1. List: 1912 Stockholm Summer Olympics.
    1912 Stockholm Summer Olympics. thumbnail image
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    “How did the Australian media perceive the Australian men and women representatives differently through the coverage of the 1912 Olympic Games before, during and after the Games?”

    The Stockholm Olympics were held in Sweden from the dates 5th May 1912 to the 27th of July of the same year. The 1912 summer Olympics is classified as the fifth modern games and the games were truly seen as a success as they internationally hosted 22 nations and a total of 2,407 athletes. These games were the first of a few countries to take part including Japan’s debut as the first Asian nation to participate.

    Stockholm was the only bid for the games and was selected in 1909, giving the Swedish organisers four years in advance to prepare for the games and to learn from the mistakes of the previous games.

    The Swedish organisers opted for these games to only consist of pure athletic sporting events of track and field, wrestling, gymnastics and swimming. However, due to the changes made by the International Olympics committee these games were the first to include competitions in architecture, sculpture, painting, music and literature. The games also saw the introduction of the women’s diving and women’s events in swimming and the decathlon and the new pentathlon.

    Despite the total of 2,407 athletes and the introduction to the new women’s events, 2359 of the athletes were men while only 48 were women. Frenchman Baron Pierre de Coubertin, who initiated the renewal of the Olympic Games in Athens then in Stockholm, opposed to women’s participation. This saw that the main obstacles facing women’s participation in the early Olympic Games followed the philosophy that women were not suited physically or socially to athletics. Most significantly, the decision of the International Swimming Federation saw to accept events for women in the Olympic Games.

    The Australian representation in the Stockholm Games consisted of twenty men and two women who competed in athletics, rowing and swimming as part of the Australasian team. Australia’s strength in the games was swimming and throughout my research I have focused on that event in particular. Australia returned home from the games with 6 medals consisting of 2 medals in each gold, silver and bronze for the swimming events. Sarah ‘Fanny’ Durack became recognised as the first female swimmer to win Olympic gold when she beat her Australian teammate Wilhelmina ‘Mina’ Wylie in the 100m freestyle.

    The media in Australia covering the games before, during and after the event in this Trove list is focused on the access to digitalised newspapers from that time period. The sources in this list help answer the research question as the material throughout the articles allow for interpretation to help answer the question.

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    created by: stephanielizzy on 2014-09-18 15:01:47.0
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  1. The resource described by this item has been deleted from Trove
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    2014-09-22 14:22:51.0

    The Swedish Olympic Committee, 'The Official Report of the Olympic Games of Stockholm 1912', trans. E Adams-Ray, (ed.) E Bergvall, Wahlstrom and Widstrand, Stockholm, 1913.



    This source is the ‘The official report of the Olympic Games of Stockholm 1912’, also known as the report of the Fifth Olympiad. The report was issued by The Swedish Olympic Committee and has since been translated by Edward Adams-Ray.
    The Committee considered it to be a duty to publish a full report of the fifth Olympiad and its competitions. This has been extremely useful as most aspects of the games are explained inside including the definition of what is regarded as an amateur athlete and who is allowed to compete in the games. Inside this source also has every little detail regarding the games and where it is located, the rules and regulations of the sporting events that are held during that period, the stadiums layouts, and information regarding the nations competing and it even has included photographs throughout the report including metadata explaining their importance.
    In regards to the Swimming events and Australia, this source relates to the research question as there is plenty of information regarding the swimming events in general and details such as the requirements for female swimsuits and the results of the Australasian teams throughout their heats and the finals. Towards the end of the report is a letter written by the Australian swimming organisation expanding their gratitude for allowing them to enjoying their stay while they were here and the small swimming teams that came to represent Australia

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  2. AUSTRALASIA'S TEAM. ATHLETES FOR STOCKHOLM. LEAVE BY THE OSTERLEY. A STRONG COMBINATION.
    Daily Herald (Adelaide, SA : 1910 - 1924) Monday 22 April 1912 p 8 Article
    Abstract: The Australasian athletes who are to compete on behalf of this country at the Olympic games, to be held at Stockholm next June and July, left by the ... 1537 words
    Digitised article icon
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    2014-09-21 13:35:10.0

    This source was chosen as the article was written in The Daily Herald on April 22nd, 1912. This is the media's perception of the Australian representatives’ months before the games have begun. They describe the departure of the Australian athletes as important markings of an event that’ll later become history. The revival of the Olympic Games gives Australia the opportunity to have their swimmers prove their worth in foreign waters and have their first serious attempt to win international supremacy over other nations competing.
    This article is helpful towards the research question as it addresses Australia’s geographical positioning to the games as an obstacle due to requirement of large amounts of money to be able to afford the athletes to travel over to the Stockholm games to compete. Even though Australia may be lacking financial wise regarding their athletes to the games – they are definitely not disadvantaged in terms of talent which the athletes possess. The article describes the chosen athletes as a strong combination, perceiving them with high chances of winning in their own particular sports.
    In particular, this article mentions female swimming representative Mina Wylie who is only just considered as part of the Australian team, and she wouldn’t be able to leave if funds for her do not permit a certain amount.

