The dictionary of Australasian biography : comprising notices of eminent colonists from the inauguration of responsible government down to the present time (1855-1892) / by Philip Mennell, F.R.G.S Mennell, Philip

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Mennell, Philip
Australia - Biography.; Bookplates - Nathan, Sir Matthew, 1862-1939.; Oceania - Biography - Dictionaries.
Includes almost 2000 concise biographies of Australasian colonialists from 1855-1892 with information on politicians, political leaders, church leaders, intellectuals, explorers, professionals, musicians, actors, athletes, scientists, pastoralists and industrialists from all the Australian colonies as well as New Zealand. Information included consists of their background and family information, career information, achievements and influences on the development of Australasia. THE DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. THE DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. COMPRISING NOTICES OF EMINENT COLONISTS FROM THE INAUGURATION OF RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT DOWN TO THE PRESENT TIME. [1855-1892] BY PHILIP MENNELL F.R.G.S. LONDON: HUTCHINSON & CO., 25, PATERNOSTER SQUARE. 1892, Printed by Hazell, Watson, & Viney, Ld., London and Aylesbury. PREFACE. TT is unnecessary to enter into any lengthened exposition of the objects J- and utility of a work such as the present, either from an English or an Australasian point of view. The public appetite for such publications is evidenced by the issue of innumerable “ Biographical Dictionaries ” and the success of such a work as the “ National Dictionary of Biography,” and there seems no valid reason why what Sir Thomas Mcllwraith calls “ the future Australasian empire ” should not have the careers of its publicists in various walks of distinction recorded in permanent and concise form. Owing to the increase of federal feeling in the various colonies, the present moment seems an opportune one for the presentation of a work which “ federalises, ’ so to speak, the mass of what previous writers have produced in a similar direction in regard to the separate colonies. I have often had occasion to remark on the limited knowledge which the public men of one colony possess of the public men of another, and in a period which has produced the 11 Commonwealth of Australasia Bill” I may perhaps be excused for endeavouring to contribute my mite towards the extension' of that intercommunity of knowledge which is to a large extent the necessary condition precedent to intercommunity of sympathy and action. Not only has the federal feeling in Australasia witnessed a wonderful growth of recent years, but the interest in and desire for knowledge about the Australasian colonies has been quickened to at least an equal extent at the centre of the empire. It is hoped therefore that the “Dictionary of Australasian Biography” may at the present juncture equally meet the acceptance of large classes both in England and at the Antipodes. It has been one of the most difficult parts of an arduous task to combine that particularity which local biography for local circulation demands with that more comprehensive, if at the same time more condensed, treatment which is likely to suit the taste of readers twelve thousand miles away from the stage on which the actors whose achievements are set forth have played their parts. In the attempt to furnish a book which will be equally satisfactory factory to English and colonial readers, I cannot hope to have entirely succeeded ; but I have at least kept this object in view, and am sanguine enough to believe that I have fulfilled my aim in so far as the contrarieties of the case will permit. As to the scope of the work, it records the careers of the majority of the eminent Australasian colonists who survived to see the inauguration of responsible government in 1855, and who have died in the interval of thirty-seven years which has elapsed since that epoch-making era. It also includes the biographies of living persons, and thus contains the class of information which is to be found in the usual run of biographical dictionaries tionaries regarding deceased worthies, in addition to the more recent data respecting living persons which are afforded by such publications as the English “ Men of the Time.” The extent of the information presented will be best gathered when I state that the “Dictionary” comprises nearly two thousand biographies, including those of the governors of the several colonies, the prelates of the Anglican and Roman Catholic communions, the heads of the principal religious denominations and of the several universities, as well as notices of all politicians, with a few unavoidable exceptions, who have held Ministerial office in the Australian colonies, New Zealand, and Tasmania since the year 1855. The principal members of the Civil Service and the explorers, authors, scientists, musicians, and actors who have won distinction in the colonial arena have been dealt with as adequately as circumstances permitted ; and the work also includes lives of a number of the pastoral, mercantile, and industrial pioneers of the various colonies, as well as of those who have distinguished themselves in the domain of sport and athleticism. There are one or two special points to which I should like to draw attention. tion. In the first place, the titles of honour and office given to the several subjects of biography are those which they are entitled to bear in their respective colonies, though, by a strange anomaly in the constitutional formularies laries of a country which will mainly go down to history in connection with the glories of its colonial empire, the most commonly borne title in the last-mentioned portion of her Majesty’s dominions —that of “Honourable” is not conceded recognition outside of the colony in which the public services of which it is the reward have been rendered. If therefore the present work should do anything to “ imperialise ” —if I may use the wor d a title to which there is really no valid democratic objection, and to promote its recognition and that of the good service which it typifies in every part of the empire, I shall take pride in having contributed even in this humble way to the disappearance of the last vestige of that hateful doctrine of colonial inferiority which comes to us from the dark, but unfortunately tunately not yet very distant, ages of Colonial Office ineptitude and insular presumption. With regard to the incidence of this title of “Honourable,” some confusion may arise in the minds of English, and even Australasian readers. Broadly speaking, the Australasian public man is entitled to bear the title of « Honourable ” within his own colony during his actual tenure of office as a member of the Upper House or as a member of the Ministry of the day in such colony. In all the Australasian colonies members of the Ministry are members for the time being of the Executive Council, which corresponds somewhat to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, and it is to their membership of this body that they owe the title of “Honourable,” which they cannot assume until they fcave been sworn into its privileged precincts. In all these colonies, except Victoria and Tasmania, the members of a retiring Ministry cease to be members of the Executive Council, and would thus lose the title of “ Honourable ” were it not that, under the Duke of Newcastle’s despatch dealing with the case, any member of the Executive Council who has served as a member of the Government either consecutively or cumulatively tively for three years may by royal warrant be permitted to retain the title of “ Honourable ” within his particular colony for the term of his life. In Victoria and, it would also seem, in Tasmania, when once a public man has been sworn a member of the Executive Council, he remains one for life, and thus retains the degree of “ Honourable ” for life also. The Speaker of the Lower House in each colony assumes the title whilst he occupies the chair, and it is a moot point whether the judges of the Supreme Court are not entitled to the distinction, though the preponderance of local custom gives them (including even the Chief Justice) the designation of “ His Honour” in common with the District and County Court judiciary. There may be some confusion, too, in the English mind as to the designation of members of Parliament in the various Australasian colonies. Membership of the Upper House in each of the colonies is signified by the addition of the letters “M.L.C.”; but with regard to the Lower House a good deal of contrariety prevails. In New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, and Western Australia the Lower House is called the Legislative Assembly, and except in the case of South Australia the members are styled “M.L.A.” In the case of the latter colony, however, the more pretentious affix of “M.P.” is employed. In this regard there is a general tendency in all the colonies to give the title of “ M P.” to members of the Lower House, especially where it is desired to be particularly complimentary ; but in South Australia alone does the designation “ M.P.” appear to have crystallised into normal official and social use. In Tasmania the Lower House is called the House of Assembly, and members are styled “M.H.A.” In New Zealand what is known as the Legislative Assembly in most of the other colonies is styled the House of Representatives, and the letters “M.H.R.” are appended to the names of members. It now remains for me to return my grateful thanks to the various gentlemen men but for whose aid, even after eighteen months of almost continuous labour, it would have been impossible for me to give my work to the public at so early a date. Here it may be premised that all occurrences in the present volume have as far as possible been brought down to July 1892. Mr. J. Henniker Heaton, M.P., so well known in connection with the universally interesting question of postal reform, must have the credit of having been the first to explore in any comprehensive manner the mine of Australasian biography, in his “ Australian Dictionary of Dates and Men of the Time,” published in 1879. “ Much,” however, “ has happened ” during the thirteen years which have elapsed since this book saw the light, and as regards the biographical portion it is now completely out of date, except in the case of those “worthies” whose careers had been closed by death prior to 1879. Even as regards these, however, their lives are given in the present volume in almost every instance in an expanded and revised form, the result of much laborious personal research. In addition to the valuable aid derived from his “ Men of the Time,” I am indebted to Mr. Heaton for a considerable amount of information deduced from his valuable stores of Australasian data in print and manuscript. I have to return my sincere thanks for much assistance afforded me by the present Agents-General, as well as by their immediate predecessors, and by the able and courteous Secretaries to their several offices. In this connection I may especially mention the late Sir Arthur Blyth, the predecessor decessor of Sir John Bray in the London representation of South Australia. That gentleman kindly revised my list of “ worthies ” of that colony, and covered it with copious annotations drawn from his long experience of South Australia and his special aptitude for biographical investigation and local chronology. As regards Tasmania, Sir E. N. C. Braddon performed for me much the same services, and in the case of South Australia and Queensland I am specially indebted to Mr. S. Deering, the Assistant Agent- General of the former colony, and to Mr. C. S. Dicken, C.M.G., Secretary to the Agent-General for the latter, both of whom bring to bear on all matters connected with their several colonies a very accurate personal knowledge ledge of their history and circumstances. I am also under considerable obligations to Mr. S. Yardley, of the New South Wales, Mr. W. Kennaway, C.M.G., of the New Zealand, and to Mr. S. B. H. Rodgerson, of the Victoria office. The most substantial contribution in the way of literary assistance I have received from Mr. James Backhouse Walker, of Hobart, whose equally accurate memory and memoranda have enabled him, as his kindness prompted him, to supply me with a number of admirably compiled biographies, which add an element of real historical value to the department of the work which he generously undertook, and which, in addition to much original matter, comprised