1912-1913, English, Book, Map edition: The Cyclopedia of Western Australia : an historical and commercial review, descriptive and biographical facts figures and illustrations : an epitome of progress / edited by J.S. Battye. Battye, J. S. (James Sykes), 1871-1954.

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The Cyclopedia of Western Australia : an historical and commercial review, descriptive and biographical facts figures and illustrations : an epitome of progress / edited by J.S. Battye
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  • 750716 words
  • 627086 words
  • 2 v. (xv, 776; xv, 1025 p.) : ill., maps, ports. ; 29 cm.
  • Multi Volume Book
  • xra, Printed and published for the Cyclopedia Company by Hussey &​ Gillingham, 1912 - 1913
  • English

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  • The Cyclopedia of Western Australia : an historical and commercial review, descriptive and biographical facts figures and illustrations : an epitome of progress /​ edited by J.S. Battye.
Appears In
  • The Cyclopedia of Western Australia : an historical and commercial review, descriptive and biographical facts figures and illustrations : an epitome of progress
  • Battye, J. S. (James Sykes), 1871-1954.
  • xra, Printed and published for the Cyclopedia Company by Hussey &​ Gillingham, 1912 - 1913
Physical Description
  • 750716 words
  • 627086 words
  • 2 v. (xv, 776; xv, 1025 p.) : ill., maps, ports. ; 29 cm.
  • Multi Volume Book
Part Of
  • The Cyclopedia of Western Australia : an historical and commercial review, descriptive and biographical facts figures and illustrations : an epitome of progress
  • iL THE CYCLOPEDIA OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA VOL. 11. MAJOR-GENERAL SIR HARRY BARRON, K.C.M.G., C.V.O. GOVERNOR OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA. THE CYCLOPEDIA OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA (ILLUSTRATED) IN TWO VOLUMES VOL. 11. AN HISTORICAL AND COMiMERCIAL REVIEW DESCRIPTIVE AND BIOGRAPHICAL FACTS FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS AN EPITOME OE PROGRESS EDITED BY 4 J. S. BATTYE, B.A., LL.B. (MELB.) Public Librarian to the State of Western Australia WESTERN AUSTRALIA: PRINTED AND PUBLISHED FOR THE CYCLOPEDIA COMPANY, 29, BARRACK STREET, PERTH BY HUSSEY &​ GILLINGHAM LIMITED, 106 &​ 108, CURRIE STREET, ADELAIDE. MCMXIII EDITORIAL NOTE. The Hi dory of Exploration appearing in this volume ivas prepared by Mr G. Battye; the articles on Mining by Mr. A. Montgomery , M.A. , and Mr. J. J. East , F.G.S.; and that on Agriculture by Mr. W. Cation Grasby , F.L.S, As regards the remainder of the volume the Editor is greatly indebted to various public officials, tovn clerks , secretaries of associations , and other helpers for assistance rendered . Their ready co-operation has made the work of editing comparatively light. ERRATA. Vol. I.—Page 193 —In title to illustration read “ King Karri.” Vol. I.—Page 209, col. 1, line 29-For “ 1833” read “ 1883.” Vol. I.—Page 343, col. 2, line 44—For “ Beverley” read “ Pingelly.” Vol. I.—Page 365, col. 2, line 6—For “ first” read “second.” Vol. I.—Page 375, line 2of the biography - For “ Commissioner” read “ Inspector.” Vol. I. —Page 557, col. I—After line 35 read “ unique record. Owing to the finan-” Vol. I.—Page 772, col. 2, line 46- For “ Fraser ” read " Frazer.” Vol. ll.—Page 123 —In title to illustration read “ Newmarracarra ” Vol. II. —Page 739—1 n title to illustration read “ Dam.” Contents of Vol. 2 PAGE Agriculture ... ... ... ... ... .. 118 Agricultural Land Purchase and Bank Acts 130 Dairying and Mixed Farming ... ... 146 Digest of the Land Laws and Regulations ... 118 Existing Land Laws: The Land Act, 1898 ... 123 Fruitgrowing ... ... ... ... ... 141 History of Agricultural Development ... 133 Land Laws and Regulations prior to 1898 ... 118 Methods to be pursued by the Intending Selector in the Acquisition of Land, The ... 132 Policy of Purchasing Estates for Closer Settlement, ment, The ... ... ... ... ... 131 Wheat Areas, The ... ... ... ... 139 Agricultural Land Purchase and Bank Acts 130 Albany ... ... ... ... ... ... 826 Armadale and District ... ... ... ... 408 Arthur River ... ... ... ... ... 713 Asiatics ... ... ... ... ... ... 104 Augusta to Karridale ... ... ... ... 466 Baptist Church, The ... ... ... ... 100 Beverley ... ... ... ... ... ... 601 Biographical Index ... ... ... ... 1017 Bodallin ... ... ... ... ... ... 600 Boulder ... ... ... ... ... ... 908 Bridgetown ... ... ... ... ... ... 451 Broad Arrow, Menzies, and Malcolm ... ... 928 BrOOKTON AND PINGELLY ... ... ... ... 640 Broome ... ... ... ... ... ... 1015 Broome Hill to Mount Barker ... ... ... 779 Brunswick Junction to Collie ... ... ... 421 Bulong ... ... ... ... ... ... 923 Bunbury ... ... ... ... ... ... 428 Busselton ... ... ... ... ... ... 440 Carnarvon ... ... ... ... ... ... 1013 Caves of Western Australia, The ... ... 448 Chamber of Mines of Western Australia (Incorporated), corporated), The ... ... ... ... 335 Children’s Hospital, The ... ... ... 107 Children’s Protection Society ... ... ... 113 Christ Church Preparatory School ... ... 78 Christian Brothers’ College ... ... ... 76 PAGE Church of Christ, The ... ... ... ... 101 Church of England, The ... ... ... ... 81 Church of England Grammar School ... ... 75 Collegiate Schools ... ... ... ... 74 Collie ... ... ... ... ... 421 Congregational Church, The ... ... ... 99 Cool card ie ... ... ... ... ... ... 869 Cossack ... ... ... ... ... ... 1013 Country Districts ... . . ... ... ... 408 Along the Midland Line ... ... ... 935 Eastern Districts, The ... ... ... ... 477 Eastern Goldfields ... ... ... ... 865 Great Southern District ... ... ... 601 Midland Junction to Toodyay ... ... 467 Murchison Goldfields, The ... ... ... 1007 North-west and Far North, The ... ... 1012 South-eastern Districts, The ... ... ... 863 South-western ... ... . . ... ... 408 Cranbrook ... ... . . ... ... ... 779 Cue ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1009 Cunderdin ... ... . . ... ... ... 585 Dairying and Mixed Farming ... ... ... 146 Day Dawn ... ... ... ... ... 1010 Deaf and Dumb Institution ... ... .. 11l Denmark ... ... ... ... ... ... 826 Derby ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1015 Digest of the Land Laws and Regulations ... 118 Dongara ... ... ... ... . . 955 Donnybrook, Greenbushes, and Bridgetown ~. 451 Doodlakine, Merredin, and Bodallin ... ... 600 Eastern Districts, The ... ... 477 Eastern Goldfields ... ... . ... 865 Ecclesiastical ... . . ... ... ... 81 Asiatics ... ... ... .. ... 104 Baptist Church, The ... ... ... ... 100 Church of Christ, The ... ... ... 101 Church of England, The ... ... ... 81 Congregational Church, The ... ... ... 99 Jewish Synagogue, The . ... 103 Methodist Church, The ... ... ... 96 Other Denominations ... ... ... ... 104 PAGE Ecclesiastical (continued ): — Presbyterian Church, The ... ... ... 98 Roman Catholic Church, The ... ... ... 90 Salvation Army, The ... ... ... ... 101 Educational ... ... ... ... ... ... 72 Christ Church Preparatory School ... ... 78 Christian Brothers’ College ... ... ... 76 Church of England Grammar School ... 75 Collegiate Schools ... ... ... ... 74 High School ... ... ... ... ... 75 Ladies’ Colleges ... ... ... ... ... 78 Methodist Ladies’ College ... ... ... 79 Schools of the Sisters of the Church ... ... 78 Scotch College ... ... ... ... ... 78 University of Western Australia, The ... 72 Esperance ... ... ... ... ... ... 863 Eucla ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 864 Existing Land Laws: The Land Act, 1898 ... 123 Explorers and Exploration ... ... ... 1 Chap. i. Minor Explorations, 1829-1836 ... 1 ii. Sir George Grey, 1837-1839 ... ... 12 in. H.M.S. “Beagle,” 1838-1841 Minor Explorations, 1837-1840 ... ... 24 iv. Edward John Eyre, 1841 ... ... 27 v. Minor Explorations, 1841 - 1843 Gregory, Roe, Fitzgerald, 1846-1848 33 vi. Austin ... ... ... ... ••• 37 vn. A. C. Gregory, 1854-1856 —F. T. Gregory and S. Trigg, 1857 —F. T. Gregory, 1858, 1861 ... ... ... 39 viii. Minor Explorations, 1861-1866 Sir John Forrest, 1869-1870 ... ... 45 ix. Sir John Forrest, 1874 ... ... ... 52 x. Ernest Giles, 1872-1875 Alexander Forrest, 1879 ... ... ... ... 58 xi. Recent Exploration ... ... ... 63 Farmers and Settlers’ Association of Western tern Australia, The ... ... ••• 151 Fire Brigades ... ••• ••• ••• ••• 405 Football and Cricket 394 Forest Resources ... ... ••• ••• ••• 283 Freemasonry ... ••• ••• ••• ••• 372 Fremantle Municipal Tramways and Electric Lighting System ... ••• ••• 402 Friendly Societies ... ... ••• 374 Fruitgrowing ... • 141 Geraldton ... ... ••• ••• ••• ••• 976 Gingin and Moora ... • ••• ••• 936 Goomalling and Wongan Hills ... ... ... 578 Great Southern District 601 Greenbushes 451 PAGE Greenough ... ... .. ... ... 968 Gwalia and Laverton ... ... ... ... 933 Hall Creek ... ... ... ... ••• 1016 Harvey ... ... ... ... ••• ••• 414 High School ... ... ... •• 75 History of Agricultural Development ... 133 Home of Peace, The ... ... ... ■ ■ 109 House of Mercy , . ... ... ... ... 117 Jarrahdale ... ... ... ... ... 409 Jewish Synagogue, The ... ... ... 103 Kalgoorlie ... ... ... ... ••• 877 Kanowna and Bulong ... ... ••• 923 Karridale ... ... ••• 466 Katanning ... ... ... ••• ••• 732 Kellerberrin ... ... ••• ••• 585 Kindergarten Union, The ... ... 116 Kojonup ... ... ... ••• ••• 733 Labour Party, The ... ... ••• ••• 381 Ladies’ Colleges ... ... ••• ••• 78 Lady Lawley Cottage by the Sea ... ... 116 Land Laws and Regulations prior to 1898 ... 118 Laverton ... ... ... ••• 933 Lawlers ... ... ... ••• 1011 Leonora ... ... ... ••• 929 Liberal Party, The ... ... ... ••• 379 Malcolm ... ... ... ... ••• 928 Marble Bar ... ... ... ... 1014 M. C. L. Convalescent Home ... ... ... 115 Meckering to Kellerberrin ... ... ... 585 Meekatharra ... ... ... ... ... 1010 Menzies ... ... ... ... ... ••• 928 Merredin ... ... ... ... ... ... 600 Methodist Church, The ... ... ... ... 96 Methodist Ladies’ College ... ... ... 79 Methods to be pursued by the Intending Selector in the Acquisition of Land, The 132 Midland Junction to Toodyay ... ... ... 467 Midland Line, Along the ... ... ... ... 935 Mineral Industry, The ... ... ... ... 323 Mines and Mining ... ... ... ... ... 294 Mingenew and Dongara ... ... ... ... 955 Mining ... ... ... ... ... ... 294 Chamber of Mines of Western Australia (Incorporated), corporated), The ... ... ... ... 335 Mineral Industry, The ... ... ... ... 323 Mines and Mining ... ... ... ... 294 Moora ... ... ... ... ... ... 936 Mount Barker ... ... ... ... ... 779 Mount Magnet ... ... ... ... ... 1008 Mullewa ... ... ... ... ... ... 1008 page Mundijong, Jarrahdale, and Rockingham ... 409 Murchison Goldfields, The ... ... 1007 Nannine ... ... ... ••• 1010 Narrogin and Williams ... ... ••• 684 New Norcia ... ... ••• 948 Norseman ... ... ••• 877 North am ... ... • ■■■ ••• ■■■ 520 Northampton ... • • ••• 1006 North-west and Far North, The ... ... 1012 Nullagine ... ... ... ••• 1015 Onslow ... ■■■ ••• ■■■ ••• 1013 Other Denominations ... •■ ■ 104 Other Sports .. 395 Pastoral ... ... ■ ■ ••• ••• ••• 173 Pearling ... ... ... ••• 370 Perth Tramways ... ... . ... ••• 402 Philanthropic Institutions . ... ... 107 Children’s Hospital, The ... 107 Children’s Protection Society ... ... 113 Deaf and Dumb Institution ... 11l Home of Peace, The ... ... 109 House of Mercy ... ... 117 Kindergarten Union, The ... ... ... 116 Lady Lawley Cottage by the Sea ... ... 116 M. C. L. Convalescent Home ... ... ... 115 Victoria Institute and Industrial School for the Blind ... ... ... ... ••• 110 Waifs’ Home, Parkerville ... ... ... 112 Picton Junction to Busselton ... ... ... 440 Pingelly ... ... ... ... ... ... 640 Pinjarra ... ... ... ... ... ... 409 Policy of Purchasing Estates for Closer Settlement, The ... ... ... ... 131 Political Organizations ... ... ... ... 379 Labour Party, The ... ... ... ... 381 Liberal Party, The ... ... ... 379 Port Hedland ... ... ... . . ... 1014 Presbyterian Church, The ... ... 98 Provincial Racing ... ... ... ... 386 Ravensthorpe ... ... ... ... 863 Rockingham ... ... ... ... ... 409 Roebourne ... ... ... ... ... 1014 Roman Catholic Church, The ... 90 Royal Agricultural Society . ... ... 149 Salvation Army, The ... ... ... ... 101 Sandstone ... ... ... ... ... ... 1009 PAGE Schools of the Sisters of the Church ... ... 78 Scientific, Literary, and Other Associations 376 Scotch College ... ... ... ••• ••• 78 Serpentine to Pinjarra ... ... ... ••• 409 South-eastern Districts, The ... ... ••• 863 Southern Cross ... ... ••• 865 South-western District ... ... ... ••• 408 Sporting and Recreation 384 Football and Cricket ... ••• 394 Other Sports ... ... ••• ••• ••• 395 Provincial Racing ... •• • ■• • •• • 386 Turf, The 384 Western Australian Turf Club ... ... 385 Yachting and Rowing ... ... ... 395 Tambbllup ... ... ... ••• 779 Tenterden ... ... ••• ••• ••• 779 Timber ... 283 Forest Resources ... ... ••• 283 Timber Industry ... ... ... 288 Timber Industry ... ... ... 288 Toodyay ... ... ••• ••• 467 Tramways ... ... ... ••• ••• ••• 402 Fremantle Municipal Tramways and Electric Lighting System ... ... 402 Perth Tramways ... ... ••• 402 Turf, The 384 Undenominational Institutions ... ... ... 104 Woman’s Christian Temperance Union ... 104 Young Men’s Christian Association ... ... 105 University of Western Australia, The ... 72 Veterinary ... ... ... ... ... ... 397 Victoria Institute and Industrial School for the Blind ... ... ... ... ... 110 Wagin ... ... ... ... ••• 713 Waifs’ Home, Parkerville ... ... ... 112 Western Australian Turf Club ... ... 385 Wheat Areas, The ... ... ... ... ... 139 Williams ... ... ... ... ... ... 684 Wiluna ... ... ... ... ... ... 1011 Woman’s Christian Temperance Union ... 104 W ONGAN H ills ... ... ... ... ... 578 Wyndham ... ... ... ... ... ... 1016 Yachting and Rowing ... ... ... ... 395 York ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 478 Young Men’s Christian Association ... ... 105 The Cyclopedia of Western Australia. EXPLORERS AND EXPLORATION. CHAPTER I. MINOR EXPLORATIONS, 1829-1836. SINCE the foundation of Western Australia the subject of exploration has ever been prominently before the minds of its people. Unlike the other States, exploration in Western Australia has been to a certain degree continuous; not the subject of periodical outbursts of popular interest resulting in desultory expeditions, but the marked policy of the country has been to discover by means of well-equipped parties all that terra incognita which, even up to the present time, embraces many of the interior places of the Island Continent. Hardly, indeed, could the infant colony be called settled and complete in 1829, before several expeditions were launched to discover more of the land than lay within the immediate vicinity of Perth and Fremantle. In September, 1829, Lieutenant Preston, an officer of H.M.S. "Sulphur/​' essayed to cross the Darling Range and to discover, if possible, what lay beyond. At the outset the expedition met with difficulty, for the sea is exceptionally rough at that period of the year, and the bar at the entrance to the River Swan proved an impassable barrier for the then heavily-ladened boats. Deciding to unload on the mainland, Lieutenant Preston sailed for Woodman's Point, and with extreme difficulty succeeded in landing his stores. Returning to Fremantle, he next day crossed the bar and entered the river, sending the men to bring the stores to the boats by a system of porterage. Proceeding up the Swan River, the Canning River was reached by evening, and at a low point beyond what is now Point Heathcote they pitched their camp for the night. Early next morning the expedition was joined by Ensign R. Dale, of the 63rd Regiment, and Mr. Knight, who were accompanied by some soldiers from the infant settlement. Deciding to explore the Canning River, the expedition sailed the next morning, but found that the eurrent of the stream made progress very slow. Very few natives were met with, and these displayed quite a friendly spirit. The difficulties of navigation increased, and on September 12 a small party of twelve left the river and set out in a direct course for the ranges. By R midday it had reached the summit, about 1,000 ft. high, and descending slowly camped for the night well down the reverse slope. Next morning it moved on over exceedingly rough country, interspersed with marshes and ridges. In the dales the soil was a mixture of sand and clay, and on the ridges large fragments of granite rock and ironstone lay strewn about, whilst immense trees soared heavenward. The expedition was unsuccessful in discovering good agricultural land, and as it was not equipped for a long journey a return was decided upon, and Fremantle was reached on September 19, after a weary and trying time. However, the determination to thoroughly explore the country between the ranges and the infant settlements ments led Ensign Dale to again essay the task, and a few weeks after his return from the previous expedition he left the camp at Perth with the intention of tracing the Helena River. Crossing the Swan River at what are now known as Heirrison Islands, he proceeded ceeded in a course east-by-south in order to examine the outside country. After penetrating for some distance into the bush, he turned in a north-easterly direction. Some two days were spent in attempting to discover the source of the Helena River, but in this Mr. Dale was unsuccessful. In many other respects the results of the expedition were of value, as the fertility of the soil adjacent to the various watercourses had been amply demonstrated. On November 17, 1829, Lieutenant Preston, accompanied panied by Dr. Collie —a naval surgeon from H.M.S. Sulphur, after whom the town of Collie takes its name —prepared to make the most extensive expedition hitherto attempted in Western Australia, along the coast and into the southern portion of the colony. The labours of this party were responsible for the foundation in the future of Bunbury and Busselton, and incidentally most of the coastal districts in the south-west. Leaving H.M.S. “Sulphur” early on November 17, 1829, in two whaleboats the expedition passed through the channel between Garden Island and Cape Peron, making careful soundings and charting the waters for future marine survey. By these means the coast immediately diately south of the original landing-place at Fremantle became thoroughly known, and in this manner alone the expedition did valuable work. The entrance to the harbour bour had already proved sufficiently dangerous, and it was imperative that more should be known of the southern passages. During the first day the explorers sailed into the Murray River, and ascertained that though the country adjacent to the coast was of a barren nature, inland the vista opened on to an extensive and rich country. Here perfect amity prevailed between the explorers and the aborigines they met. The natives were consumed with curiosity at the boats, personal clothing, and appointments of the members of the expedition, and manifested every desire for peaceful intercourse. Leaving the Murray on the 20th, contrary winds and rough sea compelled them to run the boats ashore, and for two days but little progress was made southward. On the 23rd, Port Leschenault was reached, and here the party landed and formed camp with the intention of thoroughly examining the inlets and the country adjacent. Soon the camp was visited by the natives, who manifested the “most friendly interest” in the expedition. pedition. Within three miles of the site of the camp a river was discovered, to quote from the journal of the explorers, plorers, “flowing over a shallow to the estuary. There are two mouths of the river, with a low sandy island between tween them, and the one we entered, the westernmost, was afterwards found the most shallow.” Proceeding up the river, the expedition came upon another island, beyond which they found fresh water, so filling their barricoes they turned back. On the return a large number of natives had, it was found, assembled on the banks of the river, and the intruders were received with every mark of goodwill and pleasure. The land surveyed during the day appeared with few exceptions to consist of a productive soil, and the explorers returned to camp weary but well satisfied with their labours. On return it was found that a member of the crew was missing, and a search for him was unavailing, nor did he appear during the night. It had been intended to proceed southward early in the morning, but rather than they should be accused of voluntarily abandoning the man, though it was generally thought that he had deserted, they decided to remain. Ordering a diligent search to be made along the coast, Lieutenant Preston and Dr. Collie proceeded up the river for fresh water, and on returning the man was found on the banks. On being asked for an explanation of his actions, he informed the leaders that wandering in the bush he had come upon a nearly naked aboriginal woman, who had screamed at his approach. The screams attracted the attention of two male aboriginals, who pursued him with spears, until for safety he rushed to the river and swam out of danger. Whether or not the man had offered any insult or injury to the native woman it was hard to say. However, the incident did not appear to have caused any friction, for the natives on the banks of the stream, with amicable gestures, accompanied the boat to the camping-place, and the subsequent interview was of a very friendly nature. During the afternoon of the same day another river was discovered, and its course examined for a short distance. tance. The soil here was distinctly good. The rivers became known as the Collie and the Preston. Proceeding ceeding on the journey the expedition reached Port Vasse on the 25th, but as the country seen did not impress them favourably and as more was known of this portion of the coast than of Leschenault Inlet, they returned to the latter port for more extended exploration. The two rivers were now thoroughly examined, and the Lieutenant-Governor (Captain Stirling) was made acquainted with the results of the trip. Two things had been established —first, that there was abundance of good soil in the south-western coastal district; and secondly, the natives were generally friendly and not of a bellicose nature; two main essentials for the commercial cial success of pioneering efforts. In the month of December, 1829, Ensign Dale made another attempt to trace the Helena River, for upon his former report settlement had proceeded apace on the lower reaches. He determined to take a more direct course in this instance, and after crossing the Swan steered in an easterly route. His journey towards the hills disclosed the nature of the country as being somewhat what patchy, but in general suitable for certain agricultural tural purposes. After crossing the Helena with no difficulty, culty, the expedition climbed the hills to about 1,400 ft. through rugged gorges and splendid mountain scenery. The report furnished by Mr. Dale on his return, though increasing vastly the knowledge of the eastern district, was not too promising in regard to its suitability for agricultural enterprise. During the month further exploration was carried out in the extreme south in the vicinity of King George Sound by Dr. J. R. Wilson, R.N., who with a party of five left that place to examine the country northward towards the Swan River. The party included an intelligent gent aboriginal native named Mokare, and much of its success is attributable to the excellent service he rendered. Some previous local explorations had taken place in this district under the leadership of Major Lockyer, Captain tain Wakefield, and others who had been connected with the original settlement at King George Sound, but no records remain to us as to the results obtained thereby. Steering a course north-north-west the party crossed a considerable stream after seven miles’ journey, and the soil, which had hitherto been of poor quality, began to improve in value. It compared very favourably with that thrown open on the banks of the Swan, and its value as pastoral country, especially for sheep, became more and more manifest. Here and there, as was expected, pected, patches of barren land appeared, but in general the outlook was distinctly good. To read the old records in the light of present-day agricultural science, it would appear as if the explorers had discovered country preeminently eminently fitted for a future dairying population. During the journey an intelligent native known to Mokare, attempted to prevail upon Dr. Wilson to take up an easterly course, stating that all the best land was in that direction, but the leader adhered to his original intention. Of the country discovered Dr. Wilson writes:—“So much has been said of the scenery in New South Wales resembling noble English domains that the comparison parison is rather trite. Imagine a rich valley of consider able width, extending ing east and west as far as the eye can survey, vey, bounded on the north and south by a succession cession of undulating dulating and moderately elevated vated hills, thinly but sufficiently ciently ornamented mented by trees of gigantic form, and you have some conception of the beauty of the