Observations made / by Richard Hall, of the city of Dublin, hemp and flax dresser : on the methods used in Holland, in cultivating or raising of hemp and flax. And likewise, his remarks on Mr. Slator's book Hall, Richard, hemp and flax dresser

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Hall, Richard, hemp and flax dresser
Slator, Lionel.; Hemp - Ireland.; Errata lists (Publishing) - 18th century. - Ireland
OBSERVATIONS Made by Richard Hall, OF THE CITY of DUBLIN, H EMP and FLAX Dresser; ON The Methods used in HOLLAND , in Cultivating tivating or Raising of HEMP and FLAX AND LIKEWISE, His REMARKS on Mr. SLATOR' s Book. DUBLIN: Printed by GEO. GRIERSON, at the Two Bibles in Essex-Street. M , DCC, XXIV. OBSERVATIONS MADE BY RICHARD HALL , ON THE METHODS used in HOLLAND, in Cultivating or Raising of FLAX and HEMP, &c. SECT. I. Of the Choice of the Soil. _ N the Province of Holland, there is a Country known by the Names of Tar go u and Targou & Gouda •it is there that GtHda - 9 they raife the beft Hemp the Dutch are Mailers of: The Soil is exceeding deep and rich. They frequently make nie of of Ley-grounds for fowing of Herhp in,* yet do they not fb far-confine Leygrounds. grounds. themfelves in’ that Particular, but that- they often continue to low the fame Soil with Hemp,/for many Years fueccflively, only every two Years they recruit their Soil thus, viz. When they have pulled led their Hemp, they rake together all the Grafs, Weeds, and Tralh Every z Years the Dutch recruit their Soil. which they find on the Ground, and lay them in large Heaps to rot: Thefe Heaps are made thus large, to the End the Sun may not exhale the Venue from the Dung, ere it is fpread over their Hemp-grounds. And they alfo gather what Slufh is walh’d from out of their Lands, into their Trenches ches or Ditches: This Slufh they lay in Heaps, fometime in the Month of Augufi y and there let it lie the whole Winter f only they turn it often with the Spade. This Targou or Gauda is a large Country, and for near twenty Miles Targou or Gouda. together , is exceeding fertile and proper for Hemp • which the State oblerving, they formerly gave great Rewards to the Boors, to induce them to be induftrious in the railing ling of this ufcful Plant: But thefe Rewards were not of long Continuance j becaufe the States fbon perceived, that r the. Boors had their Accounts fufiiciently, anfwered by their Profits. A Farmer or Boor in Targou or Gouda feldom fows more than two Acres with Hemp, and many of them lefs, that he may the better manure it ; and alfo, that the pulling ling of the Hemp may not divert AFarmcr in - Targou fcldom Tows more chan z Acres 1 with Hemp a ‘ his Servants from their other Bulinefs, SECT. II. Remarks on the Sod of Ireland, as to Hemp . I Reland has great Quantities of Land proper for Hemp, efpecially ally in the Counties of Limerick , Land pro* per for Hemp. Clare, Kerry, Tipperary, and fome Parts of other Counties. It is not to be expert* ed, that the Lands in each of thefe Counties, ties, fhould hold equally the one as the other. Doubtlefs the Corcus- Corcuslaod*. laod*. lands of the Counties of Limerick and Clare , which have been gain’d from the Sea this many Years, and are vaftly rich, will ftancl K longer longer under Culture, than evefi the of the fame Counties'can. Up-lands Likewife, the Up-lands of the County of Limerick are much more fertile, than the Generality of the other Lands of the Kingdom. dom. Even thofe Uplands laft mentioned, ought tb be frequently changed, for the Benefit and Advantage as well of the Hus- bandman as of the Publick: For fince three Plowings muft be made for Hemp, the Husbandman muft be very ry much wanting to himfelf, that Three Plowings to be made for Hemp. does not aflfoon as his Hemp is off the Ground, give it another Plowing, and low it with Winter-grain. The Corcus-lands of the Counties ties of Limerick and Clare are violentCorcns Corcnslands. lands. ,1 ly hot, and therefore apt to throw up large ftalk’d Hemp, which never skins fo well as the midling Hemp of five Foot high: Yet lam of Opinion, that if thefe Grounds were fucceL lively fown with Hemp for fome Years, their Fire would foon abate, fo as they might be brought to yield Hemp nothing inferior to the Dutch • provided they were as skilfully and diligently manured. Holland not only abounds in Canals nals for publick Ufe, but alfo in a Mul- Canaly. Multitude of private ones ,* there being fcarce any Commodity that is not brought to their Doors by Water. It is true Ireland has not the Advantage of artificial Canals ,* but there is no Spot of Earth in the World better furnifhed nifhed with Rivers, either naturally navigable, ble, or capable of being made fo on 'ealy Terms, than Ireland is : Therefore,, to fay nothin? of the many other Rivers in Ireland, land, what vaft Quantities of Hemp might th t Shannon, the Barrow , the Quantities of Hemp. Noar , the Sure , and tjic Black-water furnifli nifli to Fa&uries for Sail-cloth pr Cordage? The Fadhiries for Sail-cloth at Waterford\ Rakelf and Dunkittle , are not only well placed for Water-carriage, which is a great Article in fiich cumberfome,Goods as Hemp isbut alfo are fituated in the Neighbourhood hood of good Soil. Indeed Dunkittle is the remoteft, yet might it be very well lupplyed ed with Hemp 5 if the People that live on the Black-water were induftrious to raife it, and bring it by Water xoToughal, thence it may be boated to Dunkhtk with Eafe. SECT. SECT. III. Of Plowing for Hemp in Holland. TH E Y plow in Holland , efpecially ally in Targou or Gauda y in Plowing. a Manner vaftly different from ours; occafioned fioned (as I conceive) by the Wetnefs nefs and Depth of their Soil. They plow their Leys in Augujl , and fo let them lye till Aprd y that their Be Depth bf their Soil. Crounds may be hard enough to bear their Horles; which does not always happen, for fometimes their Land is fo poachy, that Horfes cannot Hand thereon; then are they forced to dig it: But in cafe their Horfes can Hand, they harrow itacrofswith heavy Iron HarLand Land poachy, P'gg'Ng the Land. Harrow-. ing. rows in Aprd y which break the Sods with great Eafe ; they having lain from Augujl to Apnl y that they become rotten. When they plow their Leys, they feldom 20 deeper than four Inches, Plowing thcirLcys. U 1 7 which cut the Turff or Sods fo thin, that it foon rots; befides, the Soil is fo rich, and the Froft fo conftant in the Winter, that their Land is foon mellow’d, KJchncfs of the Soil. mellow’d, and yields to their Harrows without Obftru&ion : Thefe Harrows cleanfe their Grounds from all Rubbilh bilh and Filth: Then do they fall to Plowing their Ley-grounds, with as Land made mellow. Plowing ing their Leys. deep a Furrow as the Nature of their Land will admit of. The Ridges made for Hemp in Targou y are generally from twelve to Ridges. lixtecn Foot wide: Their Furrows are very narrow and lhallow, becaufe they have very ry large Drains,at every ten or twelve Perches further Diftance, or nearer, as their Grounds are more or lefs wet. In Utrecht , the Lands area ftiffer Clay than in Targou $ they make their Targou, Ridg es thirty or forty Foot wide, their Furrows rows deeper $ they raife there a very good Hemp, and great Quantities of it ,* they have likewife large Drains, but not fo clofe together,* the Grounds Marfhy and wet Grounds, about Utrecht , not being fo marlhy and wet as in Targou . SECT. SECT. IV. The Author's Opinion , what Culture might be most proper for hands in Ireland. IF the Soil be deep and rich, with a good Bottom, diftant from hard Soil deep and rich. Gravels, Quarries, or blue Clay, (any of which would hold the Water) iuch Lands need no more Plowing and Harrowing, than juft to bring them to be mellow and clean, the Mold made as fine as poflible, and the Ridg es laid as flat as the Top, as they arc. in Holland\ -1 approve of Mr. Slator's tor's making his Ridges narrow, for the Convenicncy of pulling the Narrow Ridges. Fimble-hemp, becaufe the Labourers in Ireland land y are not fo expert as yet, at the puL ling of Hemp, as the Boors in Holland are; And I likewife approve of his Dire&ions, as to the making of the Furrows and Drains for carrying off the Water. There are many Places where the Soil is good and proper for Hemp, were it not too thin Quarries fo Stone, or a hard Gravel, or ftiff Clay, lying too near the Surface of the Places where the Soil is good and proper for Hemp. the Earth* a careful'Husbandman might gather this Soil by his Plow, and double, or more, the Depth of it. Thefe Grounds well harrowed, and laid flat at Top, will bring as good a Crop of Hemp as the other. Loamy and Clay Grounds require to be thrice plowed, well broke with Iron Harrows ,* the Crop will fcarce be as good as the former ,* the Furrows fhould be deep, and the Ridges pretty high, then the Huf- Loamy and Clay Grounds. Furrows. Ridgcs. bandman may exped a Crop which may fufficiently reward his Labour. . SECT. V. Of Pulling and Watering of HEMP . TPHE Fimble-hemp is the firft ripe: The Way to know when it is fo, is by oblerving when the Leaves turn yellow towards the Roots ,• and Fimble Hemp. T oknow when it is ripe. al/b, if, by touching the Stalk of the Finablehemp hemp with a Stick in the Morning, you perceive a Duft, and that the Bighorn falls cafily off, then is it fit for pulling: Butthefe Signs will not appear in all the Fimble-hemp at at one and the fame Time ; for the Ihort Fimble is fooner ripe than the long Fimble } yet Care mull be taken not Short Fimble. to leave the long Fimble-hemp unpulled,after ter you perceive the other ripe $ for if you Ihould let it grow too long a Time, after the above Observations appear, the Ihort Fimble will be over ripe, and be of no Ufe. In Holland , they pull the long Fimble-hemp feparately and apart from the Ihort $ efpecially, luen as Pulling the long Fimblchemp. hemp. they perceive to have lined its Leaves and Blolfoms, becaufe the Ihort Fimble is longer er Time a rating than the long Fimble is: They are fo careful not to break or bruife the Carl-hemp, as they pull the other, that when they pull their Fimble, they are forced ced to take off their Coats and Shoes, and tuck the Skirts of their Veils within their Breeches, and alio have the Sleeves of their Veils made fo tight to their Arms, as none of their Cloaths might break or bruife the Carl-hemp: And tho 5 their Ridges be lb very wide, that they are for-? Ridges wide. ced to walk through the Hemp, yet will they not break any Part of it. When they have pull’d a large Handful of either Sort of the Fimble-hemp, then do do they bind them with two Bands, one at a fmall Diflance from the Top,and the other towards the Butts, and let it lie three or four Days in Binding the hemp. • the Air, to ftiffen ,• after which they take thirty or forty of thefe fmall Sheaves, and. place them on the Butts, with the Heads leaning on each other ,• fb by drawing' the Butts of the Sheaves out, they leave the Pile as round and hollow within, as pof* fibly they can ,• by which Means the Air paffes readily through the Hemp, as it Hands,* thus they leave it till it is thoroughly ly dry, and the Stalks turned yellow ,* they then fall to binding of their Hemp in larger ger Sheaves, . about three Foot in Circumference, ference, and on each Sheaf they bind three Bands, viz, one in the Middle, and one towards wards each End,- by which’ Means, each Sheaf is made exceeding tight, and fo proceed ceed to rate it. The Dutch always rate both their Flax and Hemp in their Drains, which are always ways large enough to receive their Hemp, in any Manner they are pleafed to lay it. The firft Range is laid long-ways, which they flitch together with coarfe Line, Sheaf by Sheaf, the whole Breadth of their Drain, to L the ** i t the end that the Sheaves may not from each other in the Water, and ferveas a Foundation fo»r fucli other Hemp as they defign to lay oyer it. Their Manner of Hitching their Sheaves together is thus : They nr ft confider hpw many Foot wide their Drain is: In the next Place, they confider fider how many Sheaves, laid Side by Side each other, will fill that Spa.ce $ fo many Sheaves do they accordingly lay, andftitch them to each other at both Ends, and in the Middle, with Lines which they have for that Purpole j then they fhove into the Water ter that Parcel, and on the Surface of the Water they place it in the Manner they defign fign it (hall lie, when funk : Then they proceed to make another in like Form, and fhove that alfo into the Water, and range it fo as it lies, at the End of the other. They afterwards make as many of theft, and place them according to the Length they defign to make their Pile of Hemp : That done, they begin and lay other Sheaves acrofs one End of the former, and continue tinue fo to lay Sheaf by Sheaf, till they have quite covered the Sheaves firft laid in the Water : Then do they pile up their Hemp of one Sort, till they come within twelve Inches ’ v • ‘ ‘ ‘' of of the Surface of the Water, \men the Pile is funk. The' Dutch are forced to fink both Hemp and* Flax 1 when they 1 rate them, by covering them with Mudd-fbds;, and fucli ponderous Things as they ean get $ Stones not' being to be procured in thole Countries.' Wlien this Pile is funk of the fhortFimblehemp, hemp, they then apply themfelves to the making of another Pile for their longFimble-hemp: ble-hemp: This is made exadlly in the fame Manner with the former. 