1. List: Coniston massacre
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    created by: Magsyd on 2019-08-22 16:04:01.0
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  1. Long time, olden time : Aboriginal accounts of Northern Territory history / collected and edited by Peter and Jay Read
    Read, Peter, 1945-
    [ Book : 1991-1993 ]
    At 61 libraries
    Long time, olden time : Aboriginal accounts of Northern Territory history / collected and edited by Peter and Jay Read
    Note

    2019-10-27 15:58:57.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: Initially, I was not going to use this source but on further reading found it to be quite helpful. The book also has photos and interviews with indigenous people USED

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  2. MAN MURDERED BY BLACKS AT TEA TREE WELL
    Northern Territory Times (Darwin, NT : 1927 - 1932) Tuesday 14 August 1928 p 3 Article
    Abstract: A message from Alice Springs states that; Fred Brookes; a quiet inoffensive man; aged about 60; was murdered by blacks about 80 miles 166 words
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    Note

    2019-09-18 15:48:06.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: CATALYST FOR REPRISALS AND FURTHER KILLINGS. This newspaper article relates the death of Fred Brookes, referred to as "a quiet inoffensive man, aged about 60". His death was the catalyst for a series of killings that have since been referred to as the "Coniston Massacres". Newspapers of the times generally painted white settlers as 'quiet, inoffensive,' etc. while Aboriginal people were often referred to as cunning and murderous. Did these descriptions of Aboriginal people in many newspapers of the day encourage white settlers to attack them without cause? It ensued that one of the reasons Brooks was killed was because he had an Aboriginal woman living with him and her husband was, not unsurprisingly, upset by the situation.

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  3. ATTACKED BY BLACKS. YOUNG STATION OWNER FIGHTS FOR HIS LIFE. Set upon by aborigines, a young station owner seized his revolver, but a well-aimed boomerang nearly broke one of his w...
    The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1931) Thursday 13 September 1928 p 13 Article
    Abstract: Further details of the attack made by blacks on Mr. William Morton, pastoralist. of Broadmeadows Station, were furnished to-day. Mr. Morton was out 491 words
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    Note

    2019-09-20 12:33:23.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: This news report implied that the 'young station owner' William (Nugget) Morton, was friendly and completely innocent. He 'fought for his life' and survived, despite being attacked by 'fully 10 in the mob that paid him a visit'. The article indicated that Morton understood the natives wanted food and he handed them a lump of meat, only to be attacked without provocation. A 2003 article in the Aboriginal History Journal relates Walpiri people's account being quite different ("To infuse an universal terror": a reappraisal of the Coniston killings" Wilson and O'Brien vol. 27 pp. 59-78) - that Morton was frequently sexually aggressive to Aboriginal women and had allegedly raped two little Aboriginal girls around 9 or 10 years of age. One could assume that he was not as innocent as reported in The Advertiser article.

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  4. RIFLES V. SPEARS. Shooting of Aborigines. Early Explorer's Views.
    Observer (Adelaide, SA : 1905 - 1931) Saturday 24 November 1928 p 54 Article Illustrated
    Abstract: The circumstances surrounding the recent shooting of aborigines in Northern Australia have nowhere been followed with keener 844 words
    • Text last corrected on 2 February 2018 by mnxmoosi
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    2019-09-20 12:41:37.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: This was very reasonable comment from an old outback NT explorer, who questioned the need to kill so many blacks in retribution for the killing of Brooks. Alfred Giles was a member of John Ross's party in 1870, the first white men to journey from Adelaide to Darwin after John McDouall Stuart's pioneering expedition in 1861. "Only cowards could shoot women, and so far as I can see that there was any necessity for it".

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  5. KILLING OF ABORIGINES Justified by Board Missionaries Criticised No Evidence of Starvation CANBERRA, January 30.
    The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954) Thursday 31 January 1929 p 7 Article
    Abstract: Criticism of missionaries working an Central Australia, and of the extent of police supervision of the territory are features of the report of the sp ... 702 words
    • Text last corrected on 1 April 2015 by anonymous
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    Note

    2019-10-25 10:49:12.0

    This is a justification for the killing of Aborigines by Murray's party following the murder of Brooks

