Grammar for Australian youth. by James Bonwick Bonwick, James, 1817-1906

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Bonwick, James, 1817-1906
English language - Grammar.; English language--Grammar.
iS' . vr-rn ¥Pm GRAMMAR AUSTRALIAN YOUTH, SECOND PART. JAMES BONWICK, F.K.G.S. glclbonrne: |jpk_ 'PpJ PRINTED BY FERGUSSON & MOORE, /y) 48 FLINDERS LANE EAST. (y'gL l868 ' GRAMMAR AUSTRALIAN YOUTH. SECOND PART. JAMES BONWICK, F.R.G.S. lUtlbotmte; PRINTED BY FERGUSSON & MOORE, 48 FLINDERS LANE EAST. ■ (jRAMMAR AUSTRALIAN YOUTH. Syntax teaches us how to make correct sentences. A Sentence consists of a number of words placed together to make a statement. A Compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences joined together to make sense. James is happy —is a simple sentence: Alexander conquered many kingdoms, hut he could not master himself —is a compound sentence. Every sentence must have a Subject, which is the thing spoken of; and a Peedicate, which is what is said of it. The wombat burrows: here the Subject is the noun, wombat, and the Predicate is the verb burrows. Sentences in most instances have, also, an Object. “The English conquered India;” English lish is the Subject, conquered the Predicate, and India the Object. The Adjective is the Attribute to the Subject. The Adverb is the modifying or extending word to the Predicate. Concord is the agreement which one word has with another. One word governs another in a sentence when it causes it to be in some particular case or mood. There are certain rules in Syntax by which we may be guided as to the correct speaking or writing of sentences. RULES OF SYNTAX. Eule I. The Subject of a verb is placed in the Nominative Case: as, I live here: not Me live here. Live is the verb, and its subject lis nominative. Remark. —The verb to which the Subject belongs is sometimes not expressed, but understood. stood. You are as clever as he; that is, as he is; the verb is is understood. A Noun after the interjection 0 is Nominative. ative. EXERCISES. Correct the following exercises, and put a line under the subject, and a cross under the verb. Us came to him. Adams said him discovered the planet Neptune. Who is there? Me. Sir T. Mitchell and them saw the monster fossil kangaroo. Who went home? Her. Did Newton first think of gravitation? tation? Yes, hisself. We should not hate those whom hate us. Them that strive will win. Him, being away, escaped the danger. If as clever, you are not so kind as her. Who saw the waterfall? Not us. You and us can go to school. He is nearly as rich as me. Eule 11. A verb agrees with its Subject or Nominative in number and person: as Solomon was wise. Solomon is the Subject or Nominative, and is in the third person, singular number; the verb was is in the same person and the same number. Remark. — A noun or pronoun is said to be Absolute when it neither governs a word nor is governed by a word. The Nominative Absolute occurs when the imperfect particle follows the noun or pronoun noun ; as, The cart being upset, the crockery was smashed; He, having repented, we pardoned him; cart and he are Nominatives Absolute, neither governing nor being governed. EXERCISE. Thou was very wrong. The suffering of the early Christians were great. Veins of granite runs often through other rocks. The number of people in Australia tralia are above a million. The third ring of Saturn have been discovered. The islanders of Torres wears wigs. The caverns of Mount Gambier is in limestone. Not one of the mighty conquerors have left a blessing behind them. In slate is found no fossils of animals or trees. What bounds Victoria to the East ? The Australian Alps. Formerly there were living on the Australian plains the Marsupial Lion. The first letters in Asia was in the form of wedges. Rule 111. The verb is Plural if its nominatives tives are connected by and; as, The Murray and the Darling are large rivers. _ The verb is Singular if its Nominatives are Singular, and of the third person, and are separated by or or nor; as, The Emu or the Kangaroo was shot, —not were shot. Neither he nor she was ready, —not were ready. EXEECISES. Gilbert and Barker was murdered by the natives. Lake Torrens and the Coorong is salt. Milton or Shakespeare are the best English poet. From the thoughtless proceedeth folly and mischief. In the playground of the bower-bird is found the delicate shell and the pretty pebble. The native with his boomerang erang knock down the laughing-jackass. Neither the philosopher nor the poet have been so honoured as the soldier. The enterprising merchant, the intrepid trepid discoverer, or the prudent mechanic, are more valuable than the miser or the idler. Neither Nelson at Trafalgar, nor Wellington at Waterloo, appear to us so noble as Paul before Agrippa. Either he or you was there. Neither Burke nor Wills survive vive the crossing of the continent. Rule IY. The verb is Singular or Plural when used with a Collective Noun, or Noun of Multitude, according to the idea of number that noun is meant to convey. We say, The army is beaten, not are beaten; as unity or oneness is associated