A GAZETTEER OF CENTRAL POLYNESIA-(CONTINUED).
[Abbreviations.-For the Fijian Archipelago-Fi :, for the Samoan Archipelago-Sa :, for the Vaitupu Group-Vai :, for
Tongese Archipelago-T :, for the Hervey Group-Her :, for the Marquesas Archipelago-Mar :, for the Society Isles-Soc :. for the Georgian Group Geo :, for the Austral Group-Aust :, and for the Paumotus Archipelago-Pau :. By observing these abbreviations after the name of any island it may be seen whether it forms part of any of these larger groups and archipelagos, and further and more elaborate information relative thereto be readily obtained.]
ANTA CHRISTINA, Mar : Name given to Taouata in the SE. group of the Marquesas on its discovery by Mendana in July
SANTA MAGDALENA, Mar : Name given to Fatouhiva in the
SE. group of Marquesas, on its discovery by Mendana on the 21st July 1595.
SAUSAU, or NAI SAU SAU, Fi : An islet 5 miles NE. of Mali, on
the N. coast of Vanua Levu.
SAVAGE ISLAND, (or Niue.) See Niue.
SAVAII, Sa : (also called Salavahi, Oteewhi, and Pola.) The
largest island in the Samoan Group, from 10 to 15 miles W. from Upolu, and 5 or 6 from Apolima, of which at present not much is known. It is a lofty island of the volcanic class, nearly twice the size of Tahiti, being, according to some authorities, about 200 miles in circumference. Erskine states that it is 40 miles in length by 25 in breadth, and supports a population of 12,000 souls. The scenery is very grand, but it is not considered equal in this and more important respects to other islands in the group, Savaii has numerous inlets, but they are either too shallow to float large vessels, or only large enough to admit the entrance of small boats. Mataatua Bay, on the NE. point of the island (latitude 13-28 S., longitude 172-18 W.), is an ex- ception, however, and affords a good anchorage except when NW. winds prevail. Paluale on the SE. end of the island, and Felia-lupe on the NW. point, are small but pleasantly situated villages. Savaii does not (in proportion to its size) exercise any particular influence over the other islands of the group, being usually considered as subordinate to the native authorities of Upola or Manono. A chief of Upolu is still the titular king of Savaii, but at present without any actual power whatever.
SAWAILAU, Fi : One of the Yasawa Group, NW. of Naviti Levu. SCHAADELYK ISLANDS, Pau : See Pernicious Islands.
SCILLY ISLANDS. (Fenua-Ura.) Three barren uninhabited
islands, about 400 miles W. of Tahiti, and 150 miles NW. of Mopeha : near the Scilly Islands at a distance of 6 miles on the W. side is a dangerous reef.
SEA GULL GROUP, Pau : Name given by Wilkes to the three
islets of Tuinaka, Tipotu, and Ohiti.
SERLE ISLAND, Pau : A low island of coral formation, 7½ miles
long, in a NW. direction, and 2¼ miles in width. Population 100, similar to the people of Clermont de Tonnere, from which it lies distant to the NW. 26 miles. SE. extreme, according to Beechey, latitude 18-22-39 S., longitude 136-55-3 W. SHARK'S I. See Tiburone's I.
SHERSON'S I, Vai : (Grand Cocal ?) See Grand Cocal. SIMANOFF I, Fi : See Doi.
SINCLAIR I, Fi : One of the Yasawas, S. of Agate Island.
SIR CHARLES MIDDLETON'S ISLANDS, Fi : See Eastern Group of the Fijian Archipelago.
SIR CHARLES SAUNDER'S ISLAND, Geo : Name (now dis-
used) given to Tapamanoa by Wallis, on its discovery by him on 28th June 1767.
SIR H. MARTIN'S ISLAND, Mar : See Nukahiva.
SMITH I, Fi : An islet in the Underwood Group. See Under-
SMITH I, Fi : Another islet in the Underwood Group. Doubtful. SMYTH'S ISLANDS, Pau : Sandy reef islets on the N. side of
the Marava Group.
SOANGI, Fi : An islet lying between Vatoa or Vatou and Braken-
ridge Island, at the NW. extremity of Vanua Levu.
SOCIETY ISLES, Soc : The Society Isles are a cluster of four or
five islands with their adjacent islets, lying upwards of 120 miles to the WNW, of Tahiti, and perfectly distinguished from the islands of the Tahitian or Georgian Group, with which they are often ignorantly confounded. The Society Isles are all independent, and the Georgian Isles all subject (under the form of a Protectorate) to France. To secure the existing independ- ence of this interesting group, now divided into three princi- palities,-the kingdom of Bolabola, and the State of Huaheine, ought, it is suggested, to be united to the more central kingdom of Raiataia and Tahaa : by which means a single compact State might be formed out of the three, of sufficient size and import- ance to deserve the respect of foreign nations, and more espe- cially of their immediate neighbours at the French Protectorate in Tahiti. Of course, at present, the independence of the Society Isles is considered to be most satisfactorily settled, but how their immediate interests will stand effected, at the very first misunderstanding between France and England, it is not by any means difficult to foresee.
The Society Islands and their inhabitants so closely approxi- mate in all respects, except in their politic aspect, to the Georgian Islands and the Tahitians, &c., that nothing further need here be done except to subjoin the nominal list of the islands of this group, subdivided according to the present
system of government.
