1. List: Nelson Mandela in the Apartheid South Africa (1960-1994)
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    History Research Project.
    Question: What reasons did Nelson Mandela give for how he maintained his hope during the twenty-seven years he was incarcerated between 1962-1990?

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    created by: kmd253 on 2018-08-03 15:57:25.0
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  1. Web page: Nelson Mandela, 'Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela' (London: Abacus, 2003)
    https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/eds/detail/detail?vid=3&sid=2894f943-fdc8-4f88-9feb-72f68e2b5c44%40sessionmgr4009&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#AN=uow.b1463944&db=cat03332a
    Web page
    Note

    2018-10-20 15:09:44.0

    My key primary source is the autobiography of Nelson Mandela, 'Long Walk to Freedom' which is written and expressed from the person of Nelson Mandela himself, providing necessary insight into the opinions and mindset of Mandela during the years he spent in prison. The autobiography has directly contributed to answering my research question following the reasons that Mandela gave for the hope that he maintained during the years of his incarecation. ‘Long Walk to Freedom’ recounts the personal experiences of Nelson Mandela during his time spent in prison, mainly on Robben Island. I have used this source to locate necessary quotations that offer valuable insight into my overall project.
    The autobiography investigates Mandela's experience of prison, including the daily regular prison tasks, the relationships that were formed with inmates and warders, and the personal hardships that Mandela continually faced, including the separation from his immediate family members.
    The autobiography is compelled by Mandela’s deep personal conviction of seeing South Africa free from apartheid and united together in democracy. He writes that it is “an ideal which I hope to live for and achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.”
    Nelson Mandela, in his autobiography, attests to how the environment of prison life shaped his character and refined his moral integrity, thus allowing him to maintain hope during this period.

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  2. Web page: Poster "Release Mandela Campaign"
    http://www.saha.org.za/images/News/111.jpg
    Web page
    Note

    2018-10-19 11:51:04.0

    The primary source is a poster campaigning for the release of Nelson Mandela, apart of the international "Release Mandela Campaign". The source indicates how the imprisonment of Nelson Mandela eventually gained public and international support. Mandela was able to maintain the hope, knowing with all the international attention that he was receiving as a political prisoner, he was ultimately bound to be released.

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  3. Web page: CBC Video Footage- Release of Nelson Mandela (11 February 1990)
    http://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/nelson-mandela-released
    Web page
    Note

    2018-10-20 17:02:21.0

    The primary source is a clip from CBC Broadcasting News documenting the release of Nelson Mandela via television on February 11, 1990. The primary source directly demonstrates that the day of Mandela's release was a global sensation. Nelson Mandela, although being in prison for twenty-seven years, was eventually released on 11 February 1990. Mandela attested to the fact that whilst he was in prison he remained in constant hope that he would one day be released. The footage captures his release of Nelson Mandela via live CBC Broadcasting News. Mandela begins his speech by addressing the public "I greet you all in the name of peace" (2.41). Mandela adamantly pursued unity amongst all fellow South Africans, regardless of race, making a clear stand for "racial harmony".

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  4. Web page: Video Footage, "Let us be one united nation in South Africa"
    http://www.cvet.org.za/displayvideo.php?vid=2D-F5-B9
    Web page
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    2018-10-20 15:51:08.0

    The primary source is a video footage with a duration of 00.17.17. The footage shows Nelson Mandela making a speech at a rally in King's Park in Durban, South Africa. The video clearly illustrates Nelson Mandela as an advocate for unity, revealing his optimistic mindset and his committment to peace, which sustained him during the years he spent in prison. He begins his speech saying "I thank you all in the name of peace " (3.18) Mandela confirms his complete conviction that the enemy is not the people, but rather the system of apartheid, to which he labels as "a deadly cancer in our midst" (3.18). Nelson of the vital importance of peace. He addresses the South African public saying to "take your guns, your knives, and your pangas and throw them into the sea." (4.10) Mandela maintained hope as he was able to set aside his own personal feelings, refusing to seek revenge or hold to anger despite being a prisoner for twenty-seven years. The speech illustrates his deep conviction for of unity and equality amongst all South Africans. He confirms this in his speech asking the public crowd "to renew the ties that make us one people and to reaffirm a single united stand against the oppression party" (4.52) Nelson Mandela was committed to end the political regime of the Apartheid, and the speech leads me to believe all the years Mandela previously spent in prison, he remained optimistic and was led by a deep sense of forgiveness, alongside a strong set of deep moral values. He was willing to forgive the oppression he faced as a black South African in order to create unity. His speech above shows him urging the people to do the same. Mandela's vision is clear-he wants the South African people to be united, and the nation to be as one.

