1. List: Wave Hill Walkout
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    How did the 1966 labour strike by Aboriginal workers on Wave Hill Station become a land rights issue? This question has been deliberately framed following initial research. At first, the Wave Hill Walkout occurred simply because of unpaid or underpaid wages for Aboriginal staff, male or female, over some years and poor food and living conditions at Wave Hill. As research progressed, it became apparent that the Aboriginal leaders of the strike had a secondary, but apparently more important, reason for walking off their jobs - land rights. Despite some suggestions in the press, white agitators were not the instigators of land rights action. ITEM NO. 1 This Tribune article was dated only a short time following the walk off and pointed out that an Arbitration Court decision to defer equal pay for a further three years was the major catalyst. The Tribune reported that the Aborigines themselves were the instigators of the walk off. The Aboriginal workers cited lack of pay parity with white stockmen and were seeking independence instead of paternalism and handouts, which, as it happened were not adequate anyway. ITEM NO. 2 This is a very heartfelt letter to the Canberra Times from seven different southern unions, supporting the Gurindji in their fight against the injustice they had suffered for 'more than a century'. ITEM NO. 3: This Tribune article was an exclusive story from a reporter who had interviewed striking Wave Hill Aboriginal stockmen in September 1966. ITEM NO. 4: 1968 - Aboriginal leader, Dexter Daniels, threatened a general strike of Northern Territory stockmen if the Federal Government did not give the Gurindji 500 square miles of Wave Hill land, a clearly vocalised demand for land rights. ITEM NO. 5: This is a 1968 film of interviews of Aboriginal strikers at Wattie Creek by Peter Luck from the Australian Broadcasting Commission's, This Day Tonight program. ITEM NO. 6: The Canberra Times reported that the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders stated that the Federal Government's rejection of the Gurindji claim for their ancestral land as 'irrelevant nonsense' and that the Government had a moral duty to recognise the rights of Aboriginal people. ITEM NO. 7: Parliamentarian, Tom Uren suggested that an all-party parliamentary committee be convened to look into grievance of the Gurindji people, but it was rejected by the relevant minister, who accused Uren of being 'associated with a Mr Frank Hardy' who tried to stir up trouble, and asserted that Hardy ws a 'recognised communist'. ITEM NO. 8: This is a Tharunka magazine article from 1970, a retrospective on the conditions of the Gurindji Aborigines when they lived and worked at Wave Hill. ITEM NO. 9: A Tribune article from 1968 describing the movement of Gurindji Aborigines from various cattle stations, reserves and jobs in the Northern Territory to Wattie Creek to occupy land traditionally theirs and that Aborigines were walking off specifically for land rights.ITEMS 10 & 12 Detail the visit to Wattie Creek in 1975 of the then Prime Minister Gough Whitlam. ITEM NO. 11: This refers to the scholarly work: 'Different White People' by Deborah Wilson, who presents an academic assessment of the Wave Hill action in 1966 and its aftermath. A TOTAL OF 24 ITEMS ARE IN THIS LIST, ANY ONE OF WHICH CAN CONTRIBUTE TO THIS RESEARCH.

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    created by: Magsyd on 2019-08-26 15:41:11.0
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  1. The unlucky Australians [Frank Hardy]
    Hardy, Frank (Francis Joseph), 1917-1994
    [ Book, Audio book : 1968-2010 ]
    Languages: English;Undetermined, [1 other]
    At 118 libraries
    The unlucky Australians [Frank Hardy]
    Note

    2019-09-14 14:46:46.0

    Frank Hardy's book was published in 1968, but he was staying in the NT and witnessed the events of the Walk Out. There are verbatim sections by Aboriginal protagonist, and detail on his own and others' involvement. The foreword of the book is written by Donald Horne

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  2. Aborigines' strike spreads in NT THEY WON'T WAIT THREE YEARS FOR WAGE JUSTICE
    Tribune (Sydney, NSW : 1939 - 1976) Wednesday 31 August 1966 p 1 Article Illustrated
    Abstract: DARWIN: The biggest strike of Aborigines in Australia's history began last week at Vesty's huge Wave Hill station in the Northern Territory when 200 ... 1093 words
    • Text last corrected on 16 September 2019 by Magsyd
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    2019-09-17 11:39:34.0