I. Huaheine, (Huahine or Atiapii,) divided into two parts Huaheine-nui, and Huaheine-iti. Adjacent islands Oaei-orea or Vaiorea, and Taumau. Harbours, Fare and Fare-loa.
II. Raiataia, (Raiatea or Uhetea.) Adjacent islands Ohetau, Tapunue, Tamou, Opururu, Oatara, Ohetuua Islets, Oachate, Toumarro, Teanuo, Motuorea, Otorea, and Tahownoe. Har- bours Oopoa, Onunamou, Ohetuua, Oachate, Maarahai, Tetoroa, and Ohamaneno.-Tahaa, (or Otaha.) Adjacent islands Toa- houta, Whennuaia, Towhea, Matahira, Tahutu, Toutou Islets (3), and two or three others of a small size. Harbours Ohamene, Oherurua, and Apotopoto Bay.
III. Bolabola (or Borabora and Bonabona, &c.) Adjacent islands Motuahuna, Toairoa, Pirare, Otahatoma, Oaeitata, Taraua, Motutube, Tetuatua, Oaubue. Harbour, Otea Vanua.-Marua or Maupete and its islets, and Tubai and its islets, &c., &c.
SOLA ISLAND, T : An island to the SW. of Tongatabu, probably
the same as the Ata or Pylstaart Island of some charts. See
SOLITAIRE I, (the Solitaria of Quiros in some maps.) An
island lying about SW. of the Union Group, N. of Uea, NW. of Savaii and W. by N. of Swain's Island. This island was visited and named by Mendana on the 29th August, 1595. See
SOLITARY ISLAND, Fi : An islet near the E. side of the
entrance to Suva Harbour in the S. Coast of Naviti Levu.
SONDREGRONDT I, Pau : An island discovered by Schouten and
Lemaire, the 14th April, 1616, and placed by some N. of Takurea or Wolconsky. Its present identity is doubtful.
SONI, Fi : A small islet to the N. of Mololo, which lies to the W.
of Naviti Levu.
SOSOI NAVITI, Fi : One of the Yasawa Group, NW. of Naviti
SPEIDEN I., Fi : An islet near Mololo Passage, at the SW. end
of Viti Levu.
SPEIDEN I., Vai : (Lynx I ?) A small islet with no lagoon, at
the N. extremity of the Vaitupu Group, to the SE. of Grand Cocal), in latitude 6-10 S., and longitude 177-41 E. from Green-
SPIRIDOFF I., Pau : Name given by Russians to Oura ? St. AMBROSE : An island in the South Pacific Ocean, discovered
by Juan Fernandez in 1574.
STARBECK I. An island NE. of the Maniiki Group, between
Bennett and Volunteer Islands.
STAVER'S I. (Starve I, Barren I, &c.) A low sandy Islet, with
a lagoon, W. by S. of Caroline Island. It is well wooded, half a mile in diameter, and of oval shape, with heavy breakers sur- rounding it. It is not possible to land here. Visited by a vessel attached to the United States Exploring Expedition, in 1841, when one of the officers identified it as the Staver's Island of Captain Cook. Position ascertained so be latitude 10-5 S., lon- gitude 152-22-30 W. Uninhabited, of course. Described by another authority as lying between Caroline and Thornton Islands on the E., and Tienhoven and Groningue on the W., to
the N. of Bauman's Island, Flint Island (the eastern one), &c. NE. of Staver's I, lies (or is supposed to lie) the Ann I. of some
ST. AUGUSTINE I, Vai : (Taswell's I.) A small well wooded
island, in latitude 5-35 S., and longitude 176-6 E. See Vaitupu
STEWART ISLES. A small cluster of islands about half-way
between the Samoan Group and the Society Islands properly so called. Exact identity uncertain.
ST. FELIX. An island near St. Ambrose, discovered by Juan
Fernandez at the same time.
ST. MATTHEW'S I. See Matthew's Island.
ST. SIMEON I, Pau : (properly St. Simeon and St. Jude.) Name
given in 1772, by Don D. Bonechea to Tawere (or Resolution I.)
to which refer.
STORM I, Fi : An islet in the reef N. of Benga.
STUART I, Fi : An islet within the Benga and Namuka reef,
S.W. of Benga. See Yanutha-i-ra.
SUNDAY I. Kermadec Group. See Raoul I.
SUSUI, Fi : A small island S. of Vanua Valavo, one of the Ex-
ploring Islands, N. of the eastern group of the Fijis. It has
SUTHUNI LAILAI, (Sucuni-lailai,) Fi : One of the two small
islands near Nairai, of which the following island is the other.
SUTHUNI LEVU, or Sucuni-levu, Fi : One of the two very small
islands near Nairai, to which refer.
SUWAROFF'S I. An island discovered in 1814, lying N. of
Palmerston I, and S. of the Maniiki Group.
SWAIN I. Union Group. An island about 3 degrees S. of
Fakaafo. Discovered and named Swain's Island by Captain Hudson, in 1841. Lies in latitude 11-5 S., and longitude 170-55-15 W. Supposed to be the Gente Hermosas of Quiros, to which refer.
SYDNEY I. An island at the SE. extremity of the Phoenix
Group about 60 miles E. of Hull's Island.
TAAWIRRY, Geo : A reef islet near Bourou, on the NE. coast of
TABOOA, Fi : (or Taoua.) An islet off the coast of Naivti Levu,
on the NW. side, between Ba point and Ba passage.