the laborious revision of the biographies of eminent Tasmanians which I already had in print, when I had the good fortune to be introduced to him by a member of the eminent firm of Tasmanian publishers, Messrs. Walch and Co., of Hobart. Next in order I must acknowledge my obligations to my friends Mr. A. Patchett Martin and Mr. H. B. Marriott Watson, both of whom have not only contributed a number of complete lives, but have greatly aided me in the selection of names and the revision of proofs. In this connection, as very valuable and substantial helpers, I must also mention Mr. G. W. Rusden, the distinguished historian of Australia and New Zealand, who has supplemented the stores of information which I have derived from his works with much valuable data personally conveyed ; my old friend Mr. A. M. Topp, of the Melbourne Argus ; Mr. Alexander Sutherland, the well-known Australian litterateur ; and Mr. J. F. Hogan, whose “ Irish in Australia ” is a mine of biographical detail, and to whose personal assistance I am also greatly beholden. My South Australian biographies would have been sadly incomplete but for the aid I derived from my friend Mr. J. L. Bonython, of the Adelaide Advertiser , and from Mr. F. Johns, of the South Australian Register , who, through the medium of the proprietor of that paper, Mr. R. Kyffin Thomas, kindly cleared up for me a number of troublesome queries and essential dates. The New Zealand portion of my work owes a heavy debt to Mr. Leys, of the Auckland Star, who kindly forwarded a number of biographies and carefully checked others. Mr. George Fenwick, of the Otago Daily Times , has also helped me materially; and I have to thank Sir Walter Buller for a valuable element in the insertion of a number of Maori biographies. Through Mr. Fenwick I was fortunate enough to enlist the aid of J)r. Hocken, of Dunedin, an expert and enthusiast siast in all that concerns New Zealand history and antiquities, and who kindly placed his fine library at my disposal. To my wife I owe thanks for invaluable aid in the work of transcription, and to Mr. David and Mr. Joseph Co wen Syme, of Melbourne, for much kindly assistance in promoting the success of the work. Taking the colonies separately, I have to acknowledge valuable help as regards New South Wales from Mr. F. W. Ward, the late editor of the Sydney Daily Telegraph, from Mrs. Ward, and from Mr. C. A. W. Lett and Mr. Gilbert Parker; Victoria : Hon. J. F. Vesey Fitzgerald, Hon. Alfred Deakin, Mr. George Syme, Mr. T. S. Townend, and Mr. Charles Short, of the Melbourne Argus , Mr. Julian Thomas, and Mr. H. Britton • Queensland: Mr. Buzacott, Mr. Brentnall, and Mr. Gresley Lukin; Western Australia: Sir John and Lady Forrest, Sir James G. Lee Steere, Hon. G. W. Leake, M.L.C., Hon. J. W. Hackett, M.L.C., and Mr. F. Hart; New Zealand: Mr. H. Brett, Mr. W. L. Rees, M.H.R., Rev. H. C. M. Watson, Christchurch ; Mr. T. E. Richardson, Wellington ; Mr. Hart, The Press, Christchurch ; and Mr. Ahearne, Lytteltoii Times, Christchurch. In regard to matter drawn from books, my first acknowledgments are due to Mr. David Blair’s “ Encyclopaedia of Australasia,” of which a second edition is much called for. I must also mention, as having supplied me with much excellent material, Mr. George Rusden’s “ History of Australia ” and “ History of New Zealand,” “ Victorian Men of the Time,” “ Victoria and its Metropolis,” McCombie’s “ History of the Colony of Victoria,” Mr. James Bonwick’s “ Port Phillip Settlement,” Mr. George E. Loyau’s “ Representative tive Men of South Australia,” Stow’s “South Australia,” “The Statistical Register of South Australia,” Mr. H. Brett’s “ Heroes of New Zealand ” and “The Early History of New Zealand,” Mr. Gisborne’s “New Zealand Rulers and Statesmen,” Mr. Alfred Cox’s “ Men of Mark of New Zealand ” and “ Recollections ” ; the admirable annual “Blue-books” of the several colonies, which are in every case a credit to those responsible for their production ; Messrs. Gordon and Gotch’s “Australian Handbook” and Mr. Greville’s “Year-book of Australia.” Amongst works of a more general character, I must confess my great indebtedness to “ The National Dictionary of Biography,” Mr. F. Boase’s “Modern English Biography,” to “The Colonial Office List,” Burke’s “ Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage ” and “ Colonial Gentry,”Debrett’s“ Baronetage, Knightage, and Companionage” and “House of Commons and the Judicial Bench,” Mr. Joseph Foster’s “ Men-at-the- Bar,” Messrs. Routledge’s “ Men and Women of the Time ” and “ Men of the Reign,” Crockford’s “ Clerical Directory ” and “ The Annual Register.” PHILIP MENNELL. St Stephen’s Club, S.W., August Ist, 1892. DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. Abb] A [a’Be Abbott, Hon. Sir Joseph Palmer, M.L.A., Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, New South Wales, was born at Muswellbrook, brook, N.S.W., on Sep. 29th, 1842. From his youth Mr. Abbott has been engaged in pastoral pursuits ; but he is also a solicitor by profession. He was M.L.A. for the district of Gunnedah from 1880 to 1885, and has since represented Wentworth. Mr. Abbott was Secretary for Mines in the Stuart Government from Jan. 7th, 1883, to Oct. 7th, 1885 ; and held the post of Secretary for Lands in the Dibbs Ministry from Nov. 7th to Dec. 22nd, 1885. Subsequently Mr. Abbott sat with Mr. Dibbs in Opposition. He, however, found occasion to take an independent stand, and separated himself from the main body of protectionists, and was looked upon as leader of the Third Party in the Assembly—a section also known as the Independent and the “Law and Order ” party. He was a member of the New South Wales Commission for the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition of 1888; and in Oct. 1890 he was elected Speaker of the Legislative Assembly on the retirement of Mr. Young. He was one of the delegates of New South Wales to the Federation Convention held in Sydney in 1891. During the shearers’ strike in 1891 he offered his intervention. He was re-elected Speaker later in the year, and was gazetted to a knighthood on May 25th, 1892. Abbott, Robert Palmer, J.P., was born in Ireland, and came to Sydney when a boy with his parents. He was admitted a solicitor in 1854. Mr. Abbott entered the Legislative Assembly in 1872 as member for Tenterfield, and was returned turned for Hartley in 1880. He was nominated to the Legislative Council in 1885, and sat till March Ist, 1888, when he resigned, owing to his objection to certain appointments. He was Secretary for Mines in the first Parkes Administration tion from July 27th, 1874, to Feb. Bth, 1875, and a member of the New South Wales Commission in London for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886. a'Beckett, His Honour Thomas, puisne judge, Victoria, is the eldest son of Mr. Thomas Turner a’Beckett ( q.v .), and was born in 1836. He went to Victoria with his father, and returned to London in 1856, entering as a student of Lincoln’s Inn on May 18th, 1857. He won a studentship dentship in Nov. 1859, and was called to the bar on Nov. 17th of the same year. Judge a’Beckett returned to Victoria, and was admitted to the bar there on Aug. 16th, 1860, and practised before the Supreme Court in Melbourne. He married, in 1875, Isabella, daughter of Sir Archibald Michie, K.C.M.G., Q.C. (q.v.), and was appointed a puisne judge of the Supreme Court of Victoria on Sept. 30th, 1886. Mr. Justice a’Beckett was formerly a law lecturer in Melbourne University, but resigned in 1880. He is still a member of the Faculty of Law in the University, and was elected a member of the Council on Jan. 10th. 1887. a’Beckett, Hon. Thomas Turner, J.P., comes of a well-known Wiltshire family, long settled at West Lavington, in that county. He is the son of the late William a’Beckett, a solicitor in London, and a brother of the late Sir William a’Beckett (q.v.), and of the late Gilbert Abbott a’Beckett, the well-known London don police magistrate, comic author, and contributor to Punch. Another brother, Arthur Martin a’Beckett, F.R.C.S., was a prominent resident in Sydney’ and died there on May 23rd, 1871. Mr. a’Beckett was born on Sept. 13th, 1808, and educated at Westminster School. After leaving he was articled to his father, and admitted a solicitor and attorney in 1829, when he joined his father in practice. Mr. a’Beckett wrote a number of able pamphlets advocating legal reforms, and was a mem- ber of the Council of the Law Amendment ment Society down to 1850, when he emigrated to Victoria, being admitted to practise as a solicitor in Melbourne in 1851, and was registrar of the diocese from 1854 to 1887. During the gold fever he published a pamphlet entitled “Gold and the Government,” and was nominated to the Legislative Council on July 14th r 1852. On the inauguration of responsible government in 1855 he unsuccessfully successfully attempted to enter the Lower House for Collingwood, but was elected to the Legislative Council for the central province, and sat from 1858 to 1878, when he retired from political life, in the course of which he opposed the ballot, the abolition of state aid to religion and the export duty on gold, and gave his adhesion to payment of members. Mr. a’Beckett was a member of the Heales Ministry without portfolio from Nov. 26th, 1860, to Nov. 11th, 1861, and was sworn of the Executive tive Council on Jan. 7th, 1861. In April 1868, on the resignation of Sir James M'Culloch during the Darling Grant crisis, Mr. a’Beckett was applied to by Lord Canterbury to form a conciliation ministry; but this, after considerable negotiation, he found himself unable to do, and in the result the Sladen Ministry was formed. Mr. a’Beckett was Commissioner missioner of Trade and Customs in the third M‘Culloch Administration, from April 9th, 1870, to June 19th, 1871. He was a member of the Royal Commission on the Civil Service in 1862, and Chairman of that of 1870. Mr. a’Beckett was also for many years a member of the Council of Melbourne University, and a trustee of the Public Library. He was Chairman of the Hobson’s Bay Railway Company down to the time when the line became absorbed in the Government railway system. Before leaving London, Mr. a’Beckett published “ Remarks on the Present State of the Law of Debtor and Creditor,” 1844; “ Railway Litigation, and How to Check It,” 1846; “Lawreforming reforming Difficulties: a Letter to Lord Brougham,” 1849. After his arrival in Victoria he published “A Comparative View of Court Fees and Attorneys’ Charges,” 1854; “A Defence of State Aid to Religion,” 1856 ; “ State Aid Question—Strictures tion—Strictures on Pamphlets of Dr. Cairns,” 1856. Mr. a’Beckett from time to time delivered lectures at the Industrial dustrial and Technological Museum, Melbourne. Several of these, including “ Painting and Painters,” have been published. a’Beekett, Sir William, first Chief Justice of Victoria, was the eldest son of William a’Beckett, and the brother of T. T. a’Beckett (q.v.