    This is an exceptional article describing the conditions under which the Aborigines at Wave Hill worked and lived. It reported that 200 walked off (23 August) for equal pay with white workers. The previous March, the Arbitration Court decided not to grant equal pay to Aboriginal workers for a further three years, which was a major catalyst for Aborigines to walk off in August 1966. Tribune reported that Aborigines themselves were the instigators and leaders of the strike which was more concerted and well organised than any previous strikes in which white Australians had played the primary organisational and political roles. The Wave Hill strike involved a new leader in Vincent Lingiari, an Aboriginal stockman, and early reports from the Wave Hill strikers remark on the extremely high morale. The strikers were asking for parity with white stockmen but they were seeking independence instead of paternalism and handouts. The food handouts from Vestey’s was minimal and of extremely poor nutritious value – for example, poor cuts of meat, flour, tea, sugar and treacle and there was no fruit or vegetables. Welfare payments for the Aborigines on Wave Hill were being misappropriated by Vestey’s. The Department of Social Services sent lump sums for Aboriginal payments directly to the Manager of the station and payments rarely reached the proper recipients, the Aborigines.

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  3. The strike at Wave Hill
    The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995) Saturday 3 September 1966 p 2 Article
    Abstract: Sir, — A telegraphic message in a recent issue of your newspaper carried a quite truthful report on the food being 566 words
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    2019-09-17 12:10:52.0

    This is a very articulate and heartfelt letter to the newspaper signed by officials from a number of Trade Unions. They agreed with the description of the poor food provided by Northern Territory aborigines, citing statements from a visit to NT cattle stations by the Federal Arbitration Commission. The letter also questioned the Arbitration Commission’s decision to delay wage increases to Aborigines until 1968 – citing British law and referred to the adage that ‘justice must not only be done, but be seen to be believed’*. The Aborigines were only continuing a fight against injustice that they had suffered for more than a century, and put up with atrocious conditions. Many criticise apartheid in South Africa and exclusion of Negroes in America, the article states, but Australia’s native people also suffer great injustice. The letter called on the Federal Government and the Australian Council of Trade Unions to ensure that the Aboriginal stockmen were given full wage justice immediately. *(J B Morton)

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  4. Station owners' diet for Aborigines DRY BREAD AND SALT BEEF BUT IT IS ENDING
    Tribune (Sydney, NSW : 1939 - 1976) Wednesday 7 September 1966 p 1 Article
    Abstract: (An exclusive, story from a Tribune correspondent in Darwin who interviewed the Wave Hill Aborigine strikers). "No money, me fella got no money for 1177 words
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    2019-09-17 12:31:02.0

    (The Tribune reporter interviewed Wave Hill Aboriginal strikers in Darwin)
    “No money, me fella got no money for sometimes two months, sometimes three months, then we get, might be $40 or $60” – Interview with striking Wave Hill Aboriginal stockman. “We get no fresh meat…only dry bread and salt beef.” “We want wages all same white man”. The striking Aborigines also told of cruelty, exploitation and privation. The delay by the Arbitration Commission to institute the pay rise to bring in parity with white stockmen was the last straw that precipitated the Wave Hill Walk off. The temporary camp at Wattie Creek was reported as primitive but neat and orderly and they supplemented their meagre diet of donated food with caught or speared bush food. The Aborigines reported that they had walked off, they had seen a white man chopping his own wood at Wave Hill for the first time in over 80 years and Aboriginal maids didn’t respond to the little bell rung by the white missus any more. The Tribune article reported that four generations of Aborigines had walked off Wave Hill.

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  5. NT Aboriginal strike threat over land
    The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995) Thursday 11 July 1968 p 1 Article Illustrated
    Abstract: DARWIN, Wednesday. — The Aboriginal leader, Mr Dexter Daniels. has threatened a general strike of stockmen throughout the Northern 376 words
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    2019-09-21 11:49:05.0

    NT strike threat over land 1968: An Aboriginal leader, Dexter Daniels, threatened a general strike of stockmen in the NT if the Federal Government did not give the Gurindji 500 square miles of Wave Hill Land. He had not heard that, the day before, the Government had rejected their claim for Wave Hill land. Instead, they were allowed 'squatters' rights' at Wattie Creek, where a school infant welfare and medical centre, a welfare office and a police station were already established. Mr Nixon subsequently sought assurances that the Gurindjis could stay at Wattie Creek if they didn't want to move to the new village.