spot.” So far the results of the trip had been successful from an agricultural point of view; but after the discovery covery and naming of Loch Katrine —a circular basin about half a mile in diameter —the explorers, continuing their course westward, passed into barren scrub land. This did not extend for any considerable extent, and next day they encountered a watercourse, which was named after Kent, one of the members of the party. The alternations of good and indifferent country now became very rapid, until they reached a high mount, which was named Mount Lindesay, in compliment to the officers of the 39th Regiment. Dr. Wilson writes of this elevation : —'The highest peak is about 30 yards square, perfectly level, paved with minute particles of quartz, and at each angle is an immense block of granite.” Ascending the mount a magnificent panorama was b 2 From Grey’s “Journals of Two Explorations ATTACK OF NATIVES, NEAR KOLAINA PLAINS. unveiled, and several elevated peaks discovered, which were respectively named by Dr. Wilson as Mount Roe, Mount Mitchell, and Mount Frankland. Next morning the party determined to explore the base of Mount Lindesay, and discovered some streams issuing therefrom, the greatest of which they named the Denmark River, out of compliment to a surgeon of the fleet. The banks of this river displayed very rich soil. The leader now decided to return and, striking a southeasterly easterly course, he soon reached the coast. Returning along the coast towards the settlement at King George Sound, another river was encountered, which was named the Hay River, after Mr. Hay, the Under-Secretary of State. Another river was crossed named the Heeman, and a high conical hill, observed some distance away, received its name, Mount Hallowell, after an admiral of that time. Mount Shadforth forth was named after the Lieutenant enant - Colonel commanding the 57th Regiment, and the party returned to King George Sound. The results of the trip were of paramount importance, portance, and even so early as the year 1830 it was thus amply demonstrated that land of high quality was to be found adjacent to what is now the town of Albany. Notwithstanding withstanding these discoveries, however, the country remained mained for many years in its primal state, the bulk of the agricultural settlement being to the north-east and east of the infant town of Perth. Any settlement that took place southward was more toward Port Leschenault and the country between the Collie and Preston Rivers and Perth; but, nevertheless, the work of Dr. Wilson proved that excellent arable land was to be obtained within easy distance of one of the ports. Gradually the boundaries of the Swan River settlement ment were being extended, and it became of pressing importance that further information should be gleaned about the country previously discovered but not sufficiently ciently proved. With this intent Captain Stirling (the Lieutenant-Governor), the Surveyor-General (Lieutenant Roe, R.N.), with a few experienced and practical settlers, and a detachment of the 63rd Regiment, left Fremantle in a schooner for the scene of the explorations plorations of Dr. Collie and Lieutenant Preston at Port Leschenault. The Lieutenant-Governor was not wedded to the idea of founding the new settlement at Port Leschenault, and before determining upon the site he proceeded to Geographe Bay and spent two days exploring the country in the vicinity of Cape Naturaliste. A considerable extent tent of good country was opened up, but, unfortunately, somewhat patchy in nature. Somewhat dissatisfied with the prospects here, and also at the Vasse, Captain Stirling determined to found the new departure at Port Leschenault. ault. After a cursory examination the Governor was as favourably impressed with the outlook as Messrs. Collie and Preston had professed to be, and immediately steps were taken to ensure a proper station for the expansion sion of the agricultural movement. Stores and provisions were now disembarked and temporary quarters at once erected. Several separate excursions into the interior were made, that led by Lieutenant Roe (the Surveyor-General) being the most important. After proceeding on a boat expedition for some miles, tracing the course of the Collie River, the explorers were at last compelled to disembark, owing to the obstructions caused by the snags in the watercourse, which threatened to destroy the boat. Continuing tinuing on foot in a south-easterly direction, they came upon some beautiful open forest land. Turning eastward they reached a range of hills, the southern end of which was named Roe Mountains after the leader, one particular ticular elevation being named Mount Lennard after a member of the party. From the summit of these hills the broad valley of the Preston was observed, and after examining it and the Preston country the party returned to the camp at Port Leschenault. The Lieutenant-Governor was particularly pleased at the quality of the land at Port Leschenault and very hopeful that the exploration work would lead to early and rapid settlement. Had it been taken up by settlers predetermined to live on the land and get their livelihood from it, then no doubt the favourable prognostications of Captain Stirling would have been realized. Instead, however, huge tracts were taken up by men who made no immediate use of it, and the movement did not prosper as it should have done. Being thoroughly imbued with the value of the south-western coastal districts for agricultural settlement, Captain Stirling, accompanied by Captain Currie and a band of settlers, again set out to explore the southern country. The party sailed from Gage Roads on April 29, 1830, rounded Cape Leeuwin, and anchored near the mouth of an inlet east of the Cape. Several days were passed examining the country adjacent to the Blackwood River, and before the return of Captain Stirling to Fremantle on May 16 the site of a town (Augusta) was chosen, and the disembarkation took place of those who intended to form a settlement there. Much of the minor, but exceedingly valuable, exploration ploration was due to the zeal and pertinacity of the naval and military officers attached to the Government, and the name of Ensign Dale will always be associated with some of the most successful expeditions in the earlier history of the State. Gifted with a keen insight and unerring judgment, the value of his work in the earlier stages of the State’s existence can never be over-estimated. In♦ ♦ domitable and steady in purpose the initial difficulties to him were made only to be surmounted, and his discoveries coveries in the year 1830 did much to increase the prosperity of the infant townships. This officer, to whom most of the previous exploration eastward of the settlements was due, had determined that he would lay bare the secrets of the land over the Darling Ranges, which he had so often viewed from their summits. On July 31, 1830, accompanied by a Mr. Brockman and two others, he left Perth in bitterly cold weather thoroughly equipped for an extensive journey. The time of year added to the difficulties attached to their rugged path, many of the mountain streams having become almost unfordable torrents. In some places checked by boggy swamps and in others by almost impenetrable penetrable bush and scrub, they toiled laboriously forward. Several times, indeed, were they compelled to build temporary bridges, so that their horses could be transported over the chasms that existed amidst the gorges. On August 8, 1830, at sunrise, the thermometer registered 31 \ degrees, and the travellers experienced colder weather than ever before in Australia, and were glad to get into movement again. Proceeding along the banks of a river which proved very laborious for the horses, they were at last compelled to tether the animals and advance on foot. Taking only two days’ provisions with the party, Dale recognized that it was necessary to push on with vigour. After walking six miles an abrupt and almost perpendicular range of hills was met, and this was named after the Colonel of the 63rd Regiment, General Dyott. In these hills they discovered abundant traces of aboriginal drawings, and, listening, they heard the natives hailing each other in the forest. The weather, which had been inclement and bitterly cold throughout the journey, now culminated in a prolonged rainstorm ; and gaining what shelter they could under the shelving boulders of granite the explorers rested for the night. Continuing their onward march next morning, August 11, and steering a course north-by-west, they at last reached the summit of the Dyott Range, which was named Mount Bakewell, after Lord Bakewell. The expedition pedition now returned to the place where the horses had been left, and the remainder of the time was spent in exploring the river afterwards called the Avon. Greatly impressed with what he had seen, Ensign Dale returned to Perth with news of a fertile region to recount to the settlers of the infant State. This raised the hopes and expectations of the Lieutenant-Governor considerably, and it was generally conceded that up to this time the work of exploration carried out by this officer had been of the greatest value to the small settlement. ment. The discovery of the River Avon gave rise to the very highest conjectures as to the value of the land in the interior, and the colonists were unanimous in the expression sion of their sentiments that the possibilities of the colony had been greatly extended. The Adjutant of the 63rd Regiment, Lieutenant Erskine, left Perth on September 6 with the intention of making a wider survey of the eastern country discovered covered by Ensign Dale. The country traversed was similar to that described by Dale, and the Avon was reached on September 13, where a party of natives was found encamped on the stream. After exploring the country for several days, and proving that Dale's optimistic views were in the main correct, Lieutenant Erskine began his homeward journey on the 17th. The attitude of the natives, who had assembled in large numbers, was perfectly friendly; too much so, indeed, to suit the taste of the leader, who reached Perth on September 22. During this period the necessity of exploring the southern lands was not forgotten, and in the month of September Captain J. Molloy conducted some valuable work in the vicinity of the Blackwood River With his usual desire to gain his information by actual personal inspection, the Lieutenant-Governor (Captain Stirling) decided to accompany an expedition to be led by Ensign Dale into the eastern country. Travelling a somewhat easier route than that used by Dale on his initial trip, and being possessed of the best horses obtainable in the settlement, this party did not suffer such hardship as on the previous journey. A general inspection was undertaken of the lands adjacent to the Avon River for purpose of agricultural settlement. At this time of the year (October) the country was to be seen in its best aspect, and the Lieutenant-Governor hurried back to Perth to publish his information of the rich lands only waiting to be occupied. Ensign Dale and party of six volunteers, including Messrs. Clarkson, Hardy, Camfield, and W. Stirling, remained, and with five horses to carry ten days' provisions visions pushed on east with the determination to explore as far as possible before compelled to return. On October 28 they separated from the returning band, and passed along the northern base of Dyott Range for a mile and a half, and when nearing the Avon observed excellent loamy soil. Fording the Avon they proceeded south-byeast, east, and emerged into a magnificent country lightly timbered with wattle, gum, and sandalwood. The soil was of a magnificent quality, and the explorers were delighted lighted with the success of their efforts. Continuing along the banks of the Avon for nearly three miles, they came upon large open downs of a sandy soil, covered with light brushwood, until they halted about 11 miles east of Mount Bakewell. Most of the country passed over was rich and promising land, decked with flowers, and although somewhat patchy in places, still infinitely better for agricultural purposes than any other hitherto discovered. covered. Next morning they traversed grassy, undulating plains, bounded on the right by an apparently fertile valley rising to low hills, upon which the trees were grouped like an old English park. Entering into an unusually usually large sandy patch, they came upon a stream flowing northward, which plunged into a thickly-wooded area. Leaving the woods they again came upon open undulating country, which they traversed for nearly 15 miles. Continuing their journey eastward on October 30, over sandy commons, interspersed with woodland scenery, they entered a dense forest of gum-trees, in which the undergrowth was unusually thick, proving very difficult to penetrate, especially as swampy ground was also encountered. At the eastern extremity of the forest they sighted two remarkable isolated hills, which they decided to examine. To the northern one Dale gave the name of Mount Caroline, and to the southern Mount Stirling, after a member of the party, Mr. W. Stirling. Near these hills, which were simply huge masses of granite, they camped for the night. At sunrise next morning they ascended Mount Stirling to get a bird's-eye view of the country. Low ranges of hills lay about 30 miles to the south - east, whilst abundance of marshes, containing water, the nature of which was yet to be proved, abounded in other directions. tions. Though their provisions were now nearly -exhausted, hausted, they decided to go on “short commons" and complete, as far as possible, their exploration of the surrounding rounding country; so they set off in a south-easterly direction from Mount Stirling, eventually changing their course to a south-westerly one. On November 1 they found extensive downs and deep woods. On one of the downs were pools of water, with traces showing that the natives had lately been there; there was also a quantity of game. A kangaroo was killed which made a welcome addition to the now almost depleted larder. A superior description of country was sighted in a direction tion bearing south-south-west from Mount Stirling, and native fires were observed, showing that the aboriginal population was larger than had previously been noted in the country round Perth. On November 2 the party began its return journey, the more timid members being somewhat afraid of the proximity of such a numerous aboriginal population. Early in the day they came upon two native couples, whose terror on beholding the explorers was sufficient proof that they were the first of a white race that they had ever seen. The men advanced, making hostile demonstrations, apparently to cover the retreat of the women, but finding discretion the better part of valour, scurried away and disappeared with the females behind a hill. On November 3, after traversing rich and extensive valleys, they resighted the Avon River at an estimated distance of 18 miles south-east of Mount Bakewell. At this point the stream was about 30 yards wide, but on tracing its course towards the mountains it was seen to get narrower, again broadening and deepening as they progressed, at which situation they decided to camp for the night. The next two days were spent in examining the banks of the Avon and selecting their grants in land, for the members of the party had decided to eventually settle in the locality. On November 5 they started their homeward journey to Perth, reaching that settlement ment on November 7. More than usual credit is due to the intrepid young officer who acted as leader on this occasion. To him belongs the honour of having opened up this new district, trict, and though only the fringe had as yet been explored, that exploration was due to the pluck and determination of Ensign Dale. The explorations in the Avon valley greatly extended tended the area of arable land open to the settlers, and the country was rapidly applied for by intending occupiers, as the main body of the immigrants objected to settlement southward at Port Leschenault. Immense areas were at once alienated, and though this was not the fault of Dale, it shows the bad state of the earlier land regulations. Before the year closed some minor exploratory work was carried out by Lieutenant Preston, R.N., and Ensign Dale. Preston explored the coast to latitude 28° 45' south, a little north of Geraldton, whilst Dale traced the course of the Helena River. Late in the year the Lieutenant-Governor (Captain Stirling) decided to thoroughly explore the country between tween the Swan River and King George Sound, but though the exploring party left Fremantle on December 14, 1830, its labours scarcely began, so far as new territory tory was concerned, until January, 1831. The party crossed the Darling Ranges at a more southerly point than essayed by former parties, and the route taken over the hills varied somewhat from that of previous explorers. The hills presented a very rugged appearance, with outcrops of ironstone and gravel, covered with sparse scrub; but the valleys and undulating ting plains contained good pasture land. The party pushed forward, but the advance was none too rapid owing to the difficulties of transport across the ranges. From the encampment could be seen a hilly though lower country, and the party, which was under the leadership of Captain Bannister, who had associated with him Mr. Smythe (of the Survey Department), who was to act as special guide, decided to take a south-east course. The decision of the leader was mainly based on the hope of being able to discover a continuation of the open-plain pasture country, described by Dale as existing to the northward, but the explorers did not enter the fertile fields they had hoped for. They travelled in the direction noted until December 23, and found tracts of excellent land containing good food for stock, but not equal to that discovered on the Avon River in and about the present towns of York and Beverley. The jarrah timber was now interspersed with blue and red gums, which in their turn were superseded by white gums in the valleys and by banksias and ti-trees in the swamps and low lands. The course was changed to south-by-east on December ber 23 and continued till January 5, the explorers pursuing suing their way amidst delightful scenery. The difficulties ties of their advance increased, but the season was so pleasant that the labours they performed were a cheerful task. Captain Bannister waxes enthusiastic in his report, and describing this portion of the journey wrote: “Broad, flat lands and valleys, many miles in extent, moderately grassed and wooded, lay around us. A very great portion of the tract was land of the finest description, tion, fit for the plough, sheep, or cattle, and the beauty of the scenery near to, and distant from, the rivers which we crossed, is equal to any I have seen in the most cultivated timbered country in those parts of Europe which I have happened to pass through.” Five rivers were passed in this march of 80 or 90 miles, and numerous small watercourses. Excursions were made in different directions from points where the party was compelled to bivouac on purpose to rest the horses. No difficulty was experienced throughout the journey in regard to the water supply, though the work was carried out at the midsummer period. Captain Bannister’s report does not mention the names of any places until he reached King George Sound, and it is therefore impossible to give an exact route of the journey. At the outset the party did not follow either what was afterwards the old Albany Road or the present Great Southern Railway, but must have approximated mated to these tracks in the later stages, when nearing King George Sound. On January 5, 1831, it was decided that the course followed had become too easterly, and it was changed to a more westerly one; but the difficulties of the journey were thereby greatly increased. Seeing elevated lands to the south-west they proceeded thence, and upon ascending the highest peak they descried an interesting ing view. From this point they went south for four days, making 40 miles. They had now entered upon extremely mountainous country, containing thick underwood, and though picturesque it was extremely difficult to traverse. At this stage the leader became very anxious, for his view was extremely limited and the difficulties of travelling increased every mile. During the next thirty-six hours they traversed 16 miles in a south-west direction, when they came upon large granite rocks. Captain Bannister and Mr. Smythe ascended these outcrops, if possible to obtain some conception of the country over which they yet had to journey. To the southward they discovered some high mountains, tains, three of which were conical and of considerable altitude. One of them possessed two “bare heads." Mr. Smythe reckoned that these peaks lay to the north of King George Sound. They, therefore, directed ed their steps towards it, and encamped on the banks of a large river flowing south. The position tion was one to cause grave concern, cern, and on reaching the twin - headed mountain Captain tain Bannister ascended it, but no satisfactory landmark was to be found. So far as the eye could see was one vast forest, and still further south were high lands. The provisions of the party were now nearly expended, pended, and Captain Bannister decided to push on to the hills observed to the southward, in the hope that the outlook from their summits would disclose the Southern Ocean. Through the haze they imagined they could see sandhills towards the south-west, and in this direction they travelled. All day long they plodded laboriously forward, covering 17 miles over rugged country, to find with bitter regret that the sandhills were but the effect of a mirage. Tired, dispirited, and now thoroughly alarmed for the safety of the party, Captain Bannister struck directly southward in the hope of reaching the ocean, for a rapid survey had shown that the provisions would not hold out until the settlement at King George Sound was reached. On January 16 they arrived at the coast, and the From Grey's “Journals of Two Explorations” ATTACK OF NATIVES, NEAR HANOVER BAY. leader breathed a heartfelt prayer of gratitude, for he now considered that actual starvation was at least warded off, for the shell fish on the rocks of the coast were a surer food proposition than the precarious livelihood to be derived from occasional kangaroos. Though somewhat mitigated, their difficulties were not yet removed, and as Mr. Smythe’s observations had been proved to be utterly unreliable, due to the fact that he was not supplied plied with a chronometer, Captain Bannister found himself self in a most dubious situation. Mr. Smythe now reckoned the distance from King George Sound to be forty-three miles, but it proved considerably more, for they were in reality near Cape Chatham, and the double peaked mountain was the Mount Mitchell previously discovered covered by Dr. Wilson. The provisions had practically been exhausted before they reached the coast, and thence the party suffered ed great privations. tions. The diet now consisted of shell fish, of which sometimes there was a sufficiency, ciency, at others very meagre commons indeed. The constant search for food to keep body and soul together gether delayed the advance, and exceedingly slow progress was made. Owing to the roughness of the track two horses died from exhaustion, and the men were in a terrible plight. Finally, by the aid of friendly natives, they were shown an easier path and supplied with food, eventually reaching the Sound on February 4, in a thoroughly exhausted and dilapidated condition. One can imagine the pleasurable excitement displayed played by the explorers when they sighted the settlement which had been the goal of their endeavours for so many wearisome days, and the feat they had accomplished was no mean one, considering the difficulties of the road and the poor transport facilities at their disposal. The trying journey had been carried through with courage and resolution, and they were now in a position to make light of their previous difficulties. Within a few weeks Bannister and his party, now thoroughly restored, returned to Fremantle, where his report was eagerly read. This showed that the good agricultural country was of a large extent, but the insuperable superable difficulties attending transport prevented its immediate allocation and settlement. In his report Captain tain Bannister pointed out that even the disasters and mistakes were productive of good, for through these means they were compelled to traverse country that might have remained unexplored for years, concluding his remarks with a glowing panegyric on the fruitfulness ness of the land and the magnificence of its mountain scenery. Being imbued with the possible advantages of Port Leschenault as a settlement Mr. W. K. Shenton, on January 24, 1831, left the Swan River Settlement to further explore the country adjacent to the Collie River. The expedition, which was of a purely private venture, contained amongst its members such notable settlers as Messrs. Bryant, S. Henty, and Camfield, who had already undertaken