}. He was born in London on July 28th, 1806, and educated cated at Westminster School, where, in conjunction with his brother Gilbert Abbott a’Beckett, he started two periodicals cals of very promising ability, entitled the Censor and Literary Beacon. He was called to the English bar in 1827, went to New South Wales in 1837, and was in 1841 appointed Solicitor-General, and subsequently Puisne Judge. He became judge of the Supreme Court for the district of Port Phillip on Feb. 3rd, 1846, and on Jan. 19th, 1851, was made first Chief Justice of the newly constituted colony of Victoria. In the same year the reckless abandonment of the population to the excitement of the gold fever called forth a cautionary pamphlet from Sir William. It was published lished under the pseudonym “ Colonus,” and was entitled, “Doesthe Discovery of Gold in Victoria, viewed in relation to its Moral and Social Effects as hitherto developed, loped, deserve to be considered a National Blessing or a National Curse?” The judge evidently leant to the latter view. The experiences of a holiday trip to Europe are contained in a volume by Sir William, published in London in 1854, entitled “Out of Harness,” containing notes on a tour through Switzerland and Italy. Sir William’s health failed, but he postponed his retirement to suit the convenience of the Haines Ministry. In 1857, however, he left the bench, and returned to reside in England in 1863, where he published in London “The Earl’s Choice, and other Poems.” Sir William died at Upper Norwood, in Surrey, on June 27th, 1869. In 1832 he married Emily, daughter of Edward Hay ley, who died in 1841. In addition to the works already mentioned, Sir William published “ The Siege of Dumbarton barton Castle and other Poems,” 1824 ; a large number of biographies in “The Georgian Era ” (4 vols., 1834-4) : “ A Universal Biography; including Scriptural, tural, Classical, and Mythological Me moirs, together with Accounts of many Eminent Living Characters” (3 vols., London, 1835); and “ The Magistrates’ Manual for the Colony of Victoria” (Melbourne, 1852). a’Beckett, Hon. William Arthur Callender, lender, J.P., eldest son of the late Sir William a’Beckett (q.v.'), was in the Legislative Council of Victoria from 1868 to 1876, and held office without portfolio in the Administration of Sir Charles Gavan Duffy from June 1871 to June 10th, 1872. He was sworn in as a member of the Executive Council on July 31st, 1871. He represented the first Berry Government ment in the Legislative Council, being a member of the Ministry without office from Aug. 7th to Oct. 20th, 1875. He was admitted to the Victorian bar on Sept. 15th, 1875. Mr. a’Beckett, who was born at Kensington on July 7th, 1833, and educated at King’s College, London, and at Downing College, Cambridge, bridge, where he was a Fellow Commoner, has also been called to the English (Inner Temple) and New South Wales bars. He married, in Sept. 1855, Emma, only child and heiress of John Mills, of Melbourne. He has been a magistrate of the colony of Victoria since 1862, but now resides at Penleigh House, Westbury, Wilts. Abigail, Francis, J.P., son of the late William Abigail, was born in London in 1840. He emigrated to Sydney in 1860, and married there, in 1861. Mr. Abigail was M.L.A. for West Sydney from 1880 to June 1891, when he was defeated. He was Minister of Mines in Sir Henry Parkes’ Administration from Jan. 20th, 1887, to Jan. 10th, 1889, and is a J.P. of the colonies of New South Wales and Victoria. He was a member of the New South Wales Commission for the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition of 1888, and for the Exhibition of Mining and Metallurgy, held at the Crystal Palace in 1890, in which year he visited England, and received a cordial welcome from the various Orange bodies in England and the north of Ireland. Whilst in London he gave valuable evidence before the Royal Commission on Mines. Abraham, Right Reverend Charles John, M.A., D.D., the son of the late Captain Abraham, R.N., of Farnborough, Hants, was born in 1815, and educated at Eton and King’s College, Cambridge, of which he was successively Scholar and Fellow. He was admitted to the degree of B.A. in 1837, M.A. in 1840, B.D. in 1849, and received the degree of D.D. in 1859. He was ordained deacon in 1838, and priest in the following year. He was Assistant Master at Eton until 1850, when he went out to New Zealand to become Master of the English department of St. John’s College, Auckland. In 1853 he was appointed Archdeacon of Waitemata mata by the Bishop (Selwyn) of New Zealand. The Bishop had for two or three years been offering to members of the Church of England a Church Constitution, tution, whereby they were to govern themselves; and during the two years which followed, while absent in England, he left Archdeacon Abraham to propagate and expound the principles of the Church Constitution. In 1857 a convention of representative churchmen from all parts of the colony was held in Auckland, which resulted in the framing of the Constitution now in force. In the following lowing year Archdeacon Abraham, who had also been acting as chaplain to the Bishop, was consecrated first Bishop of Wellington by the Archbishop (Sumner) of Canterbury and Bishops (Wilberforce) of Oxford and (Lonsdale) of Lichfield. When the Maori war broke out by reason of the purchase by the Government of .the Waitara block, Bishop Abraham presented a protest to the Governor, claiming for the Maoris as British subjects the right to be fceard in the Supreme Court. In 1870 he resigned his see, and, returning to England, was made coadjutor to Dr. Selwyn, then Bishop of Lichfield. This office he held until the death of Bishop Selwyn, in 1878. From 1872 to 1876 he was Prebendary of Bobenhall in Lichfield Cathedral, and in 1875-6 was rector of Tattenhill, Staffordshire. Since 1876 he has been Canon and Precentor of Lichfield field Cathedral. He married in 1850 Caroline Harriet, daughter of Sir Charles Thomas Palmer, Bart., of Wanlip Hall, Leicestershire, and cousin of the wife of Bishop Selwyn. She died in 1877. Bishop Abraham is the author of “ Festival and Lenten Lectures in St. George’s Chapel Windsor,” 1848-9 (Parker), and other works. Adams, Francis William Leith, is the son of the late Professor Andrew Leith Adams, F.R.S., F.G.S., and grandson of Francis Adams, M.D., LL.D., a distinguished guished Scotch physician and classical scholar. His mother is the well-known authoress, Mrs. Bertha Leith Adams (now Mrs. R. S. de Courcy Laffan), of Stratfordon-Avon. on-Avon. Mr. Adams resided in Queensland land and various other parts of Australia, and published his “poetical works” in Brisbane. He has also written “ Leicester, cester, an Autobiography’’(London, 1885); “Australian Essays” (Melbourne, 1886) ; “ Songs of the Army of Night ” (London, 1890). The next year he contributed a series of remarkable articles on Australia to the Fortnightly Review , and early'in 1892 published in London a collection of Australian tales. Adams, Philip Francis, ex-Surveyor General, New South Wales, was born in Suffolk in 1828. Ten years later his family removed to the north of Ireland, and he was educated at the Belfast Institution. In 1851 he emigrated to Canada, and subsequently had. an unlucky lucky experience at the Californian diggings. gings. He came to Sydney in 1854, and was Government Land Surveyor for the Maitland district till 1857. He was afterwards connected with the Trigonometrical metrical Survey of New South Wales. In 1864 he was appointed Deputy Surveyor General, and Surveyor General on March 17th, 1868. Mr. Adams retired on a pension, and was a member of the New South Wales Commission in Sydney for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886. Adams, Robert Dudley, was born on July 9th, 1829, on board the Rotterdam packet, in which his mother was travelling to England. He was for a time private secretary to the Hon. Sidney Herbert (afterwards Lord Herbert of Lea), the popular War Minister. He arrived in New South Wales on Sept. 21st, 1851, and engaged in commercial and pastoral toral pursuits, in the intervals of which, between 1860 and 1880, he wrote a series of articles on “ Australian Finance and Resource” for the English press and magazines, also for the colonial press, numerous political sketches, reviews, and essays, also two poems, the “ Psalm of Time” and “Song of the Stars” (the latter subject suggested to him by the late Prince Albert). He has been a member of all the New South Wales Exhibition Commissions (except one), including that for Chicago. Adams, Hon. Robert Patten, puisne judge, Tasmania, third son of James White Adams, of Martock, Somerset, and Mary Anne Elizabeth his wife, was born on March 4th, 1831, and educated at Martock tock grammar school and at King’s College lege School, London. He entered at the Middle Temple in April 1851, and was called to the bar on May Ist, 1854. Mr. Justice Adams emigrated to Tasmania, mania, and was called to the bar there on Sept. 25th, 1856. He subsequently became Chairman of Quarter Sessions and a Commissioner of the Court of Requests quests for the northern division of Tasmania. mania. Having embraced political life, he entered the House of Assembly, and was returned for Hobart in 1859, 1861, and from 1862-6. He became Solicitor- General in 1867, and held the appointment ment till 1887, when on March 14th he was appointed a puisne judge. He is Chancellor of the Diocese of Tasmania, and has been twice married; his first wife, who died in 1867, being Harriett Matilda, daughter of the late Captain George King, R.N. He married secondly Kate, daughter of the late George Francis Huston, J.P., of New Norfolk, Tasmania. Adamson, Travers, was called to the Irish bar at King’s Inn in April 1850, and admitted to practise at the Victorian torian bar on Nov. 24th, 1852. He represented the Murray district in the first Legislative Assembly of Victoria, which assembled in Nov. 1856. Mr. Adamson was Solicitor-General in the Nicholson Administration from Oct. 27th, 1859, to March sth, 1860, and was for many years Crown prosecutor. Addis, William E., 8.A., son of the late Rev. Thomas Addis, of Edinburgh, minister of the Free Church, was born in 1844, and was Snell Exhibitioner to Balliol College, Oxford. He matriculated on Oct. 12th, 1861, and took a first class in Classical Moderations in 1863, and a first class in the final classical schools in 1865. He took his B.A. degree in 1866, and very shortly afterwards became a convert to the Roman Catholic Church, and a member ber of the congregation of St. Philip Neri at the Brompton Oratory. He left the Oratory, and became priest in charge of Lower Sydenham. In 1888 he resigned the priesthood, after issuing a circular to his parishioners announcing his abjuration of Roman Catholic doc trines, and was married, at St. John’s, Notting Hill, to Miss Flood. At the end of the year he accepted the post of assistant to the Rev. Charles Strong, of the Australian Church, Melbourne. Mr. Addis is the author of “ Anglicanism and the Fathers,” “Anglican Misrepresentation,” tion,” and of the “ Catholic Dictionary,” compiled in conjunction with Thomas Arnold (q.v.), which was published in 1884. Since his residence in Melbourne Mr. Addis has published some articles on Biblical criticism, displaying an acquaintance ance with the more advanced school of German theologians. Agg, Alfred John, sometime Commissioner sioner of Railways, Victoria, was born in 1830 at Evesham, Worcestershire. He was educated at the Worcester grammar school, and entered the service of the Great Western Railway Company as a clerk at Reading in 1845, where he remained mained until 1850, when he emigrated to Australia. He arrived in Victoria in 1851, and was employed in the Chief Secretary’s office and the Immigration Department. partment. He was afterwards appointed Government Storekeeper, which position he resigned in 1856, and became president of the new department created to supersede sede the old system of commissariat control. His abilities in this office were rewarded by his appointment as Under Treasurer, and on Oct. 13th, 1857, he was made Commissioner of Audit. In 1883 he was granted a year’s leave, which he spent in making a tour of the world, and in his absence he was nominated to act under Mr. Speight as a commissioner under the Railways Management Act. Mr. Agg was admitted to the Victorian bar on Dec. 6th, 1860, and died on Oct. 16th, 1886. Agnew, Hon. James Wilson, M.D., J.P., ex-Premier of Tasmania, was admitted a niember of the Royal College of Surgeons (England) in 1838, and M.D. of Glasgow University in 1839. Soon afterwards he emigrated to Tasmania, and for many years practised his profession in Hobart. Dr. Agnew was made a J.P. for Tasmania on Feb. 10th, 1862. He was a member of the Legislative Council 1877-81, and from 1884 to July 1887, when he resigned. He was a member of Mr. Fysh’s Ministry without office from Aug. 9th, 1877 (on which date he was sworn of the Executive Council) to March stb, 1878, and of the Giblin Ministry, which succeeded, from March sth to Dec. 20th, 1878. He again took office with Mr. Giblin, without portfolio, on Oct. 30th, 1879; but resigned on Feb. sth, 1881. Dr. Agnew became Premier and Chief Secretary of the Colony on March Bth, 1886. On March Ist, 1887, Mr. Rooke was taken into the Ministry as Chief Secretary, Dr. Agnew remaining Premier until the 29th of the month, when he resigned with his colleagues. leagues. Dr. Agnew is Vice-President and Honorary Secretary of the Royal Society of Tasmania, and a member of the Council. He was for many years a member of the Tasmanian Council of Education, and on the establishment of the Tasmanian University was elected a member of the Council, but, in consequence quence of absence from the colony, resigned signed in 1891. He was President of the Tasmanian Commission for the Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880. Ahearne, Surgeon - Major Joseph, L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S., is a native of Ireland, and was admitted L.R.C.S. (Ireland) in 1871, and L.R.C.P. (London) in 1878. He emigrated to Queensland, and was appointed Government