1. List: HIST274 Body of Historical Evidence
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    Research Question: Who did the 1982 Falklands War really benefit?

    Primary Source Collection: Due to the nature of the question the primary source collection will be compiled from different archival collections. These archival collections will include: Trove, The Times Digital Archive and the Margaret Thatcher Foundation Digital Archive. Due to its broad collection of sources Trove has provided newspaper articles and illustrations that are relevant towards the question. The Times Digital Archive includes newspaper articles and will focus more on the British perspective of the research question. Finally, the Margaret Thatcher Foundation Digital Archive will provide transcripts for Thatcher’s speech to the House of Commons in relation to the Falklands crisis.

    Description: This research question will explore the opposing sides in the 1982 Falklands Conflict. The question will examine the military and political motivations by Britain and Argentina over the Falkland Islands. This conflict was embroiled by a geographical claim of sovereignty and confrontations between Britain and Argentina dating back over one and a half centuries. Argentina’s claim was based on ancient treaties forged during Spain and Portugal’s conquest of the New World. Britain countered with the UN benchmark of self-determination - Britain had administered the islands for over half a century and the population of the Falklands was British and, above all, wished to remain so. Argentina’s decision to invade the Falklands can be attributed to its countries new military leader Lieutenant General Leopoldo Galtieri. The decision to retaliate against the Argentinian invaders was finalized by British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. At wars end General Galtieri resigned as both President and commander in chief of the army. In Britain, the war proved to be a turning point for Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, basking in the role of Churchillian war leader and winning the 1983 General election by a landslide majority. The motivations and decisions made by both leaders can be brought into question considering the economic policies of both were in bad shape.

    The main benefactor for the Falklands War was Margaret Thatcher and the conservative party, victory in election of 1983 was bolstered by the Falklands War. To grasp the motivations and decisions made by Thatcher herself, Thatcher's War: The Iron Lady on the Falklands (Source 1) will be consulted. This source will provide information as to why Thatcher believed the decision to retaliate against Argentina would benefit Britain. This source along with MT notes for speech to House of Commons (Source 11) and FCO letter to No.10 (Source 12) in Thatcher’s own words will allow the research question to be answered from the British perspective. In contrast to Thatcher’s belief that the Falkland Islands were of strategic importance The Battle for the Falklands (Source 4) will be used to not only provide background information but also argue that the Falklands War was used by Thatcher to bolster her failing economic polices. The Falklands War: Understanding The Power Of Context In Shaping Argentine Strategic Decisions (Source 15) will be helpful towards examining why Argentina believed invading the Falklands would be beneficial. The Falklands War: Causes and Lessons (Source 13) will be a great help in understanding the specific intentions and motivations for invasion from a broad international context.
    The illustration of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Argentine President Leopoldo Galtieri (Source 3) though comical displays the true motivations for the Falklands War. Understanding the meaning of this source has provided helpful information towards the research question. Along with "That one's going to be a lot tougher" (Source 10) both illustrations focus on the failure of economic policies by both Britain and Argentina and will therefore will helpful towards the main thrust of the research question – Britain’s victory bolstered Thatcher’s popularity and government.

    Newspapers from Trove (Sources: 2, 6, 7, 8, 9) and The Times Digital Archive (Sources: 5, 16, 17, 18) will be helpful because they provide different accounts of the political and military aspects during the Falklands War. Trove newspapers will be more helpful because they do not contain many pro-British pieces which talk-up the Falklands War. The most notable is Summing up the Falklands operation: Was it worth the cost? (Source 2) an Australian newspaper article questioning the worth of the Falklands War and will help considerably towards the research question. Trove newspapers that contain pro-British articles were chosen because they discuss the benefit of British retaliation against Argentina, helpful because they relate directly to the question. The most notable Times newspaper article is Why neither side is worth backing (Source 5) because it does not talk-up either side but instead criticizes both leaders motivations for the Falklands War, an ideal piece for the research question as it argues what both sides seek to benefit.

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    created by: kjgriffn on 2015-08-03 12:40:54.0
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  1. Web page: Thatcher's War: The Iron Lady on the Falklands
    http://www.amazon.com/Thatchers-War-Iron-Lady-Falklands-ebook/dp/B005UF0Q0Y/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1442726258&sr=8-1&keywords=thatchers+war+the+iron+lady+on+the+falklands
    Web page
    Note

    2015-09-25 14:28:45.0

    This autobiographical book details Margaret Thatcher’s thoughts on the decision to retaliate against the Argentinian invasion of the Falklands in 1982. It is an inside story of the Falklands War from Thatcher who was Prime Minister at the time. The book begins and ends with Thatchers belief that the Falklands War was one of her greatest triumphs. Thatcher believed that much was at stake involving the Falklands conflict. Britain was defending her honour as a nation and principles of fundamental importance to the whole world. Thatcher believed that right had prevailed with victory in the Falklands and that a burden had been lifted off of her shoulders.