with the word army. But we do not say, The people is wise, but are ivise; because the word people conveys a plural idea to our minds, and, therefore, requires a plural verb. EXERCISES. ' The navy are large. All the clergy was present. The public is not to govern our opinion. The committee mittee was sitting. The regiment go to the barracks. The Persian multitude falls before the Grecian sword. The flock of geese pass here. Never were any nation more cruel than Carthage. The crew of the French flagship was blown up in the battle of the Nile. The Council of the Vatican consists of the Pope and the Cardinals. The New Zealand tribe sharpens their greenstone axes. Rule Y. The Object of a Transitive or Active Yerb is put in the Objective case; as, I love him; not, I love he. Remarks. —Neuter verbs sometimes take an Objective after them lb complete the meaning of the verb, though not as an object of the verb ; as, Pharaoh dreamed a dream. Some Passive verbs have an Objective after them; as, He was struck that blow. Some Active Verbs have two Objects; as, James gave Jane his hoop. In expressing Time and Distance we sometimes times use the Objective Absolute ; as, He swam two miles; he rode twelve hours. Miles and hours are objectives absolute, as they cannot be governed by the neuter verbs swam and rode. No English verb governs two objectives, unless both are names of the same object. I teach you grammar, means, I teach grammar to you. EXERCISES. The cat scratches she. Homer gave they songs for bread. The good will pity we when we are heedless of them. Most people like theirselves better than others. Let thou and I read together. Rule VI. The verb To be has the same case after it as before it; as, lam he. After am, which is a part of the verb to be, the Nominative tive he is used, because the Nominative I is before that verb. Bemarlc. When two nouns, or a noun and a pronoun are related by 8. Passive or a Neuter verb coming between them, they a,re in the same case j and are then said to be in Apposition, tion, because they refer to the same thing. My dog is called Lion; dog and Lion being re- lated, and having the passive verb is called between them, are of the same case. They became my pupils ; they and pupils are in the same case. EXERCISE. It is her who is kind. Scipio was him who burnt Carthage. It is us who should live for the future. Was it them whom you know? Elizabeth Fry was her who was the prisoners’ friend. It is me who ought to study. Do you believe it to have been they or their friends ? Whom do you consider to be the person ? It may be either her or her brother. Eule VII. The Past or Perfect Participle is used after the verbs have and be ; as, You have written, not have wrote ; it was given, not was gave. Remark. —The participle is sometimes employed ployed Absolutely; as, Generally speaking, the Chinese live on rice. Generally speaking is here a Participle Absolute. EXERCISE. Mercury is froze frequently in Canada. We were showed into Fingal’s cave. The Hungarians have rose against the Austrians. The fossil iguanodon was first saw in an English quarry. To be well spoke of “we must act nobly. The Governor’s health was drank with applause. Cold has been knowed 90 degrees below the freezing point. The huge Cornish rocking stones might be shook with the finger. Let the truths of our religion be engraved uponour hearts. Rule VIII. The Imperfect or Present Participle, ciple, when used as a noun, generally has the before it, and of after it; as, The hallooing of the hoys was heard. Remark. —This Participle governs an objective; as. His seeing me made me go, and is used with a possessive; as, The hoy's chasing the fowls caused their death. EXERCISE. Getting of knowledge is useful. Trading of Sydney with Polynesia increases. Franklin became famous by the drawing lightning from the clouds. Sinking of Artesian wells is of great service. The maintaining ing tx-uth requires courage and constancy. The exploring York Peninsula cost Kennedy his life. Rule IX. When two verbs come together, the latter one is in the Infinitive mood; as, I go to repeat my lesson. The verb to repeat is Infinitive nitive after the verb go. To, the sign of the Infinitive, is not used after the verbs bid, dare, need, make, see, hear, feel, let, know, norafter the auxiliaries may, can, must, and shall: as. We saw him do it, not to do it. You may go, not to go. When these words, bid, dare, &c.,are passive, the to is used ; as, The Condor has been known to fly over the Andes. The passive verb been known requires the to after it. Remark. —A noun or an adjective, as well as a verb, will govern the Infinitive mood; as, It was Howard’s happiness to visit homes of misery. It is easier to promise than to perform. The noun happiness and the adjective easier govern the Infinitive mood. Some verbs, being independent of the rest of the sentence, are used absolutely; as, To speak my mind, I do not like it. Caution. —Never use for before the Infinitive ; He wished to see me; not, for to see me. EXERCISE. Most people like have their own way. William Tell dared to rebel. His mother bid him to return