Medical Officer at Townsville in Nov. 1879. He was appointed Surgeon-Major and Principal Medical Officer of the defence force for the Northern District in Nov. 1885, and Health Officer at Townsville on Nov. 25th, 1886. In that year he visited England as the representative of the North Queensland Separation League ; and much of the progress which has since attended the operations of the League is to be ascribed to the impetus given to it by Dr. Ahearne’s exertions. Dr. Ahearne married Miss Cunningham, the daughter of Edward Cunningham, a Queensland squatter. Airy, Major Henry Park, D. 5.0., of the New South Wales Artillery, was formerly in the 101st Foot; and having become attached to the New South Wales military forces, of which he became captain in March 1885, served in the Soudan campaign paign with the colonial contingent, receiving ceiving a medal, with clasp, for the advance on Tamai. He served with the British army in Burmah in 1886 and 1887, and having behaved with great gallantry and been severely wounded, was created a Companion of the Dis tinguished Service Order (in 1888), was mentioned in despatches, and pensioned by the Government of India. In further recognition of his brilliant services in Burmah, he was, in June 1887, appointed a brevet-major in the New South Wales forces by Lord Carrington, then Governor of that colony. Akhurst, William, the actor, was born at Hammersmith on Dec. 29th, 1822, and went to Melbourne, Australia, in 1850. Here he joined the Melbourne Arc/us as sub-editor and musical critic. Subsequently quently he wrote fourteen pantomimes, one of his burlesques, the “ Siege of Troy,” running sixty nights. In 1870 he returned to England, and wrote pantomimes mimes for Astley’s, the Pavilion, and the Elephant and Castle Theatres. He died on board of the Patriarch , whilst on his way out to Sydney, on June 7th, 1878. Alexander, Samuel, M.A., Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, son of Samuel Alexander and Eliza [Sloman] his wife, was born in Sydney on Jan. 6th, 1859. He was educated at Wesley College, Melbourne, bourne, and Melbourne University, where he matriculated in 1875, winning three exhibitions. During the next two years he won five exhibitions in the arts course, in classics, mathematics, and natural science. Mr. Alexander was elected scholar of Balliol College, Oxford, in Nov. 1877; was Prox. Acc. University sity Junior Mathematical Scholarship in 1878; and was first class in Classical Moderations, and first class in Mathematical tical Moderations in 1879. He was first class in the Final School of Litterce Humaniores in 1881. He received the degree of B.A. in 1881, and of M.A. in 1884. Since taking his degree Mr. Alexander has devoted himself to the study of philosophy. He was elected Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, in 1882, and from 1883 to the end of 1888 lectured on philosophy at Lincoln College. In 1885 he was appointed examiner in the Final School of Litterce Humaniores , a position which he held till 1887, when he was awarded the Green Memorial Prize for Moral Philosophy. In 1889 he published a treatise on Ethics, entitled “ Moral Order and Progress ” (London, Trubner). This had been partly founded on a prize essay. Mr. Alexander is the author of various smaller contributions in Mind , and elsewhere; an article on Hegel’s “ Conception of Nature,” in Mind for 1886, being especially worthy of notice. Allen, Hon. George, M.L.C., was the son of Dr. Richard Allen, physician to George 111., and was born in London in Nov. 1800. He arrived in New South Wales in Jan. 1816, and was the first attorney and solicitor admitted by the Supreme Court of New South Wales. This took place on July 26th, 1822, and he had much difficulty in maintaining his status against the English-bred attorneys who desired to monopolise the practice. He married in 1823, and was elected Alderman of the Brisbane Ward in the first corporation of the city of Sydney in 1842, acting as third Mayor of the city in 1845. In the latter year he was nominated to a seat in the old Legislative Council, and was appointed honorary Police Magistrate of the City and Port.. In 1856 he became a member of the present Legislative Council, and was elected Chairman of Committees, an office which he resigned in 1873, along with his membership of the Council of Education, which he had held since 1866. He assisted in founding ing Sydney College, and held office on the governing body for many years. In 1859 he was elected a member of the Senate of the University, to which he bequeathed £IOOO for a scholarship for proficiency in mathematics in the second year. Mr. Allen, who was a prominent member of the Wesleyan-Methodist body, died at Toxteth Park Glebe on Nov. 3rd, 1877. Allen, Hon. Sir George Wigram, K.C.M.G., son of the late Hon. George Allen, M.L.C. ( q.v .), was born in Sydney on May 16th, 1824. He was educated at Cape’s school and at Sydney College, where he distinguished himself in classics and mathematics. He was articled to his father, and admitted an attorney and solicitor of the Supreme Court of New South Wales in 1846. He married, in July 1851, Marian, eldest daughter of the late Rev. William Billington Boyce, first President of the Australian Wesleyan Conference, who survived him. He was a Commissioner of National Education from 1853 to 1866, and became a member of the Council of Education in 1873. In 1859 he was made a magistrate, and chosen first Mayor of The Glebe, an offioe to which he was many times consecutively tively re-elected. He was appointed a member of the Legislative Council in 1860, but resigned his seat ; and was elected a member of the Legislative Assembly sembly for The Glebe in 1869. He was chosen President of the Law Institute in 1870; and on Dec. 9th, 1873, he accepted office in the Parkes Ministry, becoming the first Minister of Justice and Public Instruction appointed after the creation of the office. He retired with his colleagues leagues on Feb. Bth, 1875, and was chosen Speaker of the Legislative Assembly on March 23rd, 1875, being re-elected on Nov. 27th, 1877 (in which year he was knighted), and Dec. 15th, 1880. In the next parliament he was displaced by Mr. Barton (Jan. 3rd, 1883). In 1878 Sir George was elected to the Senate of Sydney University, to fill the vacancy created by the death of his father. Sir George was one of the vice-presidents of the Royal Commission for the Sydney International Exhibition of 1879, and also of the New South Wales Commission for the Melbourne International Exhibition tion of 1880. In 1884 Sir George was created K.C.M.G., and died on July 23rd, 1885. Allen, Harry Brookes, M.D., Professor of Anatomy and Pathology in Melbourne University, graduated M.B. at Melbourne University in 1876, M.D. in 1878, and Ch.B. in 1879. He was appointed Professor fessor of Descriptive and Surgical Anatomy tomy and Pathology in the University in Nov. 1882. He is President of the Melbourne bourne Medical Students’ Society and of the Melbourne University Boat Club. He was president of the Commission which sat in 1889 to inquire into the sanitary state of Melbourne; and, having received a year’s leave of absence, visited Europe in 1890 to inquire into the management agement of the various medical schools of the United Kingdom and the Continent. At Dr. Allen’s instance the General Medical Council in England agreed to recognise Melbourne medical degrees, and he was himself the first M.D. of the University to be registered in accordance ance with the new arrangement. He was married at Sutton Forest, Sydney, to Miss Ada Rose Elizabeth Mason. Allen, Janies, was born at Birmingham in 1806, and educated at Horton College. He was for some time a reporter on the Morning Post, but emigrated to Adelaide, South Australia, where he started the Times and aided in establishing the South Australian Register. In the year 1857 he went to Melbourne, where he edited the Herald and started the Mail, the first penny evening paper issued in that city. In 1865 Mr. Allen removed to Hobart, Tasmania, and edited the Mercury, afterwards starting the Evening Mail . Mr. Allen then went to New Zealand, and conducted the Auckland Evening News till 1870, when he returned to Victoria and purchased the Camperdown down Chronicle, of which he remained owner till 1880. Mr. Allen, who died in 1886, published a “ History of Australia” in 1882. Allen, Captain William, was for many years a commander in the Hon. East India Company’s marine, in which he greatly distinguished himself. He arrived in Adelaide in 1839, and, in conjunction with Mr. John Ellis, bought a portion of the “ Milner Estate,” in the neighbourhood hood of Port Gawler. In 1845 he became associated in the purchase of the Burra Mine, and assisted in forming the South Australian Mining Association, of which he became chairman. Captain Allen was a member of the Church of England, but contributed liberally to the funds of various Protestant bodies. He helped to establish St. Peter’s College in 1849, and was a benefactor to its funds to the extent of £7OOO. Captain Allen revisited England in 1853, returning in 1855. He died suddenly on Oct. 17th, 1856, and by his will bequeathed £SOOO for pastoral aid purposes in connection with the Anglican Church in South Australia, the disposition of the amount being left to the discretion of the Bishop of Adelaide, as trustee. Allen, Rev. William, was born on Nov. 4th, 1847, at Betchworth, Surrey, and was taken to Victoria in 1852. He was educated at the Scotch and Congregational colleges in Melbourne, and matriculated at the Melbourne University versity in 1869. He became pastor of the Sandhurst Congregational church in Jan. 1871, was transferred to Maryborough borough in Jan. 1875, and in Jan. 1880 was appointed to his present living at Carlton. Since 1871 Mr. Allen has written for the religious press; he was Chairman of the “ Congregational Union aud Mission of Victoria ” in 1885 and 1886, and in the latter year published “Random Rhymes.” Mr. Allen gained the first prize for the cantata which he composed for the opening of the Melbourne bourne Centennial Exhibition in 1888. Allport, Morton, F.L.S., son of Joseph Allport, was born in England on Dec. 4th, 1880. The family emigrated to Tasmania when Mr. Allport was an infant. He was educated in the colony, and chose his father’s profession, being admitted a solicitor licitor of the Supreme Court in 1852. Mr. Allport was an ardent and accomplished naturalist, and by his original work added largely to the knowledge of the zoology and botany of Tasmania. To the study of the fishes of the colony he gave special attention. He introduced the perch and tench into Tasmanian waters, and was a zealous promoter of the acclimatisation of salmon and trout, an experiment which he lived to see a splendid success. He also introduced the English water-lily into the colony. Mr. Allport was a Fellow of the Linnaean Society of London and of the Zoological Society, corresponding member of the Anthropological Institute, life member of the Entomological and Malacological logical Societies, and foreign member of several Continental scientific societies. He was a Vice-President of the Royal Society of Tasmania, to the Proceedings of which last-named Society he contributed a number ber of valuable papers on the subjects of his favourite studies. He was a member ber of the Council of Education for many years. He died at Hobart on Sept. 10th, 1878. Allwood, Rev. Canon Robert, 8.A., ex- Vice-Chancellor of Sydney University, was the son of Chief Justice Allwood, of Jamaica, and was educated at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1825. He took holy orders, and was ordained deacon in 1826 by the Bishop of Bath and Wells, and priest in 1827 by the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. He was a minor canon of Bristol Cathedral from 1826t0 1839, and curate of Clifton from 1829 to 1839. In the latter year he emigrated to New South Wales, arriving in Sydney on Dec. Bth. From 1840 to 1884 he was incumbent of St. James’s, Sydney, and was appointed canon of St. Andrew’s Cathedral in 1852. Canon Allwood was Chancellor of the diocese of Sydney from 1876 to 1884, and Vice-Chancellor of the University in 1869. In 1843 he published a brochure entitled “The Papal Claim of Jurisdiction” (in Australia). He died on Oct. 27th, 1891. Anderson, George, Deputy-Master Melbourne bourne Mint, is the son of the late George Anderson, of Luscar, Fifeshire, Scotland. He was bom in 1819, and educated at Edinburgh and St. Andrew’s Universities. He was formerly Major 4th Lanark Rifle Volunteers. He represented the City of Glasgow in the House of Commons from 1868 to 1885, On March 13th of the latter year he was appointed Deputy- Master of the Mint at Melbourne, in succession cession to Mr. V. D. Broughton (j'.r.), a position he still holds. Anderson. John Gerard, M.A., J.P., Under Secretary for Public Instruction Queensland, son of the late Rev. James Anderson, M.A., of Orphir, Orkney, was bom on Feb. 12th, 1836, and graduated M.A. at Aberdeen University, afterwards remaining there as a student of divinity. He emigrated to Queensland in 1862, and became connected with the Education Service in Sept. 1863 as first District Inspector of Schools. He was appointed Senior Inspector in June 1869, Acting General Inspector in Sept. 1874, General Inspector in 1876, and Under Secretary in Nov. 1878—a position he still holds. Anderson, Lieut. -Colonel Joseph, C. 8., K.H., was born in 1789, and joined the army in 1805 as ensign in the 78th Regiment. He served with singular bravery and distinction, being on several occasions severely wounded in Egypt, and at Talavera, Busaco and Torres Vedras in the Peninsular War. Having become major of the 50th Regiment, he was in 1834 appointed by Governor Sir Richard Bourke, of New South Wales, to take charge of the convict establishment at Norfolk Island, as Military Commandant and Civil Superintendent. intendent. The miserable felons were then in a state of chronic mutiny, and steeped in every species of crime. At imminent personal risk, Major Anderson, whilst maintaining rigid discipline, introduced duced a kindlier and more humanising system, and with the best results. In 1837 Major Anderson was created K.H., and subsequently became lieut.