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  3. Web page: Mina Wylie interviewed by Neil Bennetts
    http://nla.gov.au/nla.oh-vn2614485
    Web page
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    2014-09-22 12:30:53.0

    “Wylie, an early women's swimming champion and Olympic silver medallist, speaks about the development of women's swimming in Australia; competing in 1912 Olympics in Stockholm and coming second to Fanny Durack… “
    This source is extremely useful because it is Mina Wylie through an oral recording about the important aspects of her life and how she made history through her swimming career. A topic that was inevitable to be in this recording is the Stockholm 1912 Olympics.
    Mina Wylie comments that men were opposed to sending Australian women to Stockholm to compete in the games in 1912, the men didn’t think it was right for women to go and the hadn’t had anything to do with the ladies swimming. It was only after a long fight that they were given permission to go. It was at Fanny Durack and Mina Wylie’s own expense to financially afford to go. This ties into the research question as the media and the men of the Australian societies perceptions before and during the games were negative towards the Australian women.
    Mina Wylie claims it wasn’t until the Australian flags shown up as a winning result, that they started to take credit for the representation of the two women and their accomplishments.

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  4. The Evolution of the Olympic Games 1829 B.C. - 1914 A.D. / by F.A.M. Webster
    Webster, F. A. M. (Frederick Annesley Michael), 1886-
    [ Book : 1914 ]
    Read online at Open Library/Internet Archive
    View online
    At 3 libraries
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    2014-09-22 00:11:32.0

    This book goes into detail about the progression of the Ancient Olympics and how they initially started and evolved into what we know as today and the appreciation of sporting events competing against other nations in the modern Olympics. This book covers the fifth modern Olympiad in Stockholm, Sweden 1912.

    The book is a useful source as it mentions the preparations for the fifth Olympiad and the evolution of the games including the stages of when women were allowed to start participating and becoming recognised in the sporting events and receiving medals for their achievements.

    The funding for athletes to go to the games in Stockholm seemed high in price for Australians to participate, however, it was also price-conscious for those who attended to watch. At the beginning of all the events the prices of the seats were quite out of pocket from the man who usually attends an athletic sports meeting. This could raise questions to the wider society as women are fighting for equality in the workforce in the 1900's and it is men who are earning more money. It is those athletes and participants who are men who are primarily going to the Stockholm Olympic Games.

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  5. OLYMPIC GAMES. Australia's Opportunity.
    The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) Saturday 14 February 1920 p 9 Article
    Abstract: In an interview on Friday Mr. W. W. Hill (Ion. secretary of tie Olympic Games Australasian Representation Fund) said the seventh Olympic Games would ... 928 words
    Digitised article icon
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    2014-09-22 13:32:25.0

    • This article was written years after the Stockholm Olympics in 1920 and perceives the athletes titles of winning for Australia as something to "defend" and how the titles won should continue on with pride. The article is trying to pump up the Australian public for the next Olympic Games as the aim of the writing is to show Australia proud in the athletes they have produced. The positive article expresses the achievement made by the Australian representatives and with enthusiasm claims victory on behalf of Sarah “Fanny” Durack and the males swimming relay teams gold medals, along with the other achievements made by Mina Wylie and the Australian rowing team.
    Much like previous obstacles, financially the media is pressing the issues of representation for Australia and the need for more funds to make this achievable. The title of the Article states “Australia’s opportunity” which captures the reader’s attention towards the Games. The article mentions both the female and male representatives for Australia in the same light and is equally proud of their accomplishments regardless of the gender.

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  6. Olympic Games.
    Clarence and Richmond Examiner (Grafton, NSW : 1889 - 1915) Saturday 16 March 1912 p 11 Article
    Abstract: SYDNEY, Friday.—Dick Boardman will accompany Harold Hardwick Cecil Healey, and Walter Longworth, as the swimming representatives int he Olympic Games ... 49 words
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    2014-09-21 23:30:37.0

    This source is a newspaper notice written in 1912 in New South Wales

    It addresses the cost of 600 pounds to represent four Australian swimmers in the Olympic Games. So far the totalled amount of money received for their funding is at 540 pounds.
    It has no mention of Australian female swimmers Fanny Durack or Mina Wylie.

