1. List: John Monash
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    Why was General John Monash originally overlooked by the Australian government for promotion as Australia's Corps Commander?
    Main archive source is Trove Digital Archive and includes newspaper articles, books, images and a video

    28 items
    created by: lmk338 on 2016-09-26 13:01:39.0
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  1. Web page: Monash: The Forgotten Anzac
    Web page

    2016-10-18 12:36:29.0

    Secondary Source: This was a very good documentary. I took the following notes from it while I watched it.
    • Western Front. 5% of allied forces.
    • Monash first Commander to be knighted in the field by a King in 200 years
    • Disliked because he was a Jew and German however, 300,000 went to his funeral.
    • Helped to create the Anzac legend.
    • Part time soldier was an engineer built bridges, had a successful career.
    • Monash hated Gallipoli, bad planning, bad commanders, “The whole thing was rotten and badly organized show, insufficient troops, inadequate munitions, attempting more than was possible with the means available”
    • 8k dead from Gallipoli. Public enthusiasm was over.
    • Monash was refused leave to go home to visit his ill wife; he was on the verge of leaving the army.
    • June 1916, 3rd Division, war in Europe new war = new tactics. They need to prove that they could stand on the same standing as the others.
    • The King was talking to Monash when Monash cut him off when the king said, “If we win the war”
    • Messines Ridge, Ypres, Passchendaele Monash and the 3rd Division. Detailed planning. Large-scale model to get soldiers used to the terrain. June 7th 1917 - policy of 'bite and hold'. Sees how well it works, best success out of all commanders in Passchendaele.
    • Haig liked Monash, Bean didn’t like Monash because he was Jewish, Murdoch liked him. General White, close friend of Charles Bean. Gone nowhere.
    • Monash didn’t want to follow the order for Pozieres because it would fail. Wanted to hold off for 24hrs. Monash knew his men would die. 3000 of 5000 that went out.
    • Russian Revolution. 1m German troops move to the western front. 65km in 10 days. British High command wanted to sack Haig. Monash command the Australian Corps “The Jew will always get there, it’s in their blood” Charles Bean about Monash. Murdoch wanted to stop Monash’s appointment with Bean.
    • To advance tanks, aircraft and infantry at the same time for maximum control PM Billy Hughes to Murdoch telling him that he hasn’t found a single soldier that was against Monash, like Murdoch said. Tanks used to scare the Germans and to provide cover to infantry, planes dropping ammunition to troops below, coloured smoke was used to trick the Germans into think it was mustard gas.
    • After Passchendaele, Hughes stopped the flow of troops to Monash, waiting for him to fail, so Hughes could sack him. But at Amiens after another successful battle, Hughes couldn’t.
    • Monash knighted after this.
    • Monash resented the blocking of Australian success in the British Press. Personal war between Hughes and Monash, Hughes wanted the AIF to stop all fighting by October. In fact Hughes went over Monash's head and gave an order that all 1914 men be sent home.
    • Charles Bean became an advocate of Monash, “I may have misjudged the man”.
    • They say that because Monash had a relationship with another woman after his wife Vic died, that’s why he was never offered a high role, like Governor General, which from what we know isn’t the case.
    • Murdoch didn’t want Monash’s War Shrine to go ahead. Monash fought hard for the diggers after the war. To be remembered, to have work. Without John Monash, there wouldn’t be an Anzac Day today.

    A matter of fact documentary that outlined all the pivotal moments in the life of General Sir John Monash, before, during and after the Great War.
    It highlighted his tenacity, stubbornness and leadership skills that he used not only during wartime but also in making sure 'his' soldiers received a fair deal in peacetime.

    This documentary made use of primary and secondary sources to support the comment and was made to appeal to a general Australian or war history enthusiast.
    The significant sections for my question centered on the Bean/Murdoch debate over who should be the Corps Commander of the Australian Army.