-colonel. After leaving Norfolk Island, he saw active service in India, and commanded a brigade in the Gwalior campaign in 1843, during which he was severely wounded, and for which he received the 1844. In 1848 he retired from the army, and took up his permanent residence in Port Phillip, where he engaged in squatting pursuits on the Goulburn River. In 1852 he was nominated to the first Legislative Council of Victoria, to fill a vacancy in the list of non-official nominee members, caused by the death of Mr. Dunlop. In this capacity he supported the Convicts Act Prevention Bill, which was designed to prevent the influx of convicts from Tasmania into Victoria ; and when the measure, having been disallowed allowed by the Imperial authorities, was again adopted by the Council in the ensuing session, Colonel Anderson was the mover of an address to the Queen, setting forth the reasons which induced the Legislative Council to again pass the bill. In 1854 Colonel Anderson served on the Colonial Defence Committee, and in the following year in a debate on the immigration question strongly advocated the adoption of prohibitive legislation, with the view of stopping the influx of Chinese. Colonel Anderson died at South Yarra, Melbourne, on July 18th, 1877. Anderson, Hon. Robert Stirling Hore, M.L.C., was a native of Coleraine, Londonderry, donderry, Ireland, and was educated at the Belfast Academy and at the University versity of Dublin, where he graduated. After practising as a solicitor in Dublin for eight years he decided to emigrate, and arrived in Victoria in June 1854. Whilst practising as a solicitor in Melbourne he resided in the suburb of Emerald Hill, and was Chairman of the Municipal Council and representative of the district in Parliament. Mr. Anderson was Commissioner missioner of Trade and Customs in the Heales Ministry from November 1860 to January 1861, when he resigned, owing to the policy of the Ministry being dictated by the opposition, Mr. Heales revising his budget in accordance with Sir John O’Shanassy’s resolution that the public expenditure should be kept down to £3,000,000 per annum. Mr. Anderson, however, took office in the O’Shanassy Ministry which succeeded the Heales Government, being Commissioner of Trade and Customs from November 1861 to June 1863. When Mr. Haines died in 1864 Mr. Anderson succeeded him as member for the Eastern Province in the Legislative Council, and be was Commissioner missioner of Public Works and vice-president dent of the Board of Land and Works in the Francis Ministry from May to July 1874, when the Cabinet was reconstructed under the premiership of the late Mr. Kerferd, under whom Mr. Anderson held the same offices till August 1875, when the first Berry Ministry was formed. The latter having been defeated, Mr. Anderson came back to office under Sir James M‘Culloch in October 1875 as Commissioner missioner of Trade and Customs, and held that post till the Ministry was again displaced by Mr. (now Sir Graham) Berry in May 1877. From March to August 1880 Mr. Anderson was a member of Mr. Service’s first cabinet, but held no portfolio. When the Service-Berry coalition was formed in March 1883 Mr. Anderson became Minister of Justice, and retained the post until his death on Oct. 26th of the same year. Anderson, Hon. Wiiliam, J.P., son of James Anderson and Hannah his wife, was born at Montrose, Scotland, on Jan. 3rd, 1828, and was taken to Launceston, ton, Tasmania, in Oct. 1841, arriving on April Ist of the following year. The family removed to Port Fairy in Victoria, in 1844 ; and in 1849 he took over his father’s business as a builder, which he managed until 1854, when he joined his father in purchasing Rosemount Farm, his present home. He became a member of the first Belfast Road Board, was elected president of the Belfast Shire Council, made a justice of the peace in 1864, and sat in the Assembly for Villiers and Heytesbury from 1880 till April 1892, when he was defeated. In 1854 he was elected an elder of the Presbyterian church, and was for two years president of the Protection of Aborigines Society. He succeeded the late Chief Justice Stawell as president of the Royal Horticultural cultural Society of Victoria. In 1887 he was awarded the Minister of Agriculture’s prize for the best managed farm in southern Victoria. He was appointed Minister of Public Works in the Gillies Government on Sept. 2nd, 1890, and resigned signed with the rest of his colleagues in the following November. Anderson, Colonel William Acland Douglas, C.M.G., son of Lieut.-Colonel Joseph Anderson (g'.v.), was born in 1829, was an ensign in his father’s regiment, the 50th, but sold his commission sion after a few years’ service, and was appointed a Commissioner of Goldfields in Victoria. He was at one time member for Evelyn in the old Legislative Council, and succeeded Major-General Dean Pitt in the chief command of the Victorian Volunteer force in 1862. He was created C.M.G. in 1878, and died on Jan. 23rd, 1882. Andrew, Professor Henry Martyn, M.A., son of Rev. M. Andrew, was born at Bridgenorth, on Jan. 3rd, 1845, and educated at several English and Continental tinental schools, and after his arrival in Victoria in 1857, at the Church of England grammar school, Melbourne, under the Rev. Dr. Bromby. He entered the Melbourne University in 1861, and graduated B.A. in 1864, with the scholarship in mathematics and natural philosophy, and first-class honours in natural science. He was appointed in June of that year Lecturer on Civil Engineering, being the first graduate of Melbourne to be appointed to office in the University, and resigned the position in June 1868 on his departure for England. He also resigned the second mastership of Wesley College, which he had accepted in 1866 ; and on his arrival in England in Oct. 1868 he entered St. John’s College, Cambridge, where in 1870 he was second foundation scholar and a Wright’s prizeman. He graduated B.A. as 27th wrangler in Jan. 1872, accepted the professorship of mathematics matics and natural philosophy at the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, took his M.A. degree in 1875, returned to Wesley College, Melbourne, in the same year as second master under Professor Irving, whom he succeeded as head master at Christmas 1875. In 1882 he left Wesley College to succeed Mr. Pirani as Lecturer on Natural Philosophy in Melbourne University, where he became first professor on the establishment of the chair on that subject, and continued in this position until his death at Suez on Sept. 18th, 1888, whilst on leave. Professor Andrew was author of a paper on “ Brain Waves,” joint author with the late Mr. F. J. Pirani, M.A., C.E., of an edition of the first three books of Euclid, graduated M.A. at Melbourne University in 1867, and acted as joint secretary of the University Senate. He was three times elected a member of the University Council between 1867 and 1886. Professor Andrew was ensign in the St. John’s company of the Cambridge University Volunteer Corps, and captain of the Melbourne University company ; and both as a musician and a contributor to the press he did valuable work. His widow has adopted the dramatic profession, under the name of Miss Constance Edwards. Andrew, Eev. John Chapman, M.A., J.P., was born on March 7th, 1822, at Whitby, in Yorkshire, his father, the Rev. James Andrew, being then rector of the parish. He was educated first at Whitby, and then at St. Peter’s school, York, from which latter, having taken an exhibition, he proceeded to University College, Oxford. ford. Having graduated 'B.A. in 1840, taking second-class honours in both classics sics and mathematics, Mr. Andrew was appointed one of the masters to the new school at Rossal, in Lancashire. In 1845 he was elected Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford; and, having proceeded to the degree of M.A. in 1847, was ordained deacon in the same year, and priest in 1848, being vicar of St. Michael’s, Oxford, 1848-9. At Lincoln College Mr. Andrew acted as mathematical lecturer, Greek lecturer, and tutor successively; and in 1857 went out to Wellington, New Zealand, land, where he had a sheep station on the Waitangi for some years. He was a member of the Provincial Council of Wellington from 1868 until the abolition of the provincial system in 1875. In 1870 Mr. Andrew was returned as one of the two members for Wairarapa in the General Assembly, as also in 1876. In the latter year he migrated to Nelson, and in 1880 was appointed principal of Nelson College. He has always been actively interested in educational matters in New Zealand, and from 1868 to 1876 was a member of the Wellington Education Board. In 1878 he was appointed to the Senate of the New Zealand University, and is now the Vice-Chancellor. He was appointed J.P. by Sir Edward Stafford’s Government. Andrews, Henry James, J.P., sometime Under Secretary and Government Statist, South Australia, was at one time a teller in the Bank of Australasia. He entered the Civil Service of South Australia in 1852 as assistant in the Assay Office, and in the next year became cashier and accountant. In 1860 he was appointed Secretary to the Central Road Board; in 1874 Secretary to the Commissioner for Public Works; in 1875 Secretary to the Commissioner of Crown Lands; and in Feb. 1882 Under Secretary and Government ment Statist. He died on April 25th, 1890. Andrews, Hon. Richard Bullock, sometime time Puisne Judge South Australia, was admitted to the South Australian bar in 1855, and was member for Yatala in the Assembly from 1857 to 1860, and for Sturt from 1863 to 1869. Mr. Andrew’s was Attorney-General in the Torrens Ministry for a few weeks in Sept. 1857, and in the still more short-lived Dutton Administration in July 1863. He filled the same post in Mr. (now Sir) Henry Ayers’ Government from July 1863 to July 1864, and in the second Dutton and third Ayers Ministries from March to Oct. 1865. He was also Attorney- General in the fourth and fifth Ayers Ministries from May 1867 to Sept. 1868, and from Oct. to Nov. 1868. In March 1865 he was appointed Q.C., Crown Solicitor and Public Prosecutor in 1870, and Puisne Judge in 1881. He died at Hobart on June 28th, 1885. Andrews, Walter Boyd Tate, J.P., late Registrar-General South Australia, elder brother of Henry James Andrews (g'.v.), entered the South Australian Civil Service vice in 1848; was appointed Deputy Registrar-General of the Colony in 1856, and Registrar-General in 1865. He retired tired in Sept. 1889. Angas, George Fife, J.P., was the seventh son of Caleb Angas, of Newcastleon-Tyne, on-Tyne, a coachbuilder, merchant and shipowner in a large way of business in that town, where he was born on May Ist, 1789. The family was of Scotch origin, and the first of its representatives sentatives to settle on Tyneside was one Alexander Angus, about the year 1584. This Alexander, from whom Caleb was