early. The natives have been known devour human flesh. Some stars appear approach us, and then recede. William the Norman saw the English to submit. Sumbawa volcano was heard roar one thousand miles off. Odin’s watchman heard the wool to grow on the sheep’s back. Slaves are now no longer made groan in the United States. Rule X. The following words, when they denote uncertainty, put the verb in the Conditional ditional mood: Although, ere, except, if, HOWEVER, LEST, SO, THAT, THOUGH, TILL, UNLESS, whatever, whether : thus, — Except Ihe there he cannot he happy. Ere he arrive we shall he gone. When these words do not express uncertainty they do not alter the verb from the Indicative ; as, Although he is here, we will go on with our work. If he calls it hot in Hobart Town, what would he call it in Adelaide ? EXERCISE, If he is well enough he will call to-morrow. Till he comes keep the kettle on the fire. If thou he master, act with decision. Whatever Macaulay write is beautifully written. Whatever course he takes he may not succeed. Though the American boasts of freedom, yet will the stain of slavery rest on him. Oh! that the settler was more thoughtful of the aborigine! Though he come, Ido not fear him. That a man prospers, he must labour and be prudent. Lest he drinks, take away the cup. Unless the field were ploughed, the corn would not grow. Though the Poles be fallen, yet they may rise. Rule XI. The Order of Time is to be observed in the use of the different tenses. Thus, — When £ ate my dinner I went to school, should be— when I had eaten my dinner. The pluperfect tense, and not the past, should be employed, as the one action was finished before the other began. Caution. —Use the Present and not the Perfect fect infinitive after the past tense. He wished to have sent to me, should be he wished to send. Caution. —Never confound the Active verb to lay, with the Neuter to lie; or the Active to set. with the Neuter to sit. We lay the cloth, and lie on the sofa. We set potatoes, but we sit upon a chair. EXERCISE. When Alexander took Tyre, he followed after Darius. A< Christmas I shall he at school four years. Prince Alfred will be happy to have reflected upon his visit to Australia. Napoleon expected to have conquered the world. I thought of him these many years. You were in the house all this day. They have done no more than they ought to have done. Mamma has giren me a ball, but to-day she took it from me. He sets up till midnight, and lays in bed till noon. Rule XII. When one noun is put with another noun to explain something about it, it is of the same case ; as, Cromwell the Protector died in peace. Cromwell and Protector are both nominatives, natives, and in apposition. When two nouns meaning different things come together, one is governed by the other in the Possessive case; as. The hoy's hat; boy is in the possessive case. Remarks. —The Possessive is sometimes expressed pressed without the noun following; as, Nelson’s body was carried to St. Paul's; meaning St. Paul’s Church. The sense of the Possessive may be expressed in the Objective by the word of ; as, The body of Nelson. When the Possessive is described by several nouns, forming a complex noun, the last only has the sign of the Possessive case ; as, Alston and Brown's shop .• When the thing belongs to two or more, the sign is applied to each; as, John's, Joseph's, and George's copybooks are finished. EXERCISE. Miltons genius brightened with his troubles. Eichard the Third character was not so bad as is represented. sented. Day’s and Martin’s blacking manufactory. Three day’s time will determine. Bunyans Pilgrims Progress. Parises conduct ruined Troy. The lasses bonnet is new. The planets orbits are irregular. The work is Scott, the novelist’s. The Duke’s of Wellington success. He got not only the Prince, but the Queen’s favour. Stuarts and Landsboroughs explorations plorations were useful. The aborigines remains in post tertiary rocks prove the high antiquity of man. Rule XIII. When two nouns are compared, the Comparative degree of the adjective is used; when more than two, the Superlative is used. Bern arks. —An Adjective follows a Neuter verb when it qualifies the noun which goes before it; as, The house looks clean; clean qualifies house. Caution.— Do not employ double comparatives or double superlatives; as, more fairer; most loveliest. EXERCISE. You are best than I. The right hand is the strongest. The Athenians were the more polished of all the Greeks. Solon was wise, but Solomon was wisest. Newcastle coal is most bituminous than that of Port Irthur, but not cheap than it. My ball is rounder tlan yours. It is more untrue to say that piety destroys stroys happiness. Cicero was the chiefest orator of Pane. The waratah is the most beautifullest flower of Australia. In Queensland are the most perfect fosiils of huge Cretaceous Saurians. Eule XIV. The Distributive Articles, each, EV2RY, either, neither, refer to nouns of the Siigular number, and, therefore, require the verb to be singular; as, Each man was at his posi The Article the is put before an adjective used absolutely ; as, The