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  6. MURRAY—SCOURGE OF THE MYALLS MAN WHOSE GUN KEEPS WHITE MEN SAFE IN WILDS
    Northern Standard (Darwin, NT : 1921 - 1955) Friday 3 March 1933 p 5 Article
    Abstract: "But you didn't shoot to kill, Mr. Murray?" It was at Darwn that a Judge of the Supreme Court asked that 1877 words
    • Text last corrected on 3 October 2011 by dobbo1
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    2019-10-27 16:01:03.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: This is an article written by Ernestine Hill for the 'Sunday Sun and Guardian' 5 February 1933 USED

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  7. BLACKS MENACE WHITE MEN. VANISHING RACE RESENTS APPROACH OF CIVILISATION. SETTLER KILLED BY NATIVES. GOLD IN THE INTERIOR.
    Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1895 - 1954) Saturday 8 December 1928 p 18 Article Illustrated
    Abstract: Blacks still menace settlers and travellers in Central Australia, according to Michael Terry, who is exploring and searching for gold in the Tanami d ... 1375 words
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    2019-09-20 12:46:39.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: The headline in the newspaper article from the Adelaide Chronicle is worth a thousand words. 'Blacks menace white men' denotes dangerous natives, 'vanishing race' indicates desperation on the part of the Aboriginal people, and 'settler killed by natives' with a not-so-subtle mention of gold. This article was a contribution by an explorer and gold prospector, Michael Terry, commenting on the death of Fred Brooks, and was certainly not kindly disposed to the local natives. This article illustrates an ongoing bias against Aboriginal people at the time.

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  8. TRAGEDY OF THE CENTRE
    Northern Territory Times (Darwin, NT : 1927 - 1932) Tuesday 13 November 1928 p 2 Article
    Abstract: Further interviewed, yesterday, the Rev A. D. McGregor told a Times reporter:- Now that the Crown case has failed, the entire 17 shot in connexion wi ... 477 words
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    2019-10-28 09:50:14.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: Two Aborigines found not guilty in Darwin - a Minister of Religion,the Rev A D McGregor stated that therefore the seventeen Aboriginal people killed by police were technically innocent. "Are they," he asked "To be regarded as kangaroos to be shot wholesale on an unproved hypothesis?" REFER TO REV MCGREGOR'S TIRADE PRINTED

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  9. KILLED BY BLACKS, BODY FOUND IN A BABBIT BORROW. DEATH OF A DINGO SCALPER. Alice Apring, August 13.
    The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1931) Tuesday 14 August 1928 p 15 Article
    Abstract: Mr. Fred Brookes, a quiet, inoffensive man of about 60, was murdered by blacks about 8O miles west of Tea Tree Well Brookes, who had two camels laden ... 254 words
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    2019-09-19 14:08:38.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: 14 August 1928 (The Advertiser) Fred Brooks was murdered at Tea Tree Well.
    He had two Aboriginal boys with him and he had sent them to bring the camels to the camp. When they returned, they found blood and Aboriginal men in the camp and no sign of Brooks. The men told the boys to tell the "white fellow" that the old man had "died himself". First mention of Constable Murray - that he had gone out and that news was not expected for some time.

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  10. BUSH MURDER. ATTACKED BY BLACKS. DINGO SCALPER'S DEATH. ALICE SPRINGS, Monday.
    The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) Tuesday 14 August 1928 p 9 Article
    Abstract: "Tell white fellah old man died himself." These words, uttered by leaders of a tribe of blacks to two civilized black boys so frightened the latter t ... 479 words
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    Note

    2019-09-20 12:59:46.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: 14 August 1928 (The Register) newspaper report of Frederick Brooks' murder. This account is similar to the previous report in the Advertiser of Adelaide. The two boys returned to Brooks' camp with the camels and were told by the two men that Brooks had "died himself". The boys were frightened and ran about eleven miles and told a man named Chapman about the event and he advise Mr Stafford of Coniston Station, who in turn, rode all night to advise the police. The report concluded by advising that Constable Murray and gone to investigate.

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  11. CENTRAL AUSTRALIA NATIVES BECOMING A MENACE. ADELAIDE, September 9.
    The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954) Monday 10 September 1928 p 4 Article
    Abstract: That the development of Central Australia will be impossible until more police protection is provided. is the view of Mr. Charles Young, a miner and 161 words
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    2019-09-19 11:40:12.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: Mention of stock being killed by Aborigines and reference to Fred Brooks' murder. No mention that there was a bad drought, cattle were fouling water sources and Aborigines were running out of food/water.