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  6. Web page: Film of Peter Luck (ABC) interviewing Aborigines
    http://www.abc.net.au/archives/80days/stories/2012/01/19/3411481.htm
    Web page
    Note

    2019-09-21 11:48:32.0

    This is a film from the ABC's This Day Tonight Program in 1968
    Excellent film from Wattie Creek where Peter Luck interviewed strikers after the Walk Off

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  7. 'Injustice' at Wave Hill
    The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995) Monday 31 July 1967 p 7 Article
    Abstract: The Federal Government had an obligation to meet members of the Gurindji tribe 302 words
    • Text last corrected on 19 August 2016 by julanna
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    2019-09-17 12:52:59.0

    This would seem to be the first media mention of ‘land rights’ following the Wave Hill Walk off for better pay and conditions. The CT commented that the Federal Government should have met the Gurindji regarding their claim for part of Wave Hill station, and that the legislative reform convenor for the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait islanders stated that the Government’s rejection of the Gurindji claim for their ancestral land was “irrelevant nonsense”. The Convenor stated that the Government had a moral duty to recognise the rights of Aboriginal people to at least part of the land they had occupied traditionally. The article ridiculed the statement that “Aborigines have the same rights as other Australians” and that they had their land, their only capital, taken from them.

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  8. Equal wages for aborigines : the background to industrial discrimination in the Northern Territory of Australia / by Frank Stevens
    Stevens, F. S. (Frank S.), 1930-2012
    [ Book : 1968 ]
    Languages: English;Undetermined, [1 other]
    At 45 libraries
    Note

    2019-11-01 09:29:25.0

    Subtitle: The Background to Industrial Discrimination in the Northern Territory of Australia. (Clifton Hill, Vic: The Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders). Refers to th Berndt Report 'A Northern Territory Problem: Aboriginal Labour in a Pastoral Area, University of Sydney 1948

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  9. Natives 'exploited by Communists'
    The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995) Friday 27 October 1967 p 12 Article
    Abstract: The Minister for Territories, Mr Barnes, rejected today a suggestion for an all-party 237 words
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    2019-09-17 13:02:37.0

    This article reported on a suggestion made by Mr T Uren (Labor, NSW) for an all-party parliamentary committee to be convened to look into grievances of the Gurindji Aborigines. That suggestion was rejected by the Minister for Territories. Mr Uren asked if a native welfare officer had been removed from his post because he was sympathetic to the striking Aborigines. The Minister for Territories accused Uren of being ‘associated with a Mr Frank Hardy’ who tried to stir up the trouble. He went on to assert that Hardy was a recognised communist and associated with Uren. Mr Uren responded that Mr Hardy had rights as an Australian to comment, protest or criticise even if he had communist affiliations. Mr Uren described the Minister’s attitude as “utter stupidity”

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  10. End of an era : Aboriginal labour in the Northern Territory / Ronald M. Berndt & Catherine H. Berndt
    Berndt, Ronald M. (Ronald Murray), 1916-
    [ Book, Government publication : 1986-1987 ]
    At 78 libraries
    End of an era : Aboriginal labour in the Northern Territory / Ronald M. Berndt & Catherine H. Berndt
  11. LIFE UNDER VESIEYS
    Tharunka (Kensington, NSW : 1953 - 2010) Wednesday 22 July 1970 p 15 Article Illustrated
    Abstract: 5,500 Aborigines were wage earners in the N.T. in 1966. 1,300 were employed as station hands of some sort on the pastoral stations — and by far the b ... 621 words
    • Text last corrected on 3 September 2019 by Magsyd
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    2019-09-21 11:51:43.0

    Tharunka 1970: In 1966, 5,500 Aborigines were wage earners inthe NY and 1,300 were employed by Vesteys. Aboriginal workers were paid substantially less than white employees and provided an extremely cheap labour force in the NT. After the Walkout in 1966, the courts declared that Aboriginal stockmen should join the union (NAWU) but signing them all up over such a large remote area was impossible. Even after the strike (Walkout) three Aboriginal stockmen walked off at Wave Hill complaining that they had worked seven days per week between 3am and sundown - since the 1966 strike. One welfare officer, Bill Jeffrey, was sympathetic to the Aboriginal workers (he ended up being dismissed in 1967);
    "They lived in huts like dog kennels that scorched in the summer and froze in the winter. Amenities, even of the crudest kind, were non-existent. Medical care was not for the Aborigines, nor were toilets, schooling, decent food, or average wages.."

