pul est Amencan

Hie Pioneei Kciosene Woiks, at the Amencan Creek, ne ti Wollongong, weie the fust to piodute it from the coloni »1 shule Hie seam is woiked by nn adit on the outciop, mu the quantity ot oil dis- tilled weekl) is about 1200 gallons

lhe quantity of coal raised at the different eollienes dunng the year lb09 was as follows - Haitley Blackman s Gap, 150 tons , I rthgovv Valley, 1210 tons Mtutlmd Stonv Cieek, 900 tons , lorn mile Cieek. 10 007 tons 15 cvst llithltiba, 021 tons , Any ii Creek, 11,000 tons, Newcastle : Waratah,

128 869 tons, Old Lambton. 1 (.6.112 tons,, îfsVl/

lambton 109,850 tons , [J^rgui,! (Í3 Ç0{iK{)rLS\}WoV. oieintive, 41213 tons, ¿lurvrooci, 3930 tons Aus

ti lilian Agncultural Company s, íWfft&tSiy, WaRs

end, 156 490 tons PaVickV-riuns Rixs Oicek/ 1900 tons Wollongong ^QsboinèTSF.iîisçnd, 17J>il lons, Mount Pleas mt, 17,0r4M^ifc^ïtuUT,-*u''5 320 tons , Ameircan Crock, 700 tons Total 919,773

tons la cw t

The fallowing letuni shoxvs the niiniTici of mines xvhith htixc been working dining the lasï ten ycais, xv lill the quantity íaised and its value -In I860-17 368,862 tons, £22G,<«93 19s 6d , m 1861-18, 312,0071 tons, £218 f20 10s f d , in 1S02-33, 17r,522 tons, £"05 231 los Cd ,in 1863-20, 133 8891 t-ons, C23G.230 10s 7d in 1861-25, 549,012} tons £270,171 11s , m 1865-21 oro 525£ tons, ¿271,303 13s 9d , in 1866-2r> 774,218 tons, £321,049 6s 7d , in 18G7 2G 770,012' tons, £142,655 7s Sd , in 1868-28, .Vii 230f tons, £117 809 Gb Id . m lá09-33, 919.773J tons, £340,145 10s öd

Of keiosenc shale the quantity íaised during tlio V enr i860 w as -Western Petrolia Vale, 3000 tons £9000, Hartley Petioha Vale, 2000 tons-CG00O, V> ollongong-Amoiican Creek, 2500 tons-£37o0

Manufactures.

Pinoii to the discover) of gold in the colony in 1851, we had but few manufactuies here, and these few w ere confined to S) dno) Boots nnd shoes xvere made ataxeij earl) period of oui lustoi), and of a xeiy siqienoi description, but thev wcie not then pioducod at a pnce to compete xvith the imported uticle and they xvere consequent!) not in gencial use except amongst the more wealthj Al tides of lurmtuie fi om the beautiful cedar and othei indigenous woods of the countij, had been mamifictuied Isnig pnoi to the abovédate and theie had been foi some x cal» a ' small export of these aiticles to the neighbounng

colonj The xvcaxmg of woollen fabrics was also commenced, some thirty j cars bofoie the gold dis cox« j, fust at Panamatta, fiom which tovrii the well iemembcred Parramatta cloth derived its designation Then followed the tweed factoij ot Sn John Jamison, at Rogentvfile, the produce of which obtained con- sidei uble favour ni tlus and tlie adjacent colonies Altciw ards the Stockton factorj, near New c estie, w as started bj Messrs Tish« and Donaldson, and tweeds and doeskuib xveic there made of a quality quite equal to anj flung that hassmce been piocluced, though C"r tauilj not to the some extent, noi at the same cheap nie that we have thom now Almost up to tlio time of the gold discoveij, the non tindo was onlj of very smill dimensions Almost the oidy lcnllj engineering firm in S)dncy was that of Mi Struth, atterwaids cimed on by Mr Napier, but this xvas engaged almost cxclusivelj on manne xvoik Dawson and P N Russell ind Co xv ere little moi e than n on founders, doing only the fitting connected xvith the xvoik they cast The grcitest efforts at pioduction weie the manufacture of cooking stoxos and other domestic articles null woik and marine work Macluneij was not then so généraux used m everj department of tnde as it now is and oui engmeenng firms had need of few of those splendid masses of nnchiiiery known as 'tools to eairj on then woik This, with the mnnuf icturc of soap and candles and the leinung of sugm foimed the bulk of oui colonial mclustiics

But such few manufactuies as we had, wcregra dunllj es*abliblnng tliembelvcs some had giown airead) into importance and gax c ex ery promise of prominence nt noxerx distant da) xvhen the gold discoxeiy in Caliloinn, m lb l8 gave the hist blow to thom and by inducing hundicds of oin stuulicst mechanics to leax c our shoies cntirelv prostiatcd loi i time cxeiy colonial industry linee )cais lat« carne thedibcovei) of gold ni New South Wales nnd the lai gc m ijont) of our population deserted the cit) foi a visit to the gold fields Though some few months attoi the discovciy was followed bv an immense mflux of population, the now annuls xvere too macll) intent upon gathering gold to think of the moie cert mi path to wealth that was und« then feet in the c it) Not o ii) did the cleik desert his desk md the piofessional min Ins office, but tho mechanic mid the trndesm m threw down the toob to winch the) wcie lccustomed to take up others xv Inch were foiciLn to them, and m tlie use of xvhich they soon lound, fiom sad expenence, that thev weie not adepts All weie too nitentl) engaged m the wild scumble for gold, xvhich it xvas thought was to be had only foi the gathering, to think of legular and well pud emplojment m mere pioduction CIosolx following up the mflux of population carne immense consignments ol goods and xvitli the exoi

bitant wages demanded by those who had even the slightest claim to be denominated woiknien, manufac tuie in the face of these importations became au nnpossibilit)

As time xvent on numbei s of theso would bo

miners found the gold less plentiful than they had »nticipited, whilst the unaccustomed xvoik vv is much hard« than thej expected Heic and there luge finds xvere made, to be spent in not and delia i iherj going is liglitlj as it had come oi, if hus

banded, to gndunllj meit away befoie a long spell of ill luck With regret thej began to look back at the stculj xvoik to which they had been accustomed fiom then jouth, to which thej xveie inuied, and ni which thej took an honest and legitimate pi ide One bj cue the tradesmen and mechanics found their way bick to Sjdnej, to suffer consuleiabty at fiist, foi exeij thing xv as unhinged and manufacture xv as not With the arm al of the workmen the emplojers began to take heal t, and one nftei the othei ludustnes xvere lex ix ed In the face of the hoax y importations however, manufactuie had a veij up lull woik of it Gradual!) hoxvex« a footing xvas established and then caine the mtroduction of labour sax ing machi- nery of vanous kinds, and m almost everj branch of mnnuficture, lessening the cost of production so matériaux as to put the manufacturer on a moie equal footing w ith the importer, especially m those articles xvhich had to be manufactuied liom pioducts

of the colonj

Tlus general introduction of mnclnnciy into laige establishments of exeij kind gave an nnpetus to an other branch of manufacture, the non ti ade It at once started into prominence, and has at piesent grown into an importance far above that of any minufictunng mdustiy in the colony With this pielimmaij sketch of the lustoi j of our manufactures we shall proceed briefly to rexiew the soxcial tridos sepnrntelj It must be borne in muid, howov«, that our limits will not permit more than a moro cuisory glince at eich , ind xve may also mention that some two jeal s ago some veiy lengthy articles on the manufactures of the Mctiopolis ippcnred ni the columns of this journal

IHE IRON TRADES

The machinists and engineering cstablisliments in the colonj munbeied 64 at the end of list) car (1809), of theso 31 w ere in the Metropolitan district, 11 tit Maitland, 4 m Parramatta, 2 eich m Caicoar, Goulburn Nexv castle, Port Macquane, and Yass, anti one at the Manning Of iron, brass, and coppei foundries there weie 33, of which 19 weie m tlie metropolis, 6 at Maitland, 2 each in Bathuist, Goul- burn, and Newcastle, and one each in Berrima, Mudgee, and Orange A bnef desciiption will give some idea of the moie important of these establish- ments The works of the A S N Compan) at P)rmont emplo)s 3o0 hands It was oiigmall) established for the purpose of doing the necessity repairs to the machiner), 1c , of tlie large ste im fleet of this company lhc convenience oller ed b) the fine slip of this compan) made other bhipowneis anxious to avail themselves of it as well as of the woikmen of the companj, and by degiees the company became enginceis mid ship buildeis Neaily all the xvoik done heie is manne xvoik, and theie is a magnificent plant of all the best engineer- ing tools Mort and Co of the Di j Dock, Waterview Bn), emplo) about 1<J0 hands Thej me engigod in geneial engineering xvoik, but, having a dij dock and a patent slip m connection w ltli then w oiks do also a laige amount of manne woik geneinllj lhej haxe lccentlx been nianufitctunng locomotives for tlie New South Wiles Government rmlivivs, and luxe tinned out sugai mnchmoi), quart/ batteries, and other gcnenl xvoik This him li is onl) been started within the last three j eils, and is piovulod with a vci) bupenoi and complete eiigineciing pi mt P N Ru sell mid Co aie the oldest ciiniiiceiing finn m Svdne) ihe) have been engaged upon ilmost ev cry kind of engmeoiing xv lk tint his been icquiiedin the colon) The) have fitted up llom nulls, pioxided bhecp vv ishmn machín«) with ecntnfu0nl pumps

have built the laigcst and mo,t cflecliio quart/ butteiics xve haxe m the colon) haxe constituted a tunet bhip foi New Zenlind, lime executed minne woik of exeiy desciiption hive mido md put together iron bridges for the \ass Rivci it \ iss and the Munny at Ha), and me now in linly engaged ni

executing a laige contract foi lulvviy uncles and j carnages foi tlie New South Wiles Goveinm'nt j Thev employ at piesent about three hundred linn Is, and have the mobt complete md extensiveeii0i'neeriijT plant in the colony

Vale mid Lice), of Druitt stiect emploj abjut i hunched and fift) hands Ibis furn ha* only bp«i biought mto existence xv lunn the last thret )oirs, but dining that time it lins I Hen a xery high stand in the tracto It lins pnncip dix hi en employed in

the manufacture of loco notixe mid other oii"nie

and has now a contract xv ith tho Nev SiutS Wnlrs j Government loi the maiuifactiuo ot locomotives

\Thc finn wns fuat biought into uoticc tluough the

jvei) supenor tank engines it tinned out lol /the use of contnctois on oui railway lines.