fifth in lineal descent, ultimately located himself at Raw House, near Hexham, in Northumberland, where his descendants were farmers for several generations. It was John Angus, of Scotland, Hexham, the grandfather of the subject of this notice, who first changed the spelling of the family name from Angus to Angas. Caleb Angas wished his son on leaving school to embrace the legal profession; but he preferred entering his father’s business, and was duly apprenticed to the coachbuilding, working his way through the various grades of the craft, and ultimately supplementing his local experience by serving as a journeyman in a London factory, which he left in 1809 to assume the oversight of his father’s establishment. Shortly after his return to Newcastle he was admitted a member of the Baptist Church, a religious ligious body to whose tenets he ever afterwards remained attached. Mr. Angas married, on April Bth, 1812, Rosetta, daughter of Mr. French, of Hutton. His father’s firm was largely interested in the trade of British Honduras, duras, where they had an agency, and from whence they were large importers of mahogany and dyewoods. Mr. Angas, at an early period, took a deep interest in the. welfare of the Indian aborigines, who, in defiance of the law, were held in slavery, and deprived of all means of improvement and civilisation. Mainly through his persevering efforts their freedom was assured, and means of instruction provided by the establishment ment of missions. Mr. Angas also took a deep interest in educational matters at home, and was one of the founders of the Newcastle Sunday School Union, a history of the successful operations of which body was many years later (1869) published at his expense. In 1823 Mr. Angas became greatly impressed with the importance to British interests of cutting a canal through the Isthmus of Darien, on the lines recently adopted by the Nicaragua Canal Company. In the result, however, the scheme dropped through, as far as any practical action on Mr. Angas’s part was concerned. A project for the establishment of a society for promoting Christianity and civilisation tion through the medium of commercial, scientific and professional agency was also mooted in 1825 by Mr. Angas, who thought that trade and evangelisation should go hand in hand; but this scheme, too, had to be dropped from want of encouragement on the part of the mercantile cantile community. About this time the foreign trade of the firm rendered it necessary to open an office in London, and Mr. Angas, who had been for some time in partnership with his father and brothers, removed to the south, in order to superintend the working of the new departure. His capacity and resources were strained to the uttermost by the commercial panic of 1826, and at the end of that year he retired from connection nection with the coachbuilding establishment ment at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and carried on a distinct mercantile and shipping business, under the style of “ G. F. Angas & C 0.,” of London, and “ Angas & C 0.,” of Newcastle-on-Tyne. He was strongly interested in the reform agitation, and when the passage of the bill of 1832 was assured he was pressed to stand for his native town, and subsequently for the borough of Sunderland. Both these invitations he, however, declined. In 1833 Mr. Angas took an active part in founding the National Provincial Bank of England, of which his cousin, Mr. Joplin, was the originator. Of this eminently successful concern Mr. Angas was for three years a director, resigning his seat on the board in 1836, when, having taken up his residence at Dawlish, in Devonshire, he desired to restrict his commercial responsibilities in London as far as possible to his own business. In the meantime Mr. Angas had prospered in his various concerns, and became a wealthy man. In the year 1829 Mr. Kobert Gouger formed the idea of founding the colony of South Australia, on the principles of Edward Gibbon Wakefield, but the project did not get beyond the appointment of a provisional committee. Two years later Mr. Gouger recurred to his previous design, and formulated a scheme for starting a “ South Australian Land Company.” Of the provisional committee of this company, pany, Mr. Angas, who had all along been an ardent advocate of emigration and colonisation, became a member, and subscribed for a sufficient number of shares to qualify himself as a director. His first steps were to enter a protest against paupers being sent out, to express press the hope that the appointment of a governor would be left in the hands of the Company until the population reached 10,000, and secured a Legislative Assembly, and that “ Bible truth should be given unfettered, and without State aid.” In the event of his associates not approving of these views, he begged that his name might be struck out of the list of promoters. As the colonisation scheme shaped itself more clearly in his mind, the platform of Mr. Angas was enlarged, and he stood out for the following distinctive tinctive points: 1. The exclusion of convicts; 2. The concentration of the settlers; 3. The taking out of persons of capital and intelligence, and especially men of piety; 4. The emigration of young couples of good character; 5. Free trade, free government, and freedom in matters of religion. Though the prospects at first appeared favourable, the minister of the day, Lord Goderich, ultimately declined to adopt the draft charter submitted to him, or to suggest an alternative scheme; with the result that the second attempt to found the colony fell to the ground, and Mr. Angas made up his mind not to take part in any future attempts to settle South Australia. tralia. Events were, however, too strong for him, for in 1834, spurred on by the indefatigable Mr. Gouger, a number of influential public and commercial men formed themselves into “ The South Australian Association,” with Mr. W. W. Whitmore, M.l\, as chairman, and Mr. George Grote, M.P., as treasurer. The new combination succeeded in securing the passing of an Act constituting the colony of South Australia, and conferring the power of disposing of the lands of the territory on a Board of Commissioners to be appointed under it. Mr. Angas, at the request of Mr. Gouger, consented to join the Board if the Government approved; and in May 1835 the names of himself and his colleagues were gazetted, Mr. (afterwards Sir) Pvowland Hill becoming secretary to the Commissioners. missioners. Amongst other things the Act stipulated that £35,000 worth of land must be disposed of, and a loan of £20,000 raised, with the view of guaranteeing anteeing the Home Government against possible outlay, before the colony could be occupied, or the Commissioners exercise ercise their powers. Mr. Angas insisted that the only way in which these conditions ditions could be satisfied would be by forming a joint stock company, to buy the stipulated quantity of land and take over the whole of the pecuniary responsibility. To this the majority of the Commissioners could not at first be induced to assent; but, all other methods j proving fruitless, they, after a prolonged I period of indecision and delay, allowed Mr. Angas to have his way. He, with two others, agreed to find the necessary purchase-money, on condition that the price of the land was reduced to 12 s. per acre from 205., at which it had been fixed. This was agreed to, the Company was formed, and the £35,000 worth of land was then transferred to them at cost price, Mr. Angas being appointed chairman of the first Board of Directors. This was the origin of the South Australian Company, which started in Oct. 1835 with a capital of £200,000. Mr. Angas now found that the Government considered the duties of a commissioner and of a director of the Company incompatible. As, however, ever, his colleagues on both boards were desirous of retaining his services, Lord Glenelg was interviewed upon the matter, but ultimately decided, with great reluctance, luctance, that if Mr. Angas remained a director of the Company he could not continue a member of the Board of Commissioners. He thought, however, that there could be no objection to Mr. Angas remaining on the Board of Commissioners till his successor was appointed, or for a limited period, say of three months. This decision Mr. Angas accepted, and then resigned in Dec. 1836. In the meantime the success of the Company’s pany’s operations was almost wholly due to the individual energy of Mr. Angas, under whose auspices the first shiploads of emigrants were despatched in Feb. 1836, the colony being proclaimed by Captain Hindmarsh, the first Governor, in December following. At Mr. Angas’s suggestion, and almost entirely on the lines he sketched out, a banking department partment was instituted, and proved of immense use in affording financial facilities to the early settlers. In 1841 the department (again at Mr. Angas’s instigation) was formed into a separate concern, with the title of the “ South Australian Banking Company,” which latter was in 1867 again transmogrified into the “ Bank of South Australia.” In 1837 Mr. Angas became one of the founders of the Union Bank of Australia, tralia, and was the first chairman of the Board of Directors, all of whom were appointed on his personal selection. Amongst the stipulations in the deed of settlement of the Union Bank was one restricting them from opening a branch in South Australia without the assent of the South Australian Company. In the same and the next year Mr. Angas laid the foundation of German emigration tion to South Australia by advancing a large sum of money to enable several hundreds of Prussian Lutherans to seek refuge in the new colony from the persecution with which they were threatened, in consequence of their opposition to the Government scheme for uniting the Reformed and Lutheran Churches. In 1838 Mr. Angas cautioned the British Government against the danger of having New Zealand exposed to the risk of a French annexation; and, as the result of his expostulations, Captain Hobson, R.N., was sent out to treat with the natives for the acceptance of the Queen’s sovereignty only just in time to avert the action on the part of the French Government which Mr. Angas had foreseen. For the next few years Mr. Angas was plunged in financial embarrassments, owing, in a large degree, to the unauthorised action of his confidential fidential agent, Mr. Flaxman, who had gone out with the first batch of German emigrants, in buying considerable tracts of land in South Australia, and then drawing on his employer for large sums to meet the purchase-money. Just at the pressing moment the German emigrants, to whom he looked for partial relief, failed to pay up the instalments of the money advanced them as stipulated, and thus added greatly to their benefactor’s difficulties. Amidst his own distresses he was, however, able to lend a helping hand to South Australia tralia when her affairs became involved, through the dishonour of Governor Gawler’s drafts on the Home Government; ment; it being greatly owing to his exposition of her resources and prospects before the select committee which was appointed, that the Imperial authorities were induced to come to the assistance of the nascent colony. Mr. Angas was, in the meantime, indefatigable in his efforts to popularise South Australia as an emigration field; delivering lectures on the subject in various parts of the country, and starting two weekly newspapers, papers, The South Australian Colonist and The South Australian Weekly News, at a heavy financial loss, in order to disseminate reliable data. Mr. Angas’s two eldest sons had already proceeded to South Australia, and as his prospects darkened in England they appeared to be brightening at the antipodes. Having resigned his seat on the Board of the South Australian Company in 1848, he determined to take up his residence on his Australian property, and, fortunately, was able to dispose of his English concerns cerns on advantageous terms. He sailed for Adelaide by the ship Ascendant on Oct. 3rd, 1850, with his wife and youngest son, William Henry, who died in 1879. He was cordially welcomed on his arrival as the virtual father and founder of South Australia, and seemed never able to divest himself of the idea that the colony was still in as much need as in the days of its initiation of his paternal care and control. There was thus a dictatorial tone in his speeches and addresses, which prevented his becoming a popular, though he was always a respected, publicist. licist. Even in this direction he had his consolations, for