    This book will be of great help towards the research question because it was written by Margaret Thatcher herself. It allows for an insight into why Thatcher believed this conflict would benefit the United Kingdom, more specifically her political position. This book will be used as a primary source.

    Thatcher, Margaret. Thatcher’s War: The Iron Lady on the Falklands. Great Britain: HarperPress, 2012. Kindle Version.

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  2. Summing up the Falklands operation: Was it worth the cost?
    The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995) Thursday 1 July 1982 p 2 Article Illustrated
    Abstract: FEW if any Australians are likely to begrudge the British people their sense of national pride and 1711 words
    Digitised article icon
    Note

    2015-09-25 14:33:58.0

    This newspaper article by the Canberra Times questions the overall cost of the Falklands War for both sides and its worth. Though the article does commend the British people on their sense of pride at retaking the islands, also as military operation being a great success, there is no doubt that retaking the islands by force was not politically wise. Examining the Argentinian prospective this article discusses why the Argentinians believed in their claim of sovereignty over the Islands. However the author is critical of Argentina’s breach of Articles 2 and 25 of the United Nations. This article is also critical of Britain’s lack of counter measures and reaction to the invasion at first.

    The significance of this article towards the research question is large because it examines both sides in the conflict and their motivations. Because the newspaper is Australian it sits in-between the two sides of newspapers from the Times: firmly for or against the war.

    ‘Summing up the Falklands operation: Was it worth the cost?’, The Canberra Times, 1 July 1982, p. 2. (Accessed Online: 25 September 2015)
    http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article126881812

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  3. "You must unnerstan' why I do thees, Senora. My economic policies, they are a disaster an' I face poleetical extinction" [Margaret Thatcher] Pryor
    Pryor, Geoff, 1944-
    [ Art work : 1982 ]
    View online
    At National Library
    "You must unnerstan' why I do thees, Senora.  My economic policies, they are a disaster an' I face poleetical extinction" [Margaret Thatcher] Pryor
    Note

    2015-09-25 14:41:23.0

    This illustration is of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Argentine President Leopoldo Galtieri. The point this illustration makes is that the Falklands War was used to bolster the economic and political polices for both Argentina and the United Kingdom.

    Though comical this illustration is quite significant towards the research question because it shows that both sides aimed to benefit from the Falklands conflict. The Falkland Islands were of no strategic importance to both Argentina and the United Kingdom but these islands represented a great political tool to be used.

    Margaret Thatcher sternly believed that the Falklands represented an important political image towards the rest of the world – if Britain failed to intervene she would be seen as a declining world power – the prestige of the British people would be lost. On the other side Galtieri was a military dictator of Argentina and was barely holding onto power. Unlike the other image in this Trove collection which points out the existing problem of unemployment under the Thatcher government, this illustration focuses on what both sides thought would benefit them – not just Britain.

    Pryor, Geoff. "You must unnerstan' why I do thees, Senora. My economic policies, they are a disaster an' I face poleetical extinction" [Margaret Thatcher], Canberra Times (14 April 1982), http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/42149219 (Accessed 25 September 2015).

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  4. Web page: The Battle for the Falklands
    http://www.amazon.com/Battle-Falklands-Max-Hastings/dp/0393301982/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1442726350&sr=8-1&keywords=the+battle+for+the+falklands
    Web page
    Note

    2015-09-25 15:02:25.0

    This book is primarily an account of British political decision making and of naval and military operations. Jenkins describes the events in Washington, London and Argentina. Hastings has written the narrative of the conflict in the South Atlantic. Max Hastings is a military historian and journalist who covered the Falklands war for the London Evening Standard. Simon Jenkins is the political editor of the economist. Written in 1983 this book is very critical of the Falklands war and Thatchers decision to retaliate against the Argentinian invasion.

    This book will be a great significance towards the research question because it provides information on the roots and causes of the war, the politics and the aftermath. Information gathered from this book will show just how Britain aimed to benefit from the conflict with additional helpful information on events during the course of the war. This book will be used as a secondary source.

    Hastings, Max. Jenkins, Simon. The Battle for the Falklands. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1984.