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  2. Monash, John, (Sir) (1865-1931)
    Soldier; Civil Engineer; Company Director; Public Servant; Engineer; Administrator

    2016-10-18 12:33:24.0

    Entry in the Australian Dictionary of Biography

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  3. Sir John Monash
    [ Photograph : 1924 ]
    View online
    At Monash Uni Archives
    Sir John Monash

    2016-10-18 12:34:46.0

    Primary Source: The picture shows the medals and honors Monash had received up to 1924. These honors are:
    • The Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George,
    • Knight Commander of the Order of Bath,
    • Volunteer Decorations,
    • Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour (France),
    • Croix de Guerre (France),
    • Croix de Guerre (Belgium),
    • Grand Officer of the Order of the Crown (Belgium) and the
    • Distinguished Service Medal (United States of America).

    It is obvious that Monash was held in very high respect by the governments and peoples of these countries. What about Australia?
    This source pictures Monash as a determined and resolute man, just as he was while in command of the 3rd Division and later the Corps. It is a picture that the men who served with Monash would be familiar with.

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  4. Diggers in France : Australian soldiers on the Western Front / Richard Travers
    Travers, Richard C
    [ Book, Government publication : 2008-2017 ]
    At 86 libraries
    Diggers in France : Australian soldiers on the Western Front / Richard Travers

    2016-10-18 13:57:01.0

    Secondary Source: Diggers in France, is about the war on the Western Front. The book is by Richard Travers. In this book, Travers notes how Monash adopted the leadership style of Plummer and Harrington, that is, Plummer’s thorough preparation and Harrington’s belief that staff were there to help units.

    Monash described Bullecourt and Passchendaele as ‘hare-brained ventures’. He raised the complaint that the British generals misused Australian troops. “Why should Australia not have its own army?” (Page 220-221) It was not likely that an Australian general could do more, they could do better. Was this criticism of the British generals detrimental to Monash's chances of becoming the Australian Corps Commander?

    Travers states that the Australian diggers shaped Monash’s view that like the Canadians and Americans, Australians should have a Corps Commander and staff that were Australian. A single Army corps should be founded on “a sense of nationhood…. All Australian Divisions should be brought together under a single leadership.” (Page 222)

    There was British opposition until late 1917 and PM Hughes wanted Birdwood for the

    The choice ended up between Monash and White. Bean and Birdwood favoured White, Keith Murdoch favoured Monash. A compromise for Monash to have administrative command and White the Corps Command was another suggestion. Monash was senior to White. Haig preferred Monash, so did Birdwood (reluctantly) he didn’t want to choose between the two but in the end, Haig prevailed.

    Monash did not receive the affection of the men straight away, as many did not think much of the 3rd Division (that he was in command of), until they heard how well they had done at Amiens. “From this moment we accepted them as our equals and were proud to have General Monash as the leader of what was now virtually the Australian Army.” – Captain Joynt 1st Division. (Page 263)

    Monash was could be ambitious and pushy, he did his best to get what he thought was right for his men and the war. He was anxious for superiors to have a good opinion of him and his achievements (as all commanders were).

    Richard Travers is an skilled historian who brings an genuine voice from the diggers on the western front. Travers comes from a long line of soldiers in his family, ranking from generals to captains. He graduated from Sydney University, studying law and arts.

    This is a text that is aimed toward those who make WW1 and the Australian role their field of interest and study. His work is well sourced, using primary and secondary writings. His purpose in this text is to inform the reader on the role of officers and NCOs in the Australian Imperial Forces, tactics, strategies and battles, as well as the personalities who took part in a momentous period of time in Australian History.

    Hide note
    The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) Saturday 27 November 1937 p 12 Article Illustrated
    Abstract: Mr. W. Leslie Bowles, the Melbourne sculptor, with a miniature of the Sir John Monash Memorial statue, which it is proposed to erect near the Shrine ... 65 words
    Digitised article icon

    2016-10-18 13:54:14.0

    Primary Source: This article is about the General Sir John Monash Memorial. The article is from The Sydney Morning Herald 1937, It is a photograph of W. Leslie Bowles who in the picture is sculpting a clay model of the Monash statue, the statue which will eventually be at the Shine of Remembrance in Melbourne.