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  12. KILLED SEVEN NATIVES Policeman's Story MURDER OF WHITE MAN DARWIN, Wednesday.
    The Daily News (Perth, WA : 1882 - 1950) Wednesday 7 November 1928 p 1 Article
    Abstract: The first criminal sittings of the Supreme Court in Central Australia began in Darwin this morning, before Judge Mallam and a jury, when two aborigin ... 150 words
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    Note

    2019-09-18 15:50:32.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: Constable William George Murray gave evidence as to the killing of five Aboriginal men who resisted arrest.

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  13. ALICE SPRINGS MURDER. NATIVES ACQUITTED. Police Admit Killing Seventeen.
    The West Australian (Perth, WA : 1879 - 1954) Friday 9 November 1928 p 21 Article
    Abstract: DARWIN, Nov. 8.—The trial of two aborigines on a charge of having murdered Frederick Brooks, in the Alice Springs district last August, was re-opened ... 225 words
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    Note

    2019-09-18 15:58:33.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: Constable William George Murray stated that 17 Aboriginal people, including two women, were killed during the police chase.

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  14. ROUNDING UP BLACKS. ALLEGATION AGAINST CONSTABLE. WAS CHAINED PRISONER SHOT? | ALICE SPRINGS; Tuesday.
    The Register News-Pictorial (Adelaide, SA : 1929 - 1931) Wednesday 2 January 1929 p 9 Article
    Abstract: Giving evidence today before the Federal Enquiry Board, of which Mr. A. H. O'kelly, P.M., is chairman, paddy, a black tracker, said that M.C. Murray, ... 612 words
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    Note

    2019-09-19 14:13:45.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: Allegations that Murray shot a chained Aborigine. Court testimony of Aboriginal man describing 17 Aborigines being shot by Murray and his party. Mention made of difficulty understanding his testimony: "..the sun he come up...sun he go down...no findem tracks....the sun he come up, findem tracks". He testified that Constable Murray shot an Aborigine chained by the neck.

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  15. Field Diary / T.G.H. Strehlow
    Strehlow, T. G. H. (Theodor George Henry), 1908-1978
    [ Unpublished : 1932-1974 ]
    At Strehlow RC
    Note

    2019-09-19 14:22:20.0

    POTENTIAL PRIMARY SOURCE: Unpublished field diary - unfortunately access to Strehlow's Field Diaries was not possible despite personally contacting the Strehlow Research Centre in Alice Springs. Apparently, Strehlow had considerable sympathy for Aboriginal people. His Field Diaries have been copied and the copies are kept in lever arch files in the Research Centre.

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  16. SUPREME COURT THE SECOND TRIAL
    Northern Standard (Darwin, NT : 1921 - 1955) Friday 9 November 1928 p 2 Article
    Abstract: The second trial came on, on Thursday morning, before Judge Mallam, who intimated that he thought the proper thing would be 3562 words
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    2019-09-18 16:35:21.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: Continuation of trial

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  17. Web page: William Murray and the Coniston Massacre
    https://www.awm.gov.au>wartime>previous-issue>85
    Web page
    Note

    2019-09-18 15:47:26.0

    SECONDARY SOURCE: A 2019 article by Dr Thomas James Rogers, an historian in the Military History Section of the Australian War Memorial

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  18. 1928 DRAMA RECALLED Two Tragedies At Coniston ALICE SPRINGS, Saturday.
    News (Adelaide, SA : 1923 - 1954) Saturday 12 June 1937 p 1 Article
    Abstract: CONISTON Station, which lies in a valley at the far end of the Reynolds ranges, about 160 miles northwest of Alice Springs, is the scene of 424 words
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    Note

    2019-09-19 11:36:57.0

    SECONDARY SOURCE: Two white men were killed by Aborigines at Coniston in 1937 which prompted this article regarding Frederick Brooks' murder in 1928. It is significant, because there is no mention at all of the 31 plus Aboriginal people killed in retaliation in 1928.