TABUAEMANU, Geo : Form used by Ellis for Tapamanoa, to
TABUNASITHI or TAVUNASITHI, Fi : An uninhabited island,
33 miles SSW. from Lakemba, one of the eastern group of the
TABUTHA, Fi : (also Tavutha and Tavuca.) An island 6 miles in
circumference, 32 miles due N. from Lakemba, one of the eastern group. Christian. Has a remarkable peak at the NW. end of it. A reef surrounds it, but there are two boat entrances on the SW, and NW. sides. Two reefs lie 3 miles to the SW. of it.
TAENGA, Pau : (Holtz I, Yermoleff I.) A lagoon island with
an entrance at its W. extremity, discovered in 1802. Lies NE. of Makemu, in latitude 16-24 S., longitude 143-12 W. De- scribed in " Rovings in Pacific," vol. i., page 257.
TAFAHI, T : This mountainous island (also called Boscawen's I,
and sometimes known as the Cocos I, of Le Maire and Schouten), lies 15 miles NE. of Niua-tobu-tabu, to which refer.
TAHAA, Soc : (Otaha.) An island in the same reef as Raiataia,
at the distance of 3 miles on the N. side of it. It is a de- pendency upon Raiataia ; has two or three harbours and islets
adjacent. See Society Isles.
TAHITI, Geo : (La Sagitaria, King George the Third's I, Nou-
velle Cythere, Otaheite, and Amat.) This island, the largest and most populous of the Georgian Group, is stated to be about 120 miles in circumference, consisting of two peninsulas, and containing 7000 inhabitants. It has several excel-
lent harbours, of which the principal are Papieti, Matavai, Popoa, Toanoa, Otapuna, Papara, Panawea, &c. Also several streams or rivers, the principal of which are Poppino on the N., and Ooaigarra on the S., both rapid but narrow, and not deep. It has, moreover, a pretty lake named Waiheren, 1700 feet above the level of the sea, of oval shape, half a mile long, one-third of a mile in width, and 96 feet deep. Like Lauto on Upolu, this lake is said to have subterranean out- let. Tahiti, at present under the form of the protectorate, is subject to France. Point Venus, the most northern extremity of Tahiti, to the SW. of which is Matavai Bay, lies, according to Beechey, in latitude 17-54 S., longitude 149-29 W. See Georgian
Islands. TAHOWNOE, Soc : A reef islet on the NW. extremity of Raiataia. TAHUATA, Mar : (or Taoutn, also called Santa Christina.) An
island in the SE. group of the Marquesas rising to the height of 3280 feet above the level of the sea, Lies 75 miles SE. from Nukahiva. Described in "Rovings in Pacific," vol. ii., page 192.
TAHUTU, Soc : A reef islet on the N. W. side of Tahaa. TAIRA, Pau : (or Taiero, also called King's Island.) A small low
island 4 or 5 miles in circumference, and averaging about one in width,-50 miles NW. from Katin or Sacken I. Highest point only 20 feet above the level of the sea. Springs of fresh water here. Cocoanuts abundant, and soil productive. Not permanently in- habited. Lies in latitude 15-42-25 S., and longitude 144-38-45 W. At this island black and orange coloured pearls are usually
TAKANOVA, Fi : A name applied in some old maps to the island
of Vanua Levu, to which refer. It is probably the name of a district in Vanua Levu, and may be a corruption of Thakun- drova, a district in the S. part of Vanua Levu, near Somo
TAKAUEA, Pau : (or Takanea, or Tania ; also called Tchitschagoff
or Chichagoff, and San Blas.) A low lagoon island 10 miles
distant ESE. from Faite.
TAKI, Fi : An islet in the N. aspect of Biva, to which refer. TAKUME, Pau : (or Takurea, also called Wolconski.) A lagoon
island 80 miles distant from Ahaugatou, to the westward. (See "Rovings in Pacific," vol.i., page 256.) This island is of oblong shape, 10 miles in circumference. Its N. end is high, and thickly wooded with cocoanut groves and other trees ; on its E. side there is a partly submerged reef. No opening to its lagoon. Said to be incorrectly placed in charts of Commodore
TAKUREA, Pau : See the preceding.
TAMOU, Soc : A reef islet on the NE. aspect of Raiataia.
TAMUSUA, Fi : One of the Yasawas, on the NW. side of Naviti
TANIA, Pau : See Takauea.
TAOONGA, T : (or Taunga.) An uninhabited, hilly island, S.
of Vavau, and between that island and Leca-leca, It is one of the Haafuluhao Group, and lies about 8 miles S. of the mouth of Port Refuge, near Kapa.
TAOU, T : or Tau, (the Tao of Erskine,) an islet on the reef off
the NE. end of Tongatabu in latitude 21- S., and longitude 174- W., near which some few years since the French ship L'Aigle was lost.
TAOUATA, Mar : See Tahuata.
TAPAMANOA, Geo : (or Tabuaemanu of Ellis, Maiaoiti, Ou-
maitia, and Sir Charles Saunder's Island.) This island which lies about 40 miles W. of Eimeo, is no great importance, and will be found sufficiently described under the head of Georgian Group. Position (according to Ellis), latitude 17-28 S., longitude
TAPANA, T : An Islet in the Vavau series, close to Pangaimotu,
and S. of Namuohogo.
TAPUNUE, Soc : A reef islet on the NE. aspect of Raiataia, to
the NW. of Tamou.
TARAUA, Soc : A reef islet on the N. side of Bolabola.
TARAWARE, Pau : One of the Gambier Group, probably the
Belcher Island of Beechey.