It his also executed a lnige conti net loi îailway trucks Dawson -, foundry in George street is the oldest established foundi) inS) due), and Ins through- out maintained i reputation ior soundness of woik , mi cnguieeiing plant has been added to the foundry wllhm the last lew )otus, and the establishment now employs ibout seventy hands About ten tons ot metalare weekly cisthcie Bubb s Victom Foundi), oil Geoifie sticet, empk)s sixt) five hands, and casts about tw elv e tons ol pig metal per w eck 1 lus also is a veiy old established toimcliy No fitting is clone 1 cie, ej cepteel us much as is necessary m connection with the rustiiigs, and this pi mcip lily loi Conti ictors' vi oik Mi J Mather, ot Bathurst street, cmplo)« about sixty h mels Ile is employed mainly in boilei mid manne woik, though othei woik is executed us it ofkis Hie »ppioathcs to the West Maitland budge weie made by tins lum Chapman, Biotheis, ol Geoigc sticet, employ fiity hands, and execute a veiy extensive range oí work lhey onguially staitcd in business as agiicultuiul implement and machine makeis, but their busmess very soon took a vvieloi lange, and they now construct engines of various kinds, ond some ol the best engines about Sidney have been made by them lhey have tinned out, scvei ii lloui mills, und also many ol the labour s mug | machines used m the vanous trades, not the le ist 1 notcwoithy being the buck milking machine in use

nt 1 owlei s po teiy Hie City lion Woika at John- son s Ba) cinplo)s sixt) men Ihcic is a vci) heavy »nd complete lolling bittei) at this cstibhshmcnt Stinp non is woiked up heio ior the more nnpoit uiit kinds oí woik, mid pig non is puddled foi oichnai) woik About 100 tons pci month is i oiled heic, mid the) have hue made lauwa) wheels and tues foi tonti ictors locomotives, or tank engines

At the Government niiTtiti) woiks, at Redlein there is a veiy hue plant ot cn^inceiing tools, including ti ice veiy supenor steam hainmeis Hie woik heio is cxtlusivch confined to leptiisiequued foi the cai nnDes mid locomotives on the line, but iccentl) they hive turned out a vei) poweiful locomotive liom. drawings muele b) Mi Whitton, the Lnguicci m-Ohict lol Eailvv ns Hie number oí mon employed heic is 41 ni engineei's and 20 m the carnage shopi A similar Government establishment is earned on at Newcastle, loi the engines and clinages on the Noithom line In tlus, 22 men arc employed ni the engineei s and 6 in the carnage shop Halliday and Co, oi I îskine stioet, employ about 20 hands, and aro cmplo)cel in genoial cnguieeiing Besides these there ne the foundries of Mi lim graves, at Py- mont, employ uig l8 hands, and miming through seven tous oí non per week, and that of 1 lyloi and

Wearne, of Redfern

G ilvam/nig woik has now become ven genoial in Sv liney, and almost everythuig ol this kind is now done ni the colon) Mr S "olliiei, of Dixon-stiPct, first commenced this blanch ol business, and his now nn extensive establishment, employing 62 hands, and working up fiom littcen to eighteen tons of black sheet uoii pei week Mi Foy, ol lluntei stieet, has also entered hugely into this blanch oi the business, and now employ 3 ti gi oat numbei of men Besides these entiinei ited theie aie 20 non and tin imkeis,. ot whom 13 cniry on business in the mefciopahs

LE VTirEii

Amongst the most flourishing blanches of tindo earned on in the colony, the vi otk m lcalhci is second onij to tint in non Producing in the colony not only the hide liom which the leather is made, but o'so all the articles lequuctl in the pioc ss of convei sion, it would seem but munal tint vioiking in leithei should become one oí the staple lndustiies of the colon) Ox and horse hieles, c ill, kungnioo, and sheepskins, nie piocmable in luge quantities, though some of our taiméis, who look bevoncl the mesont, begin to lcui that otu kathei ti ade is extending so i ípidl) that in u lew )eurs vie shall have to lesort to some ioieign somce of supplv to meet oin lequiio ments The lime, the balk, the oil, and the tallow neeessai) to conveit the hide liitoleaihei tue all hcie, though m the lnnttci oí balk it lins been questitmccl

vi bethel the vinttle tices ot the colony will st mci out for mm) veais longei sufliciontl) to lui nish the huge «mount of tttnnuig now anuuall) requited It is well known th it the distiicts round S)dne) have been toi veáis coinpletel) deduded ot the wattle ond even within the shoit space of time that oui rnihiay line has been opened to Picton, the Sutton Foi est, Bong Bong, and Bonuna district have equally been stripped oi|i this beautiful tree The gientci pint oi the bark now used is biought horn the Southern Coast dis- tiicts , but these in then tuin must soon become exhausted, especiall) as no attempt is muelo to peipetuate the tice, and it is left entucly to nature to compensate for the hayoc made by man Several expciunents have been tned upon our indigenous bailes, but, with the exception of the wattle, they eontaui oui) so smaU a piopoition of tannic acid tis

to mnke them v aimless

Thus, up to the moment we pioduce the leather, we are able to do so without outside help , but, lrom, the very hist moment that we attempt to convert the knthei into nn ni tick oí use, we find ouisehos de- pendent upon othcis Lven m the lowest class of work-the common kip boot-we icquire to import hemp and flax , and, as we reach the higher classes oí vi oik, these íequisites become moie and more numeious Thus it comes to tlus-that the moie eathei and the less woik there is in the goods, the bettei aie we able to compete with impoitations lu fact, it is onl) in kathei goods that w e can do so, foi in ladies' boots, jean, satinette, "c , we have to depend on England The mtioeluction of pegged bootmaking, and afterwards of riveting, b) lcducmg the cost oí production, plated our colomal kathei ti uk upon a moie equal footing than it before oocu pietl with that of Britain Then the application of lnnclunei), and especiall) of the sewing machine, soon put us upon even more advantageous giound

Tinning now to the statistics of the colon), we find that the Registrar-General reports that theie weie at the end ol 1869 tw ont)-nine boot manufactories m the colon) Of these, twelve aie m the Metropolitan distnct, lour each me ni Maitland and Wollongong, tin ce each me in'Goulburn and Windsor, und one each in Bathurst, Broidwood, and Yass

Messrs Alckibon and Sons, of Elizabeth-street* and of Bourke-strcet, Sun y-lulls, are engaged ni all the branches oí the leather tiode lhey are ex- tensive tnnneis, employing forty tunnels, and thuty seven curners, mid putting through an aveiageof about 1300 lucks per month In the boot and hai ncss mnkmg they give employment to one hutiitied mid eight) hands, and pioduce about 120,000 pans of boots of aU kinds dining the twelve months, besides harness of ever) description lins finn doo3 a veiy luge expoit trade with New Zealand and Queens- land , mid has the Government contract foi boots and saddlei) here and in Queensland Mr J Vickciy, oi Bal iack-sti cet, has his tannery andfnctoiy atGlen roek, Wav erle) He vv as the first to commence the manufacture ot boots b) machuietv, and though he storteel undci the disadvantage of having to compote» with the large stocks then on hand, and continuous importations, he has giadualH made his wa), until now he linds employment to 160 hands ni the tannei) mid the boot and harness shops, anel pto iluccs on an average 1500 pans of boots, of nil kinds, pei week, besides saddlei y and lim ness Both Mi. Viektiy md Mi Aldeison have been exhibitors at the cliffeient exhibitions tit London, Dublin, and Pnns, mid have received medals fiom caoh. Mi C. "nickel), ol Pitt stieet, carnes the oldest establish- ment in S)di)C) ni this binnch of tiado, the business having been established b) the fathci of the picsent piopnctoi as fm back us 1833 Mi Vickciy cania into the business sevei.il yenis prioi to tho gold chscov ci), an 1 vi ns then the lmgcst maker of boots ni the colony When mnmifietuics vicie thiovvn out oí geai by the gold chscov oi), Mi L Vickciy became ti lnrge impoiter oí hoots mid shoes. " When machiner) began to be employed in Sydno), Mi E Vickciy vi as tile fingest nnpoi ter in this blanch ni the cit), but, us thenmuiftictuio began, to mnke heaelvifi), he had to entei into it, in onlei to 1 cep his tiado connection in his hands He has by fai the finest and most complete i et oí boot makin,» machin«) in the eolonv, but is he inmiuiactiues, only for Ins trade connection, his pioduction is not so. lui "c ns that oi the two finns above mentioned Ile em] lois fifti linee hinds, ard produces annually 16 000 pans ol boots principally heavy Besides this, he tal cs in from small mistéis, about 1000 pans per month Wnght, Davenpoit, nullo of Bnckficld lnll have then tanner) at AInrrickvillo The boot elo mg firm of Ilibhcit anel Wnght wns merged into t his buinness about tw elv e months, smce'Tnt wine li timo Hw i« producing about 3000 pans of uppers weekly The present (fin have Done very extensively nita oven branch ol the trade, find row gives employ mont . tonemlv ¡00 hands, In their ttinnei) the) woik ni

week]) about 110 hides, besides skin, and then pi oduction of boots of all kinds is about J000 pairs_ per week Besides their countr) ti nek, they do i I ii go ox poit business with Melbourne Mi LU is on, c1 the Botan) road, emplovs about eighty hunt's, nncl im din cs about 1500 pmrs of nil lands ova»-, -week. His business is moro particularly confined tpy tho sup- plying ol soi tu to retail shop-*, thus CUP riling sm ill t-hopl cr-peisto c irr) on business withov e keeping on b mel Die lillee stocks hcitloiorerpiiuircli Mi Dads well, ol KUIL, tint, fiiiplo)« stvci \* hands, and pre;

duces about 1000 pairs of boot-, por ssv . v pi iu<ùp elly of the heavier kind for country ino. II > d n>, a large trade with the interior, an'il also with Melbourne. 3Wr. Tcbbatt, of Woolloomooloo, is engaged m boot maimJ.aeture only, and employs about 10 hands, pio duciug about 800 pairs per week. Mr. Griffiths, of Wateiloo, employs some 30 hands, and manufactures on an average 600 pairs per week. Mr. Dryhur.st, also of Waterloo, adds some 400 pairs a week to our production, and employs 20 hands. Mr. Forsyth, of Parramatta-street, manufactures weekly some 800 pairs, principally women and chihlien's, and emploj's 20 hands. Besides these there are some few smaller manufacturers, and .several firms engaged in the single business of boot-closing. The latter employ from 10 to 20 hands, and turn out from 500 to 1000 pairs of uppers per week. The weekly production of boots from the Sydney factories is roughly estimated at about 15,000 pairs.

The tannery of Sadilington and latins, at South Crock, is the most extensive estiblishineut ol' tho kind in the colony. It employs l8 hands, and works in on the avcings about 350 hides por week, exclusive of skins; but could easily work 100 a week more if they were procurable. This firm does not enter into the manufacture of leather, but it takes in from the small masters about 30,000 pairs during the year, Though it docs no work in the way of manufacture, it has been instrumental in extending it throughout the colony. It has imported and disposeil of several complete riveting plants, neaily the whole of which have gone into the interior'. Mr. Beg, of the Glen- more tannery, South Head Hood, works in about 150 liides per vi eek, principally of the heavier kinds, and employs 17 hands. The total number ot taiuvjries in

the colony nt the end of 18G9 is given by the I Registrar- G encrai at HG. Of these IG are in the ' metropolitan district, l-l in the pastoral districts, 10 at Windsor, 7 each at Bathurst and Goulburn, 5

each at Berrima, Camden, Liverpool, and Penrith ; 1 '. each at Braidwood and Mudgee, 3 each at Campell town, Dungog, Kiama, Parramatta, and Wollongong ; 2 cachât Hartley, Maitland, Port Macquarie, Quean- beyan, Shoalhaven, and Yass ; and 1 each at Burrowa, Dowling, Manning Uiver, Newcastle, Oronge, Patrick's Plains, and Port Stephens.