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  19. ANOTHER FOURTEEN SHOOTING OF ABORIGINALS. CONSTABLE MURRAY'S EVIDENCE. ADELAIDE. January 17.
    Cairns Post (Qld. : 1909 - 1954) Friday 18 January 1929 p 5 Article
    Abstract: Mounted Constable Murray's evidence before the Federal Inquiry Board at Alice Springs to-day revealed that, in addition to 17 blacks being shot after 89 words
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    Note

    2019-09-19 14:21:38.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: Court appearance of Murray: Very brief newspaper article with Murray claiming to have killed 31 Aborigines in self defense

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  20. Killings in the wake of an attack on 'Nugget' Morton
    The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995) Sunday 20 May 1984 p 7 Article Illustrated
    Abstract: THE renown of Mounted Constable William George Murray had now spread throughout a large part of 4092 words
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    Note

    2019-09-19 12:33:21.0

    SECONDARY SOURCE: Credible account re the attack on William Morton from "The Killing Times" by Cribbin ( ). Cribbin sang the praises of Sergeant Murray and spoke of his "renown" (sic) that "to blacks, he was a figure of terror....a symbol of cruelty and injustice, prepared to round up blacks and shoot them like dogs". "To whites," says Cribbin, "Murray was a hero, confronting the 'niggers' when they 'challenged white authority'". According to Cribbin, Murray's reception in Alice Springs was jubilant when he arrived with two captive Aboriginals alleged to have murdered Brooks, and "the fact that Murray had pursued his task with diligence in killing seventeen blacks for the murder of Brooks. TheCanberra Times excerpt of Cribbin's book also mentioned the attack on 'Nugget' Morton, describing Morton as big and vicious, and who became a part of Murray's 'posse' (my word) which went on a further killing spree of Aborigines.

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  21. SUPREME COURT WEDNESDAY (Before Judge Mallam and Jury.)
    Northern Standard (Darwin, NT : 1921 - 1955) Friday 9 November 1928 p 1 Article
    Abstract: J. R. Brown, A. W. Adams and A. J. Arnold were excused from jury service on various grounds. George Apergis said he appealed 2128 words
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    2019-09-18 16:35:07.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: Adjournment of Darwin trial

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  22. SUPREME COURT ALLEGED MURDER
    Northern Territory Times (Darwin, NT : 1927 - 1932) Friday 9 November 1928 p 5 Article
    Abstract: Wednesday before His Honor Mr. Justice Mallam. Two aboriginals named Paddygar and Arkirkra were charged with murdering 1555 words
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    2019-09-18 16:37:00.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: Aboriginal men found not guilty

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  23. Web page: 'To infuse an universal terror': a reappraisal of the Coniston killings, Wilson & O'brien, Aboriginal History, vol. 27 (2003) pp. 59-78
    https://www.jstor.org/stable/24054260
    Web page
    Note

    2019-09-19 14:35:52.0

    SECONDARY SOURCE: A journal article referring to primary and secondary sources relating to the Coniston massacre. Excellent references to Strehlow, "Long Time, Olden Time" publication, also reference to the omission of swearing in members of the party formed to hunt the killers, making them vigilantes. This article also comments on the drought at the time, causing starvation of Aborigines (water was depleted at waterholes with fouling by cattle as a result adding scarcity of water). In reference to the actions of Sergeant Murray, this article states that "when confronted in Walpiri country Murray went into 'military mode' simply falling back on his war experience and acting as if he was in a war..." (p.66). This article particularly comments on the fact that "none of he legislative requirements to swear members of the party in as special constables were complied with, so the non-police members were nothing short of vigilantes". THIS WOULD APPEAR TO CONFIRM THAT THE KILLING OF ABORIGINAL PEOPLE FOLLOWING THE MURDER OF FREDERICK BROOKS , was not sanctioned and could therefore be labelled 'murder'.

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  24. Restless Indigenous remains / Paul Daley
    Daley, Paul
    Meanjin
    [ Article, Book : 2014 ]
    View online (access conditions)
    At AIATSIS Collections
    Note

    2019-09-19 14:53:52.0

    SECONDARY SOURCE: This paper describes, Paul Daley's (the writer) experience of exhibits in the National Museum of Australia containing human remains of Aboriginal people. He describes the collection of bodies at the Museum as: "a shameful, bleak, little-known narrative about Australia that begins at colonisation and reverberates through our unsettled national sovereignty" (p.4). Daley quotes Ernestine Hill ('Man whose gun keeps white men safe in wilds', 1933, Sunday Sun and Guardian): "..skulls and skeletons in their hundreds have commemorated many a wholesale massacre," and suggests that some of the remains she mentioned may have ended up "in private or major institutional collections" and that some could even be in the National Museum of Australia