1 ■ When the Hemp has been in Water about bout four Days, they thruft their Arms down as far as they can reach, and at firft draw out • a Handful out of the fhort Fimblchemp, hemp, which they rinfe in the Water, and fet it on the Butt, leaning on the Horfe or Frame herein after defcribed j and when it is dry, they try whether the Harl will eafily ly quitt the Bunn • if it docs not, r they repeat peat thefe Trials twice a Day, until they find that it will do j and then do they heave it Sheaf by Sheaf from of the Pile, rinfing fing each Sheaf from the Slime and Filth which clings to the outfide of the Sheaf; that done, they immediately take off the Bands which were tied about the large Sheaves, ves, and likewife thofe Bands at the Buttcikl, cikl, end, tied in the Field at the Pulling ,• and then fet up thefe Email Butidles againft the Frame or Horfe, in the Manner you fee herein below deferibed, and there let it Hand till it is perfectly dry, at which Time they bind it at each End, into Sheaves of what Size they pleafe, and houfe it carefully. ly. The long Fimble-hemp muft be treated exa&ly as the former, and kept apart. In Ireland , we cannot have the Opportunities tunities of thefe Drains, which are fo frequent quent in Holland; therefore, where we cannot have Loughs or Lakes, or other ther dill Waters, we mull have RcLoughs. Loughs. courfe to Ponds made for that Purpolc. I do not diflike Mr. Slatods Manner of making king his Ponds, from any Experience I have of Inconveniencies which might attend them : Yet I fhould think, if they were made wide enough to receive at lead: one Sheaf athwart thwart the Pond, if not more, for the better piling of it under the Water. I fhould think it were fo much the better ; for in my Opinion, pinion, the Dutch have fome Reafbn why they lay their Sheaves acrofs each other in the Ranges, alternately, and not lay it always ways one Way, as they muft of courfe do. Ponds, jf the Ponds are to be but four Foot: and J <■> 111 Page 14. and a Half wide. It is certain, the Sheaves lie elofer when they are all laid in the fame Manner, than when they are placed as the Dutch place them - y and confequently, the Water has a freer Accefs, which may be of more Importance to the proper rating o£ Hemp, than at firft Sight appears. As to the Depth of the Ponds, I think Mr. Slatons is fufficient, confidering the Depth of the Ponds great Expence which mull attend the making king them the fame Depth the Dutch. have their Drains • befides the Hazard of. meeting with Rocks, which they in Holland land are in no Danger of. Ponds fhould be made in ftiff Clay, rather than in gravelly Grounds, there being lels Danger of meeting with Rocks in Clay-grounds than in Ponds fhould be made in fliff Clay. Gravel: For fhould a Husbandman happen: to light on a Rock or Rocks in finking his j Pond, he mull cither lofe what Labour he ; has been at, or be at the Expence and Trouble of bringing the Bottom to a Level, and alio io to a Face fit to receive Flax or Hemp : For if the Points or fiiarp Edges of Rocks lie near to the Harl of Flax Edges ofßocks. or Hemp, whether on the Sides or in the Bottom, they will cut the Harl as far as they they reach; Clay-water is : generally ly preferred' more fbft than in ? Gravelly" Grounds: £or thefe Reafons, I prefer Clay to Gravel: But Mi*. Slat or is mudh in the Right, in Gravelly Grounds. preferring Gravelly Grounds to Grounds cdmpofed of loofe Earth, or boggy Soils; for making the Ponds in • for to be fure, thefe loofe Grounds will be always'falling in, and not only foul the Water, ter, but'be apt to let the Water go: I fcarce think, that Ponds made in lucli Sorts of Soils as thefe, will ever turn to account ,* for flag them or plank them, it would be all one ,• the Water will wafh under and behind hind them, and it 1 muft be an immenfe Charge to keep them in Repair. The Dutch always houfe their Hemp after it is rated, becaufe their Houfing Hemp. Quantity is not fo great, but that they can afford it Houfe-room: And they have been in the Enjoyment of this Husbandry for fo many flicceflive Ages, and their 1 Profits fb great thereby, that it is not a Matter of Wonder that they are fupplied with every thing recjuifite thereto ; Whereas our ■ People of -Ireland are Novices therein, and, as it were, making Effays to fee; firft, whether ther ther the Thing is practicable : Secondly, whether it is worth their Time. It is to be hoped, that fome are convinced of both, yet it is evident, that many are not $ and until this Sort of Husbandry be more generally rally known in thofe Parts ,of the Kingdom proper for raifingjdemp, aad alfo praCtifed, the Profits will be in particular Hands, who will not launch out their Money in the ma 7 king of Barns, and other Improvements proper per for this Culture, in which they have laad hitherto fo little Experience. However, Mr. Slator has very juftly Hated ted the Conveniencies and Inconveniencies i } attending the prefent Pradice in Ireland , by the Want of convenient Barns, I fhall conT elude this Seß'ion with this general Apology gy in my own behalf, for being fo large in my Obfervations and Remarks through this Syftem of flaxen and hempen Agriculture, That I conceive it to be fo much my Duty, fully to inform all Perfons engaged, or to be engaged in this important Matter, that I fubmit rather to be cenfured as prolix than deficient. SECT. SECT. VI Of Breaking of Hemp . TH E Dutch ufe a Method in breaking of their Hemp, earBreaking Breaking of Hemp. ly pradtifed in England , that I know of, which is thus : They make a very large Kiln, fometimes built with Brick, • but more frequently with Sods j which A large Kiln. Kiln is made about five Foot high, ten Foot long, and eight Foot wide, flat at Top,- over which, crofs Pieces of Sticks are laid, which are wattled thin: On this they lay their Hemp in the fmall Bundles they were at firft tied in the Field, then with the Hurds or broken Straw of the Hemp, or fome luch combuftible Matter, they dry it well, and afterwards take it thence, and. Drying Hemp. cover it clofe about three Hours, . there to Iweat: Then they proceed to break it, in Breaks made much like ours, fave only they are not lb- deep malhed. In the breaking, they begin at the Tops of the Hemp/ and work it downwards till the Shoves are diffidently wrought out ,• and they never fwingleHempin Holland . When They never fw ingle Hemp in ihlhrr.d. When they have wrought to the Butts or Roots, they turn the Butt-end the other Way to break it ; and if all the Butts do not readily break, they have a blunt Knife lying by them, wherewith they ferape fucli of the Roots and Butts, as the Breaks did not effectually divide the Harl from the Bunn, until the Harl and Bunn are well feparated: This Scraping they perform acrofs their Knee, as> frequently as rcquifitc. The Pulling of the long part from the fhort, is not only neceffary, with regard to the Watering, but alfo of abfolute Neceftity in the working of them; for fhouldithe long Fimble-hcmp be broke, and hackled promifcuoufly with the fhort, it would occafion vaft Wafte; for the Artift tift always holds the Roots iri his Hands, as evenly as he can. When he breaks or hackles, he muft work the whole Hemp cqually qually down!to the Roots ; and if they be of a very; unequal Length, the Tops of the long:Finable will be over wrought, and rendered ufelels, if any of them fhouldhappen pen to remain. Mr* Slator hiw given the proper Reafons'againft fons'againft grading-of Hemp, therefore I fliall take no Notice of that here. M They They have in Holland about a Guilder per Hundred for breaking of Hemp, which is two Shillings Enghfh. SECT. VII. Of Pulling and Saving the Carl-hemp. THE People in Holland who are beft skill’d in railing of Hemp, determine their Carl-hemp to be ripe Carl-hemp ripe. and fit for pulling, by the following Methods. Firft, they obferve whether any of the Seed begins gins to appear, and has bur ft the little Cell, or Seed-bed that Nature has provided for it. Secondly, whether thofe Seeds fo appearing, have the Kernel of them perfectly formed, or whether it be foft and like a Jelly; if fo be that it is foft, they allow it to ftand longer ger to ripen ; but if the greater Part of the Seeds be hard and well filled, they do not defer pulling of it longer: And their Method thod of pulling the Carl, is the fame with that of the Fimble in every Refped:; cfpc- dally pulling the long Carl apart from the fhort, and binding them in fmall different Bundles, viz, as much as a Man can well hold in his Hands. Thefc Pulling the long Carl apart from the fhort. Thefe fmall Bundles of Hemp being ing bound at each End, as the Fimble-hemp ble-hemp was, they raife up upon Bandies of Hemp. the Butts, on each Side of the Frame or Horfe formerly deferibed: They make thefe Frames orHorfeswith any Rubbifh of Wood they can get ,• they are far from being coftly, ly, tho 5 they have many of them ; becaule they in the drying of their Hemp, are fo very careful, as not to dry their long Carlhemp hemp at the fame Frame with their Short, left the long might {hade the fhort, or elfe over-top them, and prevent their drying : Sometimes they venture to put three or four Sheaves, one over the other, as they leaning on the Frame; but if they do lb, they are fure to remove them, and turn them after fuch a Manner, as that all the {mall Sheaves may be equally weathered $ thus do they let it ftand till the Leaves are perfedtly ly dry, and the Seed ready to fhed. They then provide Sheets or Win- nowrcloths, and fpread them in fome convenient Place in the Field, and Sheets ot now° ° ° $ • therepn lay two Pieces of Timber, eight Inches fquare and tenFpot long,- theM Pieces of Timber placed juft pppofitJ eadl jl \.uy*ri£ ——t j m — m iii * i each other, at five Foot Diftance ,• over which they lay the Tops of the Hemp hanging: ing: About a Foot beyond the Timber two Men Band, within the Winnow-cloth or Sheet, and with Flails thrafh out the Seed, as. the Sheaves hang over j and Flails. at the Butt-end of each Sheaf (lands a Woman, man, who conflantly turns the Sheaves, ftill as the Seed is beat out. When the Sheets begin to fill with Seed, Women come and take it thence to riddle it • which they do through a wide mefhed RidRiddle Riddle the Seed. die, and fever the Seed from the Leaves, Stalks, and groffer Part of the Filth, which ! was before mixed with it. Yet, as to the Dull and Chaff which paffed through the Riddle along with the Seed, they leave that to remain with the Seed, until fuch time as the Seed is compleatly dry; becaufe it is their Opinion, that this Dull: and Chaff prevents the heating of the Seed as it lies drvimr. jo., . . . ' When the Seed is thus thrafh’d out of their Hemp, they convey it to a well boarded Floor, where it is Thraft> ing the Seed out. laid much in the fame Manner as Malt■ ■ tiers lay their Couch of Malt, about two ar three Inches thick 5 and they turn it once a Day Day regularly, during the firft three Weeks, not fuffering the Man who turns it, to have cither Shoes or Pumps on, left he fhould break or bruife the Seed by treading on it. About three Weeks afterwards, they clean their Seed again, but not entirely from the Chaff or Duft : For the former Reafbn, they continue the,Seedftill on the boarded Floor, and obferve to turn it twice a Week, till the Seafon comes for fowing it. Hemp-feed is generally fold in Holland at eight Guilders per Hogfticad, fticad, which is fixteen Shillings Enghjh hjh Money: Their Hogfticads ought to hold feven Bufhels of their Mea- What the Seed is fold for in Hot- Laid. fare; each of