TASWELL'S I, Vai : See St. Augustine, another synonym for the
TAU, Sa : See Manuatele. TAU, T : See Taou.
TAUMAU, Soc : An islet adjacent to Huaheine.
TAUNAVA, Fi : An island on the eastern side of Viti Levu.
TAUWAINAVI, Fi : A small island off Kandavu on the S. coast
of Naviti Levu,-another (English name) in map ; position, however, not quite certain.
TAVANAVI, Fi : An islet NE. by E. of Naviti Levu.
TAVANA-I-RA, Fi : (or Tuvana-i-ra, also called Mikaeloff, and
probably the Davora or Ndavora of some charts.) The more W. of two low, densely wooded island cays, separately girt by inaccessible reefs, over which the sea breaks heavily, about 21 miles S. by E. from Ono-i-lau. They lie about 160 miles S by E. from Lakemba, in the eastern group of the Fijis, of which archipelago they form the SE. extremity, and are distant from Tongatabu to the westward 180 miles. The reefs encircling them are exceedingly dangerous. They are about 4½ miles asunder; Tuvana-i-ra standing (according to Denham) in lati- tude 21-0-9 S., longitude 178-44-36 W., and the other, Tuva- na-i-tholo, or Simonoff, &c., in latitude 21-1-39 S., and longi- tude 178-50-10 W. Their position is a matter of importance, since they can be safely viewed as finger-posts to the Tongese or Fijian groups. No soundings near them, and both very low. Should not be approached after nightfall.
TAVANA-I-THOLO (or Tuvana-i-colo, also called Simanoff, and
probably the Doi or Ndoi of some charts.) An islet sufficiently well described in the preceding, to which refer ; and from which it bears W. by S. 3 1/3 miles, upon a distance between each centre of 5½ miles. Neither of them exceed a half mile in diameter, and are enclosed in annular reefs. N. by W. ½ W. from Tuvana- i-colo or Simnnoff, lies at the distance of 16½ miles ; the insulated reef called Bereghis, on which there is a sandy islet sometimes called Mana. See Vuata Ono.
TAVEA, Fi : (or Tavia or Tavera.) A small island at the NW.
end of Vanua Levu, at one mile from the mainland. Partly Christian.
TAVIUNE, Fi : (or Taviuni, Tabiune, sometimes called by the
white residents Somu Somu.) For description of this island see Vuna, which is perhaps the most correct form of its name.
TAWERE, Pau : (or Tanuere, also called St. Simon and
St. Jude, and Resolution I.) An island lying NW. of Heeow and Amanu, in the centre of the Paumotus. SE. extremity, according to Beechey, in latitude 17-22-20 S, longitude 141-23-50 W. Only 20 inhabitants, resembling those of Clement de Ton- neres I, found here when visited by the Porpoise in 1841, at which time there was too much surf to land. Consists, strictly speaking, of two small islets together, about 4 miles in circum- ference, with clumps of cocoa-nut trees thereon ; but on the S. and W. sides the greater portion is a bare reef.
TCHITSGAGOFF I, Pau : (or Chichagoff.) Russian synonym for
Takuea, to which refer.
TEANUO, Soc : A reef islet on the W. aspect of Raiataia, on the S.
side of the entrance to Tetaroa Harbour.
TEAPY or TEPI. Native name, according to Captain Cook, of
Waihu or Easter Island, which lies in the South Pacific, about 2000 miles from the coast of Chili, in South America, and 1500 miles from the nearesr inhabited island. See Waihu.
TEAY, Pau : Said by Beechey to be one of the native names of
Nukutawake, to which refer.
TEBUA, Mar : Name supposed by Captain Cook to be the native
designation of Fetouhoukou or Hood's I, to which refer.
TEKU, Pau : (Barrow's I. of Beechey.) There being two islands or
this native designation in the Paumotus, this (the eastern one of the name) has been, for distinction sake, described under the head of its synonym of Barrow's Island.
TEKU, Pau : (The Four Crowns of Quiros, or Los Quatro Coro-
nadas.) See Four Crowns, letter F.
TEKUKOTA, Pau : (Also called San Juan or Melville I.) A lagoon
in the centre of the Paumotus, lying SW. of Tekureka, and NW. of Dawhaida, in latitude 17-34-59 S., longitude 142-39-12 W. Commonly supposed to have been first seen by Captain Beechey in 1826, but originally discovered by Don Tomas Gayangos, in 1775. About 7 or 8 miles in length from NW. to SE.
TEKUREKA, Pau : (Doubtful Island and Los Martines.) A low
lagoon island, discovered by Captain Cook on his second voyage, on 11th August, 1773, to the W. of Tawere or Resolution Island. Position, according to Beechey, latitude 17-19-46 S., longitude 142-22-11 W. at E. extreme.
TELAU, Fi : (or Telleu, or Teilau.) A very small islet off the E.
side of Naviti Levu, 1½ miles N. from Vewa.
TEMAITU LEIWUWAU, Pau : (or Whitsunday I.) A lagoon
island, 1½ miles in length according to Beechey, who places it (NW. extreme) in latitude 19-23-38 S., and longitude 138-36-48 W. It is steep all round, and well wooded. Occasionally in- habited. Has a narrow entrance to its lagoon on S. side, but too shallow for boats.
TEMOE, Pau : (or Crescent I.) A low sandy island 3½ miles in
length and 1½ in width, 20 or 30 miles ESE. of the Mangareva Group. Its S. extreme lies, according to Beechey, in latitude 23-20-29 S., longitude 134-35-8 W. It is of an oblong shape.