valuable pioneering work. The expedition pedition did not undertake the land journey between the two points, but proceeded by boat to Port Leschenault. The most notable feature of the voyage was an immense bush fire” which was at the time raging on Garden Island, and which one of the members described as “grand and awful.” The report of this expedition can scarcely be called favourable, for it was responsible for checking settlement for some time on the Collie River. Some minor exploratory work was undertaken during ing the months of March and December, 1831, between Perth and Port Augusta, by Mr. J. G. Bussel. The effect of this was of a purely local nature. However, an intense desire to know more about the country existing between Perth, Port Leschenault, and Port Augusta led to more than one expedition to discover its value or otherwise. One of the most notable was that of John Dewar and Andrew Smith, who certainly possessed no mean knowledge ledge of “bush craft,” and the history of their exploits would not disgrace the pages of Fenimore Cooper. It is unfortunate that more than a little doubt has been placed on the reliability of their report. Armed with a gun each and sufficient ammunition, and without a compass, pass, they did not overburden themselves with provisions, carrying only 10 lb. of bread, 4 lb. of beef, half a gallon of water, 4 lb. of sugar, and \ lb. of tea. They left Port Augusta on March 15, 1831, and practically held to the sea throughout their course. On the first day they travelled 25 miles, and camped for the night on a fresh-water lake. The country traversed was not prepossessing possessing and the land of an inferior quality. Being of a determined nature no time was wasted, and daylight next morning found them pursuing their journey through country which improved in quality as they advanced. They crossed several brooks containing fresh water, and moving on to the coast travelled forward on the beach for two days until their course was blocked by immense rocks running out to sea. They now struck inland, and returned to the beach after the obstructions which barred their way had been left behind. On the following morning ing they came upon a deep indented bay, upon the rocky shores of which they discovered a jolly-boat and parts of a ship named the “Cumberland,” which by appearances they judged to be a whaler that had suffered shipwreck. The country was of an inferior nature, and on the sixth day out they came upon and passed Cape Naturaliste. At this point a native attached himself to them whose attentions they did not cultivate, as he showed a truculent lent nature, with an intense desire to appropriate some of their belongings. From the Conical Hills to Cape Naturaliste parallel to the sea coast there existed a low range of hills, inside of which were magnificent forests of gum and jarrah timber. At Cape Naturaliste their provisions gave out, and for two days they existed on wild figs and fish. On reaching Leschenault Inlet they constructed a raft and crossed the rivers, eventually discovering covering some provisions that had been left there by Captain Stirling on his previous visit. Though never hard pushed to the same extent as Captain Bannister’s party, still their sufferings were not light, and they reached Perth in a dilapidated condition. During the early period of the existence of the settlement, ment, it was deemed necessary to attach for purposes of protection and assistance H.M.S. “Sulphur,” and by means of this vessel a wider knowledge was obtained of the immediate coast and coastal waters. The naval training of the Lieutenant-Governor had clearly taught him the value to be placed upon a proper survey of the coast. A wider knowledge of the bays and harbours was thereby secured and the presence demonstrated of hidden dangers to navigation. Early in the year 1831, the “Sulphur” was engaged southward on this most valuable work, and it was decided when near Rame Point to despatch a boat expedition to explore the adjacent coast. On April 18 the whaleboat left the “Sulphur” and stood in to the shore; owing to the heavy swell the voyage was not unattended with danger, and it was only after some time the explorers found a safe landing-place. The estuary they had entered proved safe anchorage, and on the shores they found a large body of hospitable natives who increased their larder by a quantity of broiled fish. The expedition was under the leadership of Lieutenant Preston, whose previous efforts had been of considerable value to the Government, and with him was associated another officer, Lieutenant Skottowe. In the morning they breakfasted before daylight, but the aboriginals were even earlier astir, and with demonstrations of affection desired the party to cross the estuary. The explorers now embarked, and by eight o’clock had rounded Point Nuyte, where they discovered an island not previously marked on any existing chart. From here to Cape Chatham the shore presented such a forbidding appearance that no attempt was made to land, and eventually the leader steered for the island off Point D'Entrecasteaux, and the party landed on the mainland about four miles east of the island. It was at once seen by the smoke from various fires that natives were in the vicinity, but none were encountered. Here the travellers rested for the night, after precautions had been taken against surprise, determining mining to make an early start next morning. At 4 a.m. they breakfasted, and at daylight proceeded on their journey, finding a passage for small vessels between the island and the point, but the rough sea compelled them to pull inshore, and though only three miles from the shore it took three hours to accomplish the distance. On nearing the land they found that the heavy sea and broken water made landing an extremely difficult task, and that the breakers and surf extended half a mile from the shore. Once the boat was nearly overturned, and it was only by a miracle that it righted; as it was, all the open provisions were ruined, and everything was soaked owing to water shipped in the attempt to beach. Eventually the surf drove her up on to the shore, and thus ended an extremely dangerous situation. The stormy weather continued for two days, and on the third, though the adverse conditions showed no signs of abatement, the leader decided to attempt to launch the boat, trusting that when the passage of the surf was accomplished they would be able to proceed on the journey. However, in attempting to launch the boat it was driven with such force against one of the crew as to nearly cost the man his life. The attempt was therefore fore abandoned, and Lieutenant Preston decided to make a land journey to Augusta. In the meantime an aboriginal native had accosted the party, and after a demonstration of amicable feeling, and being given a few luxuries, he was allowed to depart, being greatly impressed pressed by the fact that the boat had achieved a safe landing through such a sea. As the party had never contemplated a land journey of any considerable distance tance away from the boat, the equipment for such had not received consideration, and difficulty was now experienced perienced when the provisions had to be carried. Being handy men, however, they soon improvised a rough kit, and before daylight on the 23rd set out on their journey towards Augusta. The first day they covered a distance of 20 miles, and encamped at 5.30 p.m., immediately retiring to rest, desperately tired. Long before daylight next morning they recommenced their march, and the advance until sunrise was of a toilsome and exhausting nature, the beach in the earlier stages being so rough as to compel them to move inland. Mr. Skottowe and one of the petty officers became greatly fatigued, a constant life on shipboard not being quite the training necessary for the accomplishment of such pedestrian feats. During the day they sighted Cape Leeuwin, their spirits rising accordingly, and they camped for the night at a spring of fresh water close to the Cape. The journey was continued tinued at half-past two on the following morning, in the hope that they would reach Augusta by night. The beach was rocky and difficult to traverse and occasioned great hardship, and this, together with the fact that their provisions were almost exhausted, caused much anxiety. The two sick men were so weakened that their loads were removed and divided amongst the others, but Mr. Skottowe towe suffered keenly throughout the day. At seven o'clock in the evening they reached the Blackwood River, having walked 33 miles during the day. Their rough and unkempt appearance led the settlers to believe they were convicts who had escaped from King George Sound, but on the Resident (Captain Molloy) being informed he quickly altered this impression. The whole of the party was heartily welcomed, and the ministrations trations of the settlers soon restored the sick men to health. The leaders being anxious to return to Perth as soon as possible and the party being fully recovered, they embarked barked in a boat from the Augusta Settlement on the 30th, intending to proceed to the head of the river by these means, and then continue the journey by land from this point. The party was augmented by two men who desired to proceed to the Swan River, and Lieutenant McLeod and Mr. Bussel, with a party of soldiers, arranged to escort them as far as Leschenault Inlet. On May 1 they reached the headwaters of the Blackwood and disembarked to essay their long journey on foot. No water was obtainable during the first few hours, and the explorers suffered horribly from thirst, and next morning were reduced to sucking the dew from the leaves of the plants to allay their thirst. Luckily one of the dogs discovered covered a native well with a small amount of water, and an hour later they came upon another, which contained ample supplies. Pursuing their way, somewhat refreshed, freshed, Cape Naturaliste was sighted to the north-west of their position. The vista that now opened up before them amply repaid them for the previous inconvenience, consisting as it did of a beautiful rolling plain well watered, upon which numbers of large kangaroos were roaming. Mr. Bussel, who had suffered severely from the first day's labours, now became so exhausted that it was deemed inadvisable for him to continue the journey; therefore, after a day's rest, and accompanied by Lieutenant McLeod and the soldiers, he returned to Augusta. The party from the “Sulphur" now pushed forward and the estuary at the Vasse was reached, the intervening ing country being described as excellent pastoral land; that seen next day Lieutenant Preston described as “the finest he had seen in the colony," an opinion which seems to have been borne out by all those qualified to judge. On the morning of May 4 the explorers, after an early meal, started their journey at 4 a.m. with the hope of reaching Port Leschenault that day. After walking two miles along the beach they were compelled to turn inland owing to extreme softness of the shore sand. The nights were extremely cold, but near the sea firewood was readily procurable; bitter disappointment was occasioned, sioned, however, when it was discovered that they would not reach Port Leschenault that day. They reached the Preston River early on the sth, and having secured some fish and birds they camped and rested for the day. Making an early start on the 6th, they marched down the Preston towards the Collie River, and about noon arrived at its mouth. Thoroughly tired out, they retired to rest in hopes that a good night’s sleep would restore them, but heavy rain began to fall, which materially added to their discomforts. At half-past four next morning they continued their weary way. Keeping to a native path they encountered some natives who immediately recognized Lieutenant Preston, and detailed by signs some of the incidents of his former visit to this part of the colony, at the same time mentioning by name some of the members of the previous party. Being accompanied panied by females the natives showed some degree of restraint, but allowed Lieutenant Preston to advance alone, and so far as he was able converse with them. Some of the women were extremely prepossessing, whilst others “were horrible to behold.” On the other hand, Preston describes the children as “the finest he had ever seen.” A course was now set for the Murray River and, leaving the hospitable natives behind, the travellers pushed forward, being somewhat refreshed. However, their privations were by no means ended, and for the two days immediately preceding their arrival there they were practically without provisions. On reaching the Murray their troubles were ended, for the settlement was now firmly established, and procuring a boat from Lieutenant Erskine, who was in charge, they completed their journey to Fremantle without further incident. Taken all through the journey was one of difficulty, and the hardships ships suffered by the party were of more than ordinary severity, but well repaid by the appreciation accorded its efforts by the Lieutenant-Governor. Whilst Lieutenant Preston was so employed, his old companion and ally in this useful pioneering work, Dr. Collie, was engaged on a task of the same nature in the country immediately to the northward of King George Sound. On April 26, 1831, Dr. Collie left that settlement by boat, accompanied by three attendants —an aboriginal named Mokare, previously mentioned in these pages for valuable assistance, and two soldiers of the 63rd Regiment. Some little time having been spent in taking soundings over the bar of Oyster Harbour, Dr. Collie directed his course towards French River, noticing in passing the good quality of the soil on the banks of that stream. The explorer proceeded by boat until stopped by a series of waterfalls, or, as he states, “the bed of the river is elevated by rocks, over which the river flows as a rapid stream.” Leaving the boat and also the river a course to the north-east was steered, when another stream, evidently a tributary of the French River, was discovered. After proceeding in this direction for some six miles, over rough and uneven country with outcrops of granite and with soil of a very poor nature, the explorers halted for the night. On the following morning, the 28th, a more northerly course was followed, but the journey so far was absolutely devoid of incident, and it was not until the 30th that they came upon anything in the nature of good soil. They now observed the footprints of horned cattle and a horse, and Mokare informed the leader that several months before the natives had reported the presence of these animals in the woods. Further up the river they came to a place called, by Mokare, Moor-illup, which was said to be the headquarters of the native tribes around King George Sound. Everywhere were to be found traces of natives, and game was extremely abundant. On May 1 the northerly course was changed to one south-east-by-south, and the explorers came upon several patches of good soil. The direction was now changed to west-south-west, and the country showed signs of improvement. Wattle was here the general growth of timber, which, as they ascended the hills, gave place to excellent redgums. Much of its success was due to the ability of the native guide, Mokare, who led the party by paths familiar to him from boyhood, and in his account of the proceedings Dr. Collie lays particular stress upon this point. On May 2 they were joined by a number of natives, and the party returned to where it had left the boat on the French River. It reached Ovster Harbour without u mishap, and bivouacked at the mouth of the French River. On May 4 Dr. Collie proceeded to the mouth of the King River, and several subsequent days were spent in exploring the country immediately adjacent. From his headquarters Dr. Collie made several excursions by boat to points of vantage and thence explored the surrounding rounding country, but found few places fit for closer settlement on agricultural lines, most of the land being more suitable for the pastoral industry. Starting on September 5, 1831, Ensign Dale examined the country 50 miles north and south of Mount Bakewell. The party arrived at Mount Bakewell on the 16th, eleven days after leaving Guildford. The passage over the Darling Ranges was slower than had been anticipated, in consequence of the heavy rains, but despite the wet and toilsome journey the party arrived in good health and spirits at what was to be its headquarters. quarters. The country was carefully and thoroughly examined with a view to agricultural settlement, and the previous accounts of the same explorer on a former journey in every respect verified. During the exploration tion many large bodies of natives were encountered, who were very friendly disposed. During the year several other explorations of a minor, but still valuable, nature were carried out. Mr. R. Clint, of the Survey Department, commenced an examination of the ranges north and east of Porongorup, and Lieutenant Roe (Surveyor-General) and Sir James Stirling in H.M.S. “Sulphur” made an exhaustive survey of the south coast. On January 29, 1832, Ensign Dale furnished a report on a short exploratory journey he had taken from King George Sound on the 21st of the month, to locate if possible two cereals spoken of by the aborigines as growing on the mountains to the northward. In this endeavour the party was unsuccessful, but the information tion gathered by Dale was of a valuable nature in regard to the agricultural possibilities of the soil. This was followed in February and May of the same year by other explorations in the vicinity of the settlement ment of Albany, undertaken by Dr. Collie. Nothing of importance was discovered, the expeditions mainly verifying ing the reports of previous efforts by the same leader. The work of Dr. Collie cannot be too highly commended, for with indefatigable energy he carried out his exploration tion of the southern country as minutely as Ensign Dale had carried but that in the vicinity of the present town of York. These two names will take a high place in the history of early exploration in the great Western land. Some very useful and valuable information was supplied plied by Mr. J. Bussel, who conducted two semi-private efforts during the year 1832 through the country adjacent to Augusta and the Vasse. On his expedition to the latter place he was fortunate enough to discover land of an excellent quality. Mr. Bussel was deeply impressed with the value of his discovery, and he thus describes the country that he traversed : —“Here was a spot that the creative fancy of a Greek would have peopled with dryad and naiad, and all the beautiful phantoms and wild imagery of his sylvan mythology : Wide waving lawns were sloping down to the water's edge; trees thick and entangled were sloping over the banks. One in the centre of the rapids had taken root in the very rocks over which the water tumbled; its bent trunk and tortuous roots seemed to indicate that it had struggled more than once to gain the perpendicular form from which it had been thrust by the rude torrents.” This may have been of the nature of a rhapsody, but, nevertheless, his report shows that he possessed a scientific mind of no mean order, and his deductions were of considerable value, whilst we find therein mention of what must have been the first attempt to form a comparison son between the etymology of the various tribes. During the year 1833 but little work in the field of exploration was carried out, only two expeditions of any importance being noted. In March of that year Mr. F. Whitfield traced the Helena River to its source, and in July Mr. Alfred Hillman, of the Survey Department, explored the country between Albany and Nornalup Inlet. Exploration work was now decidedly in abeyance, and only expeditions of a small nature were carried out, mainly over old routes or by excursions using old tracks and stations as the base of operations. Mr. G. F. Moore, who since his arrival in the State had taken a keen interest in the progress of the colony, traced the Swan to its junction with the Avon River, performing the journey in January, 1834. In September of the same year Mr. Turner traced the Blackwood River to its source, whilst in October Mr. H. G. Smith explored the country from Greenmount, just outside the present town of Midland Junction, to the townsifce of Northam. These journeys, though valuable from an agricultural point of view and mainly undertaken to increase the general knowledge of lands suitable for the same, can hardly be called explorations, but in each case as part of the country traversed was virgin land they receive mention here. In December, 1834, a party under the command of Mr. A. Hillman, of the Survey Department, left Perth to explore the land on the banks of a river which had been discovered on one of the earlier expeditions and named the Hotham. The party returned to Perth on January 26, 1835, and the report was of an exceedingly encouraging character. Both the Hotham and the Williams liams Rivers had been explored, and within 130 miles of Perth and 30 of Port Leschenault most excellent pasturage turage was observed, and abundance of native game was to be found browsing thereon. In February of this year the Surveyor-General (Captain tain J. S. Roe, R.N.) examined the country between the headwaters of the Kalgan (French River) and Hay Rivers; and in April Mr. G. F. Moore, who was keenly interested in the vocabulary of the natives, made a journey through the country to the northward of the Swan River. A report was made to the Lieutenant-Governor early in October of this year, with reference to a remarkable journey made by two lads in the country east of King George Sound. They were employed by a party of sealers on the southern coast, and becoming disgusted with the depravity and barbarity of their companions they deserted when 400 miles east of Albany. Deciding, if possible, to make the settlement, they walked along the coast, and principally with the aid of friendly natives accomplished their task. The boys suffered many privations, tions, and it is extremely unfortunate that the details of their journey are so meagre. A second expedition set out to explore the Hotham and Williams Rivers in October, 1835. Sir James Stirling accompanied it, and with him were associated the Surveyor-General (Captain Roe), Captain Ball, and Mr. A. Hillman (of the Survey Department), who was practically in command. After making its way to the district of the two rivers the party separated for the homeward journey, a portion returning via York and another taking the Kelmscott route ; whilst the Governor nor and Captain Roe continued their travels towards the south-east. The opinions on the value of the land were somewhat diversified, mainly due to the different ferent routes employed on the return; but all agreed that it was eminently suitable for pastoral purposes. The story of exploration in 1835 is not so interesting ing nor so extensive as that of the previous year, with the exception of the one last mentioned. This was due, no doubt, to the removal from the colony of three of its most prominent characters in the realm of exploration. Ensign Dale returned to England in 1834, Captain Bannister nister was in the eastern colonies, and Dr. Collie had succumbed to a decline just when he was about to return to the Homeland. These three had contributed greatly to the pioneering work of the colony, and Dr. Collie, who was a naturalist of no mean order, had partially compiled piled a work on Western Australia. The State owes a debt of gratitude to these gentlemen for their selfdenying denying efforts. They did much to open up new fields for settlement at a most critical period of its existence. Mr. G. F. Moore (the Advocate-General) made an excursion cursion to the northward of the Swan River during the April vacation of the Courts. With Mr. Heffron and a black boy he left Perth with the intention of locating the position of a river said by the natives to exist to the northward. The party did not attempt to cross the ranges, but proceeded along their western base northwards, wards, and was guided by the natives to the river mentioned. tioned. The country was described as resembling that of York, the soil being of an excellent loamy character. The river was named the Moore, out of compliment to its discoverer. The report of the explorer contains reference ence to the view held at that time with regard to the interior of the continent of Australia being a large inland sea, for a salt lake of considerable dimensions discovered covered by Mr. Moore was thought by him to be a continuation tinuation of a chain of such extending from Spencer Gulf. Later on in the year Mr. Moore, accompanied by Messrs. Peter Brown (the Colonial Secretary) and George Leake, examined the country to the northward and eastward of Northam, and opened up a new tract of grazing and agricultural land. During the month of May Lieutenant Bunbury, 21st Fusiliers, explored the country between the mouths of the Dale and Williams Rivers, and again between October 20 and 23 he crossed from Pinjarra to the Williams, whilst between June and September Mr. A. Hillman surveyed a road from Albany towards Perth. From October 2 to November 11 Surveyor-General Roe conducted an expedition to the north and east of Perth, proving the difficulty of forming an opinion on a tract of country without exhaustive survey. Captain Roe went south-east from York, and though he travelled nearly 50 miles he found few spots that deserved the high praise bestowed upon them by Ensign Dale, who had been over the adjacent country previously. It will be remembered that Ensign Dale had spoken of this country in a most promising manner, and considering that Mr. J. W. Hardey, a prominent agriculturist, was a member of the party, they must have pursued an entirely different course to that followed by the Surveyor- General. This fact was further proved by a tour subsequently sequently made by Messrs. P. Foley, P. Meares, and L. Parker. These gentlemen made a slight detour from the courses followed by Ensign Dale and Captain Roe, and reported that much of the land was equal to the best in any part of the country. CHAPTER II. SIR GEORGE GREY, 1837-1839. The year 1837 saw the inception of exploration, so far as Western Australia was concerned, on a far more extensive scale than had hitherto been contemplated or attempted. In the latter part of the year 1836 Lieutenant George Grey, who was afterwards to become so famous in the history of Australian colonization, together gether with Lieutenant Lushington, addressed a letter to Lord Glenelg, then Secretary of State for the Colonies, offering their services for exploration purposes from the Swan River to the northward, having particular regard to the direction of the coast, so as to intersect any considerable siderable body of water, and in the event of the same being discovered to make a particular examination thereof, as far as circumstances might admit. Several secondary objects were enumerated in the letter, which were afterwards embodied in the instructions to the explorers. plorers. This offer and the suggestions therein put forth were very favourably entertained by the Secretary of State, and the whole statement having been placed before fore the Royal Geographical Society, which accorded the proposal its hearty support, it was finally decided by the Government of the day to accept the services of these two officers for the purpose set out in their original letter. 