    This highlights the importance of Monash, not only to his native Melbourne, but also to the wider Australian community, in regards to remembering the Great War and the Anzac legend.

    Hide note
  6. [Sir John Monash]
    [ Photograph : 1900-1919 ]
    View online (access conditions)
    At State Library VIC
    [Sir John Monash]
  7. John Monash : a biography / [Geoffrey Serle]
    Serle, Geoffrey, 1922-1998
    [ Book, Audio book, Map : 1982-2008 ]
    View online (access conditions)
    At 99 libraries
    John Monash : a biography / [Geoffrey Serle]
  8. John Monash / John Hetherington
    Hetherington, John, 1907-1974
    [ Book, Article : 1962-1970 ]
    At 29 libraries
    John Monash / John Hetherington
  9. Sir John Monash's Letters.
    Advocate (Burnie, Tas. : 1890 - 1954) Thursday 24 January 1935 p 8 Article
    Abstract: Like many another military genius who brought a keen intellect to bear upon complex operations in the field of battle, Sir John Monash possessed an 409 words
    Digitised article icon

    2016-10-18 12:41:13.0

    Primary Source: This is a newspaper article from the Advocate, Tasmania, from 1935 about General Sir John Monash’s letters. It’s a short article about his military career and what he had done after his military career.

    These letters were written to his wife about raising funds so soldiers on leave in France could have a free club, to a little girl about a German Messenger Dog who was captured as a prisoner and he includes illustrations of ruined churches at Ypres. Depending on who he was writing to depended on the tone of his letter and the language he used. To his wife it could be about his garden or to the High Command about red tape and incompetence and bungling.

    This newspaper article discuss the significance of these letters as a window into the complexities and character of the man who was John Monash.

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  10. War letters of General Monash / edited by F.M. Cutlack
    Monash, John, Sir, 1865-1931
    [ Book : 1934-2015 ]
    View online (access conditions)
    At 90 libraries
    War letters of General Monash / edited by F.M. Cutlack
  11. The Australian victories in France in 1918 / John Monash ; [foreword by Bruce Haigh]
    Monash, John, Sir, 1865-1931
    [ Book : 1920-2015 ]
    Languages: English;Undetermined, [1 other]
    View online (access conditions)
    At 92 libraries
    The Australian victories in France in 1918 / John Monash ; [foreword by Bruce Haigh]
  12. Death's men : soldiers of the Great War / [by] Denis Winter
    Winter, Denis
    [ Book : 1978-2014 ]
    View online (access conditions)
    At 44 libraries
    Death's men : soldiers of the Great War / [by] Denis Winter

    2016-10-18 12:37:55.0

    Secondary Source: This book is about the diggers in the First World War. On page 226 it gives a quote by Monash, “I hate the business of war – the horror, the waste, the destruction, the inefficiency”. We could ask the question- would this stop Monash from achieving higher commands in the Australian Corps, like Corps Commander?

    Denis Winter was born in the 1940s and he has written many books about the First World War, focusing on Australia’s involvement.

    Most researchers say that Winter’s work in very accurate and the most reliable. He uses primary and secondary sources to inform the reader about the soldiers who took part in the Great War, particularly from the perspective of the common soldier, rather from just the perspective of the officers.

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    Tweed Daily (Murwillumbah, NSW : 1914 - 1949) Saturday 17 November 1923 p 3 Article
    Abstract: John Monash, the greatest Jewish soldier since Judas Maccabeus, and the first British member of the Chosen People to attain his high military rank, c ... 367 words
    Digitised article icon
  14. General Sir John Monash
    Weekly Times (Melbourne, Vic. : 1869 - 1954) Saturday 17 October 1931 p 27 Article Illustrated
    16 words
    Digitised article icon

    2016-10-18 14:22:43.0

    Primary Source: Photograph taken outside the General's Headquarters near Villers-Bretonneux, in May, 1918.