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  5. Web page: Why neither side is worth backing
    http://find.galegroup.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/ttda/infomark.do?&source=gale&prodId=TTDA&userGroupName=uow&tabID=T003&docPage=article&searchType=AdvancedSearchForm&docId=CS201558685&type=multipage&contentSet=LTO&version=1.0
    Web page
    Note

    2015-09-25 14:56:55.0

    This source focuses on case of why neither side is worth backing as the House of Commons debates the increasing prospect of war in the Atlantic. This article involves historian and anti-nuclear campaigner E.P. Thompson speaking his mind about his disgust for the Nazi style Argentinian regime and his opinion of the true British motivations for the Falklands War. Thompson believes that Thatcher is not focused on the interests of the islanders but more on British prestige and her own political interests.

    This article provides information for how Argentina and Britain wish to benefit from the war that is soon looming over the horizon. The Times is a British newspaper but this article does not support Thatcher, instead criticizing her true interests. Thompson’s points on Argentina as not a nice regime and Britain’s imperial atavism are significant towards the research question because they focus on both sides and what they hope to benefit.


    E.P. Thompson. ‘Why neither side is worth backing.’, Times, 29 April 1982, p. 12. (Accessed Online: 25 September 2015) The Times Digital Archive.

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  6. Falklands: Thatcher won't talk
    The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995) Friday 1 September 1989 p 6 Article
    Abstract: LONDON: British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher has rejected Argentine President Carlos Menem's offer of talks on repairing diplomatic relations 219 words
    Digitised article icon
  7. THE FALKLANDS CRISIS Britain's military options
    The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995) Wednesday 21 April 1982 p 4 Article
    Abstract: A destroyer task force has broken off from the 40-ship British flotilla and was 24 to 48 hours away from South Georgia Island in the South 727 words
    Digitised article icon
  8. Falklands war is over, says Britain
    The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995) Tuesday 13 July 1982 p 1 Article
    Abstract: LONDON, Monday (AAP-AFP). — Britain acknowledged today that Argentina had accepted an effective end of hostilities over the 89 words
    Digitised article icon
  9. WORLD nEWS THE FALKLANDS WAR Thatcher polls a confidence vote
    The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995) Saturday 8 May 1982 p 5 Article
    Abstract: LONDON, Friday, (AAP-Reuter). — The British have given the Prime Minister, Mrs Thatcher, a firm vote of 387 words
    Digitised article icon
  10. Web page: "That one's going to be a lot tougher."
    http://www.cartoons.ac.uk/browse/cartoon_item/anytext=falklands%20thatcher?page=5
    Web page
    Note

    2015-08-10 15:56:52.0

    The cartoon image "That one's going to be a lot tougher" examines the problems in the United Kingdom even after victory in the Falklands War, namely unemployment. This image could be useful at it highlights the use of the Falklands conflict as political leverage rather than national gain.

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  11. Web page: MT notes for speech to House of Commons
    http://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/122878
    Web page
  12. Web page: FCO letter to No.10
    http://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/124190
    Web page
  13. Web page: The Falklands War: Causes and Lessons
    http://www.amazon.com/Falklands-War-Causes-Lessons-ebook/dp/B00IK6BCK8/ref=sr_1_1?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1442725997&sr=1-1&keywords=the+falklands+war+causes+and+lessons
    Web page
  14. Web page: THE FALKLANDS WAR
    http://www.amazon.com/FALKLANDS-WAR-Martin-Middlebrook/dp/1848846363/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1442726121&sr=8-1&keywords=the+falklands+war+martin+middlebrook
    Web page
  15. Web page: The Falklands War: Understanding The Power Of Context In Shaping Argentine Strategic Decisions
    http://www.amazon.com/Falklands-War-Understanding-Argentine-Strategic-ebook/dp/B012ETZKNG/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1442726196&sr=8-1&keywords=The+falklands+war+understanding+the+power+of+context+in+shaping+argentine+strategic+decisions
    Web page
  16. Web page: Year On Year
    http://find.galegroup.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/ttda/infomark.do?&source=gale&prodId=TTDA&userGroupName=uow&tabID=T003&docPage=article&searchType=BasicSearchForm&docId=CS151227427&type=multipage&contentSet=LTO&version=1.0
    Web page
  17. Web page: A whiff of cordite-until 1989?.
    http://find.galegroup.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/ttda/infomark.do?&source=gale&prodId=TTDA&userGroupName=uow&tabID=T003&docPage=article&searchType=BasicSearchForm&docId=CS168660005&type=multipage&contentSet=LTO&version=1.0
    Web page
  18. Web page: Downing Street jubilation.
    http://find.galegroup.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/ttda/infomark.do?&source=gale&prodId=TTDA&userGroupName=uow&tabID=T003&docPage=article&searchType=BasicSearchForm&docId=CS405113551&type=multipage&contentSet=LTO&version=1.0
    Web page