WOOLLEN-, ' In remarking upon the woollen manufacture of the colony, ive cannot help advciting to the loss which tins particular branch of manufacture has suffered by tlie death of Mr. O. B. Ebsworth. That lamented gentleman, with the energy and enterprise which so strongly characterised him, had brought Ids tsveed mills, hi the course of the four or five yeais they were in his hands, to a most remarkable state of excellence and efficiency, and had gathered there some of the finest cloth-making machinery that was to be ob- tained in England. It is to be hoped that the splendid manufacturing edifice which he has reared will fall into hands equally as active and energetic, and that tliis establishment, of wluch Sydney may fairly be proud, will be carried on with as steady an advance as heretofore. In our opening remarks we have alluded to the progress which woollen manufactures had made in the colony when the gold discovery came down upon us and upset everything. Since things have assumed a more orderly shape, the production of cloth and tsveed has gone on steadily increasing from year to year. The return of the HegistroT-Geiieral of the cloth manufactured during the labt five years is :-1805, with -1 factories work- ing, 145,707 yards; 18GG, with -1 factories, 172'720 yards; 1867, with 5 factories, 175,3-18 yards; 1808, with fi factories, 227,104 yards ; and 18G9, with 7 factories, 233,901 yards.

Ebsworth Tweed Pactory, in Sussex-street, pos- sesses, as we have above i emarked, the finest plant of yarn-making and weaving macluuery out of Eng- land. This has only been brought fully into work during the last live or six months, and its product has not yet been taken into account. It is estimated, however, that the production of tweed will be, at the very least, 3000 yards per week, or, in round num- bers, 150,000 y.ai tis per annum, The number of hands employed is about 104, and the production of this establishment for the last three years has been :

1867, 73,776 yaids; 18G8, 91,630 yards; 1869,90,822 yards, the falling oft' being attributable to the altera- tions then going on for the purpose of making ovail . able the then newly-imported machinery. This beau-

tiful machinery was very fully described in our issue of the 2nd Juiie last.

The tweed mills of the Messrs. Byrnes, at Parra- matta, give employment to G2 hands, and produce weekly about 1500 yards. The mills of the Messrs. Preñen, also at Parramatta, have only been started ?within the last twelve months, and are very complete in every respect, Mr. French, sen., being one of the oldest tweed makers in the colony. Mr. llayner, of Emu Plains, has been long connected with the tweed manufacture of the colony, and started the Regentville factory somewhere about 1830, in conjunction with the late Sir John Jamieson. He employs 30 hands, and produces weekly on average of 500 yards of tweed. The tweed factory of Mr. AndrewBrovvn, at Coerwall, near Bowenfels, is conducted by Mr. French, jun., gives employment to 19 hands, and produces 300 yards per week. A second factory on the Hartley district, and the old Regentville factory on the banks of the Nepean, near Penrith, constitute the whole of cur woollen manufactones.

TALLOW.

The manufacture of soap and candles has long been carried on in the colony ; but it has not grown with the increase of our population. This has been owing-, to the facUity with winch soap can now be made by the use of caustic soda-thus depriving the trade of the greater part of the export it once enjoyed. As regards candles, the general use of kerosene, and the cheap price at wluch sperm and stéarine candles are imported, have reduced the de- mand for ordinary tallow candles to a minimum, and the trade has consequently fallen off to less than a fourth of what it was ten years ago.

The total number of soap and candle manufactories in the colony at tlie end of 1869 is given in the Statistical Register at 27. Of these, 12 are in the metropolitan mid 6 in the pastoral districts, with 2 at Newcastle, and 1 each at Bathurst, Goulburn, Maitland, Mudgee, Orange, Parramatta, and Port Mac- quarie. The produce from these during 1869 was Soap, 73,943 cwt., and candles 15,56S cwt. In 1860, the quantity produced during the year from 36 factories .was :-Soap, 57,080 cwt. ; and candles, 35,485 cwt. In 1865, from 27 factories, there were produced 71,869 cwt. of soap and 23.909 cwt. of candles.

The factory of Cowan and Israel, at Johnstone's Bay, employs 12 hands, and turns out an average of 15 tons of soap weekly. Two of the hands are engaged - in the manufacture of scented soap, which is turned

out from tliis establishment in a very superior man- ner. Caraher's soap and candle works at Camper- down employs 6 hands upon the soap, and 4 upon tlie candle making. The average weekly manufacture of soap is about 12 tons, and of candles 2 tons. Allen, Brothers, of "Waverley, turn out about six tons of soap weekly, and a smalFquantity of candles, whenever the market is open for them. S. Dickson, of Wavenley, is the representative of the oldest soap-boUing establishment in Sydney, and at present turns out weekly four tons of soap and 26 cwt. of candles, by the aid of four men. Mr. Mulcahey, of tlie Botany Road, employs a similar number of hands, and sends into the market, weekly, four tons of soap, and 20 cwt. of candles.

BUILDING, &C.

Tlie Statistical Register for 1809 gives the total number of brickyards in the colony at 222, of these 171 are in the settled, and 51 in the pastoral districts. Of tlie former 57 are in the metropolitan, and 22 in the Bathurst district. Amongst the metropolitan brickyards, there are several which manufacture . "bricks by machinery, and give thesi additional

solidity by the application of pressure. Very many of them employ pugmills.

Tlie number of potteries is given at 17. Of these 7 are in the metropolitan district, 3 in the pastoral dis- tricts; 2eachat Bathurst, Newcastle, and Panamatta; and 1 at Orange. Ten years ago, the total number in the colony was only 6, and these were situated exclusively in Sydney. The principal pottery and dram pipe factory in Sydney is that of Mr. Fowler, at Camperdown. It employs sixty hands has seven kilns constantly at work, with titree others newly com- pleted, and employs machinery as far as possible, worked by a twelve horse-power engine. The chief articles produced are drain pipes mid fireclay bricks. Por the former there is a large demand, not only in the colony but for exportation. Goodlet and Smith's pottery works at Surry Hills employ twenty-four hands, and keep three lurge kilns going, others being in course of construction in connection with a fine plant of drain-pipe making machinery upon the latest principle adopted in England. The building for the reception of this plant'is only just completed, and .Hill be worked bv a 20-horse power engine, recently constructed by Chapman, Brothers. riiese_ works are solely confined to tlie production of drain-pipes and articles required in the building trade. Field's pottery in George-street South has been established eince 1838, aad produces a large assortment of almost «very article of pottery-ware, though perhaps the hulk of the business is taken up by drain-pipe making. It employs thirteen luinds, has one kiln, end employs no steam power. Mr. Holroyd's Sher-

wood nottéry, »ear Piurornatta, in stnctly an ogri- °

inllural potttiy es1 iblislimtnl Hie main aihelc picduttd is igiKiiltui ii dum pipes, though tiles, pan Hit, and llooiiiin ne liiuiufiictiiiod It emplois nine hinds mid li is a denimel loi its productions hufhiicnt to ju-tify an inciense in the amount of luboui omplov ed

01 nie woiks there were foin at the end of 1860, all m the metiopolitnn dtstnet lhe thief of these is ine Australian Fuient lue Compati j, at Enmore, wheie the handsome giooscd Italian tiles aie m*nu factiucu lítese h ive tome much into use within the hist two 01 flute icais lhe company employ about twenty foin hands-tvselie in the manufacture, and twelve in the roofing

lhere ne SI saw mills given ni the Statistical Register os woikmg in the colony in 1809 Of these 2f are m the metropolitan districts, 22 m the pastoral, distncts, 5 it Poit Stephens , 4 catii at Bathurst and Bl aulwood , 2 each at Bnsbano Water, Bioulee, New- castle, Orange, and Shoalh iv cn , and one each at Benama, Camden, Isiaina, Liverpool, Maitland, Manning River, Mudgee, Parrainitta, Wellington, and Wollongong Of the Mttiopolitan Saw Mills that of Mi Chadwick, in Liverpool-street, employs seventy hinds, mid tuts about 100,000 feet of timber per wetk , it has also a splendid plant of machi íerj loi the mamif ttturc of doors, sashes, ve , as well as for fencing, toiigiung and grooving, &c Tint of Goodlet and Smith, of George and Eiskine streets, emplojs fifty one hands, and cuts about 50,000 feet per week lins establishment also has a complete plant for making doors and sashes as w eil as for performing the other work of the mills Seomer and Robertson, of Dowling stre<>t and Bathurst street, cut about 50,000 feet a week, lue also a com- plete plant for door and sash making, xc Hudson, Brothers, of the Botany Road, employ about sixty hands, and possess all the most recent machinery for the manufacture of house work of cvciy kind, having

recently nnported one or tw o of the latest Amencan I patents Mr Booth, of Sussex-street and Balmain, employs sixty hands, and cuts about 00,000 feet a week, and turns out also a yciy largo amount of turnery for upholstery work He has also an establishment on the Maiming Riv er, where about 30,000 lect are cut per week The prin- cipal timber cut is the cedar, from the Maiming, Mac- leay, and other Noithorn rivers, blue gum, mainly produced from Bnsbano Water, black butt, from Bnsbine Water, Port Stephens, and the Northern mers, grey ironbark chiefly from Bnsbano Water , and pine, from the Clarence, Richmond, and lw ceri livers, ond Wide Bay Hie whole of the müls above enumerated are worked by steam power, wluch is applied also to the joinery and othei machinery It may be mentioned also that the use of the pine from the Northern rivers has now become very general, and that it has almost entirely superseded the

American in our market

Co venus, &c

lhe number of coach and waggon manufactories in the colony at the close of 1809 is given in the Statistical Register at 83 Of these, 27 are in the Metropolitan district , 12 m Marti uid , 7 m the Pas- toral tlistricts, 5 m Parramatta, I m Bathurst, 3 each ni Braidwood, Goulburn, Mussvellbrook, Oiange, and Poit Stephens , 2 each in Kiama, Penrith, Wmd boi,and Wollongong, and 1 eachu» Carcoar, Liverpool, Mudgee, Newcastle, and Raymondlerrace lhe thief coach and carnage factories m Sy tbiey, are those of Mr Robeitson, which employs about 40 hands , O Buen, Iverndge, and M'Lay, employing 20 hands, Halley and Clyde, 16 hands, Aral employ nig 15 hands, Angus employing 15 hands, and Moore em plovnig 11 hands Tlie principal tiinbei used is cut to order specially foi the trade, and con- sists of mountain ash, beefwood, beech, lightssood, spotted gum, blue gum, ironbark, cedar, and pine All the above are colonial woods, but besides these, American vs oods, hickory, K.c , are imported tor vs ork orders for persons vs ho may prefer them to the colo- nial, though this is not often the case, our mountain ash and beech having all the liDhtness and tougluiess

