International Society of Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM)-ITS reference DNA barcoding database - the quality controlled standard tool for routine identification of human and animal pathogenic fungi Irinyi, L; Serena, C; Garcia-Hermoso, D; ...

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Irinyi, L ; Serena, C ; Garcia-Hermoso, D ; Arabatzis, M ; Desnos-Ollivier, M ; Vu, D ; Cardinali, G ; Arthur, I ; Normand, A ; Giraldo, A ; ...
Fungal identification; DNA barcoding; ITS region; reference ITS database; intraspecies/interspecies genetic diversity
Human and animal fungal pathogens are a growing threat worldwide leading to emerging infections and creating new risks for established ones. There is a growing need for a rapid and accurate identification of pathogens to enable early diagnosis and targeted antifungal therapy. Morphological and biochemical identification methods are time-consuming and require trained experts. Alternatively, molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, a powerful and easy tool for rapid monophasic identification, offer a practical approach for species identification and less demanding in terms of taxonomical expertise. However, its wide-spread use is still limited by a lack of quality-controlled reference databases and the evolving recognition and definition of new fungal species/complexes. An international consortium of medical mycology laboratories was formed aiming to establish a quality controlled ITS database under the umbrella of the ISHAM working group on "DNA barcoding of human and animal pathogenic fungi." A new database, containing 2800 ITS sequences representing 421 fungal species, providing the medical community with a freely accessible tool at and to rapidly and reliably identify most agents of mycoses, was established. The generated sequences included in the new database were used to evaluate the variation and overall utility of the ITS region for the identification of pathogenic fungi at intra-and interspecies level. The average intraspecies variation ranged from 0 to 2.25%. This highlighted selected pathogenic fungal species, such as the dermatophytes and emerging yeast, for which additional molecular methods/genetic markers are required for their reliable identification from clinical and veterinary specimens. Laszlo Irinyi, Carolina Serena, Dea Garcia-Hermoso, Michael Arabatzis, Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Duong Vu, Gianluigi Cardinali, Ian Arthur, Anne-Cécile Normand, Alejandra Giraldo, Keith Cassia da Cunha, Marcelo Sandoval-Denis, Marijke Hendrickx, Angela Satie Nishikaku, Analy Salles de Azevedo Melo, Karina Bellinghausen Merseguel, Aziza Khan, Juliana Alves Parente Rocha, Paula Sampaio, Marcelo Ribeiro da Silva Briones, Renata Carmona e Ferreira, Mauro de Medeiros Muniz, Laura Rosio Castañón-Olivares, Daniel Estrada-Barcenas, Carole Cassagne, Charles Mary, Shu Yao Duan, Fanrong Kong, Annie Ying Sun, Xianyu Zeng, Zuotao Zhao, Nausicaa Gantois, Françoise Botterel, Barbara Robbertse, Conrad Schoch, Walter Gams, David Ellis, Catriona Halliday, Sharon Chen, Tania C. Sorrell, Renaud Piarroux, Arnaldo L. Colombo, Célia Pais, Sybren de Hoog, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira, Maria Lucia Taylor, Conchita Toriello, Célia Maria de Almeida Soares, Laurence Delhaes, Dirk Stubbe, Françoise Dromer, Stéphane Ranque, Josep Guarro, Jose F. Cano-Lira, Vincent Robert, Aristea Velegraki and Wieland Meyer
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