their Bufhels being an eighth Part left than our IVmcheJler Bulhel. The Dutch are a very frugal People,yet I thinkMr, Slat or’s Method of thrafhing out his Seed; is much more faving than theirs - for when Hemp is dry, it is very apt ro filed its Seed, great Part of which muft be loft,’ by removing ving it Sheaf by Sheaf to the Place where it is thraflVd,- and there are in Holland many ny more Hands left ufefully employ’d, by tlirafhing out the Seed in their Manner than in his: Therefore as it was my Duty, not only ly to obferve their Practice, but likewife to difplay difplay to the Publick (in Obedience to the Commands, of my Employers) the beft Practice, tice, according to the beft of my Judgment, ment, without copying the Dutch beyond Reafon. SECT. VIII. Of Dressing or Peeling of Carl-hemp. TH E Dutch never break their Carlhemp hemp with Breaks, left the Bunn ftiould cut the Harl ,• they therefore peel it in the following Manner* that is to fay, they break with their Peeling of Carlfccinp. fccinp. Fingers, the Bunn or Straw of the Hemp, about fix Inches from the Top or fmaller End of it j then' they bruifc the Stalk or Straw of it between their Thumb and Fingers, gers, down to the Butt or Roots • which caufes the Harl or Skin to fplit, fo as the Bunn is eafily taken out: They afterwards clear the Tops that they have broken off from the Bunn: then hano; the Harl on a Chair Back, or a Pin fet up for that Purpofe, pofe, till they have gathered about a Pound or or two of Harl $ and keeping the Butt-ends of their Hemp all together, as even as they- can, they lap the the laft mentioned Haris up in Bundles, dles, and lay it by. Yet all this While they never mingle their long Carl with their fhort, but conftantly ly work them apart. Their Time for peeling the Carlhemp hemp is, either during the long Winter Nights, orfuch wet Days, as they cannot work abroad in the Fields. This is the merrieft Time They keep the Butt-ends of their Hemp all together. They never mingle their long' 'Garl with? the fliort. The Time fpr peeling thcirGarlhemp. hemp. ' in the Year for the Boors; for then it is, that the Neighbours make their Vifits to each other, and aflift to peel the Hemp. The Man of the Houfe then treats his Neighbours bours in a very commendable, friendly, yet frugal Manner,- he lays Pipes and Tobacco before them,- the Frow brings in a Slice of Rye-bread, exceedingly thin fpread with Butter, and a thin Slice of Wheat-bread, nothing thing better furniflied with Butter than the former,- between thefe two Pieces of Bread and Butter, is placed a Piece of Cheefe, fo exceedingly thin, that ten of them would Icarce make an Inch; thefe are delivered to. every one of the Guefts, which they eat with with great Comfort, and wafti down with a Draught of their brown Beer, much like to our fix Shilling Beer, in point of Strength $ then, in order to warm their Stomachs , they have a Viol of Geneva, which they call a Bubblekee , and holds about half a Pint,* this Viol is contrived to befo narrow at the Throat, as that the Geneva can’t come out more than Drop by Drop, and a Man muft be exceedingly well breath’d, that can fuck thence more than half a Spoonful ful at one Pull,* for it is not cuftomary to take a fecond Pull at it, and the Dutch are ftrid:; Obforvers of their own Cuftoms and Manner of living, fo that after one Man has had; his. Pull at the Bubblekee , he muft in good Manners deliver it over to his Neighbour, bour, and fo it goes round. 1. 1 have made this Digreflion, without Defign fign of refle&ing in the leaft on the Dutch for their Frugality,* but on the contrary, to Ihcw my Countrymen how the Dutch have acquired, and do ftill acquire, that vaft Wealth of which they arc Maftcrs; I have in part given them a Specimen of their Industry, dustry, and now an Inftance of their Frugality gality and Abftinence,* and with Concern I Ipeak it, were thefe merry Meetings made at at EngUJh or Irijh Houfes, .the Mutton, the Poultry, and the Bacon, as well as the Beer, Ale, and Brandy muft have paid the Shot: Befides, the Miftrefs and her Family muft have been diverted, each of them from their' Houfhold Affairs, to attend the Affairs of the Kitchen and Pantry. In Mufcovy and other Parts of the Eaftland land Countries, where they raile, vaft Quantities of Hemp, they haveWindmilfs, milfs, or Water-mills fo contrived, with Rollers one after another, as they can break the Hemp with Safety,, and with fuch Difpatch, as to afford the doing it at fixteen Pence per Hun- Quantities ties of Hemp railed. Breaking ing the Hemp. dred. In thofe Countries where thefe Mills are, they have the Conveniency of J water/* Water-carriage, by the Means of ca f na s e v. their Canals and navigable Rivers. It is true, we have no Canals, but we come no ways behind them with refped to navigable vigable Rivers. If the Publick is Kdviga- Heßivers. ' difpofed to have fuch a Mill made, I dare venture to dired the making of it exadly A Foreign Countries are very careful to promote mote their Manufactures, by. the Help of Engines that difpatch more Bufinefs, and frequently better than many Engines i N Hands Hands can perform y by which Means they always under-fell us in foreign Markets. We may eafily in Ireland arrive at fiich a Deg ree of Perfection, as to furnifh Great Bntain y our felves, and the foreign Plantations tions with Sail-canvafs and Cordage,* which ought to be vended as cheap as our Neighbours bours can afford them: But if ever we expert pert to have Share of Trade in foreign Markets, kets, it muft be by exceeding them in point of Goodnefs, and by felling at Rates as reafonable fonable y thefe can never be compared, but by acquiring the beft Engines proper for Trade, that are ufed any where with Succefs; cefs; or by contriving at home, others equally qually good. SECT. IX. To what Uses the Dutch convert their Fimblehemp, hemp, and Carl-hemp . TH E Fimble-hemp is in Holland y for the moft part, employed to the making king of Sail-cloth, they feldom making hempen pen Linnen ,* it is fold there generally, from two and twenty to thirty Shillings dred. * ~ The The larger Carl they generally work info fo white Cordage $ fometimes they mix their own with the Riga and Eaft-land Hemps, wherewith they make Cables but generally ly (peaking, they make their large Cables of Riga Hemp, the Dutch themfelves being of Opinion, that their own Hemp would contract, or draw up in the Salt-water, (hould any of the large Carl-hemp be employ’d to the making of Cables. This long Carl fells in Holland , from fourteen to twenty Shillings per Hundred. What the lone Carl- 5 hemp lells for in Holland. The (hort Carl, they caufe it to be beaten well in their Hemp-mills, and afterwards hackled, for making of Twine for Fifliing-nets, or for the The fhortCarl is beaten in Hempmills. mills. • Sail-makers Thread, wherewith they (bw the Sails. Pack-threads and Shop-threads are made with the Tow or Hurds of the (hort Carl, which laft mentioned Hemp fells generally in Holland , from two and twenty to five and twenty Shillings per Hundred. The Dutch never make Sail-cloth of either ther of their Carl-hemps j and we in Ireland land have endeavoured to make a Tryal, how far we could work up their Carl-hemps in Sail-cloth, but we could not make it do, any any more than they. Tho 5 we make tolerable rable Sail-cloth with the Carl-hemp which grows in this Kingdom, yet I am very Eire, that the Faduries for Sail-cloth in lreland y would find more their Account in making all their Sail-cloth of Fimble-hemp • becaufe caufe it is much more eafie to bring this to Colour, than they can poffibly bring the other. SECT. X. Of Hemp-Mills. IT is fcarce poffible to keep a Sailcloth cloth Fadury, without Hemp-mills to beat their Hemp: There are four Hempmills. mills. . of thefe Mills erected in Ireland , at the Expence of the Publick, exadly in Imitation on of the Dntch j but thefe are found too coftly for private Undertakings. In Eng- Cornmills. mills. land , they have found out a Way of making their ordinary Corn-mills, with a very final 1 Expence, in comparifon of the other, to anfwcr all the Ends and Purpofes'of Hefnp-mills: It is thus, They make the Beam of the Mill-wheel fo much longer than ufual, and place the Cogs they defign defign to employ in the Hemp-mill, in proportion to the Number of Beaters they have Occafion for. Any Mill-wright that has once feen a Hemp-mill, and confider’d it, may foon make a Corn-mill to perform this Office. The Dutch beat their Hemp in their Mills after this Manner, they take about two Pound of their Hemp, which they turn over at the Middle, they then fold down the two Ends, and tuck them into the firft Fold, as clofe to the Head as is requifite to make the Trufs of Hemp, very near the Length of the Trough, and the Breadth of the Beater or Stamper : Thefe Beaters or Stampers are raifed by the Coes fix’d in the Mill-wheel Beam, and the 0 7 Beaters being made of large weighty Timber, ber, come down with great Force and Violence, and are fo contrived, to turn the Hemp in* the Troughs, each Stroke they give it: When the Hemp begins to be warm with beating, they The Beaters ers fo contrived trived to, turn the Hemp - in ’the ' Troughs. take that Bundle or Trufs out, and put in another, ther, and while that is beating, they open the former Trufs, give it a Shake, and adjuft juft the Butts as evenly as they can, and fo trufs it again, and lay it on the Bench by them, made for that Purpofe $ by this time, the the.fecondTrufs is liifficiently hot, which they therefore ,take out, and fiipply with a third; They manage the fecondas they , did the* firfl:, jand lay it on the fame Bench, in Oourfe and Order as it was beaten ; fo they vproceed, till they have beaten as many Truffes, as the Miller judges will hold beating ing alternatively, fo as the firfl Trufs may rbe cold enough to be beaten a fecond Time : Then they proceed to beat and manage the Truffes, one after another, in the Order and Courfe they were laid, and in the fame .Manner exadly with the firfl:. Thefe Beatings ings muft be repeated, until the Hemp is ibft enough to be fpun. In Holland , the Hemp-millers is a Trade of it felf, and requires much Judgment and Experience, to know to what Degree of Heat the Hemp may ' ‘ The Hcmpmillcrsa millcrsa Trade in Holland. with Safety be beaten, without firing or difcolouring it : You ought alfo to know when it is Joft enough for the Spinners : And a good Miller of Hemp ought to be handy in the Repair of his Mill, whenever there is Occafion, elfe the whole Eadtury may be kept idle, and the Employer .at great Expence fop dead Wages. .The.. Miller, together gether A good /Miller of Hemp ought to ibc handy in the Repair pair of his Mill. gether with the Owner or Occupier of the Mill, have in Holland eight Stiver sper Cent . for each Hundred of Hemp they beat and truft, which is about ten Pence Irtfh , and is two Pence lels than what is at prefent paid in Ireland : This may be thought an inconfiderable Difference in Trade, but they who confider Manufactures rightly, mult endeavour to fave the minuteft Part of* all Fractions, on every Bolt or Piece of Can* vas they make, elfe theft Fractions in a bul* ky Trade, may be a great Loft to the Na* tion. I have never obftrved the Dutch to loft in the beating or hackling of their Fimble-hemp, more than ten Pounds in five Score y Ibmetimes, nay very often, their Loft is left ; I fear it is much greater in Ireland : lam lure it was ft when I was concerned cerned at Dunkittle near Cork , before I went to Holland . Since my Return, I have not had either Leifure or Opportunity to be informed formed how that Matter is • for if the Loft be greater here than in Holland , it may proceed ceed from many Reaftns, as well from the Nature and ill Management of the Hemp, as from the Faults in beating, and hack- Ung. SECT. SECT. XI Hackling Hemp for Sail-cloth . TH E Hackles which the Dutch make Ufe of for hempen SailHackles. Hackles. cloth, are much finer than thofe imployed to the fame Purpofe in Ireland ,• on their coarfeft Hackle, they make their firft Hack', ling, and. drefs the Butts, and other the coarfeft Part of the Hemp, to .be of equal Finenefs with the reft, they finifh on a Hackle as fine as thofe which came from Coventry , called Number four ; by which Means they drefs their Hemp of equal Finenels nels to the Flax, wherewith Yarn of two Dozen in the Pound Statute Reel, and Count, is ulually made in Ireland : They hackle their Tow or Hurds as free Hackling Tow. from