01 the best American vs oods

[ MlSCELLAXEOlS

The Registiar-Geneial gives the number of tobacco factories m the colony at the end of 1869 at Id Of these, 9 are at the Paterson, 7 each in Maitland and Dungog, 6 m the metropolis, 4 at the Manning, and one each at Brisbane Water, Port Macquarie, and Port Stephens Hie total quantity manufactured vsas 8927 cvst, nearly the whole ol wluch was of colonial production Of the total quantity, 2752 ess t is ei e manufactured in Sy dney, and tlus is the only locality m which tlie imported leaf is taken mto manufacture, although ei en here a large proportion is colonial leaf Li 1860, the total number of estab hsments w as only 8, whüst the quantity manufactured

was 1697 cwt

Of wine presses, there were at the end of 1869 a total of 154, of which 99 were m the settled, and 55 ni the pastoral districts Of those in the settled dis- tncts, Maitland possesses 15, Camden, 14, Broulee andPenntli, 10 each, Raymond Terrace, 7, Parramatta and Port Macquarie, 6 each, Windsor, 5, Liver- pool and Muswellbrook, 3 each, Bathurst, Camp- belltown, the Manning, Mudgee, and Murrurrundi, 2 each, and Berrima and Wellington, 1 each In tlie pastoral districts, tlie largest number 61, are m the Murrumbidgee district, 44 of that number being at Albury In 1861, the number was given at 1 only , m 18Co it was 96 , m 1866 it was 116 , m 1807 it was 122, mid in 1868 it was 149

The number of Sugar Tactones at the end of 18G9 are given m the Statistical Register at 21, 12 beuig in the settled and 9 in tlie pastoral districts In the former S are at Port Macquane, 4 at the Manning, 2 at Bnsbane Water, and 1 at Liama, in the latter t are in the Clarence, and 5 in the Macleay district

I Tlie first mention of sugar factories is made in 1864,

when the number is gil en at one only

I The number of boüing-dowm establishments in

the colony ivas, at the end of 1869, 48, 10 beuig m the pastoral, and 38 in the settled districts Of the latter i 25 were m tlie Metropolitan, and 5 m the Maitland

distncts

Of distülenes there are 30 m the eolony,-28 being in the settled, and 2 being in the pastoral districts , and of sugar refinenes there are 2, both working m the metropolis The total number of nulls foi gram at the end of 1869 was 183, of wluch 151 were worked by steam, 14 by water, 10 by wind and 8 by horse power Of the total number, 140 w ere m tlie settled, and 13 in tlie pastoral distncts lhere were 21 brew enes at the end of last year, 14 bemg in the settled, and 7 beuig in the pastoral distncts, 5 of the former number bemg carried on m tlie metropolis lhere were also 2 gloss, and 8 hat manufactories earned on in tlie metropolis

Indigenous Woods.

THE colony is nch m its resources of indigenous timbers Not only along the coast distncts, but in the far mtenor, there are extensive bush forests , and last tracts of country yet remain to be explored by the botanist The supply obtained from the coast distncts hos been so ample, that there has been no necessity to penetrate mto the mtenor foi timber of a serviceable character Some of the woods now used possess a hardness and durableness unsurpassed by any va the w orld Whilst many are remarkable for the extraordinary beauty of their colour and grain, others are remarkable foi their foliage or their fibre producing qualities The number ot species, and the si7e to which many of the trees attain is astonishing lhe differences of duna te to be met with m the colony are, of course, conducís e to the grow th of a laigeianety of species Whether required for slup buüding, house caipentenng, or cabinetwork, tunbci of all kmds is to be had in gi eat profusion "Hie stems ot the trees, íarely cylmdrical, but of the most picturesquely írregulai fonns, covered with mosses and oichids, and loaded aloft with huge masses of epiphytical fenis of exquisite beauty-all these vege- table wonders, viewed in tlie transparent gi eon and almost sunless Ught w luch ev en on the bnghtest day s pervades their îecesses, combined with a delicious fragrance, mid mi agreeable temperature, astonish and gratify the lovers oí sylvan scenery " One characte nstic of tlie hardwoods is deserving of notice Al- though many of them moke exceUent fuel, and are laluable on account of the comparative quantity of steam they are capable of generating, the majority are slow to kindle, and a few of them wül hardly burn at all To tins cucumstance probably is to be attnbuted the small number of houses burst, in a climate aad amongst a population likely to afford an unusual pro- portion of such accidents Upwards of three hun- dred specimens of our indigenous timbers w ere sent to the Universal Exhibition of Natural mid Industrial Products held m London in 1862, and they were also exhibited at the exhibition of Industry at Pans m 1867 As regards tlie lightness and strength of our timbers, expenments that were made with them a few years ago, showed that wlulst some of the strongest timbers aieraged but tlie weight of water, tliey required a weight of from one to tvs o tons to break a stick only four feet long, and two inches square, and they required from four to six tons to crush one cubic mch against its fibre It would be nnpossible with the limited space at our tommand to enumerate all the known timbers which are suitable for useful or ornamental purposes But below will be found a detailed list of a few of the most important trees found in tlie coast distncts A great deal of tlie mformauon contained in this article lias been extracted from a-valuable paper read by

Mi Climles Mooie (duntoi of the Botanic G udons) bernie the Philosophical Society , and some of it h H

been taken fiom a catalogue published b)

G ov em m «it

Cedrela Austiahs (led cednr) -Tlie timb« of this best knew ii, and perhaps the most valuable tree the colonv possesses, is used verv largely for all kinds of purposes, it is easdj woikccl, and in di j situations xeij dvnablc A good specimen of tins wood is equal ni qunlitj to the best mahoganj, to which it is xei) sinulni m nppemance Hie tree glow s to mi enormous hive on the tableland of the Richmond from which, and the ¡ djoming elistiict of the lwecd, the principal supph is now obtained A tree of ccdui cut down nenr Lismore, mensvued ten feet m diameter at the base, and was calculated to jield 30,000 foot of

salable timber

Sophostemon Austrilis (brush, bistanl, or white box) - HUB tree attains a height of about 100 loot, and from 4 to 5 feet in diameter It is one of the most valuable timbers ni the eolonv, on account of its dmobihtj It is nvcired on «edible nuthontj that instances are known of this tmibei lemaming per leetlv sound aft« being neariv thirtj j ears woikcd up ns nbs of vessels It is plentiful within the coast lange, u open foiests, as xvellas ni brushes Another xauctj of the species, called forest mahoganx, grows to a 1 ir0e si/e, and is verj plentiful near brat'ton its timber is found to be x ci ) dumble near xvet situations, and is theieforc useful for posts oi sleepers

Araucaria Ciuinninhmiiu (Moreton Baj Pine) - This noble tree bears the bnme ¡iboriDnial name tis the c) press pine (coorong) It grows in the greatest pro- fusion in till the brush forests on the Richmond 1 bo timber from the inland or mount mi blushes is pre- ferred to that frc ni the coast Some trees xv di yield as much as 10 000 feet of bulable timber Spais foi shiph moj be obtained m anj quantitj, fiom 80 to 100 feet m length , ui sonic liibtmices the tieo ntt uns a height of at least 150 feet, and from I to 5 feet m

diameter

Callistemon Species (Wat« Gum) -1 lus tree is found on the banks of fresh water creeks in the Clarence distnet It is a small si/cd tree, the timber is x erj tough, and is used lor boat s knees and braces, a^e and chisel handles Shavings of this wood will

bind like a nbbon

Pagub Caromi - A tine beech , bundar to the English beech, except that it is evergreen It was found at the head of the Bellinger, between the* Clarence and Macleay Rivers I he trees xarj in si/c, from abo it tw o to three feet ni diameter, and from 30 to 40 leet high It lias receiitl) been dis coveied bj Mr Carron, Collector of the Botanic Gar- dens and has not ns x ct been used foi anj purpose

rimdersia Australis - Ash, Beech, Flmdosa of settlers A large tree of xcrj general occurrence in tlie bush forest on the banks of rix erb m the northern districts, attaimng a height of upw ards of 100 feet

stem, 24 to 30 inches in diameter,-generallj straight, but marked at intervals bj joint like swellings oi inteniodes bark, smooth ash coloured wood, xvlute in colour, splits cnsilj,nnd is extensivolj used for staves for tallow casks Jhcie arc several species of Phndersias winch grow to largo si/e, mid the timber of winch is xerj useful Hie dark )ellow wood, generall) known to botanists under the name of oxle)a xanthoxjlon, is a xvoodot great beauty and

suitable for the finest cabinet work Hie I lind«bias are not onl) valuable timb« trees but aro well suited for plautuig out for ornament ii purposes, affoiding shade and beaut) of appearance lliey are, botmieallj speaking, true cedars, i c , hav nig elim actors in common with the red cedir

Rims Rhodophr-the h"ht xellow wood of the settleib a kmd of sumach as tlie name indicates, is fine gi mned, mid xv ill take a good polish, its pale straw colour should render it a desideintum to tlie

cabinetmaker It can be obtained in quantitj liom the neighbourhood of tlie Richmond Iviv er

Castanospeinum \ustinle-gencinll) called the Moleton Bax chestnut but bett« known in some districts ns tlie bean tree because of its bean like lruit-is similar in colom and appearance to the walnut, which is so highly valued, it is well suited as a substitute for that wood it grows to a very 1 ngc si/c, from thiee to foul feet ni diameter in the Clarence district, and still larger upon the table 1 md of tlie Richmond, and ma) be obtained m greater quontit) and with more ease than nnv other timb« of the descnption in tlie Northern districts Vs an ornamental tree it is said to be unequalled bj aux in tins hemisphere The seed is eaten after being bruised mill baked into cakes, by the aborogmes but not until it has been steeped for five or six clay s in its briused state in frefch water, otherwise it is saul to be

poisonous

Rosewood of the Clarence-a sapomceous tiee, found in almost all the brashes both on the Clarence and Richmond Hie wood is ver) duiable prettily grained, and of a red colour, and w ill take a good polish This has been cut on tlie Clarence for plank uig the sides of vessels, and found to be very suitable for this purpose It is a large tree w itli rather a handsome nppearance, stem of the largest specimens from three to four feet m diameter Hie name rose

xvood lins been given becnuse of tlie similmity of the odour of the wood to the scent of that well known floxv er the ro=e

Ticus mncroph)lla, generallx known as the More- ton Ba) Pig-Tlus tree is the monarch of every forest m which it grows, and produces a handsomely graniedwood of somexalue for the inside lining of houses Of fix e species of the genus common to the brushes, three become huge trees lhe largest actually measured girthed about 87 feet, its xeiy irregular fonn prev enting arl) approach to accuruc)