TETEFA, T : (probably Leca leca.) Name appearing on some
maps as for an islet near Wiha, in the Habais.
TETHI, Fi : (or Teci.) One of the Yasawas, NW. of Naviti
TETUAROA, Geo : (Tethuaroa, - the long, or distant
sea. Four very low inhabited islets, respetively named Rimatu, Onehoa, Moturua, Hoatere, and Reiona,) enclosed in one reef, and lying from 20 to 24 miles N. of Tahiti. There is ur*.nreivit)-iiseijit'-tt" coral foundation, and are in no part more than 30 or 40 feet above the level of the sea. Tetuaroa was formerly a part of the Crown Domain of Tahiti, and served as a watering place to the idle and dissipated of that island. It appears to be thee Fugitiva or Fugitive Isle of Quiros.
TETUATUA, Soc : A reef islet close to Bolabola, to the NW. of
THAKAUNDROVE-I-RA, Fi : A district at the SE. extremity of
the Island of Vanua Levu, which, however, appears to be some- times (though improperly) used for the whole of the large
Northern Island of the Fijis.
THAKAUNDROVE-I-WAI, Fi : A very small islet in the Straits
of Somu Somu, on which the chief town of the Thakaundrove
kingdom formerly stood. Lies between the SE. extremity of Vanua Levu, and the island of Vuna or Taviune.
THANGGALAI or CIGALAI, Fi : An islet off Moturiki I, E. of
Naviti Levu, called also (with Leleuvia) Nayanuyanu. See Leleuvia for further particulars as to situation.
THIKOMBIA-I-LAU or CHICOMBEOR, Fi : A small island, 8
miles E. of Vanua Valavo, one of the Exploring Isles, to the N. of the eastern group of the Fijian Archipelago. It is 56 miles
due N. of Lakemba,-one town,-Christian. THIKOMBIA-I-RA. Fi : An island 16 miles NE. of Undu Point,
the NE. extremity of Vanua Levu; heathen; subject to Mathuata. The most northerly island of the Fijis.
THITHIA, Fi : (or Theathea, or Chichia, or Clacia.) An island 9
miles in circumference ; 35 miles NW. of Lakemba, one of the
eastern group of the Fijian Archipelago. It is christian, and subject to Lakemba ; well wooded. Some parts 300 feet high,
THOMPSON I, Fi : An island near Hamersley Island, to which
THORNTON I. An island W. of the Marquesas, a little S. of
Caroline Island, which see.
THREE PAPAS, Fi : Three small islets S. of Peka, to the S. of
THRUM CAP, Pau : Name given by Captain Cook to Pukerua,
when he visited it on the 14th April, 1769, subsequent to its discovery by Bougainville.
TIBURON or SHARKS ISLAND. This island appears in several
modern maps, preposterously out of place-in the vicinity of the Marquesas, whereas it is one of the Desadventuradas of Magalhaens, on the other side of the Pacific. See Desadven-
TIENHOVEN. An island of very doubtful identity, supposed to
lie E. of the Maniiki Group, S. of Starbeck I, and SE. of Ben- nett I, near another island of the same apocryphal character, named Groningue, to which refer.
TIKE, Pau : (Romantzoff I.) A small lagoon island N. of Taira,
NE. of Aratica, discovered by the Russians. Lies in * latitude 14-52 S., longitude 144-35 W.
TIKEHAU, Pau : (Krusenstern's I.) A lagoon island at the NW.
end of the Paumotus, due W. of Nairsa. Has an entrance to
lagoon on its W. side. TILURGITHA or NAITINGILITHA, Fi : An islet 15 miles from
Undu Point, at the NE. extremity of Vavua Levu. It is about three-quarters of a mile long, and 3 miles equi-distant from
Bukalau Island and Fibethe Point.
TIMBOOR, Fi : The most northerly island in the Yasawa Group,
except Kinailk Island.
TIOKEA, Pau : One of the lagoon islands to the N. of the NW.
extremity of the Paumotus, usually known as the Disappoint- ment Islands of Byron. The SW. end of Tiokea lies according to Wilkes, in latitude 14-31-12 S., and longitude 145-9-30 W. Oura, the other island, bears S. 68 degrees W., and is distant 4½ miles. Tioken has an entrance at its SW. side.
TIPOTU, Pau : (Bacon I.) One of the Sea Gull Group to which refer.
TOAHOUTA, Soc : A reef islet on E. aspect of Tahaa, on the S.
side of entrance to Ohamene Harbour.
TOAIROA, Soc : A reef islet on SW. aspect of Bolabola, on the W.
side of entrance to Oteavanua Harbour.
TOAU, : (Elizabeth Island or Second Island.) A lagoon island at
the NW. extremity of the Paumotus, NW. of Takarawa, and SE. of Apatuki. Entrance to lagoon at SE. extreme.
TODOS SANTOS, Pau : (All Saints'.) Name given to Anaa by
Bonechea on his visiting that island on the 4th November, 1774. TOFOOA, T : (Tofoa or Topia.) An inhabited island N. of Tonga
and W. of the Habais, on which is a volcano ; celebrated, with the adjacent island of Kao, for its wood and mats. Tofooa is high table land, and an active volcano. (A few people, says Erskine, reside on Tofooa.) TOKA, T : See Toku.
TOKELOKE, T : A small uninhabited island N. of Tongatabu.