4 After mature consideration it was decided to materially alter the original proposal, and that the expedition should start from Prince Regent River, on the north-west coast, and be directed to the Swan River; but the principal object was still clearly defined, viz., to search for some large river, which many explorers thought existed flowing towards wards the coast from the centre of Australia. After several minor details were observed, and everything suggested by the explorers as necessary for the success of the work liberally accorded corded by the Government, a letter of instructions was forwarded to Lieutenants Grey and Lushington embracing bracing the following directions: 1. They were to embark in H.M. sloop of war the "Beagle,” then fitting out for a survey of the coasts and seas of Australia, under the command of Captain Wickham, R.N. ; and to proceed in that vessel either to the Cape of Good Llope or to the Swan River, as might ultimately appear best suited to forward the objects jects of the expedition. 2. Upon their arrival they were directed to procure cure a small vessel to convey vey the party and stores to the most convenient point in the vicinity of Prince Regent River. 3. An examination was ordered of the country in the vicinity of Prince Regent River, after which they were instructed to take such a course as would lead them to the great opening behind Dampier Land. From this point a certain discretionary power was allowed the explorers, plorers, but the following was inserted in the instructions: tions: "You will use the utmost endeavours to penetrate from thence to the Swan River; as by adopting this course you will proceed in a direction parallel to the unknown coast and must necessarily cross every large river that flows from the interior towards that side of the continent.” 4. To allow for the safety as far as possible of the party —and in the event of difficulties occurring which could not be surmounted, and to provide an opportunity tunity of falling back upon the vessel under these circumstances —the vessel was not to quit the place where the expedition disembarked until such time as was agreed upon. To secure the observance of this duty the explorers were ordered to draw up an agreement on the lines suggested by the local authori- ties where the vessel was chartered. 5. The main objects of the expedition were stated to be : —"To gain information tion as to the real state of North - Western Australia, its resources, and the course and direction of its rivers and mountain ranges; to familiarize the natives with the British name and character acter ; to search for and record all information regarding garding the natural productions tions of the country, and all details that might bear on its capabilities for colonization tion or the reverse; and to collect specimens of its natural history.” 6. Finally, instructions were issued as to the strict discipline to be observed, and regulations were formulated lated as to the demeanour of the party when in con* tact with the natives; the whole of the instructions concluding with the following ing paragraphs: —"No further ther detail has been given you in these instructions, for, as you have been made aware of the motives which have induced His Majesty's Government to send out the expedition, it is supposed that each individual will do his utmost in his situation to carry out these objects, either by obtaining all possible sible information or by such other means as may be within his power. Although the instructions are addressed to you conjointly, as conductors of it, it is necessary that the principal authority -and direction should be invested in one individual on whom the chief responsibility would rest. It is to be understood that Lieutenant Grey, being the senior military officer, is SIR GEORGE GREY. considered as commanding the party, and the person by whose orders and instructions all individuals composing the party will be guided and conform.” At this time a large portion of the western coast and interior of the great Australian continent had remained unvisited and unknown, whilst the opinions of the celebrated navigators, Captains Dampier and King, connected with other circumstances, led to the inference, or at least the hope, that a great river, or water inlet, might be found to open out at some point on its western or north-western side, which had then been only partially surveyed from seaward. The opinions then existing, and which were not totally dissipated until many years later, in regard to this feature of Australian tralian geography, led to many further expeditions in the future, but none were more pregnant with possibilities bilities than this. To Lieutenants Grey and Lushington, therefore, can be accorded the honour of the first serious attempt to clear up all that mystery. On July 5, 1837, the party, which consisted of the officers already mentioned together with Mr. Walker (a surgeon and naturalist) and Corporals Coles and Auger (Royal Sappers and Miners who had volunteered their services), embarked on the “Beagle” and sailed from Plymouth on the same day. The usual incidents of the voyage entertained the party until their arrival at False Bay at the entrance to Simonstown Harbour, now a naval station, on September 21, where they received information that a boat for the purpose mentioned in their instructions from the Secretary of State could be much more economically hired and provisioned at Cape Town than at the Swan River. Eventually, the schooner “Lynher,” of 140 tons, with Henry Browse as master, was secured, and proved a most valuable adjunct. The party was now increased by a few additional hands, amongst whom was a seaman named Thomas Ruston, who had served on the Australian coast under Captain King. Having made all arrangements, the party embarked barked in the “Lynher” on October 13. It now consisted sisted of: Lieutenant Grey Private Mustard Lieutenant Lushington J. C. Cox, storekeeper Mr. Walker, surgeon Thomas Ruston Mr. Powell, surgeon Evan Edwards Corporal R. Auger Henry Williams Corporal J. Coles R. Inglesby Add to these the crew of the vessel, which consisted of a captain, mate, and seven men, also a cabin boy, and we have the full total of the adventurous souls who essayed to cross the turbulent Indian Ocean in a small schooner of 140 tons burden. Before leaving, Lieutenant Grey had collected an amount of provisions and livestock, stock, consisting altogether of thirty-one sheep and nineteen teen goats. There were also six dogs, of nondescript breeds, to be used for hunting purposes. Grey decided at the outset to land at Hanover Bay and there form a temporary encampment, and, having landed the stock, to despatch the boat, with Lieutenant Lushington in charge, to Timor for ponies. In the absence sence of the party he intended to make short excursions inland for the purpose of inculcating some of the elementary principles of bushcraft. Upon the return of the vessel it was the intention of the leader to move the whole party to some convenient spot, to be chosen during their absence, and then to advance attended by one of the party and fix on the spot to be selected for the next encampment. This was the plan to be adopted for the whole expedition, and never to move the party from one halting-place until the next had been chosen. Considering the fact that it was so well equipped as to be able to establish and maintain itself in any position, the method suggested, though slow and perhaps over-cautious, had much to commend it. Then, again, it was the explorer’s intention to introduce useful animals and plants into this part of Australia, for the benefit of future generations of colonists. For this purpose valuable able collections had been made at Teneriffe and in South America, including the seeds of the cotton plant. From the Cape and also from England collections had been gathered, and the party returning from Timor with the ponies was to receive instructions to fill the vessel with the plants of tropical and sub-tropical fruits. It was not until the morning of November 29 that they practically reached the shores of Australia, and through the negligence of the lookout found themselves in dangerous shoal water. They escaped these dangers and soon sighted Red Island, anchoring off Entrance trance Island, Port King George the Fourth, on the evening of November 29, 1837. About 10 a.m. next morning Grey determined to land and walk to Hanover Bay, in the hope of finding water and forage, so that without delay the schooner could be despatched to Timor for the ponies. The party to land consisted of Lieutenants Grey and Lushington, the surgeon (Mr. Walker), and three men. Their experiences in the tropical sun were of a most distressing character, and the party was very hard pushed before it returned to the ship in the evening, Lieutenant Grey having to undertake a most sensational swimming feat. After sunrise next morning it was found almost impossible to sleep, for the flies became an intolerable nuisance, and Grey comments on the prevalence of the insect in the northern thern portion of the continent. Directly after breakfast a boat was despatched in search of fresh water, and in another boat Grey went up Prince Regent River. The stock and stores were landed on December 5, and after the leader’s return on the 17th inst. he hoisted the British flag and took formal possession of the northwest, west, During the day the explorers first came into contact with the natives, who retreated on being accosted, and fearing to increase their alarm Lieutenant Grey would not allow them to be followed. In the evening Lieutenant Grey, accompanied by Corporal Coles and Private Mustard, started on a short exploring excursion from the camp. Provided with ten day’s provisions they intended to make as thorough an examination as possible of the country in the vicinity of their temporary encampment. ment. Early next morning, at the bottom of a deep ravine, they discovered a rushing stream, which the explorer plorer named Lushington in honour of his colleague. During the day Mustard, one of the members of the party, became ill, and so delayed their advance. Travelling ling until December 21, and their provisions having become come almost exhausted, the leader determined to halt in a valley they had discovered where game abounded. Rain fell almost continuously during the expedition, and on following the valley down towards Prince Regent River they came upon numerous traces of native occupation, tion, but these were not of recent date, and it was not until the following day that they came into closer contact. tact. Being driven to take refuge from a very heavy rainstorm amongst some rocks, they were attacked by a party of natives and were forced to fire over their heads, when the aboriginals departed in haste. They now made a hurried and forced march for the temporary encampment, and were relieved to find all the members of the party in good health and spirits. The watering of the vessel had been considerably delayed, owing to the difficulties experienced in bringing the water to the schooner, due to the abnormally low tides, and though only partially completed it was decided to finish the watering at Timor, so the boat set sail on December 21 for that destination. The portion of the expedition left behind was employed in building a shed for their stores, and on December 24, 1837, this labour was completed. They decided to have a Christmas jollification, and all dined together the following day. After dinner they drank the health of the Queen, no doubt the first time such a ceremony had been performed in the vast waste of the nor’-west. Another excursion was begun on January 6 to examine the land between Port George the Fourth and Hanover Bay. The proportion of good country to the bad was small, but they came upon some exceedingly fertile spots, where there were rich meadow plains. During ing this expedition Grey came upon several trees which were peculiarly marked, and also some native drawings which were of an extremely rude nature and showed an utter lack of talent amongst the aborigines. On their return to the encampment they found that the schooner had not arrived, which occasioned some alarm for the safety of those on board. The shore party was extremely well found and could have constructed a boat large enough to have carried them all to Fremantle. The party was now engaged in forming a garden and in discovering a passage over the cliffs so that horses with loads could get to Hanover Bay. On January 17 the “Lynher” came safely to anchor in Hanover Bay. The party on the schooner had been able to procure the requisite number of horses, and had also secured a large number of tropical and sub-tropical plants. The ponies proved to be smaller than had been anticipated, and as they were unbroken, intractable brutes many difficulties had to be overcome before the party could move. This occasioned some anxiety to the leader, for if they had been caught in their present position by torrential rain the effect would have proved disastrous. As it happened, the crossing was bad, as the explorer’s own words most clearly show: —“Having thus gained the elevated plains I laid down to sleep, satisfied that the worst of our labours were over; yet I could not but recollect that it had taken us ten days to reach a spot which by the proper route was only a short day’s journey from the valley we were first encamped in, and that in our march through the country we had been compelled pelled to traverse we had lost seven ponies and injured many of those remaining; all these difficulties arose from our departure having been delayed so long, till the rains had set in, and so flooded the country that we could not proceed by the proper route.” On the morning of February 11 Grey, accompanied by Corporal Coles and one of the men recruited in Cape Town, left the encampment to choose the track for the next day’s route, as he had previously outlined would be his method of procedure. He desired, if possible, to approximate as nearly as he could to the previous route he had followed, mainly because it would rapidly get the livestock on to good grass country; but he had also in view the completion of a map of the country which he had commenced on his previous journey. Very soon after their departure those left at camp heard natives talking in the woods. The camp got immediately under arms. Judging it to be imprudent to parley with the natives, who were now in considerable force, they took up a position for the defence of the camp and its stores. The costume of the visitors formed a subject of laughing comment for the many women and children who accompanied panied the native party, whilst the ponies were objects of universal respect and awe. The party at the tents overlooked all their movements and heard every word that was uttered. The language spoken was described as clear, distinct, and agreeable to the ear. The men were a fine, tall, and athletic race, whilst two remarkable physical examples seemed to control the movements ox the rest. After a short period distant shouts were heard in the direction which had been taken by Lieutenant Grey and his party, and a large body of male aborigines moved off towards the sounds, headed by their chiefs. After about two hours cries of distress were heard, and the natives departed hurriedly from about the camp. The explanation of these occurrences was to be found in the arrival of Grey’s party. After travelling for a short time what was taken to be a native call was heard from the woods, and Grey halted to ascertain whence it emanated. Nothing having been observed, it was decided that the call was that of some native bird, and the party proceeded. Sending back the Cape man to conspicuously mark a tree that had been overlooked Grey was astonished to find the man returning in a state J o of absolute terror, whilst following him was a native in the act of preparing to throw a spear. A moment before fore the woods had been absolutely silent, but they now rang with fierce and ferocious yells, and the party was found to be surrounded by armed men bent upon its destruction. It was taken completely by surprise, and the cowardice displayed by the first man had changed the awe of the natives into something like contempt. tempt. Escape being impossible Grey fired a gun over the heads of the leaders, but this availed nothing, and he was compelled to fire at one of the leaders, striking the native in the arm, which fell powerless to his side. But still the large body of natives pressed on. Giving Corporal Coles his gun to reload Grey tore his rifle from its cloth case, and advanced to the rock which covered the second leader, but in the advance was knocked dowm by a discharge of spears, one of which penetrated his hip. Tearing out the spear he pushed steadily forward, when the native rushed from his cover in retreat, being immediately shot dead by Grey. At once the tumult ceased, and the natives silently slunk away, till within a few moments the whole might have appeared but a bad dream. Gradually the natives returned and picked up the badly wounded leader who was first shot, but the party did not fire, considering that such would be an act of barbarity. It was now high time to consider their own state. The cowardice displayed by the Cape man at the inception of the trouble continued right through, and he was absolutely useless. Both Coles and this man were uninjured, but Grey was severely wounded in the hip, and after binding up the wound they returned homewards. wards. During the return march Grey’s wound became extremely painful, and excessive weakness supervened owing to the loss of blood he had sustained. Eventually, almost in sight of camp, he was compelled to call a halt and send Coles forward for help and assistance. On the news arriving at camp, the surgeon (Mr. Walker) pushed on alone to Grey’s assistance, and after the dressing of his w r ound was completed he was removed in a litter to the camp, but he suffered severely from its effects. The man to whose cowardice the whole episode could be clearly traced was at his own request allowed to return to the ship with a party sent to the vessel under the charge of Mr. Walker. The captain of the “Lynher” was instructed to delay his departure until May 2, during w T hich the exploration of the vicinity would be completed and Grey have recovered from his injuries. During the enforced retirement of Lieutenant Grey, Lieutenant Lushington explored the country to the westward and reported very favourably upon it. On the morning of February 27 the leader was so far recovered as to be able to sit on his pony, and the party moved off in the direction tion previously taken by Lieutenant Lushington. The incidents of the next few days were not of much moment, with the exception that the party came upon a high conical hill of volcanic origin, composed of vitrified lava resembling common glass, from which the natives fashioned their spear heads. The country was mainly basaltic, but luxuriantly grassed and of excellent character acter for pastoral pursuits. On the morning of March 2 it came upon a river estimated to be four miles wide and decked with many verdant isles. Grey named this stream the Glenelg River, after the Secretary of State, Lord Glenelg. The wound sustained by him was very slow in healing and caused much suffering. This, added to the fact that such a clear and ardent mind could ill admit its incapacity through physical exhaustion, tion, only retarded his recovery and added to his mental disquiet. The difficulty of finding a route they reached the Glenelg was extreme, and, as Grey points out, though the country was so adapted for commerce and enterprise it brought forth many difficulties for the explorer. The north-easterly course taken by the Glenelg and its extreme width led the leader to fear that after all what he deemed to be a river might be only an estuary of the sea, and all his time hitherto spent on a large island, which existed with a comparatively narrow channel between it and the mainland. An expedition started from the camp to explore the bank of the river, and found it extremely marshy, but it succeeded in reaching one of the channels which Lieutenant Lushington, ton, who was in command, estimated to be 400 yards wide, with a tidal rise and fall of fully 20 ft. On March 7 the whole party followed the course of the river in a north-easterly direction through magnificent cent country and luxuriant vegetation, but the mosquitoes quitoes were extremely troublesome and caused a large amount of annoyance. Owing to a rapid flood on March 11 they were compelled to camp on a position that showed signs of recent native occupation. Close to the camp was a large mass of basaltic rock, and scratched upon these were some native drawings, very roughly and crudely executed, representing various parts of the human frame. However, the natives seemed to have been but lately engaged in an extensive manufacture of spearheads, and as this looked very like preparation for a warm reception to be given to the explorers, extraordinary ordinary precautions were taken to guard the camp. Having crossed a stream which ran between the Glenelg and the encampment, the party turned almost due north, the direction of the advance being soon after changed to the south-east, when, after negotiating the passage of several streams, it came upon high ground, the highest point of which Lieutenant Grey named Mount Lyell, after Sir Charles Lyell. This peak was estimated to be about 1,800 ft. high, though the height could not be properly ascertained owing to the barometer having been broken, but the explorers were well repaid for the labour necessary to attain its summit. From the peak they had a remarkable view, and the magnificence of the prospect repaid them for the arduousness of their labours up to that time. Native fires were detected here and there throughout the region which lay between the Glenelg and Prince Rupert Rivers, showing that game abounded, whilst the value of soil and climate could, from a pastoral point of view, hardly be surpassed. Next morning, to get clear of the marshes, they steered a south-easterly course, and were thus forced up into a range of high basaltic hills. Along the foot of these the course continued through an uninterrupted interrupted succession cession of rich flats, thinly wooded but luxu r i a n 11y grassed, until upon rounding a small hill they again found the Glenelg, which at this point made a sudden turn. The water was now quite fresh, and the main river was here joined by a tributary. Grey was greatly imbued with the value of the river for agricultural and pastoral purposes, and it would not be out of place at this stage to quote his own words, which, unfortunately, later explorers were unable to altogether verify : “1 stood for some time watching this dark, turbid stream, sweeping rapidly along, and could not but wonder whe