It would be difhcult by description to convey an adequate idea of the grand, jet wild, character of these singular trees Originating from seed deposited bj birds, lugh up among the branches of the tallest trees, the plant commences its growth bj extending its rope like roots directly downw ards Getting firm possession of the soil, it then gracluallj embraces the parent stem, untü the latter whollv disappear» under the successive ligneous la j ers deposited bj the fig, and becomes the centre of an enormous fluted colunuijS generally of very irregular fonn, but alwajs sup- ported by huge buttresses xvhich extend to a great

circumference at the base The tree has an immense

cupola shaped head An instance was obtened in which, supposing the tree to be standing alone upoii a plain, a hundred men might be placed, sitting or ljingdown between the roots, perfectl) concealed

from view at a short distance

Cupama Australis (Native Tamarind) - This tiee, remarkable for its large and singular foliage, attains a considerable size on the Clarence, from sixt) to eighty feet m height, and as much as three feet in diameter It is valued by the settlers on account of its subacid fruit, which it jields in great abundance, and of which a very good jam is made The timber, although compact and durable, is seldom used

Pencil Cedar or Turmp Wood-This wood par takes much of the character of the last, it also re sembles the rod cedar It is used for building pul- posos, I works easrlx, aud is durable In x er j old specimens the w ood has a beautiful w av j appearance, and suitable for the finest of cabinet purposes In colour and qualitj it is not unhke tlie jumper wood used for blacklead pencils , hence the name The bark, when fresh cut, smells exactly like a Swedish turnip, fiom this cause it is often called turmp

w ood

Black Mxrtle -An Ebenaeeous tree ver j abundant m all the biushes m the Clarence and Richmond dis tncts, and of a si/e averaging from tvventj four to thirtj six inches in diamet« The xvood of this is easilj worked durable, and the toughest xvood known in the district in xvhich it is found Small fibres of this wood maj be twisted mto a lope without bieak

Idundamhre of the aborigines-a Tilnceous tree, frequent m the Claicncc sciubs This is one of the most beautiful trees m the northern distncts to which it appears to be confined The w ood is a light or mge colour tinged with gi eon, when fiesh chanDuig to a lighter shade , xvhen exposed it has a fine gum, mid Will take a polish suitable for cabinet xvoik

Acmena Species-a large gi owing mjiticeous tiee, ver) general on the banks of the north arm of the Richmond This singular xvood is worthy of being noticed, if it were only for its appearance, winch is that of a light mouse coloui It is v er j fine grained hard, and by the sawyers said to be durable, as it will he on tlie ground for jeirs without rotting, suitable for some kinds of funntuie, and easily obtained Hickorj, lignum vittc of Clarence and Richmond settlers, known by oth« names m xanous other plnceb This tree, which is of small si7e, is well known for tlie extreme hardness mid toughness of its wood This last quality would rendel it particu- larly x uluable to the coachinaker foi shafts and nianj othei purposes It is found all along the eastern

coast of this colonj

Lucalj-ptus species, natural order, Mj-rtacete Vi lute or pale ironbark Obtained from Illawarra, the most valuable peihaps of all tlie ironbarks, remark- able for its smooth unrform outer bark, and its xerj lund, tough, lnlocked, strong wood Broad-leaved rough ironbark Common in the countj of Cumber

land, one of the strongest and most durable of timbers, grows from 2 to 4 feet m diameter, and from 80 to 120 feet high Ironbark Distinguishable bj its very rough bark, m brond, deep, longitudinal furrows, its very brond leaves, and the different grain of its wood, grows from 2 to 4 feet in diameter, 1 and ixom BO to 120 feet high Narrow-leaved,

timoth,¡¡oi red lionlmk 1 Ins is of smUhr md moie toituous feiossth lluiti eithei tf the abose v mettes , its timber (which is highly valued) is rcddei, closer, soltcr, and moie ensilv woiked Box, of 111 tvs ano A tiec willi magnificent timbei, of fust into quility for si/e, h irdncbs, toughness, and duiability , giosss irom 4 to 6 feet in dninetei, and fiom 120 to 180 lcet m height Bastaid box An excellent timber, but atiec of most unsightly appe nance, and almost mvanably hollow oi decayed at heait before att lining full stature, the wood is greatly pn/ed tor plough btams, poles and shafts of di ay s and caits, spokes ot wheels, vc , gtous from 2 to 1 feet in (homoter, and from 60 to 100 lcet in hei"ht 11 roiled Gum A famous timbei foi ship building and loi house carpentcimg, it is often seven feet ni dinmUti, with a stem without knotor flaw, of from 70 to 80 tttt m length, it is piocurable fiom many puts of the colony Blue gum of coast distncts A m igiulitent timbei foi ship building and a favourite wood foi house carpenti) , not ncoil) so haid oi heas), andscaitel) so dumble as the lionboiks , giosss ftoiu 1 to 6 feet m damcter, 100 to 1 GO feet high Blue Gum of Camden , A timbei of verj haul, close, and mlocked giain , excellent foi naves and felloes of wheels, and foi work undergiound Wooli) Butt ol Hianana A magnificent timber tree, m ici) high repute £lor wheelssnghts work grows from 3 to 6 feel in diameter, and from 100 to 150 feet high Spotted or Mottled Gum A ^ood timbei tiee, with lolt) straight bolo , in| increasing reputation for ship- building Black Butt bum One of the vci) largest of the Luenlvpti," the timber of excellent quality tor house carpenti y or other purposes where strength and durability arc objects , a specimen WAS lately measured at Bulli, Illawarra, still in full itgoui and with no external symptoms of decay, 41 feet m circumference, with the bolo of immense height Mountain Ash, Wülovs, or White lop Much valued for lough purposes, where the bettei sorts of timber me not pioduccd it seems to foi m a link between the division of ironbarks and that of the gums Swamp Mahogniy A crooked growing tree, the timber much valued for knees and trookctl timbers of coastuig vessels , grows to about 3 feet m diamctci, and from 60 to 100 feet m height Mahogany A noble timber tree, the timber much pn/ed foi its strength and durability , grows fiom 3 to 5 feet in diameter, and from 60 to 130 feet in height lion Bark of the Clarence flus well known tree attains a very large si/e m the noi them districts, upwauls of 100 feet m height, and as much as 5 feet in diameter, the timber is veiy highly valued for its unequalled strength and dura- bility , it is used for all kinds of fencing, shingles, beams, dray poles, plough beams, and v anous other purposes, when properly seasoned it will not shrink , it is apparently distuict from the iron bark ot tlie

south

Angophoia species-Apple Tree of coast Useful for naies of wheels and botrds, but generally ninth deteriorated bv gum louis , glows from 2 to 4 feet in diameter, and fiom 40 to 60 feet in height Apple 1 ree. A handsome tree, occupy ing rich flats, deep loams, and sandy soils niland , the timber much duse by wheelwrights , glows horn 2 to 4 feet in diameter, and from 10 to 60 feet in height

Inst ulia lauiuia-"\\ atcr Gum of the streams m Cumbeiland and C aniden -A tree of crooked grois th, andieiy difficult to season, but when drv the wood is of singular closeness and toughness, and m suth state is belies ed to bt unmatched for cogs of wheels

m machinen

Melaleuca Stvphclioidcs (Prickly Tea Tree) - This tree grows irom IS inches to 3 feet in diameter, and from 40 to 80 lcet high The wood is hard, close, and rends veiy much in seasoning, but is saul to be almost imperishable undergiound lhe outer balk can be easily detached ui uinumerable thm layers, very soft to the to'ch Hie le ives of the soft-leaied tea tree, neld mi essential oil, which, vi hen extracted by distillation is only distinguishable by the colour from the " cajeput '

Acacia Péndula (M)all) -ibis is a species of

wood well known loi its violet scented wood It is common on the open sheep pastures of the mtenor It is much used loi lancv work, such as presentation mallets and tiovsel handles It grows from 9 to l8 inches m diameter, and to about 30 feet in height lhere are several species of acacia, the bark of two ol them (the Black "W attie and Green Wattle) is much pn/cd foi tamimg lhe Sallow is one of the largest of the genus , m some of the brushes attain- ing the stature of a line timber tree, remarkable far its narrow sparse plvyllodra and lugged bark , wood very handsome, tough, mid light, and extcUent tor axe hell es and bullock y okes

Urtita Gigas (Nettle lice, the Goo mas mab of tlie aborigines) -llus is a tiee remarkable for its gi eat stature and beauty It is common in the brush, and occasionally atiauisiery noble proportions Hie leaics of tlie young ngoious plants often exceed 12 to 15 niches in diameter, and are alssais con spicuous for sue , their stmg is most formidable liso specimens grow mg near each other measured respectively 40 and ii feet ni circumference at 1 feet from tlie ground lhe smaller one rises from its base by a series of buttresses of singularly regular outline, gradually tapering upvs ards vs lthout a branch to l.the height ot 100 or 120 feet, the trunk then divided mto a regularly formed wide spreading head lhe wood is too soft to be of use as timber. But tlie fibre, w Inch m the hands of the aborigines is readily w orked up into cordage, is of good, strong quality Hie bark is tluck, and nearly one half ot it is pure fibre

Athras Australis (Brush Apple or Wüd Plum) - A beautiful small tree, the neh milky sap of wluch resembles cream ui taste, the fruit like a veiy large plum, but of coarse insipid flavour, the wood is close gram, finn, and prettily i eined, and is good for cabinet work Common at Illawarra mid Brisbane Watei lhe largest tree seen measured 10 feet 6

inches m circumference

Commersoma sp (Brown Kurrajong )-Plentiful in the Clarence brush forests It is a small si7»d tree , valuable chiefly for its bark, which yields a very strong fibre, of w hich hshmg nets and bags for v anous purposes are made by the aborigines If properly prepared tlus fibre might become of great commercial value, as it can be readily obtained in large quantities

Geyera sahcifoha (Balsam Capm tree )-A tree of moderate si/e , the bark tasting strongly of the drug from which it receives its local name limber not used Ink, of a good quality, has been made from the bark of this tree It is generally to be found in the brush forests of tlie northern distncts

Owema Venosa (luhp Wood)-lins is a very handsome fohaged tree, which occurs in most of the northern brush forests , it is well worthy of attention on atcount of its timber, which is exceedingly strong and very highly coloured vnth different shades from black to yellow , it takes a good polish, and is used

for cabniet w ork

"Vitex species (Beech-tree of Hlawarra and the Richmond)-lins is a valuable but compaiatively little known timber , white ui colour, of great duia blencss, and does not Blinnk when exposed , used in the northern distncts for planking vesselb, as well as for their decks, and for flooring boards

The Port and City of Sydney.