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  7. The Olympic Games. AUSTRALAIN SUCCESSES. RECORD ESTABLISHED BY HEALY. Stockholm, July 11.
    Bunbury Herald (WA : 1892 - 1919) Saturday 13 July 1912 p 7 Article
    Abstract: At the Olympic games now in progress W. Longworth. the champion swimmer, did not start in the swimming final on account of a painful ear trouble. 103 words
    • Text last corrected on 18 September 2014 by ellarocks
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    2014-09-18 17:54:50.0

    While the Olympics was in progress. mentions of the male athletes but none of the women athletes who represented Australia. this is for the event of swimming.

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  8. SWIMMING. "NATATION DAY." RETURN HOME OF MISSES DURACK AND WYLIE. LONGWORTH AND HAROLD HARDWICK OTHER OCCURRENCES.
    Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939) Wednesday 9 October 1912 p 8 Article
    Abstract: A whiff of the good old days came along last week In the form of the following, dated October 1:-"Natation Day greetings. Remem-brances of the past. ... 1160 words
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    2014-09-22 13:34:56.0

    Nation Day as the return of Miss Fanny Durack and Mina Wylie come back to Australia after participating in the games.
    First type of media hype surrounding women participation and representation for Australia. This was written after the games and after the two female representatives had won medals for their achievements. Perhaps after proving their strengths in the swimming events made the Australian media proud to have both athletes as role models for Australia.

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  9. Olympic Parade
    Bain News Service, publisher
    [ Photograph : 1912 ]
    View online
    Olympic Parade
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    2014-09-21 23:33:46.0

    This photograph shows the Olympic Parade in progress. The streets are widely spread out for the event. There are multiple flags in sight, showing off the nations pride and their participation in the games.

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  10. Web page: Women in the Olympics
    http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/docview/215770811/fulltextPDF?accountid=15112
    Web page
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    2014-09-22 12:05:58.0

    Primarily focuses on women's involvement throughout the evolution of the games. Women have participated before, however it wasn't until the 1912 Olympics when they started recording this has official participation.

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  11. THE OLYMPIC GAMES. NATIONS PREPARING. THE VARIOUS EVENTS.
    The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954) Tuesday 23 June 1908 p 8 Article
    Abstract: The cable message published last week regarding the selection of America's team for the Olympic Games, and the combination's alleged prospects brings ... 1028 words
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    2014-09-22 12:02:10.0

    How well the other competing nations are preparing for the Games. This article was written years before the games.

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  12. Part 4. The Olympic Story HIGHLIGHTS OF PAST OLYMPICS
    Western Herald (Bourke, NSW : 1887 - 1970) Friday 21 September 1956 p 2 Article
    Abstract: Four runners sped around the bend into the final straight. Suddenly one of the competitors was 654 words
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    2014-09-22 13:14:47.0

    This article was written in Australian newspapers in September 1956, many years after the Stockholm Olympics have past. The article looks back at highlights of the past Olympics and regards Australia as being well represented during the 1912 games in special mention of gold medallist, Fanny Durack.

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  13. SWIMMING. SATURDAY'S RECORD SWIMS. SCHOOL CHAMPIONSHIPS. OLYMPIC GAMES.
    The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) Wednesday 13 March 1912 p 11 Article
    Abstract: Carnivals were held at North Sydney and at the Domain Ladies' Baths on Saturday, and some excellent swimming took place at both functions. At the fir ... 2503 words
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    2014-09-22 13:17:12.0

    Australian representation at the Stockholm Olympics. Focus in this article is entirely swimming based. The article was written during the games.

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  14. Gaynor addressing Olympic Athletes
    Bain News Service, publisher
    [ Photograph : 1912 ]
    View online
    Gaynor addressing Olympic Athletes
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    2014-09-22 13:37:09.0

    Gaynor addressing Olympic Athletes. Interesting to note, there are no females in this photograph. The majority of athletes at the 1912 Olympic Games were men.

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  15. The resource described by this item has been deleted from Trove
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    2014-09-22 13:38:48.0

    Australian Men's relay team who arrived back in Australia with a medal from their victory.
    This photograph is commonly found when searching for Australian representatives at the Stockholm Olympic Games.

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  16. Web page: The Daily Telegraph (2008)
    http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/docview/321548065?pq-origsite=summon
    Web page
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    2014-09-22 13:44:13.0

    Olympic Tales: 1912 Dream realised in Stockholm.
    The Games of innovation as electronic timing devices were used for the first time. Women were admitted to the swimming and diving, and the decathlon also made its bow.

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