  • Presented to the [?] THE CYCLOPEDIA OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA VOL. I. THE CYCLOPEDIA OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA (ILLUSTRATED) IN TWO VOLUMES VOL. L AN HISTORICAL AND COMMERCIAL REVIEW DESCRIPTIVE AND BIOGRAPHICAL FACTS FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS AN EPITOME OF PROGRESS EDITED BY J. S. BATTYE, B.A., LL.B. (M ELB.) Public Librarian to the State of Western Australia WESTERN AUSTRALIA : PRINTED AND PUBLISHED FOR THE CYCLOPEDIA COMPANY, 29, BARRACK STREET PERTH BY HUSSEY &​ GILLINGHAM LIMITED, 106 &​ 108, CURRIE STREET ADELAIDE MCMXII. Preface The object of this Cyclopedia is to present as comprehensive an account as possible of the State of Western Australia in all its varied aspects and interests—historical, descriptive, industrial, agricultural, and other. Twenty years ago the Western State ridl rested in the mist of obscurity, hut when with a touch of the Magicians wand its golden treasures were revealed, a change came o’er the scene, and to-day, in point , °j im P°rtance and prosperity, Western Australia stands second to no State in the . 9 rea t Gommonirealth of Australia. _ ln the com pdation of the volume every care has been exercised, and though fully conscious of its defects I have endeavoured so far as possible to avoid error and secure accuracy, so that in the days to come it may be used with confidence as a work of reference. For the historical portion all responsibility must rest with vie. Wherever possible 1 have taken advantage of previous publications, and desire to acknowledge my indebtedness to them all, more particularly to Kimberley’s “ History of Western Australia,” the “Twentieth Century Impressions of Western Australia}’ Calvert’s “ Discovery of Australia,” Dr. J. E. Heeres’ “Part played by the Dutch in the Discovery of Australia,” and to the excellent historical summary prepared for the “Year Book, 1903.” Newspaper files, official reports, and all those avenues of research open to one with the treasures of a large Public Library at his disposal have also been drawn upon, in the hope of presenting a full and true account of the history of the State. lor contributed articles I am indebted to the Government Geologist for the article on Geology, Mineralogy, and Palaeontology; to Mr. J. J. East fur those on the launa and Flora; to Mr. G. Pattye for those on the Governors, the Federal Parliament, and the Press, to Lieut.-Colonel Collett for that on the Military and Laval Forces; to Mr. J. F. Gonigrave for the sketch of the Commerce of the State: Do Mr. W. Somerville for the article on Industrial Arbitration; and to M&​ George I | SfficjU forjhat on the Metropolitan Municipalities. To all these 1 desire to render my thanks, as well as to the many public officials who have always been ready to renter whatever assistance lay in their power, and without whose help the task of compilation would have been extremely difficult. JAS. S. SATTYE, Editor. PUBLISHERS’ NOTE. While the following pages were passing through the press certain changes occurred affecting the positions held by a few of those whose biographies are recorded- Where these are of sufficient importance the necessary alterations will be made in the Second Volume, in which, too, any errors discovered in the Historical portion will be corrected. Trustee Chambers , 29, Barrack Street , Perth . contents of Vol.1. PAGE Aborigines ... ... ... ... ... ... 502 Aborigines of AVestern Australia, The ... 45 Accountants and Auditors ... ... ... 640 Administration of Justice, The ... ... 367 Arbitration Court ... ... ... ... 372 Children’s Courts ... ... ... ... 367 Minor Courts ... ... ... ... ... 366 Supreme Court ... ... 361 Agricultural Bank 443 Agriculture, Department of ... ... ... 435 Albany Advertiser, The ... ... ... ... 590 Architects ... ... ... ... ... ... 622 Audit Office ... ... ... ... ... 419 Banking, Insurance, and Finance ... ... 610 Bedford, Admiral Sir Frederick George Denham, ham, G.C.8., G.C.M.G 301 Biographical Index ... ... ... ... 769 Broome, Sir Frederick Napier, K.C.M.G. ... 298 Bunbury Harbour Trust ... ... 723 Bunbury Herald, The ... ... .. ... 590 Chamber of Manufactures, The ... ... ... 727 Claremont ... ... ... ... ... ... 555 Clarke, Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew, K.H. ... 290 Climate of Western Australia, The ... ... 9 Colonial Secretary’s Department 502 Commerce and Industry ... ... ... ... 661 Consular ... ... ... ... ... 592 Copyright ... ... ... ... ... 415 Cottesloe ... ... ... ... ... 555 Crown Law Department ... ... ... ... 479 Customs ... ... ... ... ... ... 411 Daily News, The ... ... ... ... ... 534 Defence, Department of ... ... ... ... 387 Dental 599 Eastern Districts Chronicle, The (York) ... ... 590 East Fremantle 555 Education Department ... ... ... ... 482 Engineers, Architects, and Surveyors ... 622 Evening Star, The (Boulder) ... 591 PAGE Fauna of Western Australia, The 28 Federal Government Departments ... ... 375 Fisheries Department ... ... ... ... 507 Fitzgerald, Captain Charles, R.N 291 Flora of AVestern Australia, The ... ... 37 Fremantle ... 547 Fremantle Harbour Trust ... ... ... 717 Gaols 508 General 745 Geography of Western Australia, The ... 1 Geological Survey ... ... ... ... 454 Geology of Western Australia, The ... ... 12 Geraldton Express, The ... ... ... ... 591 Government Printing Office ... ... ... 423 Government Savings Bank ... ... ... 421 Government Stores ... ... ... ... 423 Governors, Lieutenant-Governors, and Administrators istrators of AVestern Australia ... 286 Bedford, Admiral Sir Frederick George Denham, ham, G.C.8., G.C.M.G 301 Broome, Sir Frederick Napier, K.C.M.G. ... 298 Clarke, Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew, K.H. 290 Fitzgerald, Captain Charles, R.N. ... ... 291 Hampton, John Stephen, M.D. ... ... 294 Hutt, John ... ... ... ... ... 289 Irwin, Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick Chidley, K.H 291 Kennedy, Sir Arthur Edward, G.C.M.G., C.B. 293 Lawley, Hon. Sir Arthur, G.C.1.E., K.C.M.G 300 Ord, Major-General Sir Harry St. George, R.E., K.C.M.G., C.B 297 Robinson, Sir William Cleaver Francis, G.C.M.G 296 Smith, Sir Gerard, K.C.M.G. ... ... 299 Stirling, Sir James ... ... ... ... 287 Strickland, Sir Gerald, K.C.M.G. ... ... 301 AVeld, Sir Frederick Aloysius, G.C.M.G. ... 295 Guildford 555 Hampton, John Stephen, M.D. ... ... ... 294 Harbour and Light ... ... ... 510 page History of Western Australia .. . ■ 63 CHAP. i. Discovery of and Early Voyages to Australia ... ... ... ... 63 it. Discovery and Early Voyages (continued) tinued) ... ... ... ... 75 in. Annexation of Western Australia ... 84 iv. Colonization and Early Settlement ... 88 v. 1831-1838. Administration of Sir James Stirling ... ... ... 103 vi. 1839-1842. Governor Hutt’s Administration tration Land Regulations Projected jected Settlement at Australind — Aborigines —Explorations ... ... 119 vii. 1843-1849. Depression —Labour Problems blems —Financial Condition —Ques- tion of Convict Labour —Establish- ment of Penal Settlement ... ... 127 viii. The Convict System ... ... ... 143 ix. 1850-1853. Transition Period: Free Colony to Penal Establishment — Government Land Laws —Financial Conditions Industries General Development ... ... ... ... 147 x. 1854-1860. Constitution and Government ment —Improvement in Land Regulations lations and consequent Agricultural and Pastoral Expansion —Develop- ment and Extension of the Convict System —Growth of the Colony during ing the Period ... ... ... 155 xi. 1861-1868. Resignation of Governor Kennedy and Arrival of Dr. J. S. Hampton —Convict Administration — Incidents of the System —Progressive Public Works Policy —Cessation of Transportation —Effects on the System tem reviewed ... ... ... ... 164 xn. 1861-1868 (continued) . Explorations — Opening up of the North-West — Trade and Industry —Native Troubles —Agitation for Representative Government ernment ... ... ... ... 174 xiit. 1869-1875. Administration of Governor nor Weld —Constitutional Changes— Progressive Legislation —Land Laws —Railways and Telegraphs —General Development —Exploration ... ... 186 xiv. 1875-1883. Agitation for Alteration of Constitution —Legislation —Land Laws and Regulations —Immigration —Railway Development —Resources and Industries —Convict Establishment ment —Explorations —Miscellaneous 201 PAGE History of Western Australia ( continued)- CHAP. xv. 1883-1890. Governor Broome’s Administration istration —Land Regulations Tariff Revision —Finances —Resources, Industries, dustries, and Trade —Public Works: Railway and Telegraph Extension—Gold sion—Gold Discoveries: Kimberley and Yilgarn Goldfields—Agitation for Autonomy continued —Respon- sible Government ... ... ••• 212 xvi. 1891-1900. First Ten Years of Responsible sible Government —Constitutional and Political Occurrences Phenomenal Development of the Goldfields —Re- sources, Industries, and Trade —Land Laws and Agricultural Development —General ... ... ••• ••• 238 xvn. Federal Movement in Western Australia tralia ... ... ... ... ••• 261 xvi it. 1901-1912. Federal and State Politics —Constitutional Questions —Agricul- ture —Mining —Resources, Industries, and Trade Finances General Conclusion ... ... ... ... 269 Hospital for the Insane ... ... ... 517 House of Assembly, The ... ... ... ... 338 House of Representatives, The ... ... ... 308 Hutt, John ... ... ... ... ... ... 289 Immigration Office and Tourist Agency ... 510 Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration ... 714 Industrial Schools ... ... ... ... 505 Inquirer , The ... ... ... ... ... ••• 584 Inquirer , The Daily News , and The Morning Herald , The 584 Insurance ... ... ... ... ... ... 610 Irwin, Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick Chidley, ley, K.H 291 Kalgoorlie Miner , Th e ... ... ... ... 588 Kennedy, Sir Arthur Edward, G.C.M.G., C.B. 293 King’s Park ... ... ... ... ... ... 534 Lands and Surveys, Department of ... ... 428 Lands Department ... ... ... ... ... 428 Lawley, Hon. Sir Arthur, G.C.1.E., K.C.M.G. 300 Leederville ... ... ... ... ... 554 Legislative Council, The... ... ... 313,324 Legislature, The Federal ... ... ... 304 Lithographic Office ... ... ... ... 423 Master Builders and Contractors’ Association 648 Medical ... ... ... ... ... ... 597 page Medical and Public Health ... ... ... 521 Midland Junction ... ... ... 556 Midland Railway Company ... ... ... 474 Military Forces ... ... ... 339 Mines Department ... ... ... ... 446 Ministry, The 318 Morning Herald, The ... ... 584 Municipal ... ... ... ... ... 535 Museum and Art Gallery ... ... ... ... 531 Naval Forces ... ... ... 337 Northnm Advertiser, The ... ... ... 591 North Fremantle ... ... ... ... 555 North Perth ... ... ... 554 Observatory ... ... ... ... 521 Ord, Major-General Sir Harry St. George, R.E., K.C.M.G., C.B. ... 297 Osborne Park ... ... ... ... 554 Other Services ... ... ... ... 425 Patents, Trade Marks, and Copyright ... ... 415 Peppermint Grove Roads Board 574 Perth and Environs ... ... ... ... 536 Perth Roads Board ... ... ... ... 574 Pharmaceutical ... ... ... 603 Police 526 Postmaster-General’s Department ... ... 377 Premier’s Office ... ... ... ... 417 Press of Western Australia, The ... ... 578 Public Charities ... ... ... ... 503 Public Gardens ... ... ... ... ... 513 Public Library ... ... ... ... 530 Public Library, Museum, and Art Gallery of Western Australia ... ... ... 530 Public Service Commissioner (Commonwealth) 375 Public Service Commissioner (State) ... ... 418 Public Works Department ... ... ... 490 Queen’s Park ... ... ... 556 ~ Si > Railways of Western Australia, The ... ... 460 Registrar-General’s Office ... ... ... 512 Registrar of Friendly Societies ... ... 508 Roads Boards in the Metropolitan Area ... 574 Peppermint Grove Roads Board 574 Perth Roads Board ... ... ... ... 574 West Guildford Roads Board ... ... ... 574 Robinson, Sir William Cleaver Francis, G.C.M.G 296 Royal Mint, The (Perth Branch) 535 Scenery of Western Australia, The ... ... 5 Senate, The 305 Shipping 726 PAGE Smith, Sik Gerard, K.C.M.G 299 Southern Gross Times, The ... ... ... ... 591 Southern Times, The (Bunbury) ... ... ... 590 South Perth ... ... ... ... ... ... 554 State Children’s Department 504 State Government Departments ... ... ... 417 State Institutions Governed by Boards ... 530 State Labour Bureau ... ... ... ... 507 State Legislature, The ... ... ... ... 312 Executive Council, The ... ... ... 312 House of Assembly, The 338 Legislative Council, The 313, 324 Responsible Government ... ... ... 316 Stirling, Sir James ... ... ... ... ... 287 Stock Exchange, The ... ... ... ... 618 Strickland, Sir Gerald, K.C.M.G. ... ... 301 Subiaco ... ... ... ... 553 Suburban Municipalities ... ... ... 553 Claremont ... ... ... ... 555 Cottesloe ... ... ... 555 East Fremantle ... ... ... 555 Guildford ... ... ... ... 55 g Leederville ... ... ... ... 554 Midland Junction ... ... ... 555 North Fremantle ... ... ... 555 North Perth ... ... ... 554 Osborne Park ... ... ... 554 Queen’s Park ... ... , 555 South Perth ... ... ... ... 554 Subiaco ... ... ... ... 553 Victoria Park ... ... ... 554 Sun, The ... ... ... ... 537 Sunday Times and The Sun, The ... ... ... 537 Survey Branch ... ... ... ... 434 Surveyors ... ... ... ggo Taxation Department ... .. 424 Telegraph System ... ... ... 333 Telephone System ... ... ... 335 Trade and Customs ... ... ... ... 411 Trade Marks ... ... ... ... 425 Trans-Australian Railway, The ... 476 Treasury, The ... ... ... 421 Truth, The ... 591 Victoria Park ... ... ... 554 Water Supply Department ... ... 500 Weld, Sir Frederick Aloysius, G.C.M.G., ... 295 West Australian, The ... ... 579 West Guildford Roads Board ... ... 574 Woods and Forests ... ... ... ... 430 Yallingup and Margaret River Caves ... ... 6 Zoological Gardens ... ... 533 The Cyclopedia of Western Australia. THE GEOGRAPHY Of WESTERN AUSTRALIA. T} (now the State) of Western Australia was defined in the instructions issued by William TV. to Captain Stirling as “extending ing from Cape Londonderry in latitude 13° 44 south to West Cape Howe in latitude 35° S' south, and from Hartog Island, on the western coast, in longitude 112° 52' to 129° of east longitude, reckoning from the meridian of Greenwich, including all the islands adjacent in the Indian and Southern Oceans within the latitudes aforesaid of 13° 44' south and 35° 8' south, and within the longitudes tudes aforesaid of 112° 52' and 129° east from the said meridian of Greenwich.” This was altered in some slight measure bv the Commission of Her Late Majesty Queen Victoria, dated July 10, 1873, which extended the northern boundary from 13° 44' southern latitude to 13° 30' southern latitude. Briefly, therefore, Western Australia consists sists of all that part of Australia, with adjacent islands, tying west of 129° east longitude, and is bounded on the west and north by the Indian Ocean %/​ and on the south by the Great Southern Ocean. Though the official designation from the date of colonization has been “Western Australia,” the fact that the first settlement (excluding the penal station at King George Sound) and, of course, the seat of government ernment were in the neighbourhood of the Swan caused the new colony to be identified with the name of that river, and it was for some years known, colloquially at any rate, as the Swan River colony or the Swan River J * settlement. The coastline seems to fall into two divisions, running ning north and south of the 18th parallel of latitude. As we go northward from that point we find that it is deeply indented by gulfs, bays, and smaller inlets, while a glance at the map will show the portion to the south stretching out in long lines, almost unbroken by indentations dentations of any kind. The general appearance, too, of the coast seems to change at about the same parallel, and while we go north we see rugged and almost mountainous tainous bluffs; to the south our eyes meet as a rule, B except along the south-west round the Leeuwin, long low-lying stretches of sandy shore raised but little above sea-level. The total length of coastline, taking into calculation the numerous bays and inlets mentioned, is approximately 5,200 miles. The greatest length of the territory is that measured sured from Cape Londonderry to Peak Head, amounting ing to 1,480 miles, while at its broadest part, from Dirk Hartog Island to the boundary of South Australia, tralia, it stretches for about 1,000 miles. The area of the whole State is set down as 975,920 square miles, or 624,588,800 acres. Until a few years ago the only part of the State that could be termed occupied consisted of a narrow strip of about 150 miles in width stretching from Albany to Wyndharn, and the greater part of that could boast only of isolated townships here and there along the coast. The large expansion following upon the discovery covery of gold has, however, made a great difference during the past decade or two, and now there are settled communities, so far as any mining community may be called settled, some 400 or 500 miles inland. The general contour of the territory north of the 19th parallel of latitude is of a mountainous character, consisting of alternating high and low plateaux, principally cipally sandstone in formation, changing, as we go farther ther north into the Kimberley and Gascoyne country, to a series of rugged mountains which are to a large extent granitic in character. South of that parallel the structure is practically a vast plateau of Archaean rocks, giving evidence that this part of the State must have been submerged to until the most recent geological epoch. With a fairly steep western face, coming in places to within 20 or 30 miles of the coast, this plateau continues eastward across the South Australian border at a height varying from 1,000 to 2,000 ft. above sea-level. Its most southerly point is right on the coast at Point d’Entrecasteaux, casteaux, from which it sweeps inward, being separated from the sea along the southern shore by a belt of lowiyi iyi ng sandy country, and by the limestone Nullabor plains stretching along the edge of the Great Australian Bight. The scarcity and uncertainty of the rainfall over the greater part of the plateau, more particularly over that lying east of the 119th meridian, make it unsuitable for settlement of an agricultural or pastoral nature, and the towns and townships that do exist are those which have grown up round the great mining industry The coastal areas on the west are principally of a flat and sandy nature, sparsely covered with vegetation, except in the south-west, where we find large forests of karri, jarrah, gum, and other timbers of great commercial mercial value. The southern seaboard is of much the same character until we get farther eastward, where we meet the well-grassed limestone plains between the edge of the plateau and the sea, which await only the discovery of artesian water to make them among the most productive in the State. There are no mountains of any considerable height in Western Australia. Those best known are scarps of the plateau, rising above the coastal plains. Of them the most important is the Darling Range, which runs almost due north and south from Yatheroo to Point d’Entrecasteaux. It lies about 18 or 20 miles from the west coast, with which it is practically parallel, and though never rising above 1,700 ft. from sea-level exercises a great effect upon the climatic conditions of the most settled portion of the State. The Stirling Range, to the north-east of Albany, forms the western end of the southern face of the plateau. This is the loftiest range in the south of Western Australia, at Bluff Knoll reaching a height of 3,640 ft. Rising abruptly from the plain, perfectly isolated, it is visible for a very considerable distance, and forms the moststriking striking landmark in the southern districts. In the northern part we find the Princess May, King Leopold, and Hamersley Ranges. In the lastnamed we have Mount Bruce, which, possessing an altitude of 3,800 ft., is the highest known point on the western side of the continent. There are no active volcanoes, but extinct craters are said to exist in the neighbourhood of the Princess May Range in the extreme north. All these mountains are fairly close to the coastline. The interior terior of the State, so far as is known, does not possess any eminence that may be dignified with the title of a mountain. Isolated hills occur at intervals, which from the flatness of the surrounding desert appear unduly prominent, but none of them can boast of an altitude of even 1,000 ft. No portion of the continent is so badly provided with rivers as the west. The whole interior, embraced by the plateau previously mentioned, does not possess a single river draining into the sea or into any inland lake. Such rivers as exist in the State are confined to the strip of land between the edges of the tableland and the sea, and are formed by the drainage from the scarp side of the elevation. Many of them are not able to boast either of considerable length or consistent depth of water, except during the rainy season Commencing at the far north, there are (excluding tributaries) the Ord and the Pentecost emptying into Cambridge Gulf, with the Chamberlain and Durack possibly sibly debouching in the same inlet; the Drysdale and King Edward into Napier Broome Bay; the Prince Regent and Sale into bays along the coast; and Chamley ley into Collier Bay. Coming down the north-west coast we meet the Fitzroy, De Grey, Yule, Fortescue, and Ashburton; along the west there are the Gascoyne, coyne, Wooramel, Murchison, Greenough, Swan, Murray, ray, Collie, and Preston. The principal of all these-- in fact, the chief river of the State —is the Swan, which above tidal waters is called the Avon. On it are situated ated the oldest towns in Western Australia, as the colonization of the country was commenced at that point. For a considerable distance from the mouth it partakes more of the nature of an estuary, being subject ject to tidal fluctuations and the water being consequently quently salt in character. On the southern coast the principal streams are the Blackwood, Frankland, Warren, ren, Denmark, and Phillips, none of which possesses any characteristics calling for special mention. There are no lakes worthy of the name throughout the State. As regard the great interior, this may be explained by the arid nature of the country due to the slight and irregular rainfall, and the rapid evaporation tion of moisture caused by the intense heat of the sun. The so-called lakes of this great region, in many cases considerable in extent, are, except after occasional heavy rains, merely immense salt marshes or claypans. But even between the ranges and the sea, where we might expect to find sheets of permanent water, there are very few, and these, except during the rainy season, are little better than swamps or marshes. Salt lagoons occur in places, but they have little or no economic value. Owing to the deeply indented coastline north of the 19th parallel of latitude there are innumerable bays, gulfs, and inlets in that portion of the State. To mention tion them all would be wearisome, but the chief are Cambridge Gulf, Napier Broome Bay, Vansittart Bay, Admiralty Gulf, Montague and York Sounds, Brunswick wick Bay, Camden Sound, Collier Bay, King Sound, Beagle Bay (at which is established an aboriginal mission), sion), Roebuck and La Grange Bays, Point Walcott, Nickol Bay, and Exmouth Gulf. On the west and south coasts there are Shark Bay, Champion Bay, Cockburn burn Sound, Koombana, Geographe, and Flinders Bay, King George Sound, and Esperance Bay. While many of them afford safe anchorage, Princess Royal Harbour (within King George Sound) and Cambridge Gulf are the principal natural harbours, but excellent and commodious modious artificial harbours have been formed at Fremantle mantle within the mouth of the Swan River and at Bunbury in Koombana Bay. The most prominent capes along the coast are Capes Dome! and Dussejour, on the opposite sides of the entrance to Cambridge Gulf; Cape Londonderry, the most northerly point of the State : Cape Talbot, at the entrance to Napier Broome Bay ; Cape Bougainville to the east, and Cape Voltaire to the west, of Admiralty Gulf; Cape Leveque, at the western entrance to King Sound; Cape Latouche Treville ; Sloping Head, near Nickol Bay, a place of considerable importance to pearlers; North-West Cape, forming the western side of Exmouth Gulf ; Steep Point, to the south of Dirk Hartog tog Island, and the most westerly point of the mainland; land; Capes Naturaliste and Leeuwin, at the southwest west corner, that area of extreme danger to navigation tion ; Point d’Entrecasteaux, and Capes West Cane Howe, Peak Head, Hood Point, Legrande, and Arid, along the southern coast. Along the north and north-west coasts there are islands almost without number, many of which have not been closely examined, but which appear to present the same characteristics as the adjacent mainland. Bigge and Augustus Islands are the largest in extent in the extreme north, and Barrow Island, to the north of Onslow, on the north-west. Opposite King Sound we find the Buccaneer Archipelago, and west of Cossack the Dampier Archipelago, both names reminiscent of that great buccaneering Englishman, William Dampier. On the west coast are Dirk Hartog Island and the Houtman Abrolhos, which share the