Memorable for the melancholy shipwreck there of the Rev. Mr.
Cross and his wife on their way from Tonga to Vavau, 7th January, 1832.
TOKERAU. Maniiki Group. Of this island little is definitely
TOKU (pronounced Togou, and sometimes erroneously written
Toka.) A low inhabited cocoanut island, 42 miles distant from Vavau in a NW. direction, and about 18 miles to the SE. of the volcano island,-Fanua-lai, or, as it is often called, Amarguna, to which refer.
TOMBERUA, Fi : A small island lying due E. of Bau, on the reef
off Kambah Point, at the SE. extremity of Naviti Levu.
TOMBERUA, Fi : An islet near Galoa or Ngaloa, on the NW.
coast of Vanua Levu ; exact position doubtful.
TONGA, Fi : An islet in the Wailevu, the largest river in Viti
Levu, between Rewa and Bau to the western side. TONGA, T : Properly Tongatabu, to which refer.
TONGAREVA, Maniiki Group. (Penryhn's Isle.) A lagoon island
with reefs in the Maniiki Group, latitude 9- S., longitude 158- W., 140 miles NE. of Maniiki, and 30 miles W. of the place assigned to it by Arrowsmith. Is of coral formation, low, and densely covered with wood, among which, that of the cocoanut
is most conspicuous. Natives are of a light olive colour, but darker than the Samoans and Tahitians, with fine black hair. An athletic erect, and finely formed race, considered to resemble the Samoans more than any other Amphinesian race. Their language is unintelligible either to Hawaiians or Tahitians. Tongareva is not more than 50 feet above the sea at its highest part, and is 9 miles long from NNE. to SSW., and about 5 miles wide ; having an extensive lagoon, to which there are boat entrances. On the NW. side there is a continuous village, population, 1300;
religion, Christian. This place affords supplies of both tortoise- shell and pearls.
TONGATABU, T : (or Tonga the Holy, called also by Tasman,
Amsterdam.) This is the principal island in the Tongese Archi- pelago, and gives its name to the whole group. It is a fertile island, 100 miles in circumference, of a gentle elevation and an irregular form. It is divided into three districts,-Hihifo on the NW., Hahagi on the NE. ; and Mua or Mooa in the centre. It contains the following towns Nikualofa (the capital, in latitude 21-7-6 S., longitude 175-13-45 W.), Bea (the Roman Catholic mission station), Houma, Hihifo, Folaha, Mafanga, Kolofooa, Wioa, Hoi, Nukuleku, Makaoga, Nevutoka, Sipi, Kotogi, Afa, Amenuti, and Fuamotu. Tongatabu lies between latitude 21-6 and 21-21 S., and longitude 175-18 and 174 54 W. from Greenwich. It is described in a re- cent work (Farmer's Tonga and the Friendly Islands) as being about 20 miles long and 11 broad. The highest ground is the Mount at Nukualofa, the capital, which is 6? feet above the level of the sea. It has a rich black soil, and abounds in thriving vegetable productions, all the plants of the Society Islands are to be found here, and others beside, it was formerly in a higher state of cultivation than it is at present, and was found by Captain Cook completely interlaced with a network of roads, which rendered every part of the island easily accessible ; some of these roads were 15 feet wide. Captain Cook visited Tonga in 1774, and discovered the neighbouring group of Habai in 1777. The eastern passage to the anchorage at the Great Bay of Tonga- tabu has two entrances, one between some small islands (of which the most conspicuous is Ata) and Euajii, and the other on the opposite side of Euajii, between it and Eua, where a pilot is procurable. In choosing the second entrance keep close to edge of the reef, bringing Tongatabu on the NE, until close up to the small island of Makahaa, where the channel suddenly to the northward between it and Monuafe. This is a dangerous sunken rock, nearly in the centre of the passage, which must be kept on the port hand (Erskine, page 138.) Tongatabu was discovered and named Amsterdam, by Abel Jansen Tasman, on 21st January,
TONGESE ARCHIPELAGO or TONGAN GROUP, called also the
Friendly Islands. This is a Christian kingdom in the south- western Pacific Ocean, and is composed principally of three
separate groups, viz. :-
I. Tongatabu and its adjacent islands. II. The Habai or Haabai Group.
III. The Vavau Group or Haafaluhao Group, formerly written Hafooloo How Group.
I. Tongatabu, with the adjacent islands of Eooa, Ata, Eooa-Chi, Pangaimotu, Nukavuka, Matuaka, Mongatupu, Alata, Monuafe, Malicoah, Makahaa, Taou, Velitoa, Onevai, Nogou, Hoonga-Tonga, Hoonga-Habai, and several small islands, such as Tokcloke, Cattow, &c.
II. The Habai or Haabai Group, consisting of Lefooga, Namooea or Namuka, Namooca-chi or Namuke-jii, Cafauga, Kallafejia, Tonoomea, Toongooa, Kotoo, Oooa, Hafeva, Fotooha or Fotu, Pootoo Pootooa, Niniva, Lofanga, Caca Vala (or Acuata ?), Longahoo or Luangaho, Tetefa, Hooa-Leva, Wiha, Foa, Nookoonamoo or Nukonamu, Haano, Luanoka Ofalanga, Mongane, with the two volcanic islands of Tofooa and Kao or Koa to the westward. There are other islands in the group, besides those laid down in the maps of the Hawaiian Commis-
sion, from which the above list is taken. 49 miles N. of Tofo and Kao is the island of Late or Latte or Lati. Eighteen islands only out of this group are inhabited.