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  12. Aborigines defy Govt., Vesteys GURINDJI RALLY TO HOLD THEIR LAND
    Tribune (Sydney, NSW : 1939 - 1976) Wednesday 31 July 1968 p 1 Article Illustrated
    Abstract: FROM cattle stations, reserves and jobs in the Northern Territory, Gurindji Aborigines are moving to Wattie Creek (on Wave Hill station) to occupy la ... 873 words
    • Text last corrected on 27 July 2018 by yllekm93
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    2019-09-17 13:20:35.0

    Gurindji Aborigines from various cattle stations, reserves and jobs in the NT start moving to Wattie Creek (Wave Hill) to occupy land traditionally theirs. They responded to a call by elders and had support from other Aborigines. The article stated that the movement (now) was quite separate to the original strike for better pay and conditions and that Aborigines were walking off specifically for land rights. The continued to petition for land to establish their own station. It was obvious they would not give in. the Federal Council for Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders stated that they were determined and commended their deciision to government, the Aboriginal Advancement Council, the Australian Council of Churches, Trade Unions, and the World Council of Jurists, seeking moral support. Money was raised for Dexter Daniel, leader of NT Aborigines, to be a delegate to the 9th World Youth Festival to be held in Bulgaria.

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  13. Whitlam hands lease to Gurindji
    The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995) Monday 18 August 1975 p 1 Article Illustrated
    Abstract: TENNANT CREEK, Sunday.—A nine-year conflict over the ownership of a vast 351 words
    • Text last corrected on 21 April 2016 by mhudd
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    2019-09-03 10:22:18.0

    Whitlam 1975

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  14. Different white people : radical activism for Aboriginal rights 1946-1972 / Deborah Wilson
    Wilson, Deborah M.
    [ Book : 2015 ]
    View online
    At 29 libraries
    Different white people : radical activism for Aboriginal rights 1946-1972 / Deborah Wilson
    Note

    2019-09-21 12:27:09.0

    This is a scholarly work outlining three different Aboriginal movements for improved conditions and/or land rights. She delves into the Communist influence and involvement in the Wave Hill movement, the determination of Aboriginal leaders who appeared to use the excuse of poor wages and conditions for their walk off to assert their demands for land rights. She describes various Aboriginal catalysts, for example Vincent Lingiari and Dexter Daniels and one of their staunchest supporters, Frank Hardy. Wilson provides references and footnotes to identify her sources, and her book is an invaluable academic source.

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  15. Web page: A handful of sand
    https://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-09-03/activist-took-original-gough-whitlam-vincent-lingiari-sand-photo/7805880
    Web page
    Note

    2019-09-21 11:44:14.0

    ICONIC PHOTO: Prime Minister Gough Whitlam pouring sand into the hand of Vincent Lingiari as a sympolic gesture 1975

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  16. A handful of sand : the Gurindji struggle, after the walk-off / Charlie Ward
    Ward, Charlie Russel
    [ Book : 2016-2017 ]
    At 109 libraries
    A handful of sand : the Gurindji struggle, after the walk-off / Charlie Ward
  17. Web page: Wave Hill Walk-off
    https://www.nma.gov.au/defining-moments/resources/wave-hill-walk-off
    Web page
    Note

    2019-08-27 11:18:45.0

    Vincent Lingiari addressing the media after Gough Whitlam returned land at Wattie Creek to the Aboriginal people in 1975

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  18. Web page: Wave Hill: From Little things big things grow
    https://www.clc.org.au/land-won-back/info/wave-hill-from-little-things-big-things-grow/
    Web page
    Note

    2019-08-27 11:25:37.0

    Central Lands Council, Land Rights News Vol. 2, no. 23 Dec 91

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  19. Web page: Friday essay: the untold story behind the 1966 Wave Hill Walk-Off
    http://theconversation.com/friday-essay-the-untold-story-behind-the-1966-wave-hill-walk-off-62890
    Web page
    Note

    2019-09-14 14:40:12.0

    The Guardian 19 August 2016 - retrospective article by academic who speaks and understand Aboriginal dialects, Felicity Meakins. Relates accounts of cruelty and murder of Gurindji people.