the new constitution rendering the Legislative Council partially tially representative having gone out in the same ship as that by which he travelled, he was at once returned to the new body for Barossa, and, in his parliamentary capacity, had the privilege of assisting in giving the final deathstroke stroke to the system of State aid to religion, to which he had all along been so strenuously opposed. In connection nection with the New Constitution Act an amusing story is told. It had been an ambition of Mr. Angas’s to be the personal bearer of the official copy of the Act to the colony; but it was found to be contrary to precedent, and redtape tape triumphed, the important document being sent from the Colonial Office in charge of a clerk, who gave the package to a steward, who, being very busy, thrust it into the nearest place of safety. On arrival in Adelaide the proper authorities ties came on board to demand their Constitution, and receive it with due honour. The captain, however, protested that he had seen nothing of it, and there was a great hue and cry for the lost Constitution, until one day shortly after, in turning out the captain’s soiled linen for the laundress, it was found, to the great amusement of every one, at the bottom of the bag, the place in which the steward had hurriedly placed it for security. In 1855, when he was again re-elected, Mr. Angas assisted in framing the present Constitution Act, and thus participated in crowning the edifice of public freedom in the colony, whose foundations he had laid in fear and trembling, and amidst much of doubt and difficulty. In his worldly affairs his prosperity was great and growing; the property purchased by Mr. Flaxmau turning out to have been admirably selected, and rendering its proprietor wealthy beyond any dreams of avarice in which he might have indulged. Mr. Angas was a liberal contributor to charitable and religious objects of a Protestant character. The Roman Catholic Church was the object of his strongest abhorrence, and it was doubtless less a severe blow to him to witness its growth and progress under a regime of religious equality, which he had fondly believed would secure the undisputed predominance of Protestant Nonconformity. formity. Even in his eighty-first year he flooded the colony with an issue of anti-papal literature, which certainly did not lack controversial vigour and pugnacity. Whatever may have been his faults of egotism and intolerance, they were the outcome of one of those strong and sturdy individualities which have made England what it is; and South Australia certainly owes it to Mr. Angas that she took her place in the ranks of civilised communities many years earlier than would otherwise have been the case. During the discussions on the present Constitution Act Mr. Angas, whilst opposing manhood suffrage and vote by ballot, was a staunch supporter of an elective as against a nominee Upper House, and this was the principle ultimately adopted. In 1857 he was elected a member of the new Council, and was absent for two years in England (Dec. 1857 to Sept. 1859) without resigning signing his seat. In 1865 he was reelected elected on his seat becoming vacant by effuxion of time, but he retired from parliament in the following year, and died on Jan. 15th, 1879. Mrs. Angas died on Jan. 14th, 1867. Angas, George French, F.L.S., eldest son of the late George Fife Angas ( q.v .) and Rosetta [French], his wife, was born at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and devoted himself to artistic pursuits. In Sept. 1843 he left London on an art tour through Australia and New Zealand, returning in March 1846 with a large collection of native costumes and implements, besides many portraits of natives which he had taken, as well as sketches of the places he had visited. These he had the honour of showing to Her Majesty and the Prince Consort, who became patrons of the illustrated volumes he subsequently quently published on South Australia and New Zealand. He subsequently returned to South Australia, where he was resident when his father went out in 1850. Returning to England, he died in London in Oct. 1886. “ South Australia Illustrated” and “New Zealand Illustrated,” trated,” two illustrated folio works, were issued at intervals in 1847. Angas, Hon. John Howard, M.L.C., second son of George Fife Angas ( q.v .) and Rosetta [French], his wife, was born at Newcastle-on-Tyne, on Oct. sth, 1823. When but twenty years of age (April 1843) he left England for South Australia to assume sume the management of his father’s affairs in that colony, and especially to develop his landed property, a mission he accomplished plished with eminent success. In 1854, four years after his father’s arrival in the colony, he revisited England, and married, in 1855, Miss Susanna Collins, of Bowden, near Manchester. The next year he returned turned to South Australia, and became famous as a breeder of first-class sheep, cattle and horses. In Dec. 1871 he was elected to the Legislative Assembly for the district of Barossa, and sat till May 1875, when he resigned. In 1882 Mr. Angas gave up squatting on a large scale, but still takes an active interest in his stud farms at Hill River and Collingrove. grove. He has been a member of the Legislative Council for a number of years past. Mr. Angas, who started the Bushman’s Club, has founded an engineering gineering scholarship and three engineering ing exhibitions in connection with the University of Adelaide, and has given other liberal donations to public objects. A year or two ago he informed the committee mittee of the Adelaide Home for Incurables curables of his willingness to contribute £2500 for the erection of a wing to the building, and suggested that the Government ment should be asked to contribute a like sum towards the establishment of a maintenance fund. Angelo, Lieut.-Col. Edward Fox, was born on Dec. 14th, 1836, and received his first commission in the army in Dec. 1854, as ensign in the 28th Regiment of Foot. He served in the Crimean campaign in the following year, and for his services at the siege of Sebastopol received a medal with clasps and a Turkish medal. He was appointed captain Ist Foot in 1864, and retired, after filling various important military positions in" India, in 1878, with the honorary rank of lieut.- colonel. Colonel Angelo was commandant mandant of the Tasmanian local forces from 1880 to 1882, and in the latter year became Inspecting Field Officer in Western Australia. Having resigned that position, he was appointed Government Resident of the Northern Division of that Colony in 1886, and Resident Magistrate trate at Bunbury in 1889. Since 1890 he has been Government Resident and superintendent of the prison establishment ment at Rot-nest Island, W.A. Annett, Thomas Henderson, entered the Queensland Civil Service in May 1878, and was appointed principal Assistant Engineer of Railways for the Southern and Central Divisions in 1889, in which year he succeeded Mr. Hannam as Chief Engineer for the Northern and Carpentaria taria and Cook Railways. Anstey, Hon. Henry Frampton, K.S.G., was son of Thos. Anstey, of Anstey Burton, las., and was elected to the Legislative Council of Tasmania in 1850, and to the first House of Assembly in 1856, on both occasions for the district of Oatlands. He was Secretary for Lands and Works in the first Tasmanian Ministry from Nov. 1856 to Feb. 1857. Having been received into the Roman Catholic Church in 1842, he was created a Knight of St. Gregory by Pius IX., and by special privilege was buried in the Church of Santa Maria del Popolo at Rome, where he resided for two years prior to his death on July Bth, 1862, at the age of forty. He was Roman correspondent of the London Tablet during his stay in the Eternal City, and was brother of Mr. T. Chisholm Anstey, the well-known and eccentric Indian publicist and member of the House of Commons. Aplin, Hon. William, M.L.C., J.P., was born at Combe St. Nicholas, Somerset, England, in April 1840, and came to Brisbane, Qd., in 1862. Settling at Townsville, ville, he founded the mercantile firm of Aplin, Brown & Co., and subsequently went into “ squatting.” He was called to the Legislative Council in Oct. 1880. Archer, Alexander, son of William Archer, of Laurvig, Norway, by Julia, daughter of David Walker, was born in Norway in 1828. He was educated at Perth, Scotland; and left for Victoria in 1852, where he was appointed agent for the Bank of New South Wales at the “ Ovens ” goldfield (now Beechworth). He became manager at Kyneton, Victoria, in 1854, at Brisbane, Queensland, in 1864, and Inspector in 1867. In 1871 he married ried Mary Louisa, eldest daughter of Sir Kobert Ramsay Mackenzie, of Coul, Rossshire, shire, 10th Bart., by Louisa Alexandrina, daughter of Richard Jones, of Sydney, N.S.W. After thirty-six years’ service in the Bank, he left for England by the R.M.S. Quetta , in Feb. 1890, accompanied by his wife, and on the 28th of the month both were lost in the wreck of that ship at the entrance to Torres Straits. Archer, Archibald, M.L.A., J.P., sometime time Colonial Treasurer of Queensland, son of William Archer, of Laurvig, Norway, to which country he went with his father when five years old, was born at Fife, in Scotland, on March 13th, 1820, and educated in Norway. After spending five years in an engineering establishment ment in Scotland, Mr. Archer emigrated to Australia, where he arrived in 1842, but only stayed five months, subsequently quently spending thirteen years in the South Sea and Sandwich Islands. In the latter he was engaged on coffee and sugar plantations. Returning to Queensland in 1860, he took up his residence at Gracemere mere station, and in 1867 was returned to the Legislative Assembly for the Rockhampton hampton district, which he still represents, sents, though he has been out of Parliament ment and has sat for other constituencies in the interim. Mr. Archer, who assisted in passing the Land Act of 1868, was Colonial Treasurer and Secretary for Public Instruction in the first Mcllwraith Government from Jan. 1882 to Nov. 1883. Mr. Archer has recently figured as a strong advocate of the subdivision of Queensland. In 1892 Mr. Archer visited England in company with Mr. John Ferguson guson as a deputation on behalf of the Central Queensland Separation League. Archer, Rev. Canon George Frederick, M.A., won the Tasmanian scholarship in 1867, and proceeded to Christ College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1872 and M.A. in 1884. He was ordained deacon in 1872, and priest in 1873, being curate of Christ Church, Frome Selwood, from 1874 to 1876, when he was appointed rector of All Saints’, Hobart Town, and canon of the cathedral. Canon Archer is a member of the Council of Education. Archer, Thomas, C.M.G.,J.P., ex-Agent- General for Queensland, son of William Archer by Julia, daughter of David Walker, of Perth, Scotland, was born at Glasgow on Feb. 27th, 1823. At the age of seventeen he emigrated to New South Wales, arriving in Sydney on Dec. 31st, 1837. He engaged in pastoral pursuits, suits, and, with two of his elder brothers, Messrs. John and David Archer, decided to try his fortunes in Queensland, then the Moreton Bay district of New South Wales. In August 1841 the three brothers started from Castlereagh River, N.S.W., with about five thousand sheep, passing near where now stands Goondiwindia, the line which sixteen years later became the boundary between New South Wales and Queensland. They then crossed the Condamine about a dozen miles below Canning Downs, which had shortly before fore been discovered and occupied by the brothers Patrick, Walter, and George Leslie, and where the flourishing town of Warwick was afterwards founded; travelled velled across Darling Downs, then without out road or track, to Eton Yale, which had been lately occupied by Mr. (now Sir Arthur) Hodgson. Continuing on their way, past where now stand Drayton and Toowoomba townships, they crossed the Main Range by “ Hodgson’s Gap,” and turned northward, through unoccupied country, by Wingate’s Lagoon and Mount Brisbane, soon after taken up by the brothers Frederick and Francis Biggs. Thence they pushed on to Durandur, on Stanley Creek, the eastern head of the Brisbane, near Glasshouse Mountains, a country that had been explored by David Archer. Here they remained some four or five years, and were soon joined by their eldest brother Charles. They afterwards explored and occupied two runs close under the Main Range, called Emu Creek and Cooyar, where they remained about four years. Hearing that