III. The Vavau Group, or Hafooloo How (also written Haafulahoo Group), and sometimes called Howe's Islands - consists of Vavau, Koloa, Okoa, Oloua, Ofu, Pangaimotu, Utungaki, Kapa, Niuababu, Ovaka, Hunga or Hoonga, and Taunga or Taoonga, all of which are more or less inhabited. The following Islands in this cluster are uninhabited :- viz., Mananita, Luatofito, Fanua-foou, Fanua-unga, Umuna, Faioa and Keinuta. These seven are sandy islets forming a chain, as it were round Vavau, beginning from the S. and pro- ceeding eastward. The other uninhibited islets are-Manafa, Fafine, Uakafa, Eueiki, Lecaleca, Lualoli, Fanua-oni-oni, Mauno, Muamua, Namuohogo, Katafanga, Aa, Rotuma, Otu- mala, Fuaamotu, Vaka eitu, and Lape. These lie principally to the S. of the larger Island. 42 miles distant therefrom to the NW. lies Toku, and 60 miles in nearly the same direction Amargura or Fanua-lai. Besides these, it is proper here to mention Uvea or Wallis Island, Niun-tobutabu or Keppel's Island, and Tafahi or Boscawen's Island, and lastly Niua Foon or Hope Island, &c., all which lie to the N. of Vavau, and have at times been held to be, dependencies of the King of Tonga, but are now more or less independent. His Ton- gese Majesty has, moreover, substantial claims upon the so- vereignty of the Eastern Fijis. There is also an island to the S. of Tongatubu which is, strictly speaking, a dependence of the Tongese King. This latter island, named Sola by some geographers, appears to be the Ata or Pylstaart Island of our maps. The population of the Tongese Archipelago has been variously estimated. Commodore Wilkes, of the U.S. Exploring Expedition, in 1839, set it down as follows :- Eooa 200, Habai Cluster 4000, Keppel's Island (Niua-tobutabu) 1000, Boscawen's Island (Tafahi) 1300, Tonga 8000,-Total 18,500. By Captain Erskine, of H.B.M.S. Havannah, in 1849, the inhabitants of the Archipelago (amongst whom are but very few foreigners) were computed at something between 20,000 and 30,000 souls. (Vide Erskine's Journal, page 161, &c.)
The Government of the Tongese nation is monarchical, but the powers and privileges of the chiefs are still excessive. The es-
tablished religion is Christianity, under the Wesleyan form, now professed and supported by the great mass of the population. A code of laws has been promulgated, a college founded at Vavau, for the instruction of adults, and very important progress made, although, of course, much remains to be done. The Govern- ment, however, of Tonga appears to be yet in comparative infancy, only partially recognised by foreign powers, and de- pending, it is feared, for its existence upon the life of the present king. Should that valuable life be spared, and due caution and foresight exercised, the independence of Tonga, as a small oceanic State, may be looked forward to as no longer un- certain. The empire of France has by a special treaty already recognized the government of the Tongese people, but at pre- sent the only other power who has in a similar manner stepped forward is that of the kingdom of the Hawaiian Islands, whose consul, Alexander Blake, Esquire, accredited for the whole Archipelago, resides at Neiafu in the Island of Vavau. (a)
The Tongese are Amphinesians, or a people of the Malayo- Polynesian stock, but are darker than most other branches of it. Their language has a considerable affinity to the Samoan, but varies from it and all others, so much that it must be considered to be substantially a different language. In sound, it is perhaps the least harmonious of the languages of Central Polynesia, and its construction is decidedly rude and imperfect. The Tongese has been systematically reduced to writing in a very judicious and able manner by the Wesleyan missionaries, who have translated the Sacred Writings into this tongue, and have printed testaments, vocabularies, and other books therein for the instruction of the people. The alphabet used consists of seventeen letters.
The two southern portions of the Tongese series, that of Tonga and Habai were originally discovered by the Dutch in 1643, and subsequently rediscovered by Captain Cook about 130 years afterwards. The northern cluster or Vavu Group ap- pears to have been first discovered by Captain Maurelle, a
Spanish navigator (.i>iií.Vit¿ov<A',Erskine.) One of the most southerly of the Habais.
TOOBOUAI, Aust : (Tubuai.) See Austral Group.
TOOE-TOOE, Pau : Said by Captain Beechey to be one of the
native names of Gloucester Isle, or Hairi, which see.
TOONGOOA, T : An inhabited island lying to the S. in the Habai
Cluster, a little to the N. of Namuka.
TOOMAHLOOAH, Sa : Synonym for some unknown reason ap-
plied to Manua-tele by Arrowsmith in his large map of 1844. TOTTEN I, Fi : The most southerly island of the Yasawa Group
to the W. of Naviti Levu. TOUMARRO, Soc : A reef islet near Teanuo, which see.
TOUTOU ISLES, Soc : Three reef islets near the NW. extremity
TOWHEA, Soc : Reef islet on E. side of Tahaa.
TRACEY'S I, Vai : Synonym for Vaitupu, also called Oaitupu,
Achilles I., &c. See Vaitupu.
TRAITOR'S ISLAND, T : (Verrader's I.) See Niua Tobutabu.
TREVENIAN'S I, Mar : (Trevennenos of Arrowsmith.) Name
given by Ellis to Houa-poou, to which refer.