Good are scarce. Good is ibsolute, and has the power of a noun. Remark. —The Article is often omitted before abstract nouns ; before those standing for a whole species of kind; before names of arts, sciences, titles, &c.; as, Beauty belongs to flowers. Foxes are cunning. Geology is useful. Barons are numerous. Caution. —Use not the demonstrative plural for singular; as, These sort of apples, for this sort of apples. EXERCISE. Either of the persons are sure to be within. Every nation look out for themselves. They admire those kind of books most. The pneumatics teaches us the principles of the air-pump. Benevolent enjoy peace. Neither of the parties oppress the other. These selfish sort of people are avoided. The Astronomy was cultivated vated by the ancient Chaldeans and Egyptians. Eacl tribe of the Indians were driven back by the settlers. Sincere are respected, deceitful are despised. Eule XV. Pronouns agree with the nouis for which they stand in gender, number aid person; as, Moodlong is a native; he is an intelligent gent lad; not it is. Moodlong is masculine, third person singular, and so is the pronoun le. Remarks. —ln the position of pronouns in a sentence, the second person should go befoie the others, and the third person before tie first; excepting in the plural, when we shou.d he placed first; as, He and I will go. We, yoi, and they are right. The pronoun it stands for nouns of all genders ders and numbers; as, It is I. It was the Lady. It was the boys. EXERCISE. James had the book but lost them. They and we love to gather flowers. The mind can do much, but we must not overwork him. I and you were ready. Mary had a sweeter temper than her sister. I and the boy read together. The Swedes lost the whole of its army in Lapland by cold. Is there any man who can be sure they will live long ? They were they who did the mischief. Eule XVI. If no Nominative come between the relative and the verb, the relative is the nominative to the verb; as, Queen Dido, who was obliged to leave Tyre, founded the colony of Carthage. Who is nominative to the verb was obliged. If a Nominative come between the relative and the verb, the relative is objective when ' governed by a verb or pi’eposition, and possessive sive when governed by a noun following; as, The boy whom you saw is away. The man whose apples tve took is near. The verb saw governs whom, and the noun apples governs whose. Caution. —Place the relative as near as possible ble to the Antecedent. Instead of saying, Deter the Great was opposed to Charles the Swede, who so improved the Russian people, we should say, Peter the Great, who so improved the Russian people, was opposed to Charles the Swede; because who relates properly to Peter not to Charles. EXERCISE. Correct the sentences, and underline the antecedents. The hunter whom came caught a native devil. Geology, who teaches the nature of rocks, is useful to miners. Macquarie favoured the prisoners,'who was Governor of New South Wales. The asteroids have been recently discovered by astronomers, who are between Jupiter and Mars. Flinders, whom boat’s crew was lost near Port Lincoln, named places after the men. The Dutch sailors, who the New Zealanders landers killed, belonged to Tasman. Marco Polo, whom travels are so pleasing, lived 500 years ago. The donkey was beaten by the boys, who loves a sweet thistle. Rule XVII. Prepositions should be placed before the relatives who and which, and after the relative that ; as, To whom do you go. In which house were they. The hook that she went for. EXEEGISB. The poems of Mackay, which I have a great esteem for. We saw Mount Kosciusko, which Strzelecki gave name too. The Seiks of India against that we fought. The fossil kangaroo of that we spake was as high as an elephant. Leichhardt and Mitchell, than whom were no greater travellers in North Australia. The noble Maories whose gradual decrease we mourn on account of. The object after that Eoss went was the South Magnetic Pole, and which he came near. Rule XYIII. Adverbs are generally placed near the words they qualify; being before adjectives, tives, after active and neuter verbs, and between the auxiliary and the participle; thus, A very great while. Tom eats and sleeps well. You were completely shaken. The Adverb is before the Adjective great, after the verb eats and sleeps, and between the auxiliary were and the participle shalten. Remark. —Two negatives have sometimes the meaning of an affirmative: He is not unjust, means, he is just. Caution. —Do not use adverbs for adjectives, nor adjectives for adverbs: as, The sweetly rose, for sweet rose. She plays delightful, for plays delightfully. In poetry, however, this rule is occasionally broken. EXERCISE. The ladies of Turkey are hidden thoroughly from the view of strangers. Many have been willing always to die for truth. Eyre in his overland route showed wonderful his courage. Strzelecki in the dense bush of the Australian Alps lost nearly his life. Kindly act to those who have hastened never to favour you. Some ancient exceedingly manuscripts have been
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