2009, English, Thesis edition: Effects of dairy products and resistance exercise on energy balance / Wendy Chan She Ping-Delfos. Chan She Ping-Delfos, Wendy.

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Physical Description
  • 311 leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 31 cm.
Published
  • 2009.
Language
  • English

Edition details

Title
  • Effects of dairy products and resistance exercise on energy balance /​ Wendy Chan She Ping-Delfos.
Author
  • Chan She Ping-Delfos, Wendy.
Other Authors
  • Curtin University of Technology. School of Public Health.
Published
  • 2009.
Physical Description
  • 311 leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 31 cm.
Subjects
Summary
  • The increasing magnitude of obesity and its co-morbidities makes it the biggest challenge for public health nutrition. There is an urgent need for novel but simpler dietary strategies, targeting active weight reduction as well as weight loss maintenance. Emerging evidence indicates that dietary calcium has a potential role in the regulation of body weight, particularly if calcium is derived from dairy sources. It has been hypothesized that low calcium intakes lead to increased intracellular calcium levels, which in turn, reciprocally promote fat synthesis and inhibit biolysis. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that a high dairy calcium and vitamin D breakfast increased postprandial fat oxidation and thermo genesis (M.J. Soars et al. 2004), and reduced spontaneous free-living food intake over 30 hours (Chan She Ping-Delfos, Soares &​ Cummings 2004). This evidence has been extended by interventions in humans showing that dairy calcium augments the amount of weight and fat lost on hypocaloric diets (Zemel et al. 2004b).
  • Exercise (resistance and aerobic) is known for its myriad of health benefits, including its ability to increase fat oxidation and energy expenditure. Traditionally, cardio respiratory endurance exercise, and in particular weight bearing exercise has been promoted as the most appropriate mode of exercise due to its ease of access, low cost, and low skill requirements. Obesity is however positively associated with osteoarthritis of the knees and other lower limb musculoskeletal conditions. Hence alternative therapy via resistance training is gaining precedence in such individuals. Resistance exercise has also been of particular interest as it helps in the maintenance of lean body mass during weight loss.
  • We speculated that the addition of a single bout of intense resistance exercise to a low dairy calcium meal would accentuate postprandial thermogenesis and fat oxidation. An acute (meal-related) study has thus been used to confirm the above and the associated beneficial effects. The study has also used a high dairy calcium meal for comparison, to gain appreciation of the relative effects of exercise and dairy calcium. We used a single-blind, within-subject, acute cross-over comparison of three breakfast meals: low calcium breakfast (LCB), high calcium breakfast (HCB) and LCB preceeded by a single bout of resistance exercise (RE) 16 hours earlier (LCB-RE). We observed increased fasting fat oxidation and decreased triacylglycerol (TG) levels following the intense bout of RE. The decrease in postprandial insulin concentrations was significantly greater after HCB, followed by LCB-RE and LCB respectively. Moreover, a suppression of subjective feelings of hunger was seen following both HCB and LCB-RE, though this did not translate into a reduced food intake at a buffet meal.
  • In an every day situation, any increase in calcium from dairy sources would bring with it other nutrients and inevitably change the composition of the diet. The second part of this thesis has explored the relationship between number of serves of dairy, resistance exercise and energy balance. An added reasoning was that both dietitians and the lay public understand the concept of a serve, and hence any documented benefit would translate to an easier uptake of health messages. A chronic (diet-related) study has been used to determine whether resistance exercise and dairy intake have additive effects on weight and fat loss. By monitoring substrate oxidation, thermogenesis, body composition, glucose and lipid metabolism, and other cardiovascular risk factors, we have aimed to provide a holistic view of the potential health benefits of dairy and resistance exercise. The parallel, l2-week intervention compared the effects of three dairy groups: 3 serves (3S), 5 serves (5S) and 5 serves plus resistance exercise (5S+RE). All subjects received individualized hypocaloric diets with varying serves of dairy product (milk, cheese &​ yoghurt). Subjects were invited for a follow-up visit, 12 weeks after the intervention. The weight loss achieved resulted in significant improvements in the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance risk factors. We observed a significant negative relationship between number of serves of dairy and systolic blood pressure, as well as total android fat and reflection index.
  • The 5S diet was significantly better than the other two in this regard. There was however, a significantly lesser fat regain on the 5S+RE at the follow-up visit. Hence an increase in dairy intake to 5 serves/​day during calorie restriction had metabolic benefits beyond changes in body composition. The addition of resistance exercise was better for longer-term weight maintenance. We provide further evidence of a role for dairy products as part of a prudent weight loss/​weight maintenance diet.
Notes
  • At head of title: School of Public Health.
  • Thesis (Ph.D.)--Curtin University of Technology.
Language
  • English
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