TUANAKI, Her : A populous island said by the natives of Raro-
tonga, to lie 200 miles to the S. or SW. of that island. See Gill, vol. ii, p. 73, and refer to Hervey Group.
TUBAI, Soc : (Tobua of Ellis.) Coral islets lying NW. of Bola-
TUINAKA, Pau : (Reid I.) The northernmost island of the Sea
Gull group. Four Tahitians found here by the U. S. Exploring Expedition in 1840, and 25 other persons. A poor barren place, with only one small spring of water.
TUKONEVA, Fi : An islet at the W. end of Fawn Harbour,
nearly one mile from Tukoneva on the mainland or Vanua Levu, in longitude 179-47-11 E. Fawn Harbour lies W. of Baino Harbour and Islet, and also contains an islet to the SE. of Tukoneva, named Lavod, to which refer.
TUREIE, Pau : (Carysfort I.) A lagoon island, of which the NE.
extremity lies, according to Beechey, in latitude 20-44-53 S., and longitude 138-22-44 W. Lies NE. of Faith and Matilda Islands, which see.
TURTLE I, Fi : Name given by Captain Cook to Vatoa, an island
lying near the SE. extreme of the Fijian Archipelago, on its discovery by that great navigator on the 1st day of July, 1774.
TUTOIA or TUTOYA, Fi : According to Wilkes, this island is
5 miles long from E. to W., and 3 miles wide from N. to S. It lies in latitude 18-58-57 S., longitude 179-53-21 W., 80 miles E. by S. from Kandavu, 21 miles NE., by E. from Matuhu, and 74 miles SW. by W. from Lakemba ; and is reckoned one of the eastern group of the Fijan Archipelago. Tutoya, according to
Denham, is "of a circular form, with a six-mile diameter, and when viewed from its peak presents a hugh extinct crater, the bowl of which now bears ocean water of 30 fathoms depth over a space of 3 miles diameter, the tidal and swell action taking place on the southern aspect, where the rim is dislocated to low water level, while the ridge of peaks which surrounds the vast but, to a ship, inaccessible basin, rear their heads to nearly 1200 feet above the sea. This zone-like island is surrounded by a barrier reef of a triangular form, and 22 miles circuit, the ab- rupt elbows of which range 2 miles off the SW., the NW., and the E. projections of the island. There is, however, a capacious ship entrance through the reef-belt in question, upon the W. aspect, and which may be picked up by bringing the southern- most peak (elevated 1159 feet) to bear E. ¼ S., when it will strikingly appear in the gap of the intervening ridge of land. Running thus, the foaming horns of the passage will indicate
the fair way, which having passed through, a spacious sound of smooth water presents itself to the southward, occupying a space of 2 miles long by 1 mile broad, perfectly sheltered upon good holding ground in 25 fathoms water. The shores of this roadstead [which is the same as the S. bay of Wilkes] are not adapted for coaling, watering, or seining ; but wood, vegetables, poultry, and pigs are brought off by a most friendly people, who number about 400, and who have warmly embraced the true religion under the Wesleyan mission. The tide rises at this island 4 feet 4 inches, and it is high water on full and change days at 6 hours 37 minutes. Variation 10-54 E." Towns-Ndravulvalu and Ketei. High, and broken land, and evidently of volcanic origin. Tutoya is woody, but fertile in the vallies, and very difficult of approach from the seaward. Besides the bay above mentioned, however, Tutoya has a bay on its N. side. At 23 miles NE. by N. from Tutoya lies Tooa (or Navatu), an annular coral reef 3 miles is diameter, encircling
a basin of 16 fathoms of water.
TUTUILA, Sa : (also written Tootooillah, and once erroneously
known as Maouna.) A fine island 80 miles in circumference, 50 miles W. of Oloosinga, and (distant at its SW. point) from the NE. end of Upolu, about 35 miles. Has several good bays. On the N. side Fangasaa Bay ; and Massacre Bay (so called from the massacre of M. De Langle there in 1787,) Oafonu Harbour, and Harbour of Aur, &c., and on the S. coast, amongst others, Leone Day, and the Bay of Pango Pango; the last of which is landlocked, and suitable for steam vessels. Pango Pango Bay lies in latitude 14-15-30 S., longitude 170 41 W. The estimated population of Tutuila was, according to Erskine in 1849, between 3000 and 3700 aouls. The people of Tutuila are Christians by profession, and a quiet orderly community. The name of Maouna was originally applied to this island by La Perouse ; confound- ing it (apparently) with Manua, the principal island of the Windward Group. Vide Erskine's Journal, chap. 1. Tutuila is a beautiful and fertile land, and contains many villages. Refer to its description of it under the head of Samoan Group.
TWIN I, Fi : An island off the E. head of Whippy Harbour, on
the S. coast of Naviti Levu. E. R.
(a) It is a part of the official instructions of the Hawaiian Consul for the Friendly Islands to watch the interests of all such resi-
dents or shipwrecked mariners as are either the citizens or sub- jects of those powers, between whom and Hawaii there exist treaties of amity and friendship-as France, Great Britain, the United States of America, &c., &c. He also, with the sanction of the Tongese Government, acts as postmaster in reference to the reception and despatch of all foreign mails, and is directed to use his influence with the authorities for the speedy estab- lishment by them of a periodical inter-communication (by means of canoes, &c.), between the different groups of this Archipe- lago for postal purposes, and generally to assist in their social and political progress, and in the healthy developement of their natural resources, as opportunity may offer.