Knots as may be, and place them in the Infide of the Tare : This Tow or Hurds will. never fpin well, if it be knotted; ted; and it is of them that the Woft-yarn is always fpun. Hemp for Sailcanvas canvas muft be hackled vary fine. . Hemp, for Sail-canvas muft be hackled very fine, elfe the warping Yarn, which is always made of Tare, will not be fufficiently plyant, and yield yield to the Slay in the beating up of the Woof, be the Slay-board never fo Tile Warp-yarn for Canvas mud be both drorig and ply ant, to prevent the Yarn’s breaking, which compofcs the Warp, which otherwife would be attended with many Ineonveniencies: eonveniencies: As, in the fird Place, many Knots fpoil the Skirl of the Canvas ,• td conceal which, the Weavers, as they weave* cut thefe Knots as clofe to the Skin of the Cloth, as they can; By which Means, as foon as the Canvas is drain’d by the Wind* it runs into Holes immediately. In the next Place, it occafions great Delay to the'Weaver ver : But that which is the word of all, is, that in cafe the Warp be not ply ant, the Woof can never be clofe enough beded, admitting mitting it to be three Stroke Work, which is what is generally given to Sail-canvas; and if the Woof be not clofe beded, the Canvas will draw a Wind, and prevent the Ship from lying by the Wind, when there is Occafion. The Hackling the Tare fine, mud of Neceflity make more Tow and j « Hurds* than otherwife* but that is Hacklin g, Tare fine no Lofs to any Body, becaufe the Tow or Hurds are always fpun into Woof-yarn, O which Which is equally valuable with the former, when wove into Canvas. The Tow or Hurds which are taken off the .Butt-ends, and coarfeft Part of the Hemp, in the Drefllng, the Dutch never fuffer to be wrought into Canvas, but apply ply thefe laft Sort of Elurds to the making of Bed-cords, or Cords made ufe of in Packing. , Each Hundred of good Hemp produces in Holland , from 42 1048 Pounds of good Tare. The Hackler kler has five Stivers ( which is Sixpence pence English Money ) for every twelve Pounds of clean hackled Hemp, . which is near one half cheaper, than it is done in Ireland - y and confequently A Hundred dred of good Hemp produces in Holland, land, from 42 1048 Pd. ofgood Tare. a heavy Clogg on our Trade. I cannot fee any Remedy thereto, but by encreafing the Number of Hadders and Swinglers, from all Parts of the World where they can be. had, and by inftrudting the Natives of the Country, to be lufficiently skill’d therein j for each of thefe Artifts are exceedingly reqnifite qnifite to this Kingdom, both of them neceflary ceflary to. the breaking, fwingling, and hackling of Flax, and alfo requifite to the breaking and hackling of Hemp, allowing the the People here Ihould conform to the Dutch, and never Jfwingle Hemp. SECT. XII. Of Spinning Hemp for Sail-canvas. THE Wheels which they make Ufe of in Holland , wherewith they fpin the Warp-yarn for Sailcanvas, canvas, are much the fame with thofe commonly ufed in the Injh Factories ,• yet the Dutch are more careful in the proportioning of their The Ufe of the Wheel, for Ipinning ning of Warpyarn yarn for Sail-canvas. vas. Whirl, Spool, and Flyers to their Wheel, and alfo in making the Whirl, the Spool, and the Flyers, conform to each other j without which it is difficult for the Spinners to make the Thread equal, and the Twift to be neither more nor left than it ought ,* for thereon depends the making good Sailcloth: cloth: For if it be over twifted, it will never ver be plyant, which is fo great a Requifite, that without it, it is impoflible.to make a good Cloth, for the Reafons already given. And on the other Hand, if it be undertwifted, twifted, ‘ the Warp will be weak, and the Woof Woof dart into Holes immediately. I could never yet fee a Wheel-wright that could determine termine what the exadt Proportions of thele Things ought to be, with regard to each other, fo as they might be reduced to fome Certainty, by Geometrical Rules in Mcchanifm. chanifm. It is certain, each Wheelwright wright has fome Rule by which he makes his Wheels and Tackle ; but either he "canhot hot or he will not make that Matter intelligible ligible to others, fo as a good Mechanickhead head might bring this Machine under fome certain Regulations : Tor tny Part, it is a Province I dare not undertake; fprlhpuldl £>e guilty of the lead Miftake, the Errors might be attended with very ill Confequences. ces. In the fixing the Tare to the Spinner's Wade, the Dutch always have an Apron pn, they place the Marl equally before them at the Wade, lapping the two Ends between their Body apd the Aproh-drings, and draw the Thread from their Wade into admail Hole that is made for that Purpofe, ;at the End of the Spool. They always fpin their Warp in this Manner, becaiile caiile it twids lefs,. and they find they can difpitch more Work that Waj. The Manner oflpinhing hing their Warp. Way. A good Spinner in Holland\ can, with Eafe, fpin from nine to twelve Pounds of in a Day. The Woof is all Ipun on Wheels like to thole which we call here in Ireland\ long Wheels ; This they likewife fpin from the Wafte, and ' The Woof is always Ipun dn Wheels, ' - ¥ ‘ is performed in the lame Manner as the white Cord-makers (pin their Yarn, of which they make their Ropes ; the Spinner going back to a proper Diftance, while another turns the Wheel; And when he has gone as far back in fpinning as is proper, he there flops a very little Time, and then till the Thread he has Ipun, be woundup; By this Means, the Woof hasafofter Twift than the Warp. A good Hemp-lpinner will fpin from fifteen to eighteen Pounds a Day, of Woof-yarn. The Price for fpinning of Warp, is there eighteen Stivers per Dozen, which is between The Price for fpinning of Warp.' one and twenty and two and twenty Pence Rnghfh . The Price for Ipinning of Woof-yarn is fifteen Stivers per Dozen. zen. A good Spinner will Ipin a Dozen and a Half of Woof-yarn in Th<* Price for Ipinning of Woofyarn. yarn. a Day. I know not what Wages is n6w given at theFa&urieSjfor Ipinning of Warp 1 ■ and and Woof for Sail-cloth - y but if a Man may be allowed to form a Judgment of fpinning of Hemp, by the proportionable Hire given ven generally to Spinners, for fpinning of Flax, it will be found, that Hemp-fpinning might be afforded in Ireland , vaftly cheaper er than in Holland : For if two Pence a Hank be in Ireland , thought L good Wages for fpinning of flaxen Yarn, of two Dozen in the Pound, Statute Reel and Count • and, generally (peaking, the Flax-fpinners do not (pin more than a Hank and a half, one Day with another, of Yarn of that Set, whereby by the Spinner earns three Pence a Day: How comes it to pafs, that the Hemp-fpinner ner fhould be allowed to , earn one and twenty Pence a Day, on Warp, and feven and twenty Pepce a Day, by fpinning of Woof? The Difficulty is foonfolved. There are in Ireland , two thoufand Flax-fpinners, for one Hemp-lpinner y and if I have Flax to fpin, the Spinners being many, court my Work : If I have Hemp to fpin, the Spinners are few, and I muff court them. Therefore, to diffufe this Art of fpinning of Hemp, and make it more general, it were advifable, that all the poorer Sort of People thoronghout the whole Province of Mm- Munfier y and luch Parts of Connaught and Leinfter , as have the Conveniency of the Shannon , the Barrow , and the Noar y be taught to fpin Hemp, both Warp and Woofs that the Owners of the Fadturies be obliged to have Agents in proper Places, for the more convenient and eafy carrying on of this Trade: By this Method, the Fadhiries: will be fupplied with Spinners, at eafy and. cheap Rates $ and, by the Means of Water-carriage, ter-carriage, divers othcrAdvantag.es will accrue to the Publick, which Watercarriage. carriage. might be now demonftrated, were I not afraid fraid of trefpaffing too much on the Reader's der's Time. SECT. XII. Of Bleaching Sail-canvas rarn . THE Dutch bleach their Canvas-yarn with a Boiler, which they call a Tirnine. nine. This Engine is made of Brals, narrow row at the Bottom, and widens gradually l as it rifes to the Top: It has a clofe Cover ver made of the fame Metal, in which there are Vent-holes of about three Inches Diameter meter • meter $ over which Holes they place finall Aiding Covers, by Means whereof they carl give Vent to their Lees, when boiling,* for otherwite, all would fly as the Heat increated created : For fometimes the Lees boil with that Violence, that they will fhoot through thote Vent-holes, fix or eight Inches high above the Cover : For which Reafon, the Boiler it telf, and the Lid which covers it, are fo contrived, as to be temewhat hollow low at the Top, to receive the Lees again as they fall down on the Lid, whence they eafily pate down again into the Boiler. They are fo apprehcnfive of the Violence that thete Lees may poflibly arite with, they have a ftrong Bar of Iron placed crote the Funnil, to which another Iron-bar is fixed, ed, that comes down to the Lid of the Boiler, in order to keep the Lid fixed in its Place, till they tee Occafion to remove it. Thete Tirnincs can boil about a hundred dred and twenty Pound Weight of Yarn at aTime,* they are fixed in Brick and Lime, cxa&ly in the fame Manner with our Furnaces, naces, with proper Grates for the Fire; and as near to the Bottom of this Tirnine as they conveniently can* they place a Cock, to to Jet go the Lees,-; when the Yarn is lufliciently ciently boiled. < Their Manner of boiling their Yarn is thus: They take about ten Pound Weight of the Hanks, of Yarn, and lap each Hank over the Their’ Manner of boiling ing their Yarn. / X other, round like a Ball they have ten or thefe Balls lying by them: They then fill their Tirnine three Quarters full of cold Water, then make their Fire under the Tirnine nine or Boiler, till the Water is Milk-warm. In this Water, they place firft one Range of’the Yarn, lapt up as aforefaid ; they arc exceeding careful in the laying their Yarn in the Boiler, left it may tangle,- and over the Yarn that is firft laid in the Boiler, they ftrew about five Pounds of Afhes, mixed and prepared in the Manner herein after mentioned $ then they put in another Layer er of Yarn, and ftraw the like Quantity of Afhes over it ; Thus they proceed in the laying in of their Yarn, conftantly ftrew-r ing over each Range five Pounds of Afhes* till all the Yarn, with its Proportion of Afhes, is laid in the Tirnine : They are forced to prefs the Yarn hard down, that they may put on the Cover. Thus, at every ry Boiling, they ufe about fixty Pound P Weight Weight of -Afhesj they make a fharjp Fire under the Tirnine, fo as to caufevthe Lees and Yarn to boil for three Hours, as Amply ly as they can, opening the Vent-holes gradually as the Heat encreafes ; or rather, as they fee there is Occafion. for giving it Vent, they will clofe and open thefe Ventholes holes neither more nor left, than abfolute Neccflity-requires ,* fo defirous are they to preferve the Spirit of their Lees from flying ing away as they boil, that it may remain and do its Office on the-Yarn. When the Yarn has thus boiled d ur i n g three Hours, they open the The Yam bojied Cock which is placed-near the Bottom of the Tirnine, and let go the Lees: After the Lees are gone, they pour cold Water into' the Tirnine over the Yarn : The Quantity of cold Water is much ; the fame with that which the Yarn was boil’d in, having firft removed the Fire from under they then let go this Water at the Cock, and load in frefli cold Water, and as it empties at the Cock, they continue lading in of more Water, till the Yarn is pretty cold, and has done fmoaking ,* then ds the Yarn carefully taken out of the Tirnine, and opened Hank by Hank, conftantly throwing throwing cold Water thereon, till all the Hanks which were in the Tirnine, are perfectly fectly cold. ’ . The Yarn being dufficiendy cold, they firft rinfe it Yery well,. in fair, cold Water, and afterwards lay as The Yarn being ing cold. many Hanks on the Batting-plank, as they can conveniently Ipread thereon, and, their Batting-fticks can reach. They never lay their Yarn thicker than two Hanks, while they batts and their Manner of .making of their Batts is, by tying two Sticks together gether like Flails / but that which comes down on the Yarn, is always made as fmooth and even, as they polfibly . can get them, deft the The Dutch Manner of making ing their • Batts. • Knots in the Sticks might break the Yarn. While die Yarn is ,a batting,, another Perfon fon with a Scoop calls cold Water continually.,, ally.,, on