honour of being the first Australian land seen by civilized man. The latter, which now are noted for guano deposits, were the bugbear of the early navigators, and on them more than one rich Dutch trading vessel came to an untimely end. Opposite Fremantle are Rottnest and Garden Islands, the first of which was named by Vlaming, while the latter was the depot for stores in the infancy of the State. Along the south coast are Chatham Island, Breaksea Island (upon which a signalling station and lighthouse for passing vessels have been erected), and the Recherche Archipelago. The cities and towns will be more fully dealt with elsewhere : they may be divided into two classes —those that arose gradually after the colonization of the State in 1829 and those that sprang up almost magically after the great gold discoveries of the early nineties. Of the first, Perth (1829), Fremantle (1829), Guildford (1830), Albany (1831), and Northarn (1833) stand as types, while of the second, Coolgardie (1893), Kalgoorlie (1894), and Boulder (1896) are prominent examples. How great a part gold has played in the development of Western Australia may be gauged in some degree from the fact that the largest towns in the State at present are Perth and Kalgoorlie, the capital city and the piincipal cipal goldfields centre. From an economic standpoint the geography of the State is such that every indication points to the fact that its development must rest on the great primary industries —mining and agricultural, timber and pastoral, toral, as well as pearling, which is so largely carried on off the coast in the north-west. While the question of rainfall has no connection with either mining or pearling, ing, it is so great a factor in the other pursuits that an article dealing with the geography and physical features of the territory must make some reference to it. That it varies considerably we may readily understand must be the case in a country which stretches well up into the tropics and far down into the temperate zone, with an interior hundreds of miles from the sea, and absolutely devoid of anything in the way of fresh-water rivers or lakes. In the extreme north we find the abundant rainfall fall usual in tropical coastal areas, bringing about a luxurious growth of grass which makes that district so fit a country for the development of every kind of pastoral toral pursuit. In the south-west the yearly average rainfall varies from 30 to 40 in., according to locality, thus producing those conditions necessary for the growth of large timbers, most of which have a high commercial value. As we go inland the amount of rain rapidly decreases, but it is still sufficient in quantity and so certain of appearance as to make practically the whole western strip extending southward from the 28th parallel of latitude and eastward for over a hundred miles suitable for the production of cereals. Though the fact has been recognized only during recent years the work of opening up this vast area for agricultural development has been sc steadily and enthusiastically pursued bv the Government that in a very few years the State bids fair to become one of the great wheatand and fruit-producing countries of the world. We have thus briefly outlined the geography of Western Australia and incidentally referred to her great resources. Captious critics have termed her the Cinderella of the Group, the land of sand and barrenness ness : but “the wings of dawn are beating at the gates of day.” What is Western Australia? The largest of the six States of the Commonwealth ; the nearest to the great Eastern communities : the first and last port of call on the great ocean highway between the Southern and Northern Hemispheres. So situated and so endowed she must in the ripeness of time become one of the greatest of those great free communities privileged to carry on under the Southern Cross the noblest traditions of the British raoe. THE SCENERY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA. The knowledge that Western Australia possesses any scenery worth description will probably come as a surprise to everyone outside the State and, indeed, to many within its borders. The opinion so generally expressed by the early navigators who visited the coast that it was a land of sand, sterility, and desolation seems to have become so fixed in the general mind that to dislodge it is an almost superhuman task. The statement of M. Arago at the beginning of the nineteenth teenth century that the coast exhibited nothing but a picture ture of desolation; no rivulet consoled the eye, no tree attracted it, no mountain gave variety iety to the landscape, cape, no dwelling enlivened it; everywhere where reigned sterility ility and death. . . . At the first view you take in an immense distance, tance, but beware of looking for any enjoyment; the search would be merely wasting your strength, without finding the least relief is merely in slightly different language the description that one and all applied to the country —a description that seems to have been accepted until very recently almost as an article of faith. Yet how untrue it is. Certainly we can not boast of snowcapped capped mountains, of deep ravines with clustering ferns, of mighty waterfalls or broad majestic rivers; but the light and shade of hill and dale, the iridescent blue of an almost perfect atmosphere, the stern and rugged coastline with intermediate stretches of glistening beach, and, above all, those marvellous jewel houses of Nature, the South-West Caves, are our glory and our pride. if views are wanted, gaze upon the panorama of the Swan unveiled before us from the summit of Mount Eliza, upon the wonderful bird's-eye view of King George Sound, or upon the forbidding face of Cape Leeuwin, where the icy current of the Antarctic meets the warming glow of the Indian Ocean in riotous and neverceasing ceasing tumult. In and around Perth itself there is much that not only delights the eye of the visitor, but caters for the pleasure and enjoyment of the citizens. The capital of Western Australia is in many ways more fortunately situated than any other chief city in the Commonwealth. Sydney, indeed, possesses her wonderful derful harbour, but Perth can lay equal claim to beauty in her noble and commanding manding river, the broad stretches of which below the city are unsurpassed for all forms of aquatic sports. How deeply appreciated these are may be seen from a view at any time during the season, when the myriads of yachts make so charming a scene upon the wide expanse of water. Above the city too, in the higher reaches extending into the hills, are spots peculiarly favoured by Nature, ture, scenes of sylvan van beauty and of a profusion of delightful flowers that have not yet gained the attention they deserve. They only await that facility of access which ought to be one of the firstefforts efforts of the newly-formed Tourist Department. Within easy approach of the capital, Rottnest, Mandurah, durah, and Bunbury have many attractions for those who delight to be near the sea, while nearer still the beach at Cottesloe offers to the jaded worker from the city all the pleasures of a seaside resort. For folk who love the sea and yet desire a cooler FOLDED SHAWL, YALLONGUP CAVE. climate than those mentioned can afford the pleasant town of Albany, nestling amid the hills at the head of King George Sound, may be made the starting-point of many pleasant excursions. The Sound itself forms a never-failing attraction. Notwithstanding the fact that there is supposed to be but one beautiful harbour in Australia, there are few more charming experiences to a lover of Nature than to enter King George Sound in the early dawn of a perfect spring morning. All around are rugged hills untouched by art of man, and from the shore is wafted the sweet scent of that glorious blossom of Western Australia, the Boronia. The deep-blue of the water, mingling with the changing colours of the surrounding foliage, aids in completing a scene that is not excelled, if indeed rivalled, in any harbour on the Australian coast. Those who seek for health and pleasure away from the sea and yet not far from Perth usually find their way to Kalamunda or the Mundaring Weir. Both situated in the Darling Ranges, while they cannot claim that bracing air of higher peaks are still sufficiently above the level of the plain to afford a pure and revivifying ing atmosphere. From Kalamunda the valley of the Swan stretches out in a vast panorama, and when the day is clear the outlines of Rottnest Island in the far distance are easily discernible. The great attraction of Mundaring is, of course, the Weir from which the Eastern goldfields and inland towns along the route are supplied with water. Pleasant as a resort at any time, it has an added interest toward the end of winter, when the overflow is so majestic, giving to the tourist the impression of a gigantic waterfall. But the crowning glory of Western Australia from a scenic point of view rests in her marvellous caves, which those fitted by experience to speak upon the subject ject have pronounced the equal, if not the superior, of any known to exist. These, as their importance demands, we propose to treat in detail. The principal are those at Yallingup and Margaret River, which, though a considerable siderable distance from Perth, are yet easier of access and more thoroughly opened up than those at Lake Yanchep, less than 40 miles from the capital. YALLINGUP AND MARGARET RIVER CAVES. These wonderful caves are situated in the south west corner of the State, between the Leeuwin and Cape Naturaliste, in undulating limestone country which skirts the coast at a distance of from half a mile to three miles. The whole of the district extending north and south for some 50 miles is honeycombed with subterranean ranean galleries of marvellous beauty and variety, unrivalled rivalled by anything of the kind in Australia. Though their existence has been known for nearly thirty years little attention was paid to them until very recently. The whole country in the vicinity has now, however, been made a public reserve, and every effort made to explore them and make them available for public inspection and recreation. To reach them it is necessary to proceed by train to Busselton, a pretty little seaside town about 150 miles from Perth. The distance from there to the caves is about 20 miles, made by conveyance over a road that for the greater part of the journey winds in and out among the luxurious peppermint-trees, and then turns off into the forest until it reaches the YALLINGUP CAVE, so named after a small rivulet in the vicinity. The entrance to the cave is about 250 ft. above the stream, and resembles a slightly inclined tunnel cut through the limestone rock. From the landing at the end of this shaft the cave branches away into two directions. Immediately on the left we enter the “Theatre,” an immense domelike chamber, circular in form and spacious in area, the ceiling of which is beautifully ornamented with thickly-studded stalactites of somewhat massive formation. The proximity of this chamber to the entrance and the consequent atmospheric effects have in some measure dulled the brilliancy of the scene. On the other side a smaller chamber, profusely decorated with a finer and more delicate form of stalactite, forms a marked contrast in its glittering lustre. These two chambers, however, are only the introduction to the marvels of the cave. As we go forward gallery after gallery, each with its own peculiar charm, is opened to our view. Nature has here been particularly lavish, and every chamber is adorned with fragile and fantastic stalactites of every conceivable shape and variety. From the floors rise massive stalagmites, some over 30 ft. in diameter, which have almost the appearance of columns supporting the arches above, so that in whatever part we may be the whole effect is wondrously beautiful and magnificent. The distinctive feature of Yallingup is perhaps the “Shawl” formation, which admittedly has no equal anywhere. where. These shawls are varied in colour, some appear ing to be pure pearl, while others are striped with cream and scarlet. So regular are the stripes and colours and so natural the folds and fringes that one almost needs to touch them to be sure that they are not actual articles. The most noted is the Folded Shawl, which is about 6 ft. long and proportionately broad; it is extended as though for inspection, and with its numerous ous companions round about gives so curious and natural an appearance that the chamber has been named the Shawl shop. Passing on we see in the foreground the Arab’s Tent, another shawl formation so cunningly arranged that it seems to be the entrance to a tent. In fact, wherever we go these beautiful shawl formations to which distinctive names have been given hang all round us, the whole producing an effect that is really indescribable. able. Almost in the middle of the Cauliflower Chamber is a curious freak of Nature. The root of a jarrah-tree growing ing on the hill above has descended in search of moisture through the hill itself a distance of 50 ft., then the whole height of the chamber ber (some 40 ft.), and is finally lost in the soil some 30 ft. below the floor. There are many more formations tions — the Crystal Floor, the Bedford Hall, and others which we cannot here describe in detail. In fact, to give anything like an ade quate description scription of the beauties of Yallingup is almost beyond one's power. To be appreciated they must be seen, and the oftener they are viewed the more marvellous they appear. MARGARET RIVER CAVES. These are situated some distance south of Yallingup, and are reached by a further coach journey. They are equally rich in formation, and many of them possess peculiar and distinctive features. In some the entrance itself is unique, while in others, notably the Lake Cave, every part aids in completing an almost perfect pictuie. The first cave to be visited is the Wallcliffe, situated close to the mouth of the Margaret River. This is the oldest known cave which the hand of the vandal has not marred. It is rather small in extent, but con- tains several remarkable figures. The rushes used foj lights by those first exploring it have in some measure dimmed the brightness of the stalactites, but it possesses two curious formations known as the Devil's Hand and the Poultry and Fruit Show. To the south of Wallcliffe cliffe and on the coast lies the Blackboy Hollow, which contains an interesting formation known as “cauliflower” or “coral.” This is soft in character and pure white in appearance, changing to a delicate hue when light is thrown at the back of it. Many of its wonders have received appropriate names —the Organ Pipe, the Queen's Crown, the Broken Column, and the Mammoth stalagmite. The Broken Column is a very fine example of stalactite and stalagmite having been joined together, gether, only to be torn asunder by some action causing subsidence sidence of the floor. The tint is pale amber, which when combined bined with the newlyforming forming white stalactites tites of the ceiling produces duces a most charming effect. Next comes the Wit chdiffe Cave, one of the smallest and unfortunately nately the one that has suffered most from early visitors. It is somewhat difficult to reach the entrance, but extremely easy to explore. plore. Its value lies rather in the extensive view of the country gained from the entrance than from the actual beauty of the cave itself. Perhaps the favourite, and certainly tainly one of the most interesting, of all the caves is the Calgardup. Most of the chambers in this vast cavern are of an indescribable beauty. Within the main dome innumerable stalactites, white and glittering, hang from the ceiling and walls like icicles, while many of the older formations are amber in colour like those of Blackboy Hollow. One of the chief marvels of the cave is the Suspended Dome, a large bell-shaped mass some 5 ft. in diameter suspended in mid-air by a stalactite. This is ANOTHER VIEW OF SHAWL FORMATION AT YALLINGUP to be found at the entrance to the Belfry Chamber, so named from the roots of trees which, like bell ropes, hang from the roof above. The crowning glory is, however, ever, the Meteoric Shower, thousands of pencil-like stalactites of varying lengths, pendent from the ceiling and each tipped with perfect star-shaped terminals, giving the wonderful effect of a permanently arrested shower of meteors. The Mammoth Cave, as the name denotes, is remarkable able for its immensity and also for its age, as shown by the massive nature of its formations. Among its most interesting developments ments are the Cactus tus Tree and the Eagle's Wings, both perfect representations tions in glistening white of the objects after which they are named. In the same chamber are the Cathedral and Organ gan Pipes, the latter not only resembling an organ in shape, but giving forth clear and melodious sounds when struck. The gem of the district from a purely artistic point of view is the Lake Cave. Like many of the others, this is reached by a somewhat what precipitous descent through a sort of circular hollow, low, probably at some time in the fardistant distant past portion of another chamber, judging from the huge pillars supporting arches with discoloured stalactites that still surround it. The actual entrance is extremely narrow, but, once within, we find ourselves in a vast cavern, almost a perfect dome, the ceiling and s : les of which scintillate with myriads of pointed stalactites. The principal feature, however, is the Suspended Table, a huge mass 15 ft. by 7 ft., and about an inch suspended by two large stalactites, and reaching to within a couple of feet of the -surface of the subterranean ranean lake from which the cave takes its name. By means of magnesium light the magic beauty of the formation is brilliantly reflected in the calm surface of the water beneath, and the marvellous spectacle, which resembles the dazzling oriental splendours of an Arabian Nights' scene, is in itself sufficient to repay the tourist for the distance travelled to see it. Words are totally insufficient to convey an adequate idea of the sublime magnificence of this great underground treasure-house. The Bride’s Cave and the Giant's Cave have each their special features. The first, which practically consists sists of a single chamber, takes its name from a stalagmite mite in the gloom of the entrance, which to the romantic tic mind has all the appearance of a charming bride. The latter, as the title implies, consists of a series of gigantic caverns, the principal pal of which has been called the Fairies' Ballroom. A great deal of interest attaches to the Golgotha Cave on account of its name, which it owes to the fact that quite recently the skull and part of the skeleton of a human being were discovered covered in the innermost most chamber. The general opinion is that these are the remains of some early Dutch or Portuguese tuguese sailor who had either wandered accidentally into the cave or sought shelter from natives or the weather, and in trying to get out again had strayed farther and farther inward until all hope was lost. The chamber in which the remains were found has been termed the Skull Chamber, and at the head of the stairway leading to it there is a large and beautiful stalagmite some 20 ft. in height, appropriately named The Sentinel. During this year (1911) a cave known as the Moondyne, dyne, near Karridale, has been explored and renamed the Coronation Cave. Arrangements are now being POULTRY SHOW, WALLCLIFFE CAVE. made to construct the necessary guide rails so that it may be opened to public inspection. In the opinion of the Honourable the Colonial Secretary it is far superior to any cavern yet discovered in Australia, and is situated in a district remarkable for the beauty of its scenery and for the inducements it offers to the sportsman and the tourist. Although we have mentioned the caves that are open to inspection, they are only a few of the total number existing. No doubt as time goes on and opportunity tunity offers others will be made accessible, and probably beauties even yet undreamt of will be unveiled to view. At present, although the grandeur of the Lake Cave will probably make the most lasting impression, the attractions of each are so distinct in character and so special in charm that comparison is difficult. While for a single effect the universal verdict favours the Lake Cave, to the Yallingup must be awarded the palm for diversity of formation and for displaying the greatest variety of exquisitely-shaped objects of delicate and fragile beauty. We have confined ourselves to what can only claim to be a more or less prosaic description of these marvels of Nature. To attempt even feebly to do justice to their wonderful beauty and incomparable charm requires command of a language more romantic than English and better supplied with superlative expressions. No others known excel them andffer,w r , if any, rival them. The farfamed famed Jenolan Caves of New South Wales do not equal them. If nothing else existed in this State in the way of scenery the caves are alone sufficient to dispel the statement that Western Australia has no natural advantages to interest the tourist and the visitor. All the caves are thoroughly well ventilated, and widelyknowm knowm medical men of the highest standing in the State have not only expressed the opinion that no constitution can possibly suffer from an exploration of their wonderful ful and mysterious recesses, but have gone farther and stated that ' the country is the ideal health resort of Australia.” At Yallingup a commodious and modern hotel—the Cave House —has been erected, and suitable provision for visitors made at Margaret River. Every facility is offered to tourists by the Government in the way of cheap fares and coupons covering all expenses for the round trip. The w T hole of the caves may be viewed in live days, and the expenses, inclusive of rail and accommodation charges, need not exceed live guineas. Nothing is left undone in the way of popularizing the district, and it may safely be said there is no part of Australia that will so amply repay a visit. YANCHEP CAVES. These are not more than 35 miles from Perth and within four miles of the coast. Situated amid the hills, they are picturesquely placed in a district abounding in interest for the sportsman. They are neither so well explored nor so convenient of approach as those farther away from the capital, but there is little doubt that in course of time they will be equally accessible and their beauties as well known. So far as they have been examined they exhibit practically the same features as the caves of the south-west, with which in the opinion of many they need not fear comparison. A feature of some of them is their immense size, chambers having been found that extend from 400 to 600 ft. in length. From the general nature of the country, which the resonance of the ground proves to be honeycombed with caverns, it is more than probable that an extended search will reveal many other caves of possibly even greater beauty. So far the efforts of the authorities have been almost entirely confined to the better known caves of the south-west, but there is no doubt that they might wisely extend their operations and make these interesting ing curiosities of Nature available to the pleasureseeker. seeker. Inland scenery of a natural character is no doubt largely wanting in Western Australia. The flat and uninteresting nature of the landscape and the absence of permanent water combine to bring about the general appearance of a desert. But there is a gradually widening ing belt of country stretching inland from the coast that presents a scene of the greatest importance—the view of cultivated fields, of extensive vineyards and orchards, and of an ever-increasing acreage of wheat— which not only rejoices the eye, but gives solace to the mind in the knowledge that here is something possessing beauty and utility together, bringing prosperity to the State and happiness and comfort to its people. THE CLIMATE OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA. The first record we have of a scientific climatologist is that of the great astronomer and geographer Ptolemy. He divided the surface of the globe, from the Equator to the Arctic circle, into climates or parallel zones, corresponding responding to the successive increase of a quarter of an hour in the length of midsummer day. Climate in its modern acceptation signifies that peculiar state of the atmosphere in regard to heat and moisture which prevails in any given place, together with the meteorological conditions generally, in so far as they exert an influence on animal and vegetable life. The infinitely diversified character which climate dis plays may be referred to the combined operation of different causes, which are reducible chiefly to these four distance from the Equator, height above the sea, distance from the sea, and prevailing winds, which may thus be regarded as forming the gieat bases of the law of climate. The history of meteorology in Australia tralia may be said to have been inaugurated by the late Sir George Kingston in South Australia in the year 1839. Systematic rainfall observations were continued «/​ by this gentleman till 1878, the last 18 years being concurrent with more systematic and complete observations tions at the Adelaide Observatory. At Perth no official records of rainfall were taken till 1875, when the observations were commenced at the Government Gardens by the Surveyor-General (Sir Malcolm Fraser), and where they are still continued. Western Australia covers a vast area of 975,920 miles, and if we extend a line from Albany in the south, latitude 35° 2', to Wyndham in the north, latitude 15° 27', it will be at once seen what a great diversity of climate the largest of the six States of the Commonwealth wealth possesses. .In dealing with the climatic conditions ditions of the State the Editor wishes to express his obligations to the State Government Astronomer, Mr. W. E. Cooke, M.A., F.R.A.S., for most of the information tion contained in this article. During the first half of last century meteorological observations were confined largely to rainfall only. Systematic observations of pressure, temperature, rainfall, fall, wind, and other meteorological elements began with the foundation of the astronomical observatories in the capitals of the different States. The Perth Observatory owes its birth to the foresight of the Forrest rest Government in 1896, Sir John Forrest laying the foundation-stone of the principal building. Among the many great observatories of the world few can surpass it for beauty of position or perfectness of equipment. In taking up the subject of the State’s climate generally it will be best to divide it roughly into three parts —(1) The climate of Perth and the south-west and south coastal districts; (2) the climate within the Tropics; and (3) the climate of the interior. The first division may for practical purposes be considered as bounded by the coastline and also by a straight line drawn from Eucla to Geraldton, but if for the sake of expediency we are to take Perth as representing the whole, certain exceptions will have to be made. The rainfall is heaviest in the extreme south-west, diminishing thence both northward and eastward. It also falls off from the coast and coastal ranges in all directions inland. Between Bunbury and Albany the summer temperature is considerably cooler than elsewhere. where. The sea breeze which compensates so much for the oppressive heat of summer in the coastal districts does not reach far inland. With these exceptions we can regard the climate of Perth as typical of our first climatic division and proceed to discuss it PERTH CLIMATE Just as there are two distinct types of weather, Mr. Cooke remarks, “so there are two distinct seasons— winter and summer/​' The former sets in, as a rule, rather abruptly. From May to the end of October may be considered the winter months, and the weather during ing that period is dominated by the passage of the “highs" and “lows." The average rainfall for each month is as follows : Points. May ... ... ... ••• 476 June ... ... ... ... 