Fitzroy Downs and Mount Abundance had been dis' ' covered by Sir Thomas Mitchell, Surveyor- I General of New South Wales, who came upon it from the south, Mr. Archer started in 1848 across the Main Range to Jimbour, then occupied by Sir Joshua Peter Bell. From Jimbour he set off, accompanied by Mr. Arthur Chauvelle and a black boy, to find a way to Fitzroy Downs ; and after a fortnight’s scrambling through scrubs and over mountains, one of which he named Mount Horrible, they emerged upon Fitzroy roy Downs, and saw Mount Abundance in the distance, and then returned halfstarved starved to Darling Downs, having for a week existed on blackducks and tea. Fitzroy Downs being too distant to be taken up by small squatters, Mr. Archer set off on another exploration trip to the Upper Burnett River, where he discovered two runs, which were afterwards named Eidsvold and Coonambula. From here they opened a road to Wetherun Station, then held by Messrs. Humphries and Herbert, and were the first—or among the first who took a load of wool to Maryborough, and shipped it, in that now flourishing port, for Sydney, in a fortyton ton schooner. After about a year on the Burnett, Mr. Archer set off in 1849 for California; and, after three vears there returned to England via Panama. He was absent from the colony about four years and in 1853, shortly before he returned’ his brothers Charles and William explored plored what was afterwards Gracemere Station, and discovered and named the t itzroy River. The portion of the Dee Range, from which they obtained their first view of Gracemere, was not far from the now world-renowned Mount Morgan but no portion of it ever fell to their lot! *? e r mer< r was . occu P ie( l and stocked in sa fli n g-boat, Elida, was built at Maryborough, and in her one of Mr Archer’s younger brothers, Colin, with one man, sailed with a cargo of supplies, via Gladstone and Keppel Bay up the Fitzroy— then unsurveyed, and to white men unknown—the cargo being landed on a wharf made of slabs and saplings, on the spot where now stands the Government wharf at Rockhampton. Mr. Archer’s brothers also gave Norwegian names—Berserker and Sleipner— to hills on the north side of the Fitzroy, Norway having been their home in their boyhood. About a year after Gracemere was occupied* pied* Charles Archer, in company with Mr. Wiseman, police magistrate, after much explpration and discussion, fixed upon the site for a township, Mr. Wiseman naming it Rockhampton, that name being ing adopted on account of the rocky bar above the town, which blocks navigation for large vessels. Mr. Archer, having revisited England, returned to the Colony in 1871, remaining until 1878, when he finally took up his residence in England He was appointed Acting Agent-Generai tor Queensland in London in July 1881, and Agent-General in Nov. 1881. From this post he retired in May 1884, but was reappointed on Sir Thomas Mcllwraith’s return to power in June 1888, but again resigned on Dec. 10th, 1890* Mr. Archer was created C.M.G. in 1884] He was married in 1853, at Perth, N.B ’ to Grace Lindsay, daughter of James Monson, of Muirton, Perth. His eldest son, Mr. William Archer, is the wellknown known author and dramatic critic. Armytage, George, son of George Armvtage, tage, who died in Australia in 185*3 having emigrated at the age of eightyseven, seven, was born at Ticknall, Derbyshire England, in 1795, and was educated at schools in Yorkshire. He subsequently studied engineering in London until his twentieth year, when, on Feb. 28th, 1815 he sailed for Australia in the Hebe , which reached Sydney in August. In the following ing year he landed in Tasmania, where he was allotted a few acres of land at Bagdad, which were increased to 500 acres in 1817. In 1826 he received a further grant of 1000 acres, built upon it the first watermill in Tasmania, and, in spite of troubles with blacks and bushrangers became successful. In 1835 Port Phillip commenced to attract settlers; and in 1836 his eldest son Thomas visited the district and camped on the Werribee. In 1847 Mr. Armytage proceeded to Victoria, and settled upon his son George Armytage’s station at Ingleby, where his eldest son 7070 le( J of ty P hus fever on Sept. 12th, 18 ;* 2 - he settled at Geelong, and built ‘ The Hermitage.” In 1818 he married Miss Elizabeth Peters. He died Geor S e Alfred > seventh son of William Arney, of The Close, Salisbury, by Maria Charlotte, daughter of Thomas Greene White, of Kew Green, Middlesex, was born in 1806, and educated cated at Winchester and Brasenose College, Oxford, graduating B.A. in 1829 and M.A. in 1830. He was called to the bar at Lincoln’s Inn in 1834, and was engaged upon the Western Circuit. In 1833 he married Harriett, daughter of Captain Thomas Parr, R.N., who died without issue in 1844. In 1858 Mr. Arney went out to New Zealand, and was appointed pointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, in which position he remained until 1875. From March 21st to June 14th, 1873, Sir George Arney, who was knighted in 1862, administered the government of the colony between the departure of Sir George Bowen and the arrival of Sir James Fergusson. He was also a member of the Legislative Council for some years, and member of the Executive Council. He returned to England on his resignation tion in 1875, and died April 7th, 1883. Arnold, Thomas, M.A., is the second son of the late Dr. Arnold, of Rugby, and was born at Laleham, Staines, on Nov. 30th, 1823. He was educated at Winchester, Rugby, and University College, lege, Oxford, where he took his degree (first class in classics) in 1848. After serving for some time in the Colonial Office he emigrated in 1847 to New Zealand, land, intending to settle there as a farmer. Not finding this employment congenial or profitable, he proceeded to Tasmania, where he'received the appointment ment of Inspector of Schools. While in Tasmania he married Julia, daughter of William Sorell, Registrar of Deeds, and granddaughter of Colonel Sorell, sometime time Governor of the island. In 1855 Mr. Arnold, carried away even in the Antipodes by the “ Oxford Movement,” followed its leader into the Church of Rome. He relinquished his post and returned to England, when he received the appointment of Professor of English Literature in the now defunct Catholic University of Dublin, where he remained for six years, subsequently following the late Cardinal Newman to Edgbaston. He is author of numerous works, mostly on English literature. Arnold, Hon. William Munnings, M.L. A., second son of the Rev. Richard Arnold, was born at Ellough, Suffolk, England, in 1820, and arrived in New South Wales in 1839, when he settled on the Paterson river. In 1856 he was elected to the Legislative Assembly for Durham and Paterson, and in 1858 was chosen Chairman man of Committees. From March 1860 to Oct. 1863 he was Minister for Public Works in the Robertson and Cowper Ministries, and shared in the carrying of the Land Act of 1861. In the subsequent quent Cowper Ministry he held the same post from Feb. to Oct. 1860, when he was for a few days Minister of Lands, and subsequently acted as Speaker of the Assembly from Nov. 1865 to March Ist, 1875, when he was drowned in the floods at Stradbroke, his estate on the Paterson river. Aspinall, Hon. Butler Cole, son of the Rev. James Aspinall, rector of Althorp, Lancashire, and brother of John Bridge Aspinall, Q.C., Recorder of Liverpool, and Attorney-General of the County Palatine of Durham, was called to the English bar in 1853. Having been a contributor to the Morning Chronicle and other London papers, when he was known to Mr. G. H. Lewes, Rossetti, and many other literary celebrities, he went to Victoria in 1854 as law reporter to the Melbourne Argus. Subsequently he contributed to the Morning Herald, Age, and Melbourne Punch. He commenced to practise as a barrister on leaving the Argus, and gained a great reputation as an advocate by his defence of the Eureka rioters. In 1856 he entered parliament as member of the Legislative Assembly for Talbot, established lished a reputation as a debater, and became still more widely celebrated in social circles as the recognised wit of the colony. He succeeded Mr. R. D. Ireland as Attorney-General in the Heales Administration ministration in July 1861, and held office until November of that year. He became member for Portland, and was Solicitor- General in the Macpherson Ministry from Jan. to April 1870. In 1868 he went to Sydney and defended O’Farrell, who was tried and executed for the attempted assassination of the Duke of Edinburgh. Mr. Aspinall resigned his seat in Parliament ment in 1870, and the following year became insane. He died in England on April 4th, 1875. Atkins, Robert Travers, a well-known journalist and member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly, was born at Fernhill, hill, Cork, Ireland, on Nov. 29th, 1841, and died at Sandgate, Qd., on May 25th, 1872. He was a relative of the late Thomas Davis, whose biography has recently cently been written by Sir Charles Gavan Duffy. He was buried at Sandgate, where a monument was erected to his memory by the members of the Hibernian Society of Queensland, of which he was vice-president. Atkinson, Major Hon. Sir Harry Albert, K.C.M.G., M.L.C., President Legislative Council, New Zealand, is a native of England, and emigrated to New Zealand, where he landed in 1855 with his brother Decimus, and settled on some land in the Taranaki district, where he lived all through the Maori war. The energy of the young colonists in these took upon it the burden of the tedious war; and a band of volunteers was organised, with Mr. Atkinson as captain, which proved more effective in the issue than the trained regulars, whose freedom of action was hampered by military traditions. The first action in which Mr. Atkinson was engaged was at Waireka, on March 28th, 1860, where the Colonial troops greatly distinguished themselves. Subsequently he took part in the capture of several pas at Kaihihi m Oct. 1860, in the battle of Mahoetahi on Nov. 6th, and the battle of Matarikoriko koriko in December. He was present at the capture of Kaitake on March 24th, 1864, at Sentry Hill, at Ahu-Ahu, at Allen’s Hill, at Manutahi, and at Mataitawa. tawa. For these and other services he was advanced to the rank of major, and received the thanks of the Government. Previous to this he had been elected to the Parliament of 1863, and on Nov. 24th, 1864, took office as Minister of Defence under Sir Frederick Weld. This was a time of great difficulties, for the conduct of the war had forced upon the consideration sideration of the Ministry the advisability of dispensing with the support of the Home Government. It was upon this point that Major Atkinson came first into notice as a politician, for his speech upon the second reading of the Militia Act Repeal Bill was the proclamation of a new era. The English forces were to be withdrawn, and henceforth the colony was to depend upon herself. This principle ciple was accepted by both Houses, and it seemed at first as if the Weld Government, ment, called to establish a new reqime would carry with it the sense of the country. But a series of misfortunes befell the Ministry. The removal of the seat °f government from Auckland to Wellington leagued the north against them; financial difficulties embarrassed them; misunderstandings between the Governor and the Ministry were sue? ceeded by a quarrel between the Governor and Sir Duncan Cameron, the general in command of the English forces. In the end, despite some changes in the personnel sonnel of the Government, Sir Frederick Weld resigned upon a virtual defeat in an attempt to carry stamp duties, and Sir Edward Stafford was called to power, on Oct. 16th, 1865. The Stafford Ministry lasted, with some alterations, till June 28th, 1869 ; and in 1867-8 Major Atkinson took an active part in the discussions which took place upon the war. From 1869 to 1873 he was not in Parliament. In the latter year he was again returned to the General Assembly. In Oct. 1872 the third Stafford Administration, which lasted only for a month, was succeeded by a Ministry, with Mr. G. M. Waterhouse as Premier; but this Cabinet was reconstructed structed twice, the first time under Sir William Fox, and the second under Sir Julius Vogel. Under the latter Major Atkinson accepted the portfolios of Secretary tary for Crown Lands and Minister for Immigration on Sept. 7th and 10th, 1874, respectively. On July 6th, 1875, a third reconstruction took place, and D
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