it: When one Side is fdfficicntly batted, they turn up the other, till they batted that Side likewife in the fame Manner : They then rinfe it well, anid wring it on. the Engine hereafter mentioned, ed, till it is freed from the Water. Their next Care is to put thefe Hanks one by one, on fmqoth Poles which they have for that Purpofe, and {hake the Yarn very well’, and and fpread it bn the Poles, : ia none 6f it may cling together that- done/ they lay carefully Poles and all on the Grafs in their Bleach-yard, during three Days and three Nights, turning it every Day in order to bleach it,* yet they never duffer it to lye longer Time on the Grafs, but afterwards raife it with the Poles, on the Horfe prepared pared for that Purpofe, where it hangs till it is dry. . - . That which I here call the Horfe, are fcjuare Pieces of Timber, of about fix Inches es fcjuare, ten Foot high above the,Surface of the Bleach-yard,* they are fixed in the Ground at the Edges of the Grafs-plot, pretty ty deep, that they may ftand the firmer, and at the Diftance from each other, in. proportion to the Length of the Poles, which generally are between five and fix Foot long in thefe Polls there are Catches fixed on that Side next the Green, and they always put as many of thefe Pegs or Catches one under another, as they conceive the Horfe can bear, in proportion likewife to the Length and Depth of the Hanks and Poles as they hang; taking great Care, that the upper Ranges of the Yarn beat not on the lower, as they are moved by the Air or Wind: Wind: On thefe Horfes the Poles arc hung, with as much Yarn thinly Ipread, as can well Hand between each Poft, and there they let it hang till it is dry. While the Bleacher was thus managing of the firft hundred and twenty Pound of Yarn in his Bleach-yard, in order to bring it to Colour, the Boiler or Tirnine does not during that Time Hand idle, but is filled led with a fecond, and after that with a third, fourth, and fifth Proportion of Yarn, each of them equal to the Quantity firft boiled ,* by which Means, they have in a few Days boiled, and prepared fix Hundred Weight of Yarn fit for bucking. Before I proceed to defcribe the Manner of the bucking of their Yarn, it is requifite fite that I acquaint my Reader with the many ny other Conveniences in and about the Bleach-yard, which th t Dutch are very careful ful to provide, lb as nothing may be wanting, ing, that is either necelfary, or convenient for to compals their Ends: For this Realbn it is, that they have always their Bleach-yards at a Diftance from any High-ways, or other ther Places where the Duft may be railed by the Wind, which may drive over their Bleach-yards, and fully their Work. And to to ,thb end nothing offenfive might come into the'Bleach-yard, they have a Wall about eight or nine Foot high, built at the Extreams of all the Bleach-yard ; under the Shelter of thefe Walls they build Penthoufes, houfes, wide enough to fet their Yarn with the Poles acrofs them, when the Weather, is fo wet or windy, as that it is not convenient nient to have the Yarn hang abroad on the Horle; therefore, let the Wind blow from what Point of the Compals it will, they are provided againft any Inconveniencics of Wind or Weather; And left the Turf of their Grafs-plot fhould be either foul’d, or dirtied, or worn out by their Labourers treading oh it, more than what is of abfolute lute Neceflity, there is always a Walk of fix Foot wide, between the Penthoufes and the Green, where the Labourers perform all their Labour or Work $ excepting only when they fpread their Yam on the Green, or when they mow, fweep, and roll it,* for they keep their Green as fine as a Bowlinggreen, green, left their Yarn be ftain’d, either by long Grafs or Flowers $ this they would infallibly fallibly be, if the Green was not kept with the utmoft Exa&nefs. When When they have boiled five times a hundred dred and twenty Pound Weight, and prepared pared every Part of the Yarn, fb as to have fix Hundred Weight ready for bucking, (counting five Score to each Hundred) then they proceed to buck this fix,Hundred Weight of Yarn altogether, after this Manner ner : . They have in their Buck-houfe, dole to their Tirnine or Boiler, an Engine made in the Form of a Cheft, of two Inched Plank, about eight Foot long, five Foot wide, and fix Foot deep; this Cheft is fo contrived on the Outfide of it, that the Planks may Hide up and down and be taken but, for the more convenient filling the Cheft with the Yarn and Afties $ and the Joynts are fb contrived, as to {hoot into each other, and fb retain the Lees while the Yarn is bucking: ing: In the Bottom of this Cheft they have Holes made by an Augre, fomewhat latger than an Inch, , each Hole a Foot Diftancc. from, each other j they ftop thefe Holes with Plugs, and when they fee occafion to let go the Lees, they take out as many of the Plugs,as is neceflary. This Cheft is placed a little in the Ground, , oyer- a hollow Drain made with Brick and Lime, after fuch a Manner, Manner, that all the Lees that come from the Cheft, pals thro* a Gutter, (made likewife wife of Brick and Lime) to an open mouth’d Veffel, placed there on purpole to receive it and the other Lees thrown out of the Tirnine each Time they boil: When this Veffel is full, they empty it into old Hog- Iheads, after having filter’d or pals’d them thro* Ipent Alhes and Straw: ThefeLees ferve better to boil Yarn in, than fair Water can, and by their palling them through (pent Alhes and Straw, they are purged from any Filth they contra&ed in the boiling or bucking, ing, yet do they retain lome Part of the Strength of the Alhes. Their Method of bucking of Yarn is thus: They take twenty Pound of Zeuda Allies and the like Quantity of Allies called double Deprife y with theft they make a ftrong Lee ,* and The Method thod the Dutdoxfa in buck- . ing of Yam. having placed one Range of their Yarn Hank by Hank, fo as to cover the Bottom of the Cheft, in the fmootheft Manner they can poffibly lay it, they gently pour over this Layer or Range of Yarn, as much fcalding Lees as will wet it quite through,* then do they lay another Layer of Yarn, over which they pour Lees as before, and when there is is occafion, they put the Planks into theit proper Places, ftill as the Yarn and Lees rife higher in the. Chefi, and proceed to range the Yarn Hank by Hank, pouring on of Lees over each Range, till the whole fix hundred Weight of Yarn be compleatly ly flowed in this Cheft or Engine, whiehin Holland* called a Lough-Bank, whereto to they have a Lid or Covet to keep in the Steem, which they are fb exad:, ad:, to [prevent its coming out, that they ftpp Crevis in their Lough Bank) and, cover it all over Tba Chert 01; Engine, whiehin Holland is callei a Louth- Buuh very carefully with Cloths, fb as neither the outward Air, or the inward Steem, fhbulcl get in or out to pbftrud: the bucking. r x Thus they continue their Yarn, for thd Space of twenty Tour Hours compleat ; during ring which Time they having prepared another ther made, of Zeuda, and double De~ prtfe Afhes, of each feventeen Pound arid a half, they let go the former Lees, and fb pour on the fjrefh ones, and there let them lye for the Space of* twenty font Hours obfefving the fame Cautions as before, to keep the Lees from evaporating When the Yarn has. lain thus long a bucking, they let go the Lees a fecond Time, and when Q. it it is cool’d, they rinfe it very well in cold Water, and proceed to wring it on the Engine gine they have for that Purpofe : When it i$ well wrung, they place their Poles in the Hanks, about a Foot Diftance from each and fhake it andfpread it'on the Poles, fo as the Yarn may lye as loofe without out clinging together as is poflible: They then fpread the Yarn, Poles and all, on the Grafs, for three Days and three Nights, turning it every Day, and afterwards hang the Poles and Yarn on the Horfe, till it is perfectly dry ,* or if the Weather will not fuffer it to hang on the Horfe, they then hatig their Yarn and Poles under their Penthoufes houfes till it is compleatly dry,foasto weave it. Thus may you perceive what Quantity of Afhes are made ufe of in the bleaching of fix fhort Hundred of Yarn $ but left there rnieht be a Mifs-computation or Miftake in this Matter, which is fo enential to the Trade, I fhall caft up the Quantity of the Afhes made life of on each Occafion: Firft, there are fixty Pound Weight of Afhes imployed in the boiling of each hundred and twenty Pound Weight of Yarn, and there being five times The Dutch ufc fixty Pound Weight of Attics, in the boiling 1 of each 120 Pound Weight of Yarn. that that Quantity boil’d ere they buck $ theft Boilings take up three Hundred Weight of Aflies, and the twice bucking takes from feventy five Pound Weight to eighty, according cording to the Strength or Goodnefiof the Afties, or the Yarn is more or lefs kindly in the bleaching j fo that the whole fix Hundred dred Weight of Yarn may be reafonably computed to take three hundred and eighty Pound of Aflies, which will fiifficiently bleach this Quantity of Yarn, provided the Hemp was well faved and watered, and is of a kindly ly Nature in it felf, for it may be hard and fiillen, from fome Imperfe&ion in the Soil; in either of which Cafes, the Dutch themfelves felves are forced to give their Yarn afecond Buck, ere they can bring it to that bright Colour they fb much affeft in Holland . I muft here beg my Reader’s Pardon, that I make this general Obfervation on the whole Matter, relating to the bleaching of hempen pen Yarn for Sail-canvafi, That the Bleacher er and thofe employ’d under him, can never ver be over cautious or careful, that all Parts of their Yarn have equal Share of the Lees, both in boiling and bucking ,• therefore, fore, the round Balls put into the Boiler, muft not be drawn as to prevent the Lees Lees piercing them through and through with Eafe : It is true, the Ley-bands muft be kept on each Hank, but not fo ftraitly tied as to make the Yarn cling togethertherefore, therefore, they lay their Hanks in the Lough-bank, and fpread it as even and light as ppffibly they can, fo as the Lees may penetrate each Thread of it in the bucking : And when they are to weather it on the Poles, they (hake and divide each Thread from die other, fo as no Part of it may cling together, for otherwife Tome of it would be rowy, 2nd make Rows in the Canvals, which cannot afterwards be retrieved or cured. red. When they are to weather ther their Hemp on the Poles they fhake & divide Thread from the other. The Names of the feveral Sorts of Afhes made v ufe of by the Dutch, and the Prices they are fold for in Holland, viz. The Names ofthefcverai verai Afhes made ufe pf by the 'Dutch, & the Price? they are fold for m Holland. land. Elhbanks B~T Doyts per Pound. Double Deprife 10 Doyts per Pound. Sattiens — : p-f Doyts per Pound, Caffoepes ~ n Doyts per Pound. Kernfoufe iq Pound. Zeuda - r i Guilders per Hundred. dred. I I have already obferved, that a Guilder contains twenty of their Stivers, vers, and is equal to two Shillings Englijh-y their Stiver contains eight Doyts; fo that it is an eafie Matter to reduce their Money to ours of England, and afterward, that of England land to ours of Ireland . When they boil their hempen Yarn, they ufe an equal Quantity pf Ellthanks , doable Depri/e , Satuens , Caffoepes , and Kerr 'tfouje , mingled all together ; but when they buck, they ufe pone but Zeuda and double Depri/e Afhes. All.thefe Sorts of Afhes when ufed, muftbe well ground and fifted, or well pounded and lifted,* when they grind them, they have Mills in Holland , which go in the Manner ner as the Stones do for grinding of Rape-feed ,* but fome pound it, A Guilder der contains tains 20 of the Dutch Stivers. A Stiver contains 8 Doyts. What Quantity of Alhes ' the Dutch ufc, when they boil their hempen Yarn. When th q Dutch buck their Yam, they ufe nonebut Zeuda & double Dtprtfe Alhcs. The Mills in Holland. with a Beater made of a hard Piece of Wood, about twelve by fifteen Inches oblong fquare, and two Inches and a half thick, well fhod with a Plate of Iron, about a Quarter of an Inch thick, with a Handle made after the Fafhion of Mr. Slator’s Beaters, for beating out Flax-feedj with this, they beat the Afhes Alhes on an old Mill-Hone, or a large Flagftone ftone fix’d in the Floor. The Engine for wringing Tarn y its Defcription . A. The Sill, ii Foot long in the Clear, 11 by 9 Inches fquare, letled led about i Foot in the Ground. B. The upright Poll, 8 Foot long, 