STDXET-once the capital of all Australia, as the chief city of the parent settlement when it included the off- shoots, Victona, Queensland, &c -remains th" me- tropolis of New South Walts Pitted in everyway to become a great city, and being the main einpoiium of a country profusely endowed suth mineral wealth, and rich ni pastoial and agncultural resouiccs, she lias nicreased m importance so laigely that at the present time she is entitled to rank among the princi- pal titles of the w oild lo the poetic designation, " Queen of the Poiific," certainly no city on the western shoies of the gi eat waters has higher claims, and the liberal gifts of nature used to iuO advantage

WÜ1 leave her without a nval on either side of this broad ocean Situate not far from the antipodes of Gieat Biitam, the voyage to Sjdnej at a period not verj remote was viewed as an undertaking so extia ordmarj os to form a great featuie m the career even of navigators Now it is reduted to a kind of plea- sure trip-the passage to and fro bung practicable in little more than tw o months, and the visits of Britain s " Sailor Pnnce " and the Flying Squadion bemg regarded as no moie remarkable acluev ementa than a cruise ni the Adriatic oi West Indies at the beginning ot this century So much havuig betn said as to the facihtj of mtercouise with her most distant but most distinguished kindied in the mother country , next take Sjdney as the centre of European civilisation in the south-eastern quarter of the eaith Besides being within easj sail and in constant steam communication with the sister colonies on each side of her, she has also a regular intercourse with California, the French settlement of Ness Cale doma the Tiji Islands now rising into commercial significance , she has a tiade with other of the Poly- nesian Gioups, vs ith the numerous islands of Malay- sia, as well as with Southern India Her Blups also

have an established traffic with China and Mauritius , ' her immense trade in coal extends far north, westward to the Amencan shores of the Pacific, and hei European mau service is earned on by lines of steameis thal jointly make a circuit of the earth Her maritime enterprise is aided by the vast adv antages afforded by the noble haven on the southern banks of ?which Sy dney is buüt Port Jackson, if equalled as

a niititml haibtnn, is not sui| issi el ucier being biought into conn urison with u \ 1 tit the n iguificuit one ol Bio Janeiio, ovci win li t his sevei ii nell ul- lages, and the)ii0h inienoi i uiei i-, cup icious enough loi the navies of the >i!l A I) »lil co ut iiontuig the Poeilie foi mun miles ninth and south, is biolcn wheie the gi mt thils lorm a poitnl to this tjieat cstuni), vilnch is about a mile wide at the entrance A few moments' sail brings a vessel out oí the long swell ot the ocean into calm, deep wntei, piotected on cveiy sick by high linds Putting the fiist harbour h0ht in the duytiine a splendid vista is piesented to the aiming voyager, the elevated sboie being biokcnmt nunn i able bays ¡mci inlets mill the central expanse )1 II ttei ge umed with tucen islets Hie rockv st i mel on i ich side stictcliCB fiom heights of two nundi el ml tw» bundled and lilt) feet light donn to the iv itci s edge, no beuch 1 en»g seen except vi hen p losing une of the ninnv piomontt lies tie hcudof a b ly shoivoits snow white sands ni the distance Hie tree cn erect lulls cíetlicd in tho bii"ht yeen of spimg oi m the ltisset of sninmei mid bathed m the L,1OH ius lija of an Ausiiiihtui atmosphere loim a channing mingin to the bright blue wateis thov enclose Its dimensions me gu it enough to give ample loom for the ships of the wold )et notbolnige as to îcmove a spectator too fir iiom the pictuie around As the city is nppioached prett) villns and palace hive man bums ci own the heights or cxtc id along the shoie, begirt with gaulons and orclnids, where the 01 mDc pomegrniintc jinlm banana, and numerous olhti "eiiu tropic ii plants luxunate, associated with the choicest sluubs mid lloviera oí less genial climes Hie pink and delight ot the citi/ens whose yachts mid smaller crntt may constantly be seen bounding ovei its suifnee, tlus harbour is equally the admira-

tion of ¡ill vi ho see it for the fust time

About four miks from the entrance to the port, and at a point where the southern shore presents several prominent hcaeUands that give form to fine land locked basins, the city nses into view It is m latitude 32 degiees 62 minutes south, longitude 161 degrees 11 minutes east Hie city propel occu- pies an area of something more than two thousand acres, and is bounded on the north and west by water Its greatest length is three and three eighths nulcB, north and south, and its greatest breadth two miles and sev en eighths east and w est It has about a hunched and fifteen miles of stieets, irrespective of minor thoroughfares, mid numbers fourteen thousand hv e hundred houses The population (including the suburbs) is about 140 000, and the iunels dispensed hy the Corporation last )car amounted to about £200,000 The original settlement w as fixed at the head of the bn) culled S)dney Cove and m the neighbourhood there are still ti aces of the pranitive arclutecture of the eail) penod In a right luie extending from tlus point to the south the land is the low est, rising gentl) to tile south und moie decidedly on each side -to the oust by easy acclivities, to the west more abruptl),the highest pouit m that direction being occu- pied b) the Obseivotor) and Signal Station lownrds the sou til the v ouations of level arc less strongly marked but eastvnul the gradual ascent reaches to tile heights of Darlinghurst and the still more elevated suburbs of Paddington, Woollnlirn, and Waverk)

Hie cit) is ilnnkcd on the west b) a large arm of the cstuar), called Darling Harbour, vi Inch extends neail) its whole length Hie streets of the mam part of the cit) hav e been 1 ud out to the cardinal ponits of the compass, and, therefore, mtersect each othei nt right angles A breadth consistent with modern ideas of proper dimensions ior city streets recommended b) the authorities dunng the adminis- tration of Sir Bichard Boin ko was not given in S)cine), though adopted afterwards m la)mg out the then piovmcial town of Melbourne So that as S)diie) extended itself, and its structures have attnmed loftier proportions the six chains of w ldth in the thoroughfares must ip pear somewhat contracted to those who have been accustomed to recently built towns in Lurope or America Arclntecturall) S) due) has taken rapid stndes within the last ten or fiiteen )ears, and its line banking houses,mercantile establishments, and hand- some public edifices giv e it an aspect bespeaking sub stuntiul wealth, advanced cultivation, and growing entciprise Hie portion convcment to, though not close to the qutt)s, winch as usual m other gi eat sea

ports is the most frequented, contains many of the best buildings for commercial purposes, the banks and most ot the warehouses being constructed of freestone, in the modern st) le of Italian composite, and displa)ing m their facades much of the rich ornnmeiitution belonging to the classic and gotluc tvpes Most oí these are situated m the mam thoroughfares, Geoigc and Pitt streets The larger number ol the banks are on the vi est side of George street and together with the extensive blocks of spacious and handsome warehouses m then neigh boinhood give a distinctive chai actor to that section ot the cit) Hie most noticeable for their dimensions mid architecture are the London Chmtercd Bank of Australia, the Bank of New South Vv ales, the Commercial Bank, the Lnghsh, Scottish, Bank, the Australian Jouit Stock Bank, and the Bank of Australasia Those m Pitt street aro the

new City Bank, the Oriental Bank, and the Union

Bank Here also is the Exchange, a large stone

built edifice, with columned freut, of the Corin- thian order All of these are subst intinl structures, extemaU) unnosing, and within displaying much taste and elegance ni tresco decorations and fittings The ofhees of the Australian Mutual Provident Society, also m Pitt street, are equally observable for the beauty of their Itahamsed Corinthian front, and the general effect of the cancel stonework Othei extensive edifices in this locality aie the Sydney Mot nmg Herald Oflice, a massive budding oceup)uig a prominent site at the junction of three streets , Vickery s Buildings, a splendid pile of stone warehouses, besides a great number of insurance ofhees and mercantile establishments, ornamental in character and of important dimensions But by far the grandest edifice of which Sydney can boast is her Umversit), wluch is situated at the southern side, a little be) ond the city boundary, on an emuience that sets off its fine form to advan- tage It is a noble mass of Btone, m the style usually denominated Perpendicular Lnghsh, extend rng 410 feet in length Its great hall stands at the wcbtern end, its st) le is of an earlier period than that ol the rest of the range For dimensions, construe tive art, mid decoration, it is favourably compared b) competent judges with Westnunstei Hall, The aspect ol tlie great noifhern frontis exceedingly grand Hie two affiliated coUeges, St Paid a (Anglican) and St John s (Roman Catholic), are also extensive stone structures, Gotluc ni st)k, and stand within the do maui of 160 acres that surrounds the University Hie new Post Oflice, near the centre of the city, is an olaborate piece ol work, both as to extent and de coiulion, mid is so far advanced as to show how great au adornment it wdl eventually prove It occupies a space between George mid Pitt streets, and is to have a front to each, that lacmg the first named thoiough lure beuig now nearly complete It will also have a iront to a new street on its northern side, the whole

frontage extending over 604 feet ihe style is Italian, combunng the ost)alar of the Florentine palaces with the arcaded facades of Venice One of its most remarkable features is the nativ e granite used m the pdlars of the arcade and in the columination of the fagades It is highly polished, oi a grey tuit, and without uiteifermg with the harmon) of other details, reheves eflectuauy the otheiwise vunfonn colour of the structure The building throughout is piofusel) emiched with carved ornament Another gieat public edifice now being niised is the lown Hall, the ioundution stone ot

which w as laid b) Pmice Alfred durang one of his Roval Ilighnebs s visits The site is near the present centre oi the city, and the elevation lenders it con- spicuous Last lind vi est, the length is about 230 iect, noith and south, the principal front, lo3 Hie niclutecture is oí the Renaissance j enod of the Italian, m combmntion with \ enctian details The clock tower will stand 161 feet lnDh, and the mam bod) ot the ouilduig have an elevation oi o7 leet Hie Museum, on the eastern side of the city, is an impobuig bundure, vi ith a. bold Grecian front, whose leudmg fcatuies t_e btrongl) marked so as to present deep leccsses-a provision weU suited to relieve the ey e accustomed to the bnghtness of the Australian day The pnncipal Courts of Justice are in Kuig stieet mid at Dnrhnghurst The first mentioned, where the Civil busuiess is tiansacted, is a large rec tangulur buildmg of luie bnek work, with arcaded froi t, decor ited with Doric entablature Hie Court- house at Dnihnghuibt, ior Cnminal trials, is a fine stone building ui puie Doric In the rear is the gieat gaol, occupying a large area, and built of stone, with spacious words radiating from the centre Of the Government ofhees, the Treasur), at the eastein extremity oi Bridge street, is the ony oin having an) noteworthy charaetcnstic> as a public edifice , and, iuithei than that it is a huge well pro pf i Uoncd structure of freestone, with rusticated quoins and hnndsome entablature, nothing need be said Hie other Government ofhees m the same ¡bareet have little ui their appeaiance to make them objects of uiteiest oi ornament Hie same ma) be «aid of the Parliament buildings m Mucquane street They arc conspicuous as occup)ing a large Bite, but m debign there art no features worthy of attention The handsomest chamber is the dining haU, which has fine dimensions, is w eU finished, and possesses in