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  5. Web page: Robben Island- Order of Holiday Cards List
    http://kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/101/597/65-255-C-191-overcoming_apartheid-a0a9g7-a_11686.jpg
    Web page
    Note

    2018-10-20 15:48:05.0

    The primary source is a written list of the placed order of Robben Island prisoners' holiday cards. The list indicates how many holiday cards the prisoners on Robben Island wanted to purchase. The source reveals that Mandela valued his family, and wished to keep in contact with them throughout the years he spent in prison, indicating that he felt the pain of their separation. Mandela's family proved to be a crucial aspect to sustaining him whilst he was incarcerated. The document demonstrates Mandela's own signed signature as he placed an order to purchase a holiday card for his family. It confirms that Mandela placed significance upon his loved ones and family members, and he deeply valued the relationships he shared.

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  6. Web page: (Nelson Mandela Foundation) The Order of Nelson Mandela's prison numbers
    https://www.nelsonmandela.org/content/page/prison-timeline
    Web page
    Note

    2018-10-19 11:49:44.0

    The primary source, from online Nelson Mandela archive, simply indicates the ordering of Nelson Mandela's prison numbers. Mandela's prison numbers became his identity for twenty-seven years whilst he was incarcerated.

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  7. Web page: Photograph 'Nelson and Winnie Mandela on their wedding day (1957)
    https://www.sahistory.org.za/image/nelson-and-winnie-mandela-their-wedding-1957
    Web page
    Note

    2018-10-19 11:48:56.0

    The primary source is a photograph showing Nelson and Winnie Mandela on the day of their wedding in 1957. The prison sentence that Mandela faced in the Rivonia Trial found his guilty, and ultimately separated from the family he loved, including his wife. Family proved to be key fact in sustaining Nelson Mandela's hope during the years he endured prison.

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  8. Web page: Photograph- 'Mandela and Sisulu as prisoners on Robben Island'
    https://www.sahistory.org.za/image/mandela-and-sisulu-robben-island
    Web page
    Note

    2018-10-19 11:48:36.0

    The primary source is a photograph of Nelson Mandela and fellow prison inmate Walter Sisulu on Robben Island. The source indicates that Mandela was not alone in his sentence, but shared the imprisonment experience alongside other political prisoners, including Walter Sisulu.

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  9. Web page: Nelson Mandela Foundation, 'A Prisoner in the Garden: Opening Nelson's Prison Archive' (Camberwell, Vic: Penguin, 2005)
    https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/eds/detail/detail?vid=9&sid=2894f943-fdc8-4f88-9feb-72f68e2b5c44%40sessionmgr4009&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#AN=uow.b1542025&db=cat03332a
    Web page
    Note

    2018-10-19 11:48:19.0

    The primary source is a compilation book from the Nelson Mandela Foundation, which contains various key primary sources including various photographs of him in prison, his communication through letters and diary entries.

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  10. Web page: Saths Cooper, 'The Mandela I Knew' (Articles: Robben Island, December 2013)
    https://www.sahistory.org.za/archive/mandela-i-knew-saths-cooper-6-december-2013
    Web page
    Note

    2018-10-19 11:51:48.0

    The primary source recalls the memories of Saths Cooper on Robben Island as a fellow prison inmate alongside Nelson Mandela. The article provides the reader with personal insight into the various ways that Mandela valued his own South African heritage being apart of the Xhosa tribe. Cooper remembers Mandela remaining constantly concerned with the politics of his country despite being contained in prison.

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  11. Web page: Nelson Mandela's Warders
    https://www.sahistory.org.za/archive/nelson-mandela’s-warders
    Web page
    Note

    2018-10-19 11:47:40.0

    The primary source explores the relationships that were formed with between the prisoner Nelson Mandela and three of his key warders: Jack Swart, James Gregory and Christo Brand. It offers additional insight into the person of Nelson Mandela from the warder's perspective.

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  12. Web page: Nelson Mandela, 'Notes to the Future: Words of Wisdom' (Atria Books, The Nelson Mandela Foundation, 2012)
    https://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Cs0KXRqIGOcC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=words+of+nelson+mandela&ots=xvSrgDSQbi&sig=uKDpyBSLEo-9r_SCFIA1rKtQj_w#v=onepage&q=words%20of%20nelson%20mandela&f=false
    Web page
    Note

    2018-10-19 11:53:19.0

    The primary source is a book complied in 2012 through the Nelson Mandela Foundation, which includes various extracts and excerpts from Nelson Mandela's own speeches, letters, diaries, essays, thoughts, all of which have been spoken/written by Mandela throughout a variation of years, including an extended timeline before/during/after his imprisonment.

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  13. Web page: Issue of O, The Oprah Magazine, 'Oprah Talks to Nelson Mandela', Interview, (April 2001)
    http://db.nelsonmandela.org/speeches/pub_view.asp?pg=item&ItemID=NMS1233
    Web page
    Note

    2018-10-19 12:08:46.0

    The primary source is an interview with Nelson Mandela by the acclaimed Oprah Winfrey in April 2001.
    Oprah discusses Mandela's experience in prison between 1962-1990. Mandela's explains, in the interview, his core belief that he would one day be released from prison, beginning with a period of negotiations in 1986. Mandela was comforted knowing that he had the support of an international community in the 'Free Mandela Campaign'.
    Mandela's life demonstrated the power of forgiveness and proved inspirational for an onlooking world. In this interview, Mandela says that he learnt to suppress his own personal feelings in order to bring about a peaceful transformation.
    Mandela reflects, to Oprah, how twenty-seven years in prison shaped him into a different man, giving him the "time to sit and think". Mandela used his time in prison to cultivate his relationships with other people and to develop his own self-worth. Prison, he says, cleared away his arrogance, which only proved to empower him in his conviction of peace and unity for South Africa.