654 July 604 August ... ... ... ... 571 September ... ... ... 320 October ... ... ... 205 These figures might convey the impression that Perth is a very wet place during the winter, but the reverse is the fact. Owing to the tendency for the rain to fall principally in heavy showers and at night, and to the sandy nature of the soil which rapidly absorbs it, the general impression of the Perth winter is that of a succession cession of fine, bright, calm days, varied occasionally by a severe but brief storm. The weather is, on the whole, delightful, but it may perhaps be too mild. One misses the keen frosty feeling that is experienced in other places, and its absence probably justifies to some extent the popular statement that the climate is enervating. At night it is frequently cold, July showing an average of five nights during which the minimum thermometer in the screen registers below 40°. (As this description of Perth is to be taken as representing more or less the whole of th§ South-West district, it must be stated that severe frosts are by no means uncommon inland. The coldest parts of the State at night are Southern Cross and Katanning, and here the thermometer mometer frequently falls below 32°, especially if exposed to radiation. The mean minimum in the Stevenson screen for July is 38’7° at Southern Cross and 40° at Katanning.) Very severe Hoods have been occasionally experienced enced at Perth and elsewhere in the past, but for a long time there has been an almost entire absence of these; in fact, during all the years that systematic records have now been kept no great floods have occurred. The summer does not set in quite so abruptly as the winter. With an occasional hot day in October it commences generally in November, but does not as a rule become really noticeable until after Christmas. Taking a temperature of 90° in the shade as the criterion of a hot day, we find an average of less than 1 in October, 3 in November, 7 in December, 11 in January, 11 in February, 8 in March, and 2 in April. This number (43 in all) seems rather formidable, but generally the heat is not felt oppressively on account of the short portion of the day during which it lasts on each occasion. On a normal hot summer day a sea breeze always sets in about noon on the coast and reaches Perth about 2 p.m. The temperature then commences to fall, and the evening and night are delightfully cool and pleasant. Occasionally a protracted tracted spell of hot weather is experienced, but even then the nights are generally cool. The longest of these spells without a break occurred in 1896, when the maximum exceeded 90° on every date between January 25 and February 12 —19 in all. But the severest heat was apparently in January and February, 1880. The highest reading that has so far been recorded in Perth is 116*7°, which occurred in January, 1878. Notwithstanding the fact that the monthly means are usually higher than those for the principal cities in South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales, and that we are in a lower latitude than any of these, the same remark may be applied to the summer climate as to the winter. It appears to be ftiilder than the others. One notices the absence here of those violent changes which are sometimes experienced in the other States. When a cool change comes after a spell of hot weather it seems to steal upon the land gradually. The appearance ance of soft, watery cumulus clouds in the west generally about sunset announces the arrival of the welcome change. That evening will be cooler than the preceding ones, but not remarkably so, and next day it may be more or less cloudy, but only moderately cool. At night probably a few light showers, and we realize that a definite change has occurred. Whether or not the sudden changes experienced elsewhere act as a tonic it is difficult to say, but at all events they rarely if ever occur in Perth. CLIMATE WITHIN THE TROPICS. A lengthy description of this is unnecessary; and, unfortunately, our knowledge is derived mainly from coastal stations. The year may be divided into two seasons—wet and dry —the former lasting from the middle or the end of November to the end of March. During this period the weather is very unpleasant, the maximum temperature every day being close to or above 100°. Records of 110° are by no means infrequent, and the thermometer has even reached 120°, the highest reading ever registered in the State being 123° at Onslow in February, 1896. Thunderstorms, accompanied by heavy rain, are frequently experienced, and it is during this season that the willy-willy occasionally visits the north-west coast. A moderate rainfall can generally be relied upon down to about latitude 20°, but south of that it is uncertain. Sometimes it will be very heavy and at other times hardly a drop will fall. The heaviest ever recorded was 36*49 in. at Whim Creek, near Cossack, on April 2-3, 1898. The severest drought occurred between June, 1890, and January, 1892, during the whole of which period (20 months) only 73 points of rain were recorded as the mean for the Cossack District. In the winter months or dry season the climate is considered by the inhabitants to be most enjoyable. An occasional wet day is experienced, but the weather is for the most part fine, clear, calm, and pleasant. CLIMATE OF THE INTERIOR. It is only within the last few years that any meteorological records have been obtainable from the interior districts of the State, and upon these it is hazardous to found a very definite opinion as to the climate. Up to the end of 1899, for instance, the possible occurrence of such a succession of wet, stormy days as were actually experienced in 1900 would scarcely be credited. The climate is a mixture of the two already described. Sometimes the tropical rains come across; sometimes the winter storms of the South-West and Southern districts extend well inland, and sometimes both sources of rain fail and a drought ensues. In the summer it is a climate to be endured as patiently as possible. On the Coolgardie goldfields the heat waves are varied by the cool changes which pass from west to east along the south coast; but from the Murchison northwards the heat is very disagreeable indeed, while the inhabitants frequently find all the recognized languages quite inadequate for a description of the flies and dust. As a kind of compensation, the winter season is delightful. Very little rain falls and the weather is cold, clear, and bracing. All through the summer occasional thunderstorms may be looked for, and it sometimes happens, as already described, that monsoonal rains come right through this district from the north-west to south-east. The severest and most continuous of which we have any record occurred in March and April, 1900, but geological signs seem to indicate that heavy floods have occurred in past years. To summarize briefly we may take Perth as a fair and general indication of the climate of Western Aus tralia. The climate of Quito, the capital of the South American republic of Ecuador, practically on the line of the Equator, on a plateau over 9,000 ft. above the sea, has been described as the most perfect in the world —the climate of perpetual spring. But its advocates forget the rapid chills at night that cause so much pneumonia, the scourge of these lofty sites. We have already alluded to the popular impression that the climate of Perth is enervating, yet just as there is no such thing as a perfect man, so from a medical point of view there is no such thing as a perfect climate. But if the climates of the world were grouped together that of Perth and its environs should easily hold its own against them all. Government publications and the Press of Australia have from time to time clearly shown that our Island Continent climatically and otherwise offers greater advantages to the settler on the land and the prospective pective immigrant than does Canada and other portions of our Empire’s oversea dominions. But we can go farther and show that the climate of Western Australia has advantages which her sister Eastern States do not possess. Our soil, as a rule, may be poorer and less uniform in quality, but this deficiency is more than compensated by the regularity of our seasons. We have never had, and from our geographical position can never have, those devastating droughts which periodically visit the eastern portion of the continent. Thus we never have anything approaching a failure of crops or a decimation of herds such as those failures of Nature which visited the Eastern States in the years 1902, 1903, and 1908, bringing in their train privation, misery, and disaster. THE GEOLOGY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA. Contributed by A. GIBB MAITLAND, F.G.S., Government Geologist. SYSTEMATIC GEOLOGY. Considering the geographical extent of Western Australia, the numerical strength of the Geological Survey Staff, and the paramount necessity of attention tion being concentrated upon examinations in and round important mining centres or other districts of potentially economic value, geological inquiry has up to the present consisted merely of a series of unconnected observations, to the co-ordination of which we must look to the future. Despite this circumstance stance work has now been so widely extended as to permit mit of a more or less broad, generalized account of the salient geological features of the State being prepared, though no attempt has been made to enter into minute details. History. —As the preparation of this account is to a large extent based upon the work of previous official geologists it is not out of place to give a succinct account of their labours. Dr. Ferdinand von Sommer would appear to have been the first official geologist employed in Western Australia. This gentleman travelled extensively throughout the State during the years 1847 to 1851 He geologically examined the Victoria, Toodyay, and York districts, and extended his observations to the country lying between the last named and Mount Barren, on the south coast. Neither the maps nor the reports of this observer have ever been published, although three articles from his pen bearing upon the geology of the State have appeared in the current literature during the years 1848 and 1849. After an interval of 21 years, during which much excellent geological work was accomplished by the Gregory Brothers, Mr. 11. Y. L. Brown was appointed to the post of Government Geologist. This gentleman during the years 1870 to 1873 prepared three geological maps and ten reports (now out of print), which referred principally to the southern and coastal portions of the State. Mr. Brown’s appointment was not continued beyond 1873 owing to the disinclination of the Legislature lature to expend money on a scientific department. In 1882 —nine years after Mr. Brown’s retirement —Mr. E. T. Hardman, of the Geological Survey of Ireland, was appointed to the post of Government Geologist. His labours were confined chiefly to the Kimberley district, in which he was the pioneer geological logical observer, and his field work carried out during the years 1883-4 laid the foundation of our knowledge of the geology of this portion of Western Australia, and played an important part in the opening up of the State’s first declared goldfield. This officer examined the neighbourhood of Bunbury and Blackwood, and the metropolitan area with reference to the question of its water supply from underground sources. Very shortly after Mr. Hardman’s term of service in Western Australia came to an end a motion was brought forward in the Legislative Council in 1885 having for its object '‘the establishment of a permanent geological department of the colony. . . .” After a vigorous debate, however, the motion was defeated, principally on the question of ways and means. The late Rev. C. G. Nicolay contributed in many ways to the knowledge of the geology of the State, and was in charge of the Geological Museum at Fremantle mantle founded by Mr. Hardman, which ultimately became merged into the National Museum. It was not, however, until 1887 that the Government ment found itself able to provide the necessary funds for the post of Government Geologist. The appointment ment was conferred upon Mr, H. P. Woodward, who held the position from 1887 to 1895. During this gentleman’s tenure of office he had for his associate Mr. B. H. Woodward, who acted as Curator of the Geological Museum and Assayer to the Department, while in 1893 Mr. S. Goczel was added to the staff as Field Geologist and Mining Engineer. The work of the survey during Mr. Woodward’s term of office extended from Albany to Kimberley, though the issue of geological logical maps in illustration of the various reports seems to have been confined to the later years of the survey. With a limited staff, still more limited appropriation, and the difficulties presented by the vast area of the State the survey under Mr. Woodward was able to issue 21 reports and six geological maps. The work of organizing a more or less systematic geological survey was commenced in 1896, its object being the investigation of the geological structure, mineral resources, mining industries, and underground water supplies of the State. These objects, so far as the resources available will admit, are carried out by means of:— (a) Reconnaissance surveys of those portions of the State about the structure and resources of which little is known ; (h) detailed geological surveys of mining ing centres under active development; (c) chemical and mineralogical examinations of soils, rocks, minerals, and natural waters collected bv the field staff, and • 7 under certain specified conditions by prospectors and others; (d) palaeontological investigations; (e) the maintenance of a geological museum : and ff) the publication lication of the data acquired in this way. Topography. —ln its broader topographical features Western Australia falls naturally into three geographical cal divisions; The Coastal Plain consists in reality of a fringe round the coast with a more or less gentle slope to the seaward. The plain is formed for the most part of shallow water deposits, sandstones, conglomerates, and thin shales, with occasionally incoherent sands and clays. The plain has a width of 60 or 70 miles in places on the western coast, though in the country at the head of the Great Australian Bight the plain, absolutely devoid of rivers, extends some 200 miles into the interior. terior. The inner margin of the Coastal Plain reaches an altitude of 600 ft. above sea-level in certain localities. ties. The Coastal Plain is separated from the interior by a belt of Hill Ranges. The Hill Ranges form what may be called the escarpment of the plateau and plains of the interior. They have an average elevation of about 1,200 ft., though isolated ranges reach altitudes of 4,000 ft. above sea-level. This escarpment has either a short or steep slope down to the edge of the Coastal Plain, into which it gradually merges. This belt of country, drained by the rivers of the State, is principally formed of granitic and metamorphic rocks, the decay of which produces excellent soil; it comprises, owing to its rainfall, the principal agricultural districts of the State. The Plateaux and Plains of the Interior consist of a broken tableland, from which rise isolated hills and ridges of metamorphic rocks, often separated by sandplains plains of some considerable extent and containing depressions occujoied by saline marshes, clay flats, brine lakes, or deposits of salt. There are no rivers and the rainfall is slight. This plateau, which forms the chief mineral region of the State, is mantled by superficial deposits, concealing the underlying rocks, over very wide areas. Pre-Cambrian, Archaean (?). —The oldest formation tion in Western Australia is that comprising those granitic, gneissic, and schistose rocks which occupy about one-half of the superficial extent of the State, which is 975,920 square miles, and form the floor upon which the newer strata have been laid down. To the whole of these rocks observers have invariably assigned an Archaean age; this, however, is more inferred than proved. There is only one instance on record at the present time upon which this classification may be considered to have been determined by palaeontological evidence. In the Kimberley district certain limestones, sandstones, quartzites, etc., have yielded Lower Cambrian brian fossils, viz., Salterella Hardmani and Oleuellus (?) Forresti; these fossiliferous beds are considered, and may probably be, newer than the gneissic and schistose rocks in the vicinity. So far as observations have at present been carried no actual junction has been noticed between the schists and the fossiliferous strata, and there is nothing already in the evidence available incompatible compatible with the supposition that the talcose and mica schists and other associated rocks represent much more highly metamorphosed portions of the Lower Cambrian brian strata. In the absence of direct stratigraphies 1 or palaeontological evidence it is convenient for descriptive tive purposes to adhere to a purely lithological classification cation and to separate the gneissic, granitoid, and schistose rocks from those in which metamorphism has not been carried sufficiently far to entirely obliterate their clastic character. The great bulk of the interior plateau is granite and gneiss, the remainder being formed of the metamorphic rocks. The major portion of the surface of the plateau occupied by these graniticrocks rocks forms broad expanses of flat or rolling country from which occasionally rise huge agglomerates of immense boulders of fantastic-shaped “tors.” The schists and allied rocks which constitute the auriferous belts of the State occur as broad bands or patches in the granite, and present a characteristic type of scenery. The various auriferous zones, so far as we know them, are arranged in very long bands of varying width, the limits of which are marked by tolerably well-defined parallels in a general north-west and south-east direction. tion. This marked linear arrangement is not only confined fined to the metalliferous zones themselves, but to their component beds and veins. The outcrops of these more or less parallel elongated strips are due to the folding of the strata which originated during the efforts of the crust of the earth to adjust itself to the contraction resulting from the gradual cooling of the interior. terior. There are probably ably few parts of the Australian continent tinent which can boast of a finer development velopment of these older rocks than Western Australia. They consist of rocks of very different ferent types; many of them are in a crystalline condition and form coarse crystalline schists and gneiss, as well as basic rocks, which have been more or less crushed, foliated, and completely converted verted into greenstone schists. The basic rocks comprise prise gabbro, dolerite, epidiorite, pyroxenite, hypersthenite, sthenite, amphibolite, etc. In some localities these basic rocks can be seen passing by scarcely perceptible gradations into hornblende schists and allied rocks. Some of these older rocks are of sedimentary origin and are practically unaltered; others are quartz and mica schists, and in certain localities are cleaved conglomerates, some of the pebbles in which consist of a pre-existing conglomerate glomerate from a much older series of which no trace has yet been found. The less altered members of these ancient sediments make their appearance in many portions of the State. The rocks consist of a great variety of types of indurated slates, quartzites, and conglomerates, together with igneous rocks, some of which there are good grounds for believing to have been originally lavas and ashes. A remarkable and very noticeable feature of these •/​ older rocks are those bands of laminated cherts and jaspers, which often contain oxide of iron to such an extent as to warrant their being classed as iron-ores. These extend as roughly parallel bands, sometimes several miles in length, in the form of attenuated lenses, which, owing to their serrated ridges, stand out in bold relief, thus acquiring a conspicuousness all out of proportion portion to their real stratigraphical importance. These bands are often intersected by numerous faults, which in some districts are of considerable economic importance, ance, for it is along these fault lines that rich shoots of gold often occur. These older rocks are invaded by masses and veins of granite and allied rocks, which in many parts of the State occupy very large areas, sometimes embracing hundreds of square miles. The old granitic rocks are traversed by many large icelike quartz reefs, which rise to considerable altitudes tudes above the surface face like a wall, and which can in some cases be traced across country with more or less interruption for miles. These older granitic rocks are of some considerable importance by reason son of the fact that they form the matrices rices of tin and allied deposits in the State. These old Pre- Cambrian rocks are remarkable for the variety of useful and valuable minerals they contain. The plateau in which these older rocks occur has been remarkably quiescent since early geological times, and having had such a peaceful history the areas may be said to possess almost limitless mining possibilities. sibilities. Cambrian. —Strata of undoubted Cambrian age are known to occur in the Kimberley district, and were discovered by Mr. E. T. Hardman in 18S3-4. In the course of his explorations this observer gatheied a suite of fossils which were critically examined by Mr. R. Etheridge, Mr. W. H. Foord, and Dr. Hy. Woodward. ward. Among the disjecta membra were the head and spine of a trilobite belonging to the characteristic Cambrian brian family Olenellus , 0. Forresti , and numerous pteropods, Salterella Hardmani . These came from a locality which, unfortunately, cannot now be identified. The strata with which these fossils were associated consist of limestones, sandstones, quartzites, clay slates, and OUTCROP OF LAMINATED QUARTZITE sandy flags. Very little is known of these Cambrian strata at present. Their superficial area, however, would seem to be extensive, for they have been proved to extend in a north east