its mm tel) itec s in igi ifioent samples of the exquisitely Icautiful moiblis d the cotiuti) As fu as tim absence of mchitectuial ornament is concerned, tho like itmiikswill apply to other large public builcl mgs ni the same stieet, the Infirmai y, the» Mint, and the Immi0i ohon Depot Hie pnsota lesulences, however, are of a supenoi chaiactei, and. being in the lieuuty of beautiful recreation grounds, it is one of the anstoct ttie parts of the etty lho fashionable quoi tt i ; »? <xocllenu, how ci ci (contrary to the case of I ondon), is the east end of the city, and tho subttiban localities atietchiiig beyond along tho bhoie lleie ore most of the splendid mansions, glimpses ol which aie catiDht from the haibour winch tlie) oveilook Man) of than have been erected at tnoin ous tost, and foi extent, internal grandeur, anti magnificent grounds, art not equalltd by any private lesidtncts on this side of the Lquator Iheie are up waids ti one hunditd and twenty churches and othei platts of woislup in the tity and suburbs. Artliiltttually the edifices of the 1 nglisli and Roman Chintin s ait tht most piommtnt, although the chief pi at of ssoiship oi the I ongregational body, m Pitt btieet md those ol the Wesley nn Methodists m York street and at Chippendale are fine spacious buddings, lmpobiiiginstiuctuic and with finely finishedmtenors. Ihc Anglican Cathedral Church ot St Andrew, in Geoige street, has occupied many years ni erection and although not thoioutjluy fimslicd, has been for some time used for public w orship It has a remark- ably lute site m the most elevated part ot the central district of tht city, and theiefoie appears to advan- tage But it is of comparatively small dimension?, btuig withm the wallj 100 leet long by 62 feet m breadth Hie transtpt is 110 feet by only 11 feet If; is a Gothic building, m what is usually known as tha latei Decorated Style appioachmg in some of its"ex tcnoi details to the Fupcndiculur It has stained glass is mdovs s m the hithest form of modem art, nearly all being the gifts ol private mdividuals. Lhtboi ate marble and encaustic tile work covers tha floor of the chou and the steps leading thereto Tha Roman Catholic community me proceeding vvith tha erection of what is to be a lnDhly decorated and very laige Gothic Cathedral, neai the site of one burnt down a few yeais BL,o lins also is m an excellent! situation, bttw een the mam part of the city and ona ornamental details appropriate to the general of its most populous sections Goveniment House, tha olhcial lesidenee of her Majesty s representative, is a splendid building, m the ludor style, on a slight eminence, near to and overlooking the harbour, and suirounded by gardens and ornamental groimds Ita length is 152 leet, width 82 feet It was erected at a, cost ot about £50,000, and is a magnificent establish-

ment

Hie public traffic of the city and subuibs is earned on by about six nundred omuibubes and hackney car- riages, and the water communication between tlie city and itstransmarme suburbs by steamferry boats, which numbei about thirty lhe stieets ore lighted with; gas at a cost of upwards of £7000 per annum to tha Corporation S)dney has spacious markets in ita mam thoroughfare, and they are usually well Btocked with fnnts and vegetables of every kind-peaches, apneots, oranges, pineapples, together with apples, pears, plums, ¡v.c , being m profusion during their; respective seasons lhere are tvs o theatres as well as a fine opera house, and, notwithstanding tlie distanoe from the great centres of lugh civilisation ni the» North, S)dney n» not only well supplied with star tiogtdians and comedians but with English and Italian opera smgers

Although Sy dney has few reserves answering to tlie shrubbened squares of most of the large towns of Great Bntain, it has excellent park lands and gardens w lunn its boundaries easily accessible to the citizens. Hy de Park is a beautiful plateau of forty acres, nearly in the centre of the city It has a fine avenue about; hall a müe long, and is nearly surrounded by planta- tions and clumps of trees afford a grateful Bhade in vanous parts so as to make it an agreeable resort At the northern end ot the av enue is the fine bronza statue erected m memory of Prince Albert, and on the south eastern side a monument of Captain Cook ia beuig elected ni a position that will admit of its bemg seen from the harbour The Domain, a charming expanse ot paik land of 138 acres, planted tor land- scape eflect, is on the north eastern side of Sydney, surioundmg the pretty inlet called Tarni Coie lhe giounds-irregular in form and level-present every vancty requisite to produce picturesque news, and the artistic disposition of the groups and avenues of trees is fast deielopmg the beauties of which thus fal ounte promenade is capable Near the morn en- trance is on excellent bronze statue of Sir Richard Bouike, by Westmacott, m o situation from which is obtained one of the most beautiful landscape views tar be seen m any country 1 rom the Outer Domara the Botanic Gardens are approached lhey embrace thuty eight acres lhese are the finest m tha colonies, as in addition to the immense collection of exotics from eiery clune, the locality is one that stiikes ci cry beholder with admiration Tlie gardens! slope gently down to the wateis ot a circular bay, and while the upper or older portion is rather stiff m tha geometrical sty le of its arrangement, the lower section is adapted to the natural landscape with winding walks, grassy glades, gracefully formed beds, anti bordeib of flowers, secluded haunts, rockeries, ponds! and iernenes Round the water s edge there is & pleasant promenade Other parts of the Domain tot the east ot the bay are almost m a wüd state, and contrast with the artistic beauties of the rest, bemg a íocky primitive shrubbery overlooking tha is ater on each ol its sides More recently formed reseñes are Prince Alfred Park and Belmore Park, m tht south, and a tract of five hundred acres on tha south east side, named Moore Park Adjoining the latter groimd is tlie Metropolitan Racecourse, a large and excellent arena of sports, in wluth large fields of horses, of the finest breeds, compete at the two half yearly meetuigs for stakes that amount to £11,000 OK £16,000 in the y ear

lhe Harbour of Port Jackson proper has an area of 0 square mües, Middle Harbour, one of its armai 3 square miles , and the coast line of the whole is oí, mües From the Heads to the etty the distance is fouï mües, beyond which'the waters extend eight mües mto what is called the Parramatta River, giving 15 mües; as the length of navigation lhe average breadth of the nangable waters is three quarters of a müe, though they at some points widen to 2 miles or more. Tlie shaUowest part is between Middle Head and Georges Head, which is really the bar, Jbut hera there is 23 feet at low water Beyond this the depth ranges between 5 and l8 fathoms 1 here are three müe« of whaif frontage m use, and about 25 mües of deep water frontage m sheltered places that may bo made available fora like purpose Hie chief light house i« 76 feet high, erected on cliffs 268 feet above the sea level It is a white revolving light visible at 25 mile« to seaward On a rocky pomt 60 feet high, and

withm tlie South Head, stands a second light house 30 feet high from the base ; it has a bright fixed light visible at 15 mües withm the entrance there is a lightship with tw» fixed white lights, and at Tort Denison nearer the city there is a red harbour light beyond which ships are forbidden to proceed until they are boarded by Hie

Health Officer mid other authonues

lhe Circular Quay at the head of Sydney Cove has a length of 3100 feet available foi the largest vessels. Woolloomooloo Wharf to the east is 1200 feet lonjf, and was constructed at a cost of £26,000

Hie eastern shore of Darling Haibour which skirts the western side of the city, has its frontage entirely occupied with wharfs and quays Here all the Intercolonial Steam Companies have their stations, and the Gas Company its large woiks On the north from Müler s Pomt to Daw es Point (which includes all one end of the city), and from thence round the largest headland of the port, tlie waterside is also fully taken up by commercial premises with the exception of the site at Dawes Point on which there is a batteiy An extensive sluphuildiuj establishment was commenced by Mr Cuthbert some fourteen y ears ago at Miller s Pomt, and is capable of buüdmg vessels up to 500 tons It has turned out, besides a large number of saüing vessels, many sciew and paddle steamers, gunboats, and dredges lhe native timber used is-for beams: the ironbark, blackbutt, and the flooded blue, red, and spotted gums , and tor fittings the teatroe, iron- bark, blackbutt, and bangally Mr Booth s estab- lishment at Joluistonc s Bay is also large, occupying an area of 24 acres, vsath a water frontage It embraces the largest sawmills in the country, and ha« capabilities for shiphuüduig up to 200 or 300 tons, lhe woiks of Messrs Hely and Harpur, associated with their floating dock, are important Hie dock offers every iacihty for tlie smaller class of vessels up to 2o0 tons burden, which can be docked m httlrj more than two hours A considerable number of men hav e for y ears been employ ed at this establish- ment We now come to works of greater extent and capabilities lhe litzroy Dry Dock at Cockito« Island, some few miles to the west of the city, is a; Government establishment, and onginally intended for the repair and overhaulnig of vessels ol the Royal Navy IN o vessel has yet entered the port that was too large for its capacity H M S Galatea waa taken m without the slightest difhculty The Govern- ment have taicen care to provide the establishment with the largest, most powerful, and retently im- proved kinds of machinery The workshops ore con tamed m an extensive and substantial stone budding

on the eastern Bide of the island. In front of these a | gea wall has been budt into deep water, giving very spacious wharfage accommodation. The dock is 400 feet long, with 20 feet depth of water ovei the sill Situated as it is within easy approach, hnx mg AU ample depth of water, and well behind any defences that mav be erected for the protection of the city, this place is* evidently destmed to become the naval arsenal of the colony Othoi great dock w orks are those of Messis Mort and Co , at Waterview Bay, westward from the city, but not so far removed as the PitiTOj Dock Hore are very extensiv e appliance-, Jor the reran of the laigest ships The picraisos occupy tlie entue head ol the bay, the woikshops being very spacious, with a length of 500 feet, md a jnuumum xndth of 40 feet Castings up to 12 tons enn be undertaken here, and the turning dopirtment, Tvlncli occupies a spice of 200 feet by 40 feet, is filled with all the lmchmeiy xvhich engine«nig nt has supplied to aid the xvoik of man's hand The dock is SOO feet long, xvith an cntinncc 70 feet wide, mid a depth of water over the sill of 20 feet It is partly cut out of the rock mid partly limit up .verj compactly xvith stone m isonry At this csta bbshment me effected all the i op uri leqmieil by the large steamers of the Pciiinsul n and Otientil Roy ii Wail Company Not only ure the laigest steameis repaired, but scveial of a si/e suited foi niteieoloniil Iralhe have been constructed The capabilities of the woiks hivelccentl) been augmented bj the addition of a lmgc pntent slip, and aie at present equal to any demand which maj bo m ide upon them in shipbuild- ing and manne engineering The Austialasinn Steam Navigation Compnnj haye veij extensive moms for shipbuilding and lepurmg, their Cat iblishment being situate on the western shore of D uling Ilnbour It cent uns vast mechanical appli mecs, tud in its woik- shops ure employ ed nt times some 100 peisons All Hint is lcqiuied to equip i fust-clas» engnieeiing es- tablishment is to be found heie, and there is a patent slip capable of laisnig steam« s of the laigest si/e The xvoiks me cmplojcd not onl) in repairing the vessels of the companv's pov, ei fttl fleet, but in repair- ing and building loi private own«3

Along the seaboard of the colon j there me numerous Other cstublishmrnts for building x cssels from 30 to 350 tons, and cmplojing together about 150 hands To the north, Scott s at the lweed River, Lawson's and Stew nt'fa at the Maclci) Rivoi , Newton's, at the Manning River, Yabsle) s at the Richmond River, Peates and Phegni'b, at Cipe Iliwkc, MT'herson's at the Williams Riv er, King's tit the Paterson Rix« , Scott's at Newcastle , Thoa and R Davis s at Bnsbnne Water , Macdonnell^ at Port Stephens To the south there arc Stoioy's and Wests at the Clyde, Gnidincr's at Shoalhaven, Wood's mid Dent's nt Jervis Bay The timber is plentiful in these localities, close at hand, and con- sists of the colonial hardwoods, blue gum, black butt, mid nonbnik There uie man) ) acht build« s on vnnous parts of Poit Jackson, and some handsome .ycsels haxe been tinned out The boat buildeio too are nnnicious and skilful