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  20. Web page: Social Justice Report 1998: A handful of soil
    https://www.humanrights.gov.au/our-work/social-justice-report-1998-introduction-handful-soil
    Web page
    Note

    2019-09-03 13:49:54.0

    Australian Human Rights Commission - Social Justice Report 1998

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  21. ABORIGINES TO GET SACRED LAND BACK TODAY
    The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995) Saturday 16 August 1975 p 32 Article
    Abstract: Today the Gurindji get back their land. At least, they get back Daguragu, the sacred site of 548 words
    • Text last corrected on 29 May 2016 by wpjacobs
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    2019-09-09 10:36:37.0

    1975 getting back the land - The Gurindji finally got some of their land back on 16 August 1975 - at least they got back 'Daguragu' the sacred site of Gurindji dreaming where the bones of their ancestors and sacred painting are kept - a place for a short time in history known as 'Wattie Creek'. The Prime Minister Gough Whitlam will hand the pastoral lease to Mr Vincent Lingiari. Gough Whitlam said:
    "Today will go down in Australian History as one of the most significant milestones in the 200 years since the white man first came to Australia and began taking the land, on which their whole life and culture deends, from the Aboriginal people."
    A telegram was sent to the Gurindji on the occasion from Frank Hardy:
    "Very pleased you got that land. Don't forget to ask Gough Whitlam about houses, cattle, school, garden, shop and clinic. Good luck from your old friend, Frank Hardy."
    It was not until 1973 that they learned they would get their land, and final agreement was reached with Vesteys on 18 December 1974.
    Personal note: I was on Wave Hill Station in August 1974 and my family and we had dinner with the Station Manager. We were 'blow-ins' with a letter of introduction to the manager from someone he could not remember. He was abrupt, but accommodated us in the 'guest house' (first time we'd slept between sheets in about three months!). After dinner with him, served by a lovely Aboriginal woman, my daughters dozed and the Manager, after a few whiskies, complained long and loud about the 'bloody Abos'. My husband and I did not have to respond - the manager seemed to like a captive audience. We left the next morning after having enjoyed clean sheets and a nice dinner, but pleased to leave the grumpy Station Manager behind.

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  22. Frank Hardy: committed larrikin
    The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995) Saturday 29 January 1994 p 1 Article
    Abstract: Frank Hardy died yesterday at his Melbourne home, aged 76. He was a passionate and committed writer who changed many of his higher 633 words
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    2019-09-03 10:29:20.0

    Obituary Frank Hardy

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  23. Tracking Wave Hill : following the Gurindji walk-off to Wattie Creek, 1966-1972 / Charles Russel Ward
    Ward, Charles Russel, 1972-
    [ Thesis : 2012 ]
    At 2 libraries
  24. Web page: Big things Grow, Dr Christine Jennett
    https://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/stories/big-things-grow
    Web page
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    2019-09-14 14:29:55.0

    State Library of NSW - Referring to PM Gough Wlhitlam's visit on 15 August 1975

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  25. Recognising the women of wave hill
    Rea, Jeannie
    Agenda
    [ Article : 2016 ]
    View online (conditions apply)
  26. The Price of Tobacco: The Journey of the Warlmala to Wave Hill, 1928
    Read, Peter; Japaljarri, Engineer Jack
    Aboriginal History
    [ Article : 1978 ]
    View online (conditions apply)
  27. Gurindji walk-off grows
    The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995) Friday 9 August 1968 p 3 Article
    Abstract: DARWIN, Thursday. — Another group of Gurindji tribesmen and their families have walked off a cattle 113 words
    • Text last corrected on 20 August 2016 by Rhonda.M
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    2019-09-21 11:34:55.0

    Support for strikers

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  28. Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act 1976 re the Gurindji land claim to Daguragu Station : transcript of proceedings / Aboriginal Land Commission
    Australia. Office of the Aboriginal Land Commissioner
    [ Government publication, Periodical : 1981-2019 ]
    At 2 libraries
  29. Vincent Lingiari interviewed by Frank Hardy during the strike at Wave Hill Station in the Frank Hardy MS 4887 collection
    Lingiari, Vincent, 1919-1988
    [ Sound : 1967 ]
    At National Library