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  14. Web page: Poster- "Apartheid is enough to turn any civilised human being into a political prisoner"
    http://africanactivist.msu.edu/image.php?objectid=32-131-348
    Web page
    Note

    2018-10-19 12:11:56.0

    The primary source is a political poster illustrating the apartheid as the system of oppression, rather than the people who enforced it. The poster calls South Africa as a "state without justice" because it enforced a system of racial oppression, making it "a state without equality". The poster, which contributes to the 'Free Mandela Campaign' of the time, clearly depicts prisoners, like Nelson Mandela, who have been incarcerated and sentenced because they have protested to this system of oppression. The poster is a public outcry against the political system of the apartheid.

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  15. Web page: Photograph-'Winnie Mandela and children during the Rivonia Trial' (1963)
    https://www.sahistory.org.za/image/winnie-mandela-her-children-outside-palace-justice-during-rivonia-trial-1963
    Web page
    Note

    2018-10-20 10:26:42.0

    The primary source is a photograph of Winnie Mandela and her children at the Palace of Justice during the Rivonia Trial of 1963. It was during this trial in 1963 that Mandela would receive his prison sentence, to which he would remain incarcerated for the next twenty-seven years to follow.

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  16. Web page: Sunday Post Newspaper, "Free Mandela Campaign" (March 18, 1980)
    https://www.sahistory.org.za/archive/nelson-mandela-poster-04
    Web page
    Note

    2018-09-14 12:33:07.0

    Primary Source, a newspaper extract from the Sunday Post showing the "Free Mandela Campaign", which was a public appeal in order to have Nelson Mandela released. (March 18, 1980)

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  17. The prison letters of Nelson Mandela / edited by Sahm Venter ; foreword by Zamaswazi Dlamini-Mandela
    Mandela, Nelson, 1918-2013
    [ Book : 2018 ]
    At 52 libraries
    The prison letters of Nelson Mandela / edited by Sahm Venter ; foreword by Zamaswazi Dlamini-Mandela
    Note

    2018-10-19 12:15:52.0

    The primary source is a compilation book containing various prison letters written by Nelson Mandela during his time of incarceration. These include letters addressed to prison authorities, to fellow activists against the apartheid, to government officials and to his own family members. The letters offer crucial primary insight into the mindset of Nelson Mandela during this time of being held in prison. Despite his circumstance and isolation, Nelson Mandela proved to be a man of strong moral values who advocated human rights and equality.

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  18. Web page: Video-'Nelson Mandela speaks on tolerance' (April 30, 2006)
    https://www.sahistory.org.za/archive/nelson-mandela-speaks-tolerance-april-30-2006-cbs-video
    Web page
    Note

    2018-10-19 12:17:39.0

    The primary source of a video footage on April 30 2006 which captures Nelson Mandela speaking on tolerance. Mandela, as a public icon, confirms his consistent commitment for peace, and his adamency for unity in pursuing the inherent goodness in mankind.

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  19. Web page: Speech by Nelson Mandela at a church
    https://www.sahistory.org.za/archive/speech-nelson-mandela-zionist-christian-church-easter-conference-moria-20th-april-1992
    Web page
    Note

    2018-10-19 12:21:34.0

    The primary source is a speech by Nelson Mandela on 20th April 1992 made at the Zionist Church Easter Conference Moria. The written speech serves to uncover Nelson Mandela's personal Christian faith, which helped him maintain his hope during the dark twenty seven years of his incarceration. Mandela remained optimistic because he had a deep religious conviction, which allowed him to remain strong. The source demonstrates that Mandela spoke at Zionist Church during an Easter conference confirming his Christian faith, as well as offering brief insight into how he managed to remain in hope during his years of trial and hardship primarily on Robben Island.

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  20. Web page: 'Face to face Interview with Nelson Mandela: Master of His Fate"
    http://db.nelsonmandela.org/speeches/pub_view.asp?pg=item&ItemID=NMS1212
    Web page
    Note

    2018-10-19 12:32:46.0

    The primary source is an interview with Nelson Mandela. Mandela, when asked by the Interviewer what 'sustained his spirits' during his years in prison on Robben Island, he responds that he was inspired by the poem "Invictus" by the English poet W.E Henley. The poem encouraged Mandela to take ownership of his own life. He remained hopeful in remembering the powerful final lines of the poem, which declared to Mandela that he was "the master of (his) fate" and the "captain of (his) soul". Mandela, therefore, remained in hope, despite his long incarceration, because his "fate" and his "soul" remained his own, regardless of his circumstances.

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