11 by 9 Inches fquare. The Defcription tion of the Engine gine for wringing Yarn. C. The Trough to carry off the Water, by the Spout at S. D. The Winlace i Inch and ~ diameter, and about 3 Foot and ~ long, made with a Shouldering at Q. 3 Inches diameter, meter, with Teeth for the Catch R. E. The Hook, n Inches within the Upright, right, to anfwer the Winlace D. F. F. Two Braces put to the Sill and upright right Polls of B. B. G. The Supporters for the Trough C. H. H. Braces from the Sill to the upright Polls, from A. to B. B. The Page 67. Tloe Ufe of the Engine for wringing of Yarn ♦ PUT one Hank of Yarn double over the Hook E, keeping the two Ends open, through which they thruft another Hank, and fo continue nue linking them together, till they The .Ufeof the Engines gines for wringing ing ot Yam. will reach to hang on the Hook of the Winlace D. wring them very hard, and the Catch R. will hold them to the Degrefc they were wrung to, while the Wringer runs his Hands along the Yarn, to fweep off all the Wet which remains on the Outfidc of the Yarn, to make it as dry as poflible, then they put it on the Poles, as was before directed. rected. SECT. XIII. Of Weaving Sail-canvas . THE Dutch- weave their Sail-canvas in Looms, made much after the lame Manner and Form as thofe are which are made Ufe of at Dunkittle , by Colonel ward Hoar in his FaCtury, for the tnaking king king of Sail-canvas, only the Scantling are fomewhat larger in Holland\ efpecially the leveral Beams made Ufe of in the Loom* The Yarn-beams of each Loom are all contrived with Shoulderings at each End of them, in Proportion to the Breadth of the Canvas, which keeps the Yarn from Rolling ling from its proper Place j by which Means they make the Selvages of their Canvas exceeding ceeding even and ftrong, and is of great Confcquence to the Sails: Thefe Shoulderings ings arc rais’d about four Inches higher er than the reft of the Yarn-beams ,* their Tradles and Spring-ftaves are linked together ther with Iron-links, and alfo their Seats are made with a Sloap towards their Tradles, fo that the whole Weight of the Weaver lies on the Tradle, to keep it firm while he ftrikes the Woof to its Place, with the Slayboard. board. I prefume the Dutch Weavers now at Dunkittle , have thus fitted the Looms wherein they work ,* but if they have not, it is requifite they fhould, for the Goodnefs of the Canvas very much depends thereon. The Dutch count the Number of Threads which compofe each Beer by fingle Threads, but in England The Dutch count the Number of Threads which compofe each Beer, by Angle Threads. and and Ireland, they are always counted by double Threads ,* therefore, when they in Holland are about to warp a Canvas of thirty ty Inches broad, they ufually put from thirty ty nine (o forty five Beers therein, according as they intend to flay higher or lower: But in England and Ireland , their Manner of the Count of the Beers is thus, that is to fay, their thirty nine Dutch Beers make but nineteen and a Half of ours, and the forty ty five Beers of theirs make twenty two and a Half of ours, for the Reafon 1 have already ready given. When the Dutch weave Sail-canvas, they make their Drefling of Buck Wheat-meal ,• whereas we make ours Weaving ving of Saii-can. . vas. of Wheat. Theirs is much better, which" is a great Defed: in us, confidering Buckwheat wheat would grow any where in Ireland , if it were cultivated, and be of great ,Ufe to other Purpofes as well as this. They do not tallow their Warp with hard Tallow, as we do, but they drefs it with green foft Soap, which makes the Warp much more plyant than Tallow : does > Half a Pound of their foft Soap will drefs a Bolt. The Dutch do not tallow low their Warp, as they do in Ireland. K Their Their Manner of computing what the' Proportion ought to be of Warp-yarn und j Woof-yarn is thus : That is to fay, they firft compute how many Pound Weight of Warp and Woof-yarn the Bolt will take; then they apportion to the Warp fiich a Weight, and to the Woof fuch another Weight,* as for Inftancc, if a Bolt of Canvas vas is defigned to weigh forty five Pounds, the Woof of it ought' to be twenty feven Pound Weight, fo as the Weight of the Warp, compared to the Weight of the Woof, is as eighteen is to twenty feven ,* fo likewife, when a Bolt is intended to weigh thirty nine Pound, the Woof muft be twenty two. The Wages given in- Holland y for weaving of Sail-canvas, is much the * fame with what is given at Dunktttle , viz. nine Shillings per Bolt, to ten Shillings, where the Sail-canvas is The Wages given in Holland j for weaving ving Sailcanvas. canvas. thirty Inches wide, and contains forty five B'eers of theirs, or twenty two Beers and a half of ours y but if the Canvas be thirty Inches wide, and contains only thirty nine pf their Beers, or nineteen and ; a Half of burs, then they have only from feven to eight - ABoit Bolt for weaving. A Bolt* of of Sail-canvas in Holland , contains fifty Dutch^ Us in Length, which, is thirty feven Yards and a Half of our Meafiire, and each Bolt is fold .there, from fifty eight Shillings to three Pounder Bolt. of Sailcanvas canvas i# . Holland , (contains s*o Dutch Ells, What each Bolt of •Sail-danvasis vasis fold for in' Holland\ SECT. XIV. The Method of making Brass-reeds for Sailcanvas. canvas. IN Holland , they make all their Reeds or Slays of Brafs-fplits ,• for which Purpofe they choofe the toughed and cleared grain’d Brals-plates that they can get, being the tenth Part of an Inch thick : They then divide the Plate, marking out the Length of the Split, and cut fo much off the Plate, from End to End. After'this,they divide this Piece of Brafs-plate, into fo many Splits as they judge proper $ and with'aHammer and File, they beat them out, and file them to a Truth, and fet them in the Reed or Slay, in an Engine herein deferibed. A. The A. The Frame eight Foot long, eight by fix Inches fquare, in the Manner of a Lath With Popots. B. B. The two Popots about twelve Inches above the Frame,- with Tenent coming thro’ at Q. C. C. Iron Clafps for fixing the Ribbs of the Reed F. with two Screws in each. D. The Screw, with its Nut on B. and Swivel vel in C. to drain the Ribbs of the Reed f. * ; E. E. The Standard for A. about Foot high. G. The Pott with Duff-coal to melt the Wax-thread, when laping in the Splits. H. The Center with a Button-fwivel in C. to anfwer D. I; The Driver twelve Inches long, two broad and —. to drive :the^Splits clofe. SECT. XV. Of Sowing and Saving of Flax. IN thole Parts of the United-Provinces where Flax is moftly cultivated, they choole their bed Barley-grounds, therein to low fow their Flax-feed • but thofe Sort of Grounds are with them fo light, and at the fame time fo good, that with twice plowing and harrowing, they are better fitted or prepared red for the Reception of cither Barley or Flax-feed, than any of our Grounds would be by four times that Labour: It is true, that their Grounds are naturally good, and probably in fome mcafure better than ours ; yet I cannot fay but that there arc many Grounds in Ireland , efpecially in the South Part of it, if they were as frequently turn’d up and enriched with Dung, Marl, Comport, port, or other Improvements proper to the Soil, as is from time to time given to their Grounds in Holland , we might exped Crops of all Sorts, nothing inferior to theirs : For if their Grounds met with fuch lazy and unskilful Treatment, as the Generality of our Grounds here in Ireland meet withal, their Crops in Holland, would then belittle better than ours: But as they have vaftly more Hands to employ, in proportion to the Extent of their Grounds, than we have, and confequcntly their Farms are not fo extenfive tenfive as ours, their Labour is confin’d to a fmall Pittance of Earth, improved by Induftry duftry aqd Skill to the greateft Degree of that Agriculture can=attain to. The Dutch fow their Flax about the Middle o ( Af rit, and, when it is grpwn about fix Leaves high above the.Cirpund, they roll it with a Roller ler made eight- Square, fix Foot long: This Roller is drawn by a Horfc, The Dpfrh ibwttheir j&' 4bout the MWc of Avr'tl. r A Ihpd with leathern Shoes, to prevent his putting the Flax,as..he treads thereon, pr hi? .finking too far into the Soil. Their of judging when their Flax is ripe, is ithe lame with what Mr. Slator has fet forth. Their Manner of faving of Flax differs much from what is pradis’d, either: in England or Ireland that I knhW Qf; tho- as to thepulling of jit, J did not obffrve that the Dutch The Manner of laving their I :• Flay in Holland. pplj the fine flax, and the coarier Sort fe- M.r. Slator very well advifcs * <qeri:airily, is, fome Difference in point pf rating *hem ,* hpwev.er,.the Dutch do &ot heed it, but when they have pulled as much Flax as they pan Tell hold in their Hand, they lay that down and pull another Hajidhil, which they Jay e.crols the firft, tjh they have as much as will make a Sheaf, and .ll and there let it lye for fix or feven DaystoT weather $ then they-.turn the Ihfide outbfJ their Flax, as they/bind it into eight or ten of ’ thefe Sheaves -afe by tlierii placed on the Butts, in a round or circular Form, with the Heads leaning on each other, ther, fo as the Wind may pals thro 5 them r Thus they proceed with all their Flax, and? leave it there eight or ten Days more, until til it is perfectly dry $ .then carry it to theif Barn, and riple in the Manner herein after* deferibedj fiich Part of their Tlax as theyi defien to riple that Sealbn. The Flax which they referve for Seed, the Dutch never riple the fame Seafon they pull it , but keep the Flax and Seed together till the enfuing fuing Sprihg, and in the mean time, either houle it or Hack it, in luch a Manner as may belt preferve it from The Flax which the ' Dutch re-'-’ fervcfor Seed,they • never riple ple the fame Sea-' fon they pull it. Rain or other Water, until they have occafion fion to fow it. When they have ripled as much Flax as; they defign to riple'that Seafon; they ga-* ther all the Boughs, and lap them up in round Bundles, with the Rubbilh :and waftct Flax, and lay thefe Bundles Side by Side oir? a plain Floor; paved for that Purpofej thej Floor Floor is about forty Foot fquare ,• they then bring the Carriage of a Wagon, drawn by two Horfes, and thereon lay a confiderable Weight j which Horfes and Wagon they drive over thefe Bundles, until they conceive ceive they have broke the Boughs and trod out the Seed ,• but left there might be fbme Inequality in the Preffure, they very carefully fully turn the Bundles, as the Horfes and Wagon pals over them ,• this they continue doing, till they conceive that the whole Seed is perfectly trod out, and the Boughs broke. Their Manner of feparating the Seed, with the broken Pieces of the Boughs or Pods from the groffer fer Part of Rubbifti, is in this ManTheir Their Manner of feparating ting the SeedjbV, ner : They have a large mefti'd Riddle, which is fix'd in a Frame contriv'd for that Purpofc only, which fuffers nothing to pals through it, but the Seed and the Shells of the Boughs or Pods ,• thefe they convey to an upper boarded Floor, and fpread them as thin thereon as polfibly they can, allowing ing as much Air thereto, as is requifite to keep the-Seed from heating, and turn it every Day conftantly, till the Seed be fufficiently ciently dry: Afterwards they turn it every Week Week at leatt twice, till fuch Time as there is a demand for it in the Market: Then have they Sieves made with a large Parchment Bottom, punch'd as full of fmall round Holes, as clofe and contiguous as can be, fb as not tofuffer the Flax-feed it felf to pafs through, but only the Duft atid the Seeds of the Weeds : This done , they have another Parchment Sieve, punch’d with oblong Holes, through which they fift the Flajc-feed, and fever it from the Pieces of Boughs or Pods, which till then the Seed was mix’d with : There is now at the Board of Truftees, one of each of thefe Sorts of Sieves, and a Sievemaker maker may eafily imitate them. They have another Way in Holland land of cleaning their Flax-feed, but it is very.feldom ufed, neither docs Of clcanl- - Flaxfeed. feed. it clean Flax-feed fo well as the Parchment Sieves do, therefore 1 decline deferibiug them. SECT. XVI. Remarks on the Ripling of Flax . TH E Reafons why the Dutch when they pull their Flax, lay the Handfuls a- S cro& crofs each other, arid fiiffer it fb to remain for fe or feven Days till it is weathered, before tfyey bind ‘it'up in Sheaves, is that may the