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  25. Web page: Making Peace with the Past Remembering the Coniston Massacre 1928-2003
    https://www.clc.org.au/publications/content/making-peace-with-the-past-remembering-the-coniston-massacre-1928-2003
    Web page
    Note

    2019-09-19 14:57:52.0

    2003 THEREFORE PROBABLY SECONDARY SOURCE: An account of the Coniston massacre by the Central Land Council 2003. Stories were related that were passed down by survivors of 1928 to descendants. Ironically, the man who killed Frederick Brooks, Japanangka (aka. 'Bullfrog') escaped after the killing and hid in a cave with his dog, to survive and live to an advanced age. His granddaughter, Rosie Nungarrayi related his story

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  26. Making peace with the past : remembering the Coniston Massacre 1928-2003
    Central Land Council (Australia)
    [ Book : 2003 ]
    At 8 libraries
    Note

    2019-09-20 11:58:22.0

    https://www.clc.org.au/publications/content/making-peace-with-the-past-remembering-the-coniston-massacre-1928-2003

    SECONDARY SOURCE: This is an article from the Central Land Council 2003. It relates oral reports from survivors and descendants of the Coniston massacre of 1928 - the 75th anniversary.

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  27. THE TRAGEDY OF THE CENTRE.
    Northern Territory Times (Darwin, NT : 1927 - 1932) Tuesday 8 January 1929 p 2 Article
    Abstract: It is expected that the report of A. H. O'Kelly chairman and members of the committee appointed to investigate killing of natives in Central Australi ... 62 words
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    2019-10-27 11:41:04.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: A brief announcement that the Enquiry will take place in January 1929

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  28. TRAGEDY OF THE CENTRE. Miss. Lock and Rev. McGregor Fined.
    Northern Territory Times (Darwin, NT : 1927 - 1932) Tuesday 15 January 1929 p 4 Article
    Abstract: Fines were imposed upon Annie Lock a missioner of the Australian Aborigines Society and Rev. A. McGregor of Methodist Inland Mission in Alice Springs 156 words
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    Note

    2019-10-27 11:37:28.0

    Not really relevant

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  29. THE TRAGEDY OF THE CENTRE. Inquiry Finished.
    Northern Territory Times (Darwin, NT : 1927 - 1932) Tuesday 22 January 1929 p 1 Article
    Abstract: The Board appointed by the Federal Government to enquire into the killing of blacks in Central Australia has completed its work and arrived at its de ... 85 words
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    2019-10-27 11:38:56.0

    Announcement enquiry finished - report going to Canberra

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  30. TRAGEDY OF THE CENTRE. Police Exonerated.
    Northern Territory Times (Darwin, NT : 1927 - 1932) Tuesday 5 February 1929 p 3 Article Illustrated
    Abstract: The report of the Board of Enquiry concerning the shooting of certain aborigines in Central Australia was released by the Minister of Home Affairs in ... 466 words
    • Text last corrected on 17 September 2013 by kenmcinnes
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    2019-10-27 11:42:38.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: Brief findings of Board of Enquiry

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  31. THE TRAGEDY OF THE CENTRE.
    Northern Territory Times (Darwin, NT : 1927 - 1932) Friday 8 March 1929 p 4 Article
    Abstract: Attacks by the Executive of the Association for Protection of Native Races on the report of the Board of Enquiry, which recently investigated the kil ... 163 words
    • Text last corrected on 27 October 2019 by Magsyd
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    2019-10-27 11:45:36.0

    not relevant

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  32. TRAGEDY OF THE CENTRE,
    Northern Territory Times (Darwin, NT : 1927 - 1932) Friday 12 April 1929 p 5 Article
    Abstract: Because no evidence was submitted to the recent Board of Enquiry into the killing of natives on Forest River last year, the Australian Board of Missi ... 71 words
    • Text last corrected on 6 April 2009 by bluefilly
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    2019-10-27 11:48:18.0

    PRIMARY SOURCE: a brief postscript to the inquiring with the Australian Board of Missions commenting that enquiries into Aboriginal matters be less violent.

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  33. The killing times / John Cribbin
    Cribbin, John
    [ Book : 1984 ]
    At 52 libraries
    The killing times / John Cribbin