and south-west direction from the Burt Range and for some distance to the southward of Mount Ddckrell. The strata have been tilted in such a way that the principal axis of folding is north-west and south-east. No estimate has yet been made of the thickness of these the oldest fossiliferous beds yet found in Western Australia. Despite the poor localization of Mr. Hardman’s man’s fossils it may be considered as proved that Cambrian brian strata do occur somewhere in Kimberley about 18° southern latitude. The discovery of Olenellns and SaltereMfi in the limestones of the Daly River, in the Northern Territory, is of considerable geological importance, ance, indicating as it does a somewhat wide distribution of Cambrian strata in the northern portion of Australia. tralia. -■ '' f r ■ « Nullagtne Series. —Age undetermined. A formatioh matioh which has been designated the Nullagine Series, and which cannot be exactly correlated with anv defined geological horizon in Western Australia, has a very wide distribution in the North-West Division of the State. The series consists of a great thickness of sandstones, stones, grits, conglomerates, and limestones, some of which are magnesian, together with a series of lavas, ashes, and agglomerates. The formation is of some economic importance, by reason of the fact that the basal members of the series have proved to be auriferous in two localities, viz., Nullagine and Just-in-Time. The beds of the Nullagine Series make a very prominent feature in the landscape in the districts in which it is developed, and play a very important part in the geology of the north-west. The series may be followed from the Oakover River, across the upper reaches of the Nullagine, the Coongan, and the Shaw Rivers, as far as the western boundary of the Pilbara goldfield on the Yule River, near Cangan Pool, from which locality it can be followed without a break to Roebourne, and southward to the Fortescue River. The same series constitutes the Hamersley Range, which contains Mount Bruce, the highest summit in the State. The Nullagine beds are continuous as far south as the Lyons River, where at Mount Phillips the conglomerate at the base of the series is seen to rest with a violent unconformity upon an uneven floor of ancient crystalline line rocks. In its lithological characters and general behaviour the Nullagine Series bears a very strong resemblance to the quartzites, etc., which constitute that continuous formation which extends from Wyndham to Mount Hart, a prominent summit in the King Leopold Range in the Kimberley Division. This formation as developed loped in Kimberley consists of a series of quartzites, sandstones, fine conglomerates, and shales, disposed in a series of broad anticlinal folds. Associated with the sediments is a series of bedded and intrusive igneous rocks, some of which are distinctly amygdaloidal, and contain zeolites and agates in the cavities. Beds of volcanic ash and breccia are common in certain localities. ties. In certain portions of the King Leopold Plateau are many excellent sections showing the intrusive nature of some of the igneous rocks. The sandstones are sometimes altered into hard compact quartzite, portions tions of which have been caught up in the body of the igneous rock. Other sections indicate quite clearly that some of the igneous rocks have found an easy passage along the bedding planes of the sedimentary rocks, and evidently occur in the form of sills. The lavas are traversed by almost vertical dykes of epidosite, which are traceable across country for long distances; while both the sedimentary and igneous rocks are intersected by numerous segregation veins of quartz, some of which are of considerable size and horizontal in extent. The recognition of the position of the beds of the Nullagine Series in the stratigraphical succession is of considerable importance ; the entire absence of fossils throughout the series renders correlation extremely difficult. cult. The beds forming the King Leopold Plateau have been claimed by previous observers as being of Cambrian age. If the lithological and stratigraphical resemblance between beds of the King Leopold Plateau and those of the Nullagine Series, as developed in Pilbara bara and the Ashburton, should prove to possess greater significance than at present appears, a Cambrian age for the Nullagine Series would have strong claims to acceptance. Silurian. — The occurrence of Silurian rocks in Western Australia has been more inferred than proved. Mr. F. J. Gregory described in 1861 certain rocks occurring ring in the Mount Barren Range as being probably of Silurian age, though the evidence upon which this determination was based was not given. The strata forming the Stirling Range, which lies about 50 miles north of Albany, have been claimed as Silurian. The beds consist of quartzites, sandstones, and shales, the whole being traversed by quartz veins ; they are highly folded, contorted, and faulted in places. According to the researches of Mr. H. P. Woodward the rocks at the western end of the range, near Mondinup, have been thrown into three sharp anticlinal and synclinal folds, in a distance north and south of about ten miles, by a lateral compression from the south. The strata chiefly developed in the Leopold and Mueller Ranges of Kimberley have been provisionally classed by Mr. E. T. Hardman as Silurian, more on account of their lithological character than on any stratigraphical or palaeontological evidence. The beds consist of pure crystalline quartzites, indurated grits, and quartzose conglomerates, interbedded with purple slates and soft sandstones. Much detailed fieldwork is, however, required before the occurrence of undoubted Silurian rocks can be considered to have been definitely proved in Western Australia. Devonian. —The occurrence of Devonian rocks has as yet been definitely proved only in one district of the State —the Kimberley Division, where this formation appears to be largely developed. The beds consist of hard grits, conglomerates, indurated limestones, and shales, associated with which are contemporaneous lava flows, breccias, and ashes. In the Napier Range the Devonian rocks are represented by solid crystalline limestones, stones, with at the base of the formation a calcareous breccia and conglomerate. These beds are seen in the Barker River Gorge to pass beneath a series of sandstones stones and shales of what are believed to be Carboniferous boniferous age. Permo-Carboniferous. —The Permo-Carboniferous rocks cover a wide extent of country and bid fair to become of considerable economic importance. There are four regions in which fossiliferous Permo-Carboniferous rocks are known in the State, viz., Kimberley, Gascoyne, coyne, Irwin River, and Collie districts. The beds as exposed in the Kimberley district are divisible into a lower or limestone series (in which limestones stones predominate) and an upper or sandstone series (made up largely of sandstones and other sedimentary beds). The two series are seen to succeed each other conformably in the Ilaughton Range. Both series have yielded a rich assemblage of fossils. The Kimberley Carboniferous beds underlie nearly the whole of the so-called Great Sandy Desert, which extends from the Ninety-Mile Beach westward to the Northern Territory frontier. The Gascoyne beds cover a very large area between the 22nd and 26th parallels of southern latitude, and JUNCTION OF METAMORPHIC AND DEVONIAN ROCKS, ELVIRE RIVER. Among the fossils found in the Napier Range beds are a Coccostean fish, a new species of Proetus; remains of Loxonema, sp.; Pjuomphalus , sp.; Rhynchondla, allied to It. Timorensis; Pachypora, sp.; Phillipsastrcca, trcca, sp. ; and Goniatites, sp., which clearly indicate a Devonian age for the strata. The following fossils have also been found occurring ring in the Kimberley Devonian rocks: Anthozoa. Gyathophyllum vergatum, Hinde; Phillipsastrcea, lipsastrcea, sp. ; Favosites Goldfussi, Edw. and Haime. Brachiopoda. Productus, sp.; A try pa reticularis, Linn.; Ehynchondln cuboid es, Sow.; U. pugnus, Martin: tin: cf. Timorensis, Beyr; Spirifera Musakheylensis, lensis, var. Australis, Foord. Gastropoda. Goniatites (Prancoceras), cf. rotatorius, torius, De Kon. Crustacea. Proetus, sp. nov. c excellent sections of them may be seen in the valleys of the Wooramel, Gascoyne, Lyons, Minilya, and Lyndon Rivers. Like their representatives in Kimberley, the strata are divisible into an upper or sandstone and a lower or limestone series. The sandstone series, which is seen resting conformably upon the limestone, is well exposed in the Corandibby, Kennedy, and Moogooloo Ranges. These Permo-Carboniferous rocks have been pierced in the pioneer borehole at Pelican Hill, near Carnarvon, which had been carried down to a depth of 3,011 ft. These strata, which comprised calcareous shales and limestone, were encountered beneath the fossiliferous mesozoic rocks at a depth of 1,406 ft. ; and continued to the bottom of the borehole, which, however, ever, was not carried deep enough to reach the floor of more ancient rocks upon which they rest. Interbedded with these Permo-Carboniferous rocks is a very persistent boulder bed, the component pebbles of which are covered with striae of such a nature as to suggest that they owe their origin to ice action. Sections tions occur which show that this bed does not attain any great thickness, and that it is crowded with pebbles and boulders of granite, etc., embedded in a calcareous, careous, fossiliferous matrix, which contains fragments of Spirifera , Productus, and Polyzoa, in addition to Aviculopecten tenuicollis. The fossil contents imply a marine origin for the boulder bed. It, therefore, can hardly be a glacial moraine, and it is more than likely that the materials were transported by floating ice, which deposited its burden on the sea floor. Wherever seen /​?? it lias been found that this glacial boulder bed (the Lyons Conglomerate) does not lie quite at the base of the Permo-Carboniferous rocks as developed in Western Australia. The Lyons Conglomerate marks an important geological horizon, which has been proved to extend for a distance of about 200 miles. In the Irwin River district the Permo-Carboniferous rocks present an uninterrupted series of shales, clays, and sandstones, with occasional beds of limestone which are arranged in a very broad anticlinal fold, the axis of which trends generally north and south. About the middle of the series there occurs a zone of argillaceous limestones, containing a heterogeneous collection of striated boulders such as ice action alone can produce. The stratigraphical position of the boulder bed shows the horizon to be interbedded with marine strata, the equivalents of those in the Gascoyne. The Collie River beds, which attain a thickness of at least 2,000 ft., are of considerable importance by reason of the fact that they contain coal seams to a total thickness of over 140 ft. The beds, which cover an area of about 500 square miles, consist of shales, sandstones, and grits. The boundary of the field is, with one local exception, everywhere defined by faults, one of which has been estimated to have a downthrow bo the north-east of at least 2,000 ft. The Collie River beds have yielded the following plants: — Glossopteris browniana; G. browniana, var. indica; G. browniana, var. communis; G. browniana, var. anyustifolia; G. browniana ganyamopteraides; and the following Foraminifera: minifera: Endothyra , Valvulina plicata, Bulimina Truncafulina haidinyeri, and Pulvinulina exigua. The Permo-Carboniferous rocks of Western Australia tralia have yielded a rich assemblage of fossils, among which are: Rhizopoda. Nubecularia Stephensi, How. Anthozoa. Amplexus pustulosus, Hudl. ; A. Selwyni, wyni, De Kon.; Cyathophyllum depressum, Hinde; C. virgatum, Hinde; Pleurophyllum Australe , Hinde; P. sulcatum, Hinde; Alveolites obscurus, De Kon.; Hexayonella yonella (Evactinopora) crucialis, Hudl. ; 77. dendroidea , Hudl.; Syrinyopora reticulata, var. patula. Crinoidea. A ctinocrinus, sp. ; Flatycrinus , sp. Tubicola. Spirorbis ambiyuus, Flem. Bryozoa. Fcuestella plebeia; I*, fossula; Poly • pora Australis, Hinde ; Protoretepora ampla, Lonsd. Brachiopoda. Aid ost eyes Baracoodensts, Eth. fils; Ghonetes Pratti , Davidson; Derhyia cf. senilis, Phill.; Orthis cf. Michelini, Martin; Orthotetes (Streptorhynchus) rhynchus) senilis, Phill. ; Productus hrachytheerus, Sow.; P. cf. Cora, d’Orb; P. cf. maryaritaceux, Phill.; 7 J . scabriculus, Martin :P. semireticulatus , Mar tin; P. puyilis, Phill.; P. suhqnadratus , Morris; P. tenuistriatus, De Vern; P. Foordi, Eth. fils; 7 undatus, Defr. ; Strophalosia Clarkei , Eth. fils; Strophomena homena analoya, Phill.; Actinoconchus cf. planosulcat cat us, Phill.; Gleiothyris (Athyris) Macleayana , Eth. fils; (7. var. Baracoodensis, Eth. fils; C. Itoysii , Lev.; Gyrtina carbonaria, var. Australasica, Eth. fils; 7PV lasma (Terehratula) nohilis, Eth. fils; 77. sacculus, Martin; 77. kastata, Sow.; 77. amygdala, Dana; 77. cymbalformis, Morris; Reticularia crebristria, Morris; P. lineata, Martin; Rhynchonella ( Hypothyris) cuboides, Sow. ; 77. pleurodon , Phill. ; 77. puynus, Martin; Seminula subtilita, Hall; Spirifera avicnla, Sow. ; $. convoluta; S. disjunct a, Sow. ; 5. glabra, Martin ; 5-. Hardmani , Foord : 5. Kimberleyensis , Foord ; $. lata, McCoy; >S f . Musakheylensis , var. trolis , Foord; striata , Martin; $. Stutchburii, Eth. fils; £. trigonalisy Martin: >9. vespertilio , Sow.; Syrinyothyris exsuperans , De Kon. Pelecypoda. Aviculopecten multiradiata , Eth. pere ; .4. sprenti , Johns; tenmcollis, Gardiomorpha oblonya , Sow. ; TJeltopecten (Aviculopecten) Illawarensisy ensisy Morris; 77. tenuisulcus , Dana; 77. leinceformxs , Morris; 77. subquinquelineatus , McCoy; Myalina Mingenewensis, Eth. fils; ParaUelodon (Palcearca) subaryuta, De Kon. ; Stutchburia cf. Rand si , Eth. fils : Pleurophorus ( Pachydornus) carinatus y Morris. Gastropoda. Baylea (1 vania) Levellii, De Kon. ; Bellerophon costatus, Sow. ; 7?. decussatus , Flem. ; Ptychomphalina Maitlandi, Eth. fils. Cephalopoda. Gcelonautilus Chesterensis , De Kon. ; Discites cf. Omalianus, De Kon. ; Gastrioceras Jacksoni, Eth. fils ; (7. sphcericum, Goldf. ; Agathiceras micromphalum, phalum, Morris. Crustacea. Phillipsia grand is, Eth. fils. Pisces. Edestus Davisii, H. Wood. Jurassic. The Jurassic rocks of the State have a fairly wide extent, especially in the Champion Bay district, near Geraldton. Rocks of this age have also been recorded from Shark Bay and also from Cape Riche to the east of Albany. From this latter locality Ammonites (Perisphinctes) Championensis, sp. nov., has been recorded, but there is some doubt as to whether or not this specimen has been correctly localized, or that it really came from Champion Bay. The Champion Bay beds cover a fairly large area of country to the south, in the neighbourhood of the coastline. They are seen to rest with a marked unconformity on the Permo-Carboniferous rocks of the Irwin River valley. They also extend northward, having been met with at Shark Bay and on the Gascoyne River, near the Kennedy nedy Range. The Jurassic beds of the State are represented sented by oolitic limestones, clays, sandstones (which are often ferruginous), grits, conglomerates, and lignites. Some of the ferruginous sandstones contain abundant plant remains. As a rule the strata are horizontal or but gently undulating, and have probably been deposited along the then coast during a long period of depression. No estimate can as yet be made of the thickness of the Jurassic beds; they have, however, been pierced by four boreholes in the Champion Bay district trict which have proved the thickness to be not less than 2,000 ft. The plant remains occurring in these beds near Minginew seem to indicate that the beds are the equivalents lents of those at Talgai and Rosewood, in Queensland. The beds have yielded a rich Jurassic fauna, including cluding the following:— ing:— Crinoidea. Pentacrinus, crinus, sp. Tubicola. Serpula ronformis , Goldf. Bryozoa. Bryozoa , sp. Brachiopoda. Rhynchonella chonella variabilis , Schl.; Rhynchonella solitaria , Moore. Pelecypoda. Area, sp. ; Alectryonia, Ostrea, Marshi, Sow.; Avicula cequalis , Moore: Avicula (MacGoyella) Barklyi , Moore; Avicula ecMnata , Sow. ; A vicula incequivalvis , Sow. ; Avicula Munsteri, steri, Bronn. ; Gtenostreon (Lima) pecteniformis , Schl. ; Gucullcea infata , Moore; Cucnllcca oblonga, longa, Sow.; Gucullcea semistriata; Gucullcea tibraddonensis, donensis, Eth. fils; Gryphcea, sp. ; Tlinnites , sp. ; Lima Gordonii , Moore; Lima proboscidea, Sow.; Lima punctata , Sow.; Modiola Maitlandi , Eth. fils; J/​y-tilus -tilus cf. gygerensis , d’Orb ; Nucula , sp. ; Ostrea tholiformis, formis, Eth. fils; Pecten colons, Goldf.; Pecten ductus, tus, Sow. ; Pecten cf. frontalis , Dum. ; Pecten Greenoughiensis, oughiensis, Moore; Pecten valoniensis, Defr. ; Pecten cf. vesicularis; Perna , sp.; Plicatula , sp. ; Radula (Lima) duplicator Sow.; Trigonia Moorei , Lycett; Trigonia costata , Clarke ; Gresslya donaciformis , Phill. ; Myacites liassianus, Gueust; Myacites Sanfordii, c 2 Moore; Pholadomya ovulum , Agassz : Pleuromya , sp. ; Astarte apicalis , Moore; Astarte Cliftoni , Moore; Gardium , sp.; Gypricardia , sp. ; Isocardia , sp. ; Lucina , sp. ; Opis, sp.; Panopcea (Glycimeris) rugosa , Moore; Tancredia plana (I), Moore; Teredo (Pholas) Australis, Moore; Unicardiumo, sp. ; Dentalium , sp. ; Amberleya, sp. ; Phasianella, sp. ; Pleurotomaria Greenougfiiensis, Eth. fils; Trochus; "Turbo Australis, tralis, Moore; Turbo Icevigatus, Sow.; Gerithium Greenoughtensis, Moore; Chemnitzia, sp.; Nerincea, sp.; Rissoina Australis, Moore; Actceon depressus, Moore. Cephalopoda. Nautilus perornatus, Crick; Nautilus lus sinuatus, Sow. ; Ammonites lautus; Ammonites Walcottii, Sow.; Ammonites (Dorset ensia) Glarkei, Crick; Ammonites (Dumortieria) Moorei, Lycett; Ammonites (Macrocephalites) macrocephalus, Schl ; Ammonites (Perisphinctes) Ghampionensis, Crick ; Ammonites ( Perisphinctes phinctes ) robiginosus, Crick; Ammonites ( Sphoeoroceras ) semiornatus, natus, Crick; Amm onlies lies ( Sphoeoroceras ) Woodwardi , Crick; A /​?? - monifes (Stephanoceras) Australis , Crick; immonites monites ( Normannites ) Australis , Crick; Belemnites nites canaliculatus , Schl.; B elemni tes Can ha mi , Tate; Gy there corrosa, v a r. grossepuncfata , Chap. ; Gy there drupacea, pacea, yar. fort i or, Chap. ; Cyfhere lobatula , Chap.; Gytheropteron Australiense, Chap. ; Lotoconcha elongata , Chap. ; Lotoconcha Jurassica, Chap, ; P aradotorhyn cha foveolata, lata, Chap. Plants. Cf. Araucaria peregrina, Kurr; Cunninghamites ninghamites Australis, Ten.-Woods; cf. Pagiophyllum , sp.; Otozamites Feistmanteli, Zigno ; fern fronds and seed-vessels. Cretaceous. —The presence of Cretaceous strata in Western Australia appears to have been known for pretty well half a century, having been first recorded by Mr. F. T. Gregory as occurring near Gin Gin. This same observer stated that the Cretaceous strata were the most extensively developed of the sedimentary rocks of Western Australia, and that the beds were very closely connected with the Jurassic rocks of the Green - ough River. The boundary between the two series, however, has not as yet been satisfactorily traced. Fossiliferous Cretaceous rocks have been proved in GLACIATED GEANITE BOULDER, EMBEDDED IN BLUE CLAY, IRWIN RIVER three districts, viz., Eucla, the Metropolitan Area, and Gin Gin, and there are good grounds for believing that beds of this age occur in the valleys of the Gascoyne, Lyndon, and the Minilya Rivers. The results of the recent boring in that enormous limestone plateau which extends from the South Australian tralian border to the neighbourhood of Israelite Bay has proved the occurrence of Cretaceous strata lying beneath the Eucla limestone, which is supposed to be of Eocene age. In bore No. 3, put down at the 337 miles 61 chains peg on the surveyed route of the Western tern Union Railway, at an altitude of 576 ft. above sea-level, the following strata were passed through:- Eucla limestone, 603 ft. ; shales (sometimes glauconitic), 667 ft. ; fine and coarse sandstone and conglomerate, 74 ft.; and granite, 28 ft. ; the total depth of the bore being 1,372 ft. The beds beneath the limestone have yielded two of the most characteristic fossils found in the lower Cretaceous strata of South Australia and Queensland, viz., Aucella Tlughendensis , Eth. ; and MacCoyella Gorbrensis , Moore, together with portions of a bivalve shell, possibly Fissihinula, which is found in the lower Cretaceous beds of Eastern Australia, there is, therefore, little doubt that the strata pierced in No. 3 bore are the equivalents of the Rolling Downs beds of Queensland. In view of this discovery it is important to note that Cretaceous rocks occurring as table-topped hills were noticed in 1893, in the country to the north of No. 3 bore, by the geologist attached to the Elder Exploring Expedition. The Cretaceous rocks of Gin Gin consist of a white chalky limestone without flints, which passes downward into a greenish glauconite marl, and below that into a clay shale. Above the limestone is a bed of very ferruginous ginous sandstone, the whole series dipping to the northward ward at an angle of 8° to 9°. A series of fragmentary fossils was collected in 1903, and contained ostreet , allied to O. vesicularis , Lam.; a crushed Magellania; a doubtful Terebratu - Una; an undescribed Serpula , allied to S. Bognoriensis; spines of two species of Fhyllacanthus , together with a fragment of Flacunanomia. There were in addition thirty-seven species of Forammifera, eight of which are confined to Cretaceous strata elsewhere and four to the upper Tertiaries, while the other twenty - seven are known to have existed in Cretaceous times. A further collection was obtained by Mr. W. R. Philbey in 1897, and although not in good condition is now undergoing critical examination. The collection comprises spines of Echinoderms, three genera of Brachiopoda, fragments ments of Lamellibranchs, two genera of Cephalopoda, one Cnoceras , (?) and a shark's tooth Odontaspis-like in shape. There seems little doubt that the Gin Gin chalky limestone and its associated beds are of the Cretaceous age. Farther north, in the neighbourhood of Dandaragan, is a belt of white chalky limestone, at the base of which lies a phosphatized bone bed, which there seem some sound reasons for believing to be the northern extension of the Gin Gin beds. Tertiary. —Owing to the absence of valuable mineral deposits the Tertiary strata have not as yet received much attention at the hands of the Survey. The basal beds of what are believed to be Tertiary strata are seen to rest unconformably on the eroded surface of the Jurassic beds in the Champion Bay district. trict. The beds consist of limestones, sandy shales, and sandstones, which form a relatively narrow strip of country along the coastline. Similar strata occur at Shark Bay and to the southward ward of Perth, extending as far as the South Australian tralian border, where the chalky limestone that bulks largely in the formation contains fossils which seem to point to its being of the Eocene age. In the south-western portion of the State the Tertiary tiary strata are associated with basaltic lavas as well as basaltic dykes. These basaltic lavas may be seen at Bunbury, at several places in the Blackwood River, at Black Point on the south coast, and near Silver Mount between the Warren and Donnelly Rivers. They were also cut in two of the bores put down in the search for petrol
  • Contents of Vol. 2
  • Cyclopedia of Western Australia. EXPLORERS AND EXPLORATION. CHAPTER I. MINOR EXPLORATIONS, 1829-1836.
  • CHAPTER III. H.M.S. "BEAGLE,” 1838-1841—MINOR EXPLORATIONS, 1837-1840.
  • CHAPTER VII. A. C. GREGORY, 1854-56—F. T. GREGORY AND S. TRIGG, 1857—F. T. GREGORY, 1808, 1861.
  • Ecclesiastical.
  • Undenominational Institutions. WOMAN’S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION.
  • Philanthropic Institutions. THE CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL.
  • Pastoral.
  • Pearling.
  • Freemasonry.
  • Friendly Societies.
  • Scientific, Literary, and other Associations.
  • Political Organizations. THE LIBERAL PARTY.
  • Sporting and Recreation. THE TURF.
  • Veterinary.
  • Tramways. PERTH TRAMWAYS.
  • Fire Brigades.
  • Country Districts. South=​Western.
  • Midland Junction to Toodyay.
  • Eastern Districts.
  • YORK.
  • Great Southern District.
  • WAGIN.
  • Eastern Goldfields. SOUTHERN CROSS.
  • Along the Midland Line.
  • Murchison Goldfields.
  • North=​west and Far North.
  • Preface
  • contents of Vol.1.
  • Cyclopedia of Western Australia.
  • Governors, Lieutenant Governors, and Administrators of Western Australia.
  • SIR JAMES STIRLING (1828-1839).
  • JOHN HUTT (1839-1846).
  • SIR ARTHUR EDWARD KENNEDY, G.C.M.G., C.B. (1855-1862).
  • JOHN STEPHEN HAMPTON, M.D. (1802-1868),
  • SIR WILLIAM CLEAVER FRANCIS ROBINSON, G.C.M.G. (1875-1877, 1880-1885, 1890-1895).
  • SIR GERARD SMITH, K.C.M.G. (1895-1900).
  • HON. SIR ARTHUR LAWLEY, G.C.I.E., K.C.M.G. (1901-1902).
  • SIR GERALD STRICKLAND, K.C.M.G. (1909—Still in Office).
  • Federal Legislature.
  • Senate.
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