better manage it when they r}pje r withpnt breaking or bruifing theHarl pr Straw pf their Flax ; by this Means, each .Hanjdful clings together, and. readily feparates rates from the reit of the Sheaf when they are abput tp riple, for. more than one Handful ful cannot be ripled at a Time. . In my humble Opinion, the ripling ling of Flax is much preferable to the, thrafhing of it in any Manner whatever, for the following Reafons; Firft, their Ripling-comb not only : Riplin'g of Flax . much preferable ble to thrafhing. f'l O J fovers the Boughs or Seed-ppds from the Flax, bat it alfo fevers the Leaves and Branches ches from it, which thrafhing cannot do, the fame it is pull’d. Secondly, the Flax lies better in the W ater, and Ipreads more eafily on the Grafs, when by riphrig, the fuper&uous Branches are removed ,• and it likewife fwinglcs better. I have already obferv’d how careful ful the Dutch are, not to fever the Seed which they intend to fow themfejves* from the Stalks of the Flax, till Ihe The Dutch are very careful not to fcver ver the Seed they intend to fow themfelves, till the enfuing Sealbnt:' cnfu enfuing Seafon for fowing it: Their Reafons fons for fo doing are, that they conceive the Seed is not only lefs liable to heating, but that it likewife attrads further Nourifliment ment from the Stalks, than what it had when pull’d. In Holland they feldom fow themfelves any of the firft ripled led Seed, but. convert it either to Oyl, or export it to foreign Markets. In Holland land they fcldom fow themfclves fclves 1 any of the firft ripled Seed. Many are the Devices and Tricks which the Dutch put in pradice with their export Flax-feed: Firft, they are hot always very ry careful that the Seed they export, be all of it well preferved from heating on the Floor or in the Cask : Secondly, if they have any old Seed by them of a former Seafon, fon, which has flipt the Market, they make no Scruple of mixing it with the frefh Seed ,* neither do they fcruple to mix decayed or degenerated Seed with their frefti Seed : Thirdly, the Flemings fet little or ho Value upon their Seed, lave only fixchSeed as they referve for their Towing ; therefore, fore, pull their Flax before the Seed is half ripe, that the Flax might work fo much the finer,* thefe Seeds the The Flemings mings pull their Flax before fore the n Seed is half ripe. Dutch buy from them, and mix with their own own, in fuch Proportion as not to be eafily dilcern’dby the Buyers: Fourthly, the Dutch fupply themfelves from Riga, Nerva y or other of the Eaft-land Countries with Flax-feed,' from time to time as they have occafion ; but becaufe the Eaft-country Flax-feed is univerfally mixed with the Seeds of the Weeds which grow along with the Flax, they are very careful to fcparate the one from the other,* they keep the good Seed to themfelyes, felyes, but they never fail to make their foreign reign Cpftpmers pay equally for thefe Seeds of Weeds, as they do for their beft Flaxfeed feed j for they divide them conftantly into each Cask or Hoglhead which they export: And if they intend to impofe their own Seed on the Buyer, they mingle thefe Seeds of Weeds with fbme of their own Flax- Iced, and cask them up in ffnall Casks, containing taining three Bufhels and a half, in Imita,tipu ,tipu of thofe made ufe of ip other Countries. tries. v . Thus arc Foreigners who deaj with the Dutch for Flax-feed impos’d on, and I cannot not think of any Expedient to prevent it,, unlcfs.thg Board of Truftecs fhd out Jbnifc; Way to have this Kingdom^fupply’d ■'With tire Eaft-country Flax-feed, in as“ cheap and bene beneficial a Manner as the Dutch are: Our People here may foon learn to feparate the Flax-feed from the Seeds of the Weeds, in the fame Manner as the Dutch do, by the Means of their Parchment Sieves ,• or thefe Seeds may be feparated by the Care and Diligence of the Factors, in thofe Countries where the Seed is bought ,• whereby the Expences of Cashing, Freight, Portrage, ; and other incident Charges, may be very much leffen’d or fayed, and thefe noxious Weeds kept out of our Country, and not foul our Grounds as they will infallibly do, unlefs each Flax-man be very careful and diligent, ere he fows his Flax-feed, tocleanfe it from all other Seeds. The moft pernicious of all thefe Weeds, is that which is called in England , Heighop: op: I know not by what Name it is called here, but the Weed itfelf grows among the Flax, and twines it felf about it, as Hops do round a Pole • by which Means, the Harl of the Flax is cut or tewed, or elfe makes it fo rotten, that it won’t work. It is hard.to diftinguifh at weeding Time, this* plaguey Weed from the Flax - the Seed of this Weed is eafily diftinguifhed from the Flax-' Flax-lecd;. for it isfhapedlike white Muftard-feed, fomewhat left in Size, and of a bright yellow Colour. The Seed of Heighop op is (haped ped like Milliard-feed. In Holland , when they fell their Flax-feed to the Oyl-rnills, they generally nerally fell it at thirteen Guilders per Hogfhcad, which is twenty fix ShilSelling Selling of i laXfeed feed in Holland. lings English Money. A Defcrtption of the Ripltng-comh . A. The Bench eight Foot long, fifteen Inches broad, and two Inches thick. B. Is the Comb it felf, the Teeth whereof ought to be of Iron, and fifteen Inches long,* the Edges of the Teeth ought to ftand dirc&ly oppofite to each other, the better to catch the Boughs of the Flax as it is ripling. C. C. D. D. Are the Feet with their Braces, ces, which fiipport the Bench, and are about two Foot and a Half high.. The Method/obferved in Holland in ripling pling of Flax, is thus: .They firft fpreada large winnowing Sheet on the Floor, over which they place their ripling Bench, to which Place they bring the Sheaves of Flax, in Page 72. in order to be ripled; then two Men mount the Bench, or fit aftride thereon, one on the one Side, the other on the other of the Comb, each of whom is ferved by a Perfon, fon, whofcCare is to open the Sheaves, and to hand to his Ripler the Handfuls of Flax; of which the Sheaf was compofed, and I formerly merly mentioned: And as the Riplerriples that Handful, the Perfon who tends him receives ceives that back again, and fupplics him with another Handful. The ripled Flax is laid by it felf, obferving ftill to keep the Handfuls together, till they have a (ufficient Quantity where- The ripled Flax is laid by k fclf. with to make a Sheaf; then the Perfon who tends the. Ripler, binds it into a Sheaf about three Quarters of a Yard in Circumference: When they ■ have thus ripled all the Flax they defign to riple that Scafon and bound it into. to. Sheaves, their next Care is to rate it. But before I proceed to acquaint you with their Manner of racing, it is requifite I fhould inform you, that the Dutch are very curious and neat in the making king of all and every of their Engines, gines, fo as they might beft anlwer their Purpofes in every Refped: ,* therefore in the making of this Ri- The Dutch are very curious in the making king their Engines. pling pling-bench, they do not make it flat at the Top, but on the contrary, make it as round at the Top as they conveniently can, to the End the Perfonsthat fit upon them, might fit with Eafe, and each of them ftrike their Handful of Flax into the Comb alternately nately j by which Means, they riple their Flax with fewer Combs, and with greater Difpatch than otherwife they could do. There is yet a further Conveniency in the rounding of this Bench, which is, that neither ther the Seed, Leaves, nor Branches of the Flax lye on the Bench to cumber it, but conftantly fall on the Winnowing-fheet, as the Riplers proceed in their Work. SECT. XVII. The Manner of Rating of Flax in Holland. THEY always choole in Holland ftanding Water for rating Flax in ,• and to the End they may perform their Work with the utmoft Exadnefsj nefsj they meafure the Depth, the Breadth, and the Length of the Water In Holland land they choofe Handing Water for rating Flax in. j c/ they defign to employ j they know by the Num- Number of the Sheaves of Flax, what Space they fliall fill; they generally rate their Flax the Drains about their Lands, which for the moll Part arc from eight to ten Foot deep, and from ten to fixteen Foot wide, more or lefs, according as their Land is, fwampy or wet. Thofe Sheaves that they defign to lay in the Bottom of their Water, they tic with Strong-bands, within fix Inches of each End of the Sheaf. Then draw fome ftrong Twine through the Middle of the Sheaf, between die Bands : With this Twine, they tic their Bands Sheaf by Sheaf, till they have foimed med a Plat-form of equal Length and Breadth with the Water they rate in. This is always done on the The Dutch draw lomc Itrong T wine' through the Middle of’ the Sheaf*. Banks of the Water j and when they have Hitched together as many of thcle Sheaves as is. ncceflary, they fhove the whole Platform form into the Water, which floats thereonwhereby whereby they have an Opportunity to lay another Raima of Sheaves athwart the othcr, thcr, till they have complearly covered their Plat-form: They conftantly obferve in rating ting of their Flax, to lay firft the Plat-form with their Flax, the long Wav of the Ca- T V ' hat : nal: The next Range of Sheaves is laid acrofs crofs the Canal • and lb they proceed alternately, nately, till their Flax is piled up as high as they defign to raife it: But to the end they might fink it gradually, they always ftand on their Flax in the Water, after they have laid two or three Ranges $ by which means, they are readier in the placing of the Sheaves on the Pile, till they conceive that the Pile of Flax when funk, will be about fourteen Inches under the Surface of the Water ,* and becaufe they have no Stones in that Country, to fink it withal, they are forced to fink it by the Weight of fuch Slulh or Mudd, as they can get from the Bottom of their Drains. When their Flax has been in Water about bout four Days, they thruft their Arm as far into the Water as they can, and draw forth a Handful of the Flax by the Butts, which they fpread thin on the Grafs : If they obferve when this Flax is dry that it is fufficiently rated, they then raife all their Flax from out the Water,* but if they perceive ceive it is not fufficiently rated, they repeat this Experiment twice a Day, until they are fatisfied that the whole is watered enough: 'Their next Care is to difeharge it of the Mudd* Mudd and Slufh that was on it, and raife their Flax, Sheaf by Sheaf, till they have taken ken it all out of the Water,* yet as they raile it, they never fail to rinfe each Sheaf in the Water, to cleanfe it from the Filth it contracted tracted in the Water, as it lay therein, purging ging and fermenting. Having thus rais’d their Flax, and cleanfed fed it, they open the Sheaves, and fpread their Flax as thin on the Grafs, Row by Row, as Mr. Slator has mentioned ,* where they never feiffer it to lie more than two Days, in order to ftiffen it, unlefs they perceive ceive feme Part of it to have been underrated rated : In which Cafe they leave fucli Part on the Grafs till it be fufficiently rated ; but if they find on the grading of their Flax, the Water has had its EffeCl, they ( after two Days Time) gather as much of the Flax as they conceive will make a Sheaf $ this they open very wide at the Butt, in the Form of a Bird-cage, giving the upper End a little Twift, to make it cling together ther : Thus they fet all their Flax through a whole Field, Sheaf by Sheaf, in Rows j and if any happens to be overturned by the .Wind, they fet it up again $ and there let it ftand, till it is fufficiendy dried and weathered. SECT. SECT. XVII. Rcasons why flax ought not to be rated in running Waters. IF Water has any great Currency through Flax, it will fret and tcar theHarl to fuch a Degree, that allowing it fhould not fpoil the whole, yet will it caufc lo great a Wade in t he working, as that the Owner will be a great Sufferer thereby • but furCmvncy Cmvncy through trcVcnd Hur!! K ther, the Harl which remains untorn will not be worth the working, it will be (o very ry hard and wirey. In proof of what I here aflert, be pleafed only to obferve, that whenever ever Oak or folid Timber is cut down when the Sap is in it, bp the Beams never fo large; if you place them for two or three Months in running'Water, the Sap will be as effectually wafh’d out of the Timber, as if it had been cut down in the Depth of Winter:* And if running Water has fuch Power over large Logs of Timber, what muft its Power be