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    The Hebrew Standard of Australasia (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1953) Thursday 8 August 1940 p 1 Article
    Abstract: The dedication of the Recreation Hut, now being erected in Hyde Park, to the memory of Sir John Monash has proved very gratifying to the Jewish commu ... 112 words
    Digitised article icon
  16. The resource described by this item has been deleted from Trove
  17. Papers of Sir John Monash
    Monash, John, Sir, 1865-1931
    [ Unpublished : 1876-1934 ]
    View online
    At National Library
    Papers of Sir John Monash
  18. The resource described by this item has been deleted from Trove
  19. Letters of Herbert Black
    John Monash
    [ Unpublished ]
    At RSL Vic -Anzac House
    Letters of Herbert Black
  20. Web page: Australian Command In France.
    Web page
  21. Web page: Test Of War..
    Web page

    2016-10-18 14:14:02.0

    Article "The Times"

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    Daily Examiner (Grafton, NSW : 1915 - 1954) Friday 9 October 1931 p 4 Article
    Abstract: A true patriot in the full sense of the term was Sir John Monash, whose death yesterday robs Australia of the services of a great citizen and a great ... 847 words
    Digitised article icon

    2016-10-18 14:23:33.0

    Primary Source: Obituary article

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  23. SIR JOHN MONASH. Funeral in Melbourne. 300,000 PEOPLE ATTEND. Impressive Scenes. MELBOURNE, Sunday.
    The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) Monday 12 October 1931 p 10 Article
    Abstract: Under calm and grey skies more than 300,000 people gathered to-day to do honour to the memory of General Sir John Monash. From Parliament House, wher ... 1785 words
    Digitised article icon
    The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 12 October 1931 p 5 Article Illustrated
    Abstract: AT THE SHRINE OF REMEMBRANCE.—Portion o. the huge assemblage, mostly returned soldiers, at the memorial service held at the Shrine of Remembrance. Ge ... 112 words
    Digitised article icon

    2016-10-18 14:58:42.0

    Primary Source: Page 1 of a two page illustrated spread of photograph's taken at Monash's funeral. Over 300,000 Australians attended the funeral procession.

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  25. SIR JOHN MONASH Impressive Memorial Service TRIBUTES TO WORK
    The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 12 October 1936 p 8 Article Illustrated
    Abstract: A reverent and impressive service in memory of the late Sir John Monash was held at the Brighton Cemetery yesterday, when 1,000 returned soldiers and 742 words
    • Text last corrected on 12 March 2011 by kees
    Digitised article icon
  26. VICTORIA AND THE WAR. More Than 90,000 Volunteers. Thrilling Incidents Recalled. Fighting on Many Fronts.
    The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Thursday 9 September 1926 p 11 Article Illustrated
    Abstract: INTENSE patriotism has always been a characteristic of Victorians. Whenever an opportunity offered, they were at all times willing to make any sacrif ... 8289 words
    Digitised article icon

    2016-10-18 14:57:13.0

    Primary Source:

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  27. The Argus. MELBOURNE. "I am in the place where I am demanded of conscience to speak the truth, and therefore the truth I speak, impugn it whose list." TO CORRESPONDENTS. Every lett...
    The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 27 August 1927 p 30 Article
    Abstract: Sir John Monash, speaking of the discipline of the Australian Army, said at the Dental Congress on Tuesday:— "The true test of discipline is the 1731 words
    Digitised article icon
    The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 12 October 1931 p 7 Article
    Abstract: Under calm grey skies more than 300,000 people assembled yesterday to do honour to the memory of General Sir John Monash. At the State funeral and at ... 7027 words
    Digitised article icon

    2016-10-18 14:55:06.0

    Primary Source: Newspaper article about Monash's life achievements, printed on the day of his funeral.

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