The steam Hoot of the colony is comprised of tlie following vessels -

A S h Company-Alexandra, screw, UO-liorso power, 559 tons Auckland, seiew, loO-horso power, d18 tons Buleluthn, rcrcw, 100 hoiso powei, 432 tons Dee, wren, 12-liorse power, 13 ton« lilnek Swan, sei on, C0-horse power, 2/1 tons liolvi urn, stern wheel, 30-hoise powci, 10*1 tons Boomerang, screw, 100 ¿orsc power, 055 tons Hiisbnne, sciew, 40-hoisc power, 102 tons City of Adelaide, screw, 200-lior6c pow or, 838 tons City of Brisbane, paddle, 220-hoibO power, 033 tons City of VIcl bourre, sei cvr, 200-hai so pow cr, 837 tons Clarence, paddle, 120 liorsc-power, 357 tons Collnioj, screw, 110 horse-power, 181 lons Cooimnbarn, sciew, 210-hoise powci, 100 tons J. [{mont, rcrcw, 80-hoiso power, 400 tons Linn, piddle, 70-hoisc power, 269 tons llorcncc Ii vine;, piddle, 110 horse pow el, liS tons Havilah, setow, 65-hoise power, 301 tons Ipswich, piddle, 00 liorse powci, 89 tons Inincs Paterson, scicw, 00 lioisc power, 388 lons Lady Howcn, puddle, 150-hoi se pow ii, )27tons Lulj \oung, paddle, 150-horse powtr, 023 tons leichardt, paddle, 100 hoiso Vowel, 8(18 toiib Quctnsl uid, paddk, 120 hurst power, 372 lons itani, it» i, «Crew, 110-liorse power, 070 tons I monee, twin SCicw, 30 boree power, 207 tons Willi lins, piddle 120 hoise powci, 32G tons XV onga Wong i, sciew, 270 horse pnwei,|1002 tons \ namba, stern wheel, 21 liol se power, 07 tons \arra laira paddle, 200 lim se power, 5J5 tons iotal vessels, 30 lotal horse power, 3jl7 Jotat tonnage, 13,179

Clarence nnd Ilicliinond Itiv ei Coinpuiy -Agnes Irving, paddle, 140 hoiso power, 430 tons Halium, paddle, LO hoise power, 100 tons Cygnet, paddie, 30-hoise powei, 30 tons Ulamintini, paddle, 60-hOrso power, 285 ton« lu afton, piddle, 100-hoisc powci, 315 tons lue King, piddle, 80 horse power, 221 tun? Sautilus, paddle, 2J-hoi se power, 35 tons l'lntv pus, screw, 50 lioisc powei, 217 tons namoinej, btern-wheel, ¿U-hoisc powei, SO tons Uunniia, paddle, 12-horsc power, M tons Ulooin, »tern-wheel, 25-hoi se pow er, 115 tons lotal vessels 11 lotal iioiae power, G72 lotal tonnage, 2193

Illawarra Steam navigation Company -Coolangatta, stetn TThecel, 21-hoise powci, 87 tons lluntci, piddle, 120-horso Tower, 309 tons Illalong, paddle, 120 hoisc powei, 291 tons Jkcmbla, paddle, 105 borsc-dower, 321 tons Kiama, paddle, 00 liorsc power, 114 tons lotal vessels, 5 lotal hoiae powei, 489 lotal tonnage, 1158

Hunter lUVci I\cw Steam Compinj -Anna Jinna, stem wheel, 25 horse power, 84 tons Cttj ot ¡Sewctstlc, paddle, 1J0 horse- power, 8J3 tons Morpeth, paddle, 185-boite power, 520 tons i'atcrson, paddle, 120 hoiso powci, 320 tons total vessels, 4 ¿otal boise power, 480 lotal tonnage, 1329

Clarence mid Ititbmond Uiver Company-rielen Macgregor, screw, üO horse powci, 171 tons new Lngland, sciew, 80 horse- power, 180 tons busannnh Cuthbert, screw, 50-lioisc power, 193 tons Settler's Tricnd, stem wheel, 12-horso power, 10 tona Total vessels, 4 lotal horse power, 192 Total tonnage, 593

Ianaumtta llnei Lompnnv -Adelaide, paddle, 35-horso power 331 tons Linn, paddle, 45-horse power, 72 tons Pelican, paddle 35-hoise powci, 12 tons riatjpus, puddle, 35-horse power, 287 tons lotal vessels, 1 Total boroo powci, 150 lotal tonnage,

287

Iiulli Coal Compnnv -Barwon, screw, 40-liorsc power, 419 tons

\vmilora sciew, 40 horse powei, 325 tons lotal vessels, 2 lotal liorsc power, 80 1 otal tonnage, 744

1 ng Bo its -Aquarius Be idalbane, paddle, 80-horso power, 101 tons Bungai ce, paddle, 150-horse power, 103 tons Cobra, 3«iddlc, 45-boise powei, 91 tons Goolwa, paddle, 90 hoiso powcr, lui -tons Herald, piddle, 20-horsc power, 41 tons Ilunter, paddle, 30-horso pow er, GO tons Lotus, paddle, 10 Iiorsc pow cr, 64 tons Prince Alfred, paddle, 80-horso power, 149 lons K,i|ii(l, paddle, 40 hoiso power, 90 tons .Southland, paddle, 80-liorsc power, 180 tons lamir, paddle, G0-hoiso power, 200;tons V esta, paddle, 40-borse power, 08 tons lotal vessels, 33 lotal horsepower, 755 lotal tonnage 1154

~ Colonial Silgar Compon) -Chatsworth, paddle, 52-horso powor, ii lons Darkwater, paddle, 52-horse power, 12 tons May Queen, paddle, 30 horse power, 52 tons lotal vessels, 3 lotal lioise powci, 134 Total tomnge, UG

I uvate Owned Steamers -Althjnust, paddle, 25-horse powor, DI tons Cullodon, paddle, 00-hoisc power, 151 tons Commis- sary, stern wheel, 4-horso power, 44 tons 1 agio, screw, 80-hoisc power, 227 tons Saxonia, screw, 80-horsa pow cr, 357 tons ïotul vessels, 5 lotal horse power, 219 lotal tons, 830

Passenger and I erry Boats, l8, paddle, 330-horso power, 481

tons

Number of Sailing Vessels of all Classes, registered in Now South V\ al«, 518 , tonnage, 05,971

Free Trade.

THE position of New South Wales m the Aus- tralasian gioup of colonies is one of special im- portance m relation to the pohc) of free trade. h)due), the metropolis of the colony, is situated on ike waters of Port Jackson-a haibour which, for case and safety of access, for capacity, for depth of "water, for shelter, nnd for all the conveniences in ovluch shipping rejoices, may rank with the finest harbours m the world In its commercial advantages it enjojs an undisputed and indisputable pre-

eminent e m these seas. There are two or three other

fine harbours on the coast, but thej are not av ailable as nfloiduig sites for great cities. Sjdnex alone com- imos the double functions of a great metropolis and a great seaport. It theiefoie draws to itsell, as to a centre, most of the coasting trade of the eastern shore of Australia, and is also the lendcîious of the &ade of Southern Polj nesia, in addition to possessing a bhaie of the tiade of New Zealand The shipowners of Sjdnej possess about 000 vessels, and emplo) about SoOO men. The extensive coal-fields winch are ahcady opened to a large extent to the north and to the south of Sj dney furnish an article of export to .\ cssels bound to foreign parts, so that few now go nvvaj in ballast, and it is to the interest of the coal piopnetors that the port should be as nee ns possible, in order that theie maj be the maximum demand for ihcu particular product Por the more attractive the port the moie vessels are likely to come here seekuig, and there is little else but coal to take abro id All ?the pastoial pioducts of the country-wool, tallow, ludes, horns, ile -go to England us the best maiket, ibut Australian coal can go anj vvheie, as its excellent qusht), both foi gas and steam purposes, is now vv eli iccogiused, Shipments are made to the Mauritius, Bombay, Cejlon, Calcutta, Singapore, JJatavia, Millik, Chinese ports, Cahloinia, Pananii, and Val- paraiso Thrs export of coil gives to the exter- nal tiade of r>evv South AVales a peculiintx ?which attaches to tint of none ot the other colonies, and gives to us a special inducement to pieserve oui commeiciil freedom, m oíd« that by so doing we may give a intuí ii and health} development to a most important locil m dustr} Anj policj that would îestrict free tiade .would mevitabl} check the foieign export of our coil, and even, theiefoie, if protection could be shown in some respects to be a gain, it would hive to ho count«balanced b} this v«j serious loss

The shipping tint frequents the port gives large employment to nnny persons m and about thecitj. Tlie shipxards find vi oik in lepairmg The pio Jibion mcrclnnts distribute orders amongst the fann«s, the m.uket girdeners, the meat pieserveis, .While demands nie nlso made on the ropemikers, tlie ¡>a tankers, the boatbuilders, the timb«-cutters, .Vc Tlie miscellaneous expenditure on ships' account, and Hie payment of xviges to the xanous crews, is also an item of no inconsiderable import mee, while the importéis who cair} on a largo re-export trade, hive Proportionate stocks to meet the demand, and the abundant suppl} in all the xv arehouses tends to keep commodities cheap, and to th it extent to reduce the cost of hving to the whole body of consumers Tlie interests of the colony m the maintenance of free ¡trade are, therefore, sulheieutl} appuient, although it W unpossiblo to trace them m all their ramifications.

Notwithstanding this, however, there is in the colony a Protectionist party, which is very vigorous and uidefatigable, and winch loses no opportunity of preaching the doctnno of encouragement to local industry lins party appeals constantly to local pre judíeos, advocates ealing foi our own people betöre wc benefit the foieignci, the retention of our own money vs ltlun our oss n frontiers, the investment of our pioftts m local manufnctuics, and the multiplication ol nidustiies as being more important than cheapen mg tht cost of Using But thtst arguments have ni ¡de tompoiatively small headssay because thtir ads ocotes mc fighting against uatuio lhere aie so many men living by free tindo tint it is difficult to convince thom of the ads mtoDe that would accrue from dissipating oin external com mc ice M my even among the aitisan class whoa few seáis ago wero somesvhat bessit-hed b) the pro tcetionist theories, have been silently converted by the opeiation of the ad viloiem duties for it has been lound by expenence that these duties not only embarrass the impoitcis, but dimmish employment fir the labouring classes without creating any sub-

stitute

In the othei colonies, however the piotectiomst theoiy has found more f worn, because it is not so visibly icfutcd by constdei itions of immediate mteitst In Vittona the piotectiomsts hive for some years hod the upper hand, and the Govern mint due not risk its popularity by retracing its steps In oil the other tolomts, theie aie cithei arl laloiem duties oi its less objectionable snl stitnte, measurement duties but there is a loud and eainest cn for then îepeil and the Cioyeinment,