over fo tender a Plant as Flax is. There is yet a further and more effe ntial Rcafon why Flax ought not to be watered in a running Water, which is this, the the Water running through the Flax will keep it fo cold, that it would never ferment.. Now Fermentation is as requifae to make the Flax purge it felf from the Filth which it brings with it from the Soil, as any thing which happens in the rating: Water running through the Flax, will keep it fo cold that it . will never ver ferment. ment. Thcrefore a skilful Flax-man ufes his utmoH moH InduHry to keep his Flax under Water while this Fermentation laHs, that all the Flax may partake thereof. I would not be under Hood by this, as if I were for encouraging the pernicious Practice tice of rating Flax in too Ox O > frequent in Ireland , which I fear occafions cafions the Rows in their Linnen, and the dark and fallen CaH which com- Rating Flax in Bogholes. holes. monly attend the Irifh Linnen, though the Bleacher has performed his utmoH Skill • for it is evident that Turff-mold will always ftain the Water which flatmates or Hands therein • and tho 5 Water which Hands in Hiff Clay is not liable to this Objection, yet I would not have it altogether Hagnated Water, but Turfmold mold 1 will always ways fbin the Water. O O , ' have my Rating-pond fo contrived, that I could give it a Recruit of frcfh Water gradually, dually, or by fuch Degrees as might neither ther —J <5 —T ther occafion a great Currency "of the Water ter in my Pond, or prevent the Fermentation tion of my Flax. Lough-water (in thofe Parts of this Kingdom where it can conveniently be had) if it will bear Soap, is preferable ferable to any Ponds whatever ,* becaufe caufe thofe Waters are better wea• • Loughwater water is preferable ble to any Ponds whatever. ther’d than any other, and confequently more foft: But where Lough or Lake-water ter can't be had, it is then of abfolute Neceffity ceffity that Ponds be made, after fiich a Manner as to be fnfficiently fupply’d at all times, with Water drawn from Rivers or Brooks. I fee no Reafon why the Ratingponds ponds fhould be made fo narrow as Mr. Slator has directed; for if they be made ten or twelve Foot wide, confequently the Pile of Flax will be fo much the larger, and the Fermentation quicker and more effectual al : The Charge will be much the fame, provided ded the Soil be free from Rocks, which of all Things muft be avoided in Ratine-ponds. O O i. And as to the Depth of them, they ought never to be lefs than five or fix Foot deep, nor more than ten. SECT. ' The Depth of the rating -Ponds. SECT. XVIII. The Reasons why the Dutch do not grast their Flax. so much as in England or Ireland. TH E Dutch having ftiffened their Flax on the Grafs, they raife it on the Butts, and open it as evenly as they can polfibly at the Butts, in order to give it all the Benefit and Advantage it can have from the Sun, the Wind, and the Air. They judge that it is the Water which rots the Bunn or Straw of the Flax, and caufes the Harl to feparate readily from it. They are very fond of having their Flax of a beautiful Colour, which they conceive they can’t have, if their Flax be fuffered to lie long on the Grafs, which would infallibly grow through it, and confequently would fhade the Flax, and prevent the Air The . Dutch are very fond or having their Flax of a beautiful tiful Colour. lour. from palling fb readily thro’ it, as it would otherwile do, when placed (as aforefaid) on the Butts. They likewife judge, that whatever ever Rain or Dew falls, in the aforefaid Pofition, will fink readilier down to the Earth, and lefs hinder the Bunn from drying, ing, ing, than it will when laid flat on the Grafs. For my own Part, I am humbly of Opinion, on, that this Way of Management, were it put in Practice in Ireland , would turn to good Account. In point of Colour of their Linnen, there hands one Objection in the Way of this Pradice, which muft be obviated, ated, clfe I fear Ireland can fcarce comply with it; for fhould any great Storms of Wind catch the Flax thus ereded on the Butts, it would have much more Power over it, and be apt to mingle their Butts and Ends fo together, as it would create a vaft deal of Trouble in the letting all right again; for to before, the Butts of Flax or Hemp muft be always kept together, die it could never be drcls’d ,* therefore the Seafon or Time of the Year when Flax is grafting and weathering, after it is rated, ought to be very well weigh’d and confidered ,■ for fhould it be during thofe great Storms which are O O vulgarly called in Ireland\ the Michaelmas Rigs, it would be impolhble to raife Flax in the Manner pradifed in Holland , or indeed deed to graft it flat on the Ground, withbut but being tofs’dand tumbled by the Storms. The only Way to remedy this Evil is, to fow early in /fpnl, that the Flax may be the the earlier ripe, pulled, and rated,' ere thefe Storms ufually happen; SECT. XIX. Of the Management of Flax reserred for Seed . I Have already acquainted you, that the Dutch' never fever the Seed which they rhemfelves intend to fbw, from the Flax, the fame Seafon it was pull’d in: Therefore when they are juft ready to fow, they fall to ■ ripling of it as faft as they can, and cleanfe the Seed from all its Filth and Seeds of Weeds, in like manner as they did the former ,* then do they either rate the Flax immediately, in the Drains which they have in their Grounds, or defer the rating it, till they fall to'rating of the enfuing Crop • but they never rate them both in the fame Pile, becauff the Seed-flax will take fomewhat what longer Time to rate it in, than the other 5 but in all other Refpeds it is managed ged exactly conformable to the other $ dnd if the Flax-man 5 be skilful that rates it, I could never obferve much Difference bell ll tween tween either the Goodnefs or Colour of the Flax, the one from the other. SECT. XX. Of Breaking, Swingling , or Scutching Flax . TH E Dutch before they break their Flax have a large Oven, which they make fo warm as they can put their Flax with Safety therein, placing it on the Butts,* having firft untied the Sheaves, they flop the Mouth of this Oven as clofe as poflible, and there let the Flax ftand for the Space of twelve Hours to fweat ,* this done, they remove it thence, and bind it into Sheaves as large as they pleafe, and cover thefe Sheaves with Cloths as clofe as they can, and there let it lye for fix Hours more. The Way they have to judge whether the Oven be in Temper or not, is ty putting in a Handful or two of their Flax on the Butts into the O. . ' r ven, ere they venture to expole any The Way to whether bc^ 01 Temper or not. Quantity of Flax therein } and accordingly they they either encreafe the Heat, or fuffer the Oven to cool till it is in Temper. When Flax has been thus managed, during eighteen Hours, they apply themfelves felves to the breaking of it,* which they do in Breaks made with three Breaking of Flax. Bars under, and two above ,* the Mafh. of their Breaks is made fhallower than thole generally made in England or Ireland ,* the Rollers of theirs are fquare, and not rounded ded off as ours are, which keeps their Work tighter and fteadier than ours do 5 their Breaks are fomewhat fhorter than pursj which has a good Effed on their Flax, becaufe caufe they can manage them more nimbly and readily, and whip their Flax and turn it under the Break, fo as to break and fqueezc the Bunn to Pieces 5 and the Mafh of their Breaks being fo fhallow, the Harl runs no Rifcjue of breaking or tewing. This Pradice in Holland of thus baking their Flax, is not only very rational, but expedient to be imitated $ becaufe caufe it is freed from all Inconveniences ences of Fire or Smoak, which generally attends the kilning or drying of Flax over Fire,* and at Baking their Flax is not only ly very rational, but expedient. dient. the fame Time, it makes the Bunn to* break. break, and the Harl to feparate readily in the Iwingling, and not run fo muchtoTow pr Backings, as otherwife it would. TheScutching-boards which they make ufe of in Holland , are much Scutching Boards. the fame with thofe we of late make ule of in Ireland ,* but their Scutching-handles differ fer much from ours, as appears by the Figure. gure. They break and fcutch fix Pound of Flax for five Stivers, which is equal to our Englijh Six-pence; fo that it amounts exactly actly to a Penny a Pound, which is much after the fame Rate that is paid in Ireland\ to the moll skilful of our Swinglers. SECT. XXI Of Hackling of Flax . riickiing otHax. *"T" I HEY generally hakcle their Flax jn'- Holland by the Women, who are exceedingly skilful and dextrous therein : Their Hackles are much finer than thofe which came from Coventry; yet I have fecn feme made here by Mr. Taylor , which he called his fuperfine Hackles, which are a§ fine as any I ever law in Holland. I fee no Reafoi} Reafon why the Women here might not be inftriiCted to hackle as well as the Men ; the Labour is notfo great, but that the Women might undergo it. As to the'breaking, fwingling, ling, or fcutching, that I muft acknowledge to be laborious ,• yet every Boor in Holland\ and every good Husbandman in the Ifle of Axom in Lincolnfbtre , not only raile great Quantities of Flax and Hemp annually for £ale, but they likewife rate, break, and gle it, either by themfelves or their Labourers rers very skilfully. And I am the more inclined clined to wifh that young Girls were taught to hackle in Ireland , to that Perfection they ought to be inftruCted j becaufe it will be much eafier to perfuade young Girls to apply themfelves felves to that Sort of Work, than it has hitherto therto been found. to perfuade Boys: And as a great Share of the national Profit arifing fing from the Linnen Manufacture depends on the well or ill hackling of Flax, it fhould ] feem tome to be expedient to loolenoTime in the teaching and inftruCting Girls, as well in hackling as in fpinning. SE C T\ SECT. XXII Of the Spinning of Flax . THEIR Wheels in Holland are much after the fame Form with ours in Ireland , called Dutch Wheels ,* only they are made firmer, and the Rims heavier: The Axis on The Form of the Wheels in Holland. land. which it turns, altho’ it be made of Iron, as ours are, yet is it turned- in a Lath to a Truth: Whereas every bungling Smith in Ireland , pretends to bring it to a Truth by a File, which is fcarce practicable. Flax-wheels require to be made with an exaCt Proportion between the Wheel, the Whirl, the Spool, and the Flyers. I have endeavoured to inform my lelf of the true geometrical Proportions of each of thele, by difeourfing with the ableft Wheel-wrights that I could meet with, wherever I came ,• but it has been hitherto all in vain: For either they could not, or would not tell how and in what Manner this Myftery in the Trade, might be brought to a more medianick nick Regulation than at prefent it is under. der. Thefe Thcfe'iObfervatioriS rtiight have great Influence on the Improvement of (pinning Linnen-yarn.in Ireland $ for if the Wheels arid Axes be made to a Truth, and a juft Proportion obferved between the Wheel, the Whirl, the Spool, and the Flyers, Obfer • vations on the Improvements ments o( fpinning Linenyarn. yarn. the whole will move regularly without hobling ling * the Yarn will be equally twifted, and it muft be the Spinner’s own Fault, if the Yarn has not a proper Twift: It is certain, that Yarn defigned for Warp, ought to have fbmewhat more Twift than Yarn defigned for Woof, becaufe the latter ought to be more plyant and readier to yield to the Slay, and is eafier ftruck up $ for which Reafbn, a skilful Houfe-wife’s Bolt of Linnencloth cloth is, generally fpeaking, preferable to a Mafter-weaver’s Bolt, of the fame Degree of Finenefs, becaufe fhe has taken Care to. give a proper Twift both to the Warp and Woof. The Spinners in Holland have a Piece of fine woollcn-cloth, parted round the Rock, purpofely to prevent Spinners in Holland. land. the Flax from coming down too faft, as the. Spinner draws: Befides, they- have a Piece of OyHeather, which they bind gently over ver vcr the Flax, while it is tied to the Rock* to prevent its drying too fall, and to pre* lerve it from Duft. SECT. XXIII. The Description of the Scutching-handle. THIS Inftrumentis commonly made of* Walnut; from A. to B. is about fixteen teen Inches; four of which are taken up in the Handle,from C. to C. nine